Sir: Some time ago you were kind enough to grant us permission to reprint a feature from POPULAR SCIENCE, "Sandhogs’ Toughest Job," in The Laborer [Official Publication of the International Hod Carriers’, Building and Common Laborers’ Union of America].
THE man with the funny-looking yardstick is Melvin Brockman, cargo specialist with United Airlines. The yardstick is the "cube stick" he invented to speed up measurement of the cubic content of packages, on which rates are based. This mathematical yardstick is scaled in logarithms.
From this six-foot-diameter observer’s cage, hanging in mid-air at the most starward point of Palomar’s giant telescope, modern stargazers will soon be probing the mysteries of outer space a billion light years away. Far below, the 200-inch, 15-ton mirror turns its shimmering face skyward, snugly in place after years of preparation.
Twenty miles above the earth, the U. S. Navy is hanging its laboratories in space. Balloons that swell to 77 times their starting size provide the floating platforms.
Tracking a Soaring Laboratory
LITTLE FALLS, Minn.—In the brilliant Minnesota sky floats a pin point of light. To the unpracticed eye, it is only a meaningless white speck against the midday firmament. But to a cluster of men tracking its course by radio direction finder, radar, and theodolite, it represents the culmination of half a century of effort to throw light on some of this planet’s darkest mysteries.
HAVE you ever fumbled getting the "popout" cigarette lighter back into its dashboard well at night? You won’t have that trouble with this new Vis-O-Lite Ⓣ. As you light up, the receiving well glows so that you can’t miss it on the return journey.
TOBACCO stays fresher in a new plastic pouch, and smokers can pack a pipe without spilling tobacco. The pistonlike action of the plunger, shown extended above, pushes tobacco into the pipe and tamps it firmly in the bowl. To close the pouch, the plunger is pressed back into place and locked by turning the knob at its end.
THE danger of spreading rails is reduced by this new corkscrew railroad drive spike developed by the Oliver Iron and Steel Corp., of Pittsburgh, Pa. It replaces the standard outside spike to fasten the tie plate securely to the tie (arrows).
WITH this machine snow falls on Hollywood, from a blizzard to a gentle flurry, just as the director wants it. The tank at left holds a fire-extinguishing chemical. Mixed with water and air, it is fed into a perforated aluminum drum revolving in front of a fan that blows the storm over a movie set.
No BAIT is needed to catch mice in this automatic Ketch-All Ⓣ mousetrap. Curiosity entices a mouse to enter, from either side, a runway in the trap. Once inside, the victim steps on a treadle, releasing a shutter that sweeps him into a cage, still alive.
HERE’S a two-in-one combination that gives you steam for ironing without predampening and for pressing without a dampened cloth. The steam attachment, in foreground above, is an auxiliary base that slips under a General Mills electric iron, also illustrated.
SUBMARINE history is in the making if the one-man sub, shown above about to submerge, lives up to the claims of its Italian designer, Alberto Vassena. It is reported that in tests at Lake Como, the craft went down 771 feet. (700 feet is reported "bottoms" for war-developed German subs).
FIRE fighters often have to crash through a door or wall to reach a blaze in a hurry. A new, lightweight tool, being used by the fireman below to break open a lock, does the job of all five of the tools shown lined up at right below. These weigh 49¾ lb.
Emergency methods and new materials may bring radical changes in ancient, craft
George H. Waltz
The headline on this page was set by placing cardboard letters in a Fototype composing stick. The author's name and the two lines below it were set the same way. The result is one of printing’s new looks. Another is the type you are now reading, which was set on a Vari-Typer.
USING a mechanized crossbow and a 300-foot "pea shooter" instead of airplanes, the U. S. Navy is hard at work giving its lethal aerial torpedoes a sharper punch. An artificial lake takes the place of the ocean at Morris Dam, in California, where the program is being carried out.
GOOD things come in small packages—at least for British aircrews downed at sea. A lightweight, inflatable suit that can be rolled up and pocketed under the collar of a "Mae West," is the latest effort of the RAF to protect its fliers against exposure in forced landings and crashes at sea.
Building Better Jets. The fiery blast shown above is invisible to the naked eye, but infrared film shows what a turbojet afterburner (PS, Oct. ’47, p. 82) looks like in action. In this GE test unit, fuel is injected into the tailpipe of a TG-180 to boost its thrust.
CALIFORNIA fruit growers have mechanized the tedious job of spreading canvas fumigating tents over trees. Twin tubularsteel arms are attached to the ends of a tractor, as shown at right. The arms are lowered around a tree by a gear arrangement, and the canvas is hitched on.
WHEN clanking machinery kept the neighbors awake, the General Petroleum Corp., of Los Angeles, wrapped this derrick (right) in a blanket of rock wool. It cut the noise to one-fifth. Insulation is in a series of horizontal panels covering the rig.
THE combination crane-tractor shown below is designed to help Seabees load and unload cargoes on sandy beaches. The movable arm picks up heavy loads and deposits them 20 or more feet away. It is made by Austin Western Co., Aurora, I11.
MATTER has been made out of pure energy in a cyclotron by two young scientists at the University of California. They fired 380,000,000-electron-volt alpha particles (the hearts of helium atoms) at targets of copper, carbon, and beryllium.
A PINT-SIZE jungle buggy, as versatile as it is small, is the latest addition to the motorized equipment of U. S. armed forces. Known as the JBC (Jungle Burden Carrier), it can carry half again as much as its own weight, and can go places that might drive a mule mad.
PLOWING through Louisiana bayous like a seagoing hay rake, a mechanical fisherman has added something new to the oyster industry. It is an automatic harvester—instantly known as the "Oyster Hoister"—that can prong maybe 100 bushels of oysters an hour.
ON THE farm, on construction jobs, and in the home workshop, the new MultiTool Ⓣ power unit adapts itself to a wide variety of chores. The heart of the versatile machine is a Continental 1½-hp., four-cycle, air-cooled engine. It has a handy dial for fingertip speed control, and an automatic governor provides constant speed under load.
NOBODY knows for sure just what cars will blaze around the Indianapolis Speedway, come Memorial Day, in "the longest 500 miles in the world." But it’s already clear that there will be some mechanical marvels in there fighting. The race is limited to 33 cars, and there are about twice that many entries.
FOOT races are often close, but with Bulova’s Phototimer Ⓣ there can be no argument. The camera’s "eye" is an open, vertical slit trained on the finish line. The film, moving at about the same speed as the runners, records a progressive picture (above) showing each runner just as he crosses the finish line.
WHEN you make a long-distance call from New York to Chicago in the future, you may talk through a man-made copy of a glass lens. For the antennas on A. T. & T's new microwave relay network between those cities will be plastic or metal models of the molecular structure of a glass lens.
Fantastic Farm Machines Turn Fields into Factories
Woodshed inventors and crossroads shops have given the farmer a whole new set of ingenious machine tools.
Peas and Beets Get Machine Treatment
Attachments Are All-Important
Airplane Does Farm Jobs
IF a farmer had gone to sleep 20 years ago and just awakened now, he would be so bewildered at what has happened to farming that he literally would be unable to make a crop. If he had gone to sleep only 10 years ago, he would need at least a refresher course before he could operate.
THE biggest little show on earth" is a 34-by-83-foot circus in miniature. J. Harold Dunn, of Kansas City, Mo., spent 18 years building it. The exhibit now tours the country, drawing crowds of children and grownups to see famous professional "acts" faithfully simulated on a scale oT one-half inch to the foot.
Everybody has his own pet idea of some gadget he would like to see in general use. What is YOURS? Popular Science will pay $5.00 for each one published. Use government postcards only. Contributions cannot be acknowledged or returned.
This backstage visit to the Armstrong factory tells you what you should know in order to buy floor covering wisely.
Flax and Oil
Rotary Machine Does Quick Job
Felt-Base Is Printed
Tips on Floor-Covering Care
George H. Waltz
HOW many times have you glanced down at the smooth, colorfully surfaced floor of some neighbor’s kitchen and thought "linoleum"? If you live in a typical American community, your offhand snap judgment has probably been wrong half the time Not all that glitters underfoot is linoleum.
IF A metal part is too big to fit into an assembly, a bath in liquid nitrogen chills it to 320° below zero F. and reduces the size. For handling small parts this way, the Linde Air Products Co. has developed the stainless steel bucket shown at right.
THE Navy’s latest rocket, above, set a new record for made-in-America missiles on its first trial, reaching a 78-mile altitude and a 3,000-m.p.h. speed. Called the Aerobee, it is designed to carry instruments for research into the upper atmosphere rather than for military use.
TELEVISION pictures as big as movies will soon be seen in theaters and taverns equipped with a new type of projection television system. It uses a small, very bright cathode-ray tube and a special projection lens in a ceiling-mounted unit to throw pictures as big as 6 by 11 feet on an aluminum screen.
LARGEST and most powerful of its type, a new six-ton electromagnet will shortly be aiding low-temperature research at Rutgers University. Its strong field will actually remove heat from materials being studied under extreme cold near absolute zero,-460°F.
NEITHER surf nor sand dunes can stop the Navy’s newest amphibious vehicle, a "walking" barge with a leapfrog gait and pontoon legs. Carrying a 60-ton load, it lifts itself by its own bootstraps over mud flats, banks, and beaches. It can even climb a six-foot wall.
Trailer Sits Down. Loading would be no problem for users of the truck trailer patented by Benjamin Fitzpatrick, of Miami —it simply spreads its wheels and squats. The rear end is jacked up, and the divided axle, hinged at the sides and coupled in the middle, is swung out like a double door.
HERE’S a camera that does its best to keep you from missing that vital shot. You can’t trip the new Kalart’s shutter without having put in a film holder and withdrawn the slide. You can’t fire a flash bulb without having cocked the shutter. You can’t change the focus without knowing it.
THE man with the microphone is taking inventory the modern way. As he checks stock at the Naval Shipyard, Norfolk, Va., he calls off the items. These are registered on the magnetic wire recorder shown at lower left, and later transcribed on a master sheet.
THIS pagodalike projector will protect crops from moderate frost within a radius of more than 100 feet. The structure houses a unit that burns oil under high pressure to throw off invisible infrared rays. During one experiment, the machine radiated more than three-quarters of a million B.T.U. of heat an hour.
THE twin "eyes" bugging out from the front of this Iron Horse are new and more powerful locomotive Sealed Beam Ⓣ headlights developed by General Electric. Two 200-watt, 30-volt lamps, throwing a beam of 400,000 candlepower, replace the oldtype single 250-watt lamp.
FOR rescue expeditions in the Arctic, where every mile is an ordeal, the Air Transport Command has combined the old and the new—dog sleds and airplanes. Dropping a dog team by parachute, along with a sled, dog handler, and doctor, brings quick aid to crash survivors who might otherwise have a long and painful—possibly fatal—wait.
Bridgman’s high-pressure machines have already shown how to strengthen guns, may one day teach us to make diamonds
Others Use High Pressures
IN THIS high-pressure world, the man who puts on the biggest squeeze is mild, elderly Professor Percy Williams Bridgman, of Harvard. He bears down with pressures that create hot ice, glassy oil, ductile steel, and plastic rocks, and that, in at least one element, crack the atom.
THE new automatic optical machine shown above shapes eyeglass lenses in half the time needed for hand grinding. A diamond tool set in a swinging head makes both spherical and cylindrical curves in one operation in less than a minute. It is made by American Optical Co.
FOR quick frying or cooking, the new Hotpoint unit shown above is raised to the top of its receptacle, giving your electric range an additional surface burner. To simmer stews or soups, the unit is lowered to the bottom, so that you have a deep-well cooker as well.
INVENTING is a lifelong habit with William K. Kearsley, retired General Electric Research Laboratory engineer. The man responsible, during his 44 years with GE, for the electric blanket and many another well-known product, now applies his ingenuity to devising conveniences for Mrs. Kearsley and himself in their Schenectady, N. Y., home.
PHILADELPHIANS will enjoy purer and tastier drinking water when the world’s largest ozone-generating plant, designed by the Welsbach Corporation of Philadelphia, goes into action this summer. Fifty ozone generators resembling fire-tube boilers, each one containing 85 four-foot electric glow discharge tubes operating at 15,000 volts, will manufacture a total of 1,250 pounds of ozone a day.
THE dream of every lightplane pilot, a fully automatic-pitch propeller, has come true. Climbing, the new Aeromatic Ⓣ goes into flat pitch to obtain maximum pull. Cruising or gliding, it increases its pitch to boost the speed. There is no cockpit control, the prop thinks for itself.
A SINGLE continuous floor twisting like a corkscrew from the first to the sixth story makes this modernistic garage truly selfparking. The floor, wide enough for two-way traffic, spirals upward on a four percent grade around a central core containing a passenger elevator and stairway.
WHEN Argentine interests bought six, 74-foot, steel Army-surplus tugs, the problem was how to transport them to Buenos Aires. Running them the 10,000 miles from Seattle under their own power would be too costly and too hazardous. They couldn’t be shipped for lack of a crane at the destination large enough to unload them.
THIS month a shipload of scientists with the latest oceanographic gear will sail on one of the most important fishing trips on record. They won’t bring back many fish, but their findings may tell why there has been a drastic decline in commercial catches from the 20,000-square-mile Georges Bank and other New England fishing areas.
FULL-COLOR, three-dimensional radar and sonar are promised by a new vacuum tube that remembers signals as long as you want it to. It can also be used to communicate by very quick electrical flashes, as the "memory" part of an electronic computing machine, and to catch and record quick flashes of all kinds (such as radio-control signals employed by an enemy in wartime).
Next best to getting a new car is to inject new life in the old one. The right kind of servicing does just that.
R. P. Stevenson
WHAT is an engine tune-up, anyhow? Like the blue-plate special, a lot depends on where you buy it. Different manufacturers specify different procedures, and further variations are introduced from shop to shop and mechanic to mechanic.
Air and atoms may power cars some day, but skinflint Silas Barnstable discovers to his sorrow that the present models still need gasoline.
STAN HICKS came into the Model Garage shop looking as if he had topped off his lunch with a glassful of vinegar. "That man," he announced, "is here again!" Gus Wilson looked up from the valve he was grinding. "What man?" he demanded. "Silas Barnstable," Stan said.
1.A flashlight is handy for repairs at night, but it may force you to work with one hand. A chap who stopped in the Model Garage had solved the problem neatly by keeping a heavy rubber band on the light. With this, he can strap the light to his forearm, freeing both hands for work.
LOW-PRESSURE tires 7.10" by 15" have been made standard equipment this year on all Dodge passenger cars, and rim dimensions have been changed to suit—a reduction of 1" to a diam ter of 15" and an increase of 1" to a width of 5". Larger tires carrying greater air volume at lower pressure likewise are now being used on several other makes of cars. A softer and more comfortable ride, better road grip, and cooler running are among their advantages. Inflated pressure is 24 lb.
CHEVROLET has introduced a foot-operated parking brake on its 1948 light-duty trucks. Applied by depressing the pedal at the far left of the cab, the brake is released by pulling a hand rod mounted below the instrument panel. On all truck models with payloads up to 2,100 lb., the gearshift also is now located on the steering column rather than on the floor.
CONCEALED by a decorative emblem, a lock in this new disk hub cap protects both the cap and wheel from theft. Made of stainless steel, the cap can be installed with just a tire wrench. At present it is available only for late models of three makes of cars, but the manufacturer—the Factory Tool Supply Company, of Beverly Hills, Calif.—has scheduled production for other makes. It’s called "Lok-AllⓉ."
HERE is a new overhead-valve, vertical-twin motorcycle just announced by Ariel Motors, Ltd., of Birmingham, England. Hitherto Ariel has been known chiefly for its unique Square Four engine (PS, Aug. ’47, p. 140). The engine of the new twin has a capacity of 500 cc. (30.50 eu. in.) and a compression ratio of 6.8 to 1. Features include a one-piece crankshaft, four-speed transmission, and telescopic front forks. Equipped weight is about 415 lb.
FOR pure relaxation, my favorite pastimes are smoking and simple lathe projects. What could be more natural than using one in the service of the other? Putting one and one together added up to these two plastic-and-metal cigarette holders.
ANY collection of silver spoons should be seen to be appreciated—not hidden away. Here’s a neat little holder in which you may hang yours for display. The generous drawer at the bottom will take any extras. Cherry was used to make it. The dark, rich finish usually given this wood is an effective background for the gleaming silver.
New Toasters. Placed in the side pockets of the toaster above, your first two pieces of toast will be kept warm while two more are timed to a turn and popped up when ready. The pockets are the idea of Paul H. Wilkinson, Flushing, N. Y. Designed for crowded tables or even window sills, the other automatic toaster below has a single slot that takes two slices edge to edge.
RED and green running lights, white-rope trim on the doors, and the wave pattern strip on the back add a dash of salt to the design of this nautical bookcase. The overall proportions are regular enough, however, for the unit to look at home in the living room as well as the game room or den.
THERE’S a touch of the old West about this candle sconce that makes it just right for a playroom, closed patio, or informal dining room. Little equipment or experience is needed to put together a pair. Soldering, so vital in most metalworking, is eliminated.
A THIN sheet of clear plastic ruled with a grid of squares will come in very handy when you want to copy, enlarge, or reduce a drawing. Secure it on top of the original with tacks or tape. Draw a grid of squares of whatever size will give you the desired scale, and follow the drawing from point to point on the grid.
SUCH liquids as motor oil, floor finishes, and spray materials frequently come in 5-gal. cans. With a little ingenuity, the empty containers can be made to serve a number of purposes around the home, farm, or camp. Some are suggested above, but there doubtless are many others.
WITH this trailer unit, you can haul a boat to a beach or stream, launch it yourself, and lift it out of the water—again by yourself— when you’re ready to go home. Simple leverage does the job. Straddled by the trailer, the boat may be lifted or lowered with ease when the rear end of the drawbar is hooked into a suspension unit mounted inside the craft. A hook at front holds up the bow of the boat for hauling.
EQUIPPED with a pedal and strap into which you hook your foot, an outboard steering control offered by the Northwest Marine Co., of St. Paul, Minn., enables a fisherman to keep both hands free while trolling, casting, changing bait, or landing fish.
Midget Firewood Baskets Serve Candy and Cigarettes
PLACED on the coffee table, a pair of miniature firewood baskets in polished brass are sure to draw favorable comments. One may be used for cigarettes, the other for candy. Construction is begun by laying out the ovals on sheet brass, 20-gauge or heavier.
Say good-by to knife switches and get acquainted with these versatile and precise electrical handy men.
YOU CAN put one of these midget switches in your watch pocket, or hold a couple in your closed hand. Yet at 115 volts, one of them will easily handle 10 amp.—ample to run a ½-hp. shop motor. What’s more, it’ll do it with an operating pressure of a few ounces, and with a plunger travel of less than .005".
ENCASED in a cathedral-type housing like this, an ordinary alarm clock becomes an attractive mantel timepiece. Although the original is light maple with a natural finish, walnut, mahogany, birch, or cherry would be just as pleasing. The main part is cut from a solid block, the outside being sawed to shape first and the corners rabbeted for the spires.
I USE empty .22 cal. shells with great success as hollow rivets to join sheet metal or light wood. The hole in the work must of course be a snug fit since the rim on the shell isn’t much larger than the case. In joining thick pieces, use long-rifle shells.
BACK in the days of dinosaurs, you might have met a fearsome three-horned creature called a triceratops. Luckily for us, those huge animals are now extinct, but carved miniatures on a pair of bookends will bring them back in less alarming and more decorative form.
SMALL insects that are being examined under a low-power microscope usually are difficult to handle. This simple mechanism makes it easy to manipulate them. Since microscopes vary in size, you must determine your own dimensions. Make the frame of brass at least 1/16" thick.
EVER see a filling station on wheels—one that could roll up to your garage and service your car with gasoline, oil, water, and air? Well, take a look above. Although this 21' machine could do all these things for your personal benefit, it’s designed primarily for servicing heavy construction machinery and airplanes.
SEVERAL wide rubber bands slipped over the barrel of an electric shaver will give you a better grip on it. The bands also act as a cushion and prevent the shaver from moving around when it is put down on a hard, flat surface.—R. Hanscom, Elmhurst, Ill.
WHEN bandsaw tires are replaced or if they loosen after long use, rubber cement can be applied to keep them securely in place. The cement does not become brittle with age and it permits easy removal of the tire if this is ever necessary.
A FEW strips cut from a felt hat that has outlived its usefulness are very handy for polishing work revolved in a lathe or drill press. I find them most convenient if cut about 1" wide and 5" long. Rub a different grade of grinding or polishing compound into the various strips and mark them for identification by cutting notches in the end.
The sweeps winnings in our shop are bolts, nuts, nails, and the like salvaged from shavings and other floor litter. The stuff wouldn’t be worth separating by hand, but it’s easy to sweep up everything and dump it in a bucket of water. When the water is poured out, shavings and dirt go with it but metal remains.
The salt-water men who know how to handle these sturdy boats can also show you the right way to build them.
MANY people build small boats, both along the sea coasts and inland waterways. Some are good—and some not. On Cape Cod, the elbow-shaped strip of Massachusetts that juts out into the Atlantic, small boats are a part of our everyday lives, and those of us who live there believe the ones we build usually stack up with the best.
A lawn-mower stirrup bent from strap iron as shown, or one made from an old bicycle pedal, will enable you to kick as well as push the mower through clumps of tough or wet grass. Nailing a piece of rubber belting to a wooden handle makes a good cleaning tool for gutters.
CUTS may be made in any direction without turning the work when you use this spiral-blade bandsaw. You merely feed the work, guide the blade along the desired line, and it cuts any design that may be drawn on plastic, wood, or metal—even script letters as in the photo at the right above.
STRONG, flexible, and practically kinkless, an old speedometer cable can be turned into an excellent leash for your dog. Double back each end through the ring of a swivel snap, wrap closely with fine wire, and flow solder over the wire. I also made a separate handle from a leather loop equipped with a small metal ring. Either end of the cable can be snapped to the ring or to the dog’s collar. The result has been highly satisfactory.—John G. Anderson, Pittsburgh.
MANY oldtime wall clocks must be wound every 30 hours, but this does not have to be so. You can lengthen the period between windings simply by lengthening the cords on which the weights depend. Drill ½" holes through the bottom of the clock in line with the outer edge of the top pulleys, pass cords of any desired length up through the holes, and tie them to the original cords after removing the weights.
Erasing by Power. Weighing only 12 oz., this electrically driven eraser is a new product of the Chicago Wheel & Mfg. Co., of Chicago. It embodies the same motor as the company’s Handee Tool Ⓣ and a quick-change chuck accepts standard erasers.
Chicago Wheel & Mfg. Co.
Sander Uses Square Sheets. A new horizontal sander introduced by Mastercraft Products, of Boston, has a 14½" by 17" working surface with an adjustable fence. It utilizes a "no gluing" disk for the abrasive that may be adjusted up or down to compensate for the thickness of the sheet. A 7" by 7" piece of any cloth-backed abrasive may be used. Without a motor, the tool costs approximately $24.
Chicago Wheel & Mfg. Co.
Drafting Aid Fits Pocket. Designed to enable draftsmen and others to make detailed sketches while away from their drawing boards, this small device combines the features of a compass, protractor, ruler, and T-Square. For use as a compass, one end has a free-moving pivot button. Made of clear plastic, it is a product of the Danat Company, of Chicago, and retails for about 50 cents.
Chicago Wheel & Mfg. Co.
Light Built In. A 14" drill press introduced by the South Bend Lathe Works, of South Bend, Ind., has a built-in light with switch to provide shielded illumination for the work area. Both bench and floor models are in production, each having a capacity to drill ½" in iron or steel at the center of a 14" circle. The spindle has a maximum travel of 4" and speeds of 707, 1,305, 2,345, and 4,322 r.p.m. The depth gauge, graduated in sixteenths, has adjustable collars to control both the depth of feed and length of return stroke.
Chicago Wheel & Mfg. Co.
Holder Clamps to Drill Press. A work holder developed by Universal Vise & Tool Co., Parma, Mich., clamps to the column of any small standard drill press and secures the work with a quarter turn of a single lever. The clamping arms are adjustable along the cross arm to encompass the full width of the table and may be swung up and back to clear the table for a drill jig or machine vise when necessary.
WHEN you need much speed reduction or great increase in torque, a worm drive may do the job more efficiently and compactly than a gear train. Calculation is easier, too, for the worm gear advances one tooth per revolution of the worm (in the common single-thread type).
Indicating Carriage Travel. Better than a simple carriage stop for many facing, boring, and recessing jobs, an indicator mounted directly on the lathe carriage (below) lets you perform these tasks with delicacy and precision. The contact feeler on the indicator bears against a rod held in an ordinary carriage stop, while the indicator is attached to the apron by a bracket.
Careful lathe work is called for in machining the running parts of this versatile little milling machine.
Walter E. Burton
MAKING the spindle is one of the most precise operations involved in building the milling machine begun last month. So that the spindle will fit the bearing bores snugly but not tightly, the outside diameter must be held to close tolerances, this diameter being 1.2501" plus or minus .0003".
EVERY machinist has run up against the bugaboo of chips clogging the slot while a cutoff or trepanning tool is being used. I have found that tools ground as shown in these sketches give excellent results. If mounted just a trifle above center, the slight curve on the cutoff tool avoids chattering and digging in.
If carefully placed, a single spot will yield portraits with dramatic shadows and brilliant high lights.
CONSIDERING the variety of spots, floods, booms, and other lights used in making a single big-time advertising picture, an amateur photographer may wonder how he ever could hope to do good work with his own limited supply of lighting units.
Bowl Is Developing Aid. A quartsize glass ice-cube bowl is a handy darkroom accessory. Accommodating half a dozen 2¼" by 3¾" hangers, it may be substituted for a cut-film tank in all developing steps. It also enables me to increase the effectiveness of my roll-film tank.
Here are further pointers on wiring, aligning, and checking a superhet that anyone can build.
High-School Shop Teacher
ONCE you get to know your way around radio you’ll find that there are only two things you really need to complete any building project: a schematic diagram and a parts list. Photographs, description, and pictorial diagrams are "extras" like a radio and heater in a car.
Transmitter Has Two Ears. One of the major differences between live music and a radio reproduction of it is that radio has only one ear. Binaural (two-ear) hearing is what enables you to distinguish the direction from which sound comes. Experiments in "stereophonic" or two-transmitter broadcasting, recently conducted in Holland, are said to offer promise of greater realism in radio reproduction.
"SAFE at home" may mean something in baseball, but anybody who thinks it applies to houses just hasn’t lived with kids. You can trust any youngster to find a dozen danger spots in his own bedroom without half trying. If he’s not probing electric outlets with a hairpin, he’s probably planning the easiest way to fall out a window.
LOADING and unloading toy trucks and trains has endless fascination for children. This simple crane makes it even more fun. Bevel two edges of a wooden block (a piece of two-by-four will do) and fasten to it two plywood pieces for the boom. Mount a small pulley at the top, a thread spool at the bend, and an old fishing reel or a film spool on the base.
WEIGHING only 15 lb., a portable reel makes up to 400' of extension cord available for use by simply plugging in the device and pulling the wire. Current is fed to the revolving reel through collector rings. An adjustable brake controls rotation of the reel, which pivots on a ball-bearing swivel so the cord pulls off in a direct line from any direction.
WITH a tough winter over, I’ve found this hog-water heater so useful it’s worth remembering for the next cold season. It consists of a length of 3" pipe welded shut at one end, fitted with a 60-watt bulb, and packed with asbestos. It’s well to protect the lamp cord with boards or otherwise.
IF YOU don’t know your own strength with a chisel, try an electric engraving tool next time you cut a mortise for a strike or a gain for a hinge. The vibrating blade supplies all the muscle, yet can be controlled to a hair. Mark around the hinge, or mount the strike temporarily to mark the area to be mortised.
HERE are three products designed to help you keep your lawn in good order this spring and summer—an insect sprayer that you attach to a water hose, a lawn sweeper, and a mower that works on a new principle. Upended for filling with insecticide, the sprayer is then placed on its base as above, the hose attached, and the water turned on.
IN ORDER to display the flag on holidays, I assembled a simple bracket from a few pipe fittings and installed it on the front of my house. A floor flange, a short nipple to fit it, a 45-deg. elbow on the nipple, a 6" length of pipe turned into the elbow, and a coat of aluminum-type paint completed the bracket.
Standard materials and a simple home method give you a beautiful finish that just can’t wear off.
Rollin H. Wampler
WITH most wood finishes beauty is really only skin deep. A surface film of varnish or other material gives good looks, fine weathering properties, and water resistance. What more can you ask? Not much—unless the piece is subjected to hard mechanical wear.
SHOP motors not equipped with overload trippers can be protected, and house fuses kept from blowing, by means of inexpensive circuit breakers now available at war-surplus, outlets. A push on a button resets them after they "blow." Although they are commonly set to open at 15 amp., you can read-just them to 9 or 10 amp.
TIRED of picking up sledge hammers and cutters from the floor of the shop, I found an old pitchfork, cut off the shank, and trimmed the tines to a length of 8". After drilling ¼" holes in the anvil block at a convenient height and spaced to suit the tines, I drove the altered fork into the wood.
IF YOU can get next to a power floor waxer, shining your shoes ought to be no problem at all. Tilt the machine to expose the brush, put polish on the shoes, and let the motor shine up your footwear.—Russell W. McCandless, Manhattan, N. Y.
SUITED for use with rotating-scythe lawn mowers and vertical pumps, a new single-cylinder air-cooled engine has many interesting engineering features. Although it weighs only 24 lb. complete, it delivers 2½ hp. at 2,500 r.p.m. The price of the engine, which is made by McCulloch Motors Corp., of Los Angeles, is $79.50.
ROUGH ground is scarcely an obstacle for this home-made wheelbarrow built by Harold T. Austin, of Seattle, since its spiked driving wheel will climb almost everything but a tree. At the right Austin is shown giving his contrivance a test hop over a pile of crates.
Soot, pencil lead, and diamonds are all masquerades of pure carbon, its molecules playing Jekyll-Hyde.
Building an Ozone Generator
Ozone Liberates Iodine
White Phosphorus Changed to Red
Kenneth M. Swezey
INCREDIBLE as it may seem, a hard sparkling diamond, soft greasy graphite, soot from a candle flame, and charcoal are exactly the same thing, chemically speaking. Each consists of the element carbon. Such different forms of the same element are called allotropes.
ELECTRIC clocks may become noisy when the sealed-in lubricant settles. A simple cure is to turn the clock upside down and allow it to run that way for several days. Select a fairly warm place to help thin the lubricant.— D. J. Bachner, Jackson Heights, N. Y.
A SET of attachments and a light gasoline engine are now on the market for converting an ordinary lawn mower to power operation. The engine is a 2-cycle, 1-hp., air-cooled unit that weighs 17 lb.; the attachments are made of a magnesium alloy to keep the added weight to a minimum.
THE tendency of minnows to "school" is said to make this bait trap particularly effective since one or two will lure others into the transparent box. It folds compactly to fit the tackle box. Lewis E. Hamel Co., Inc., Rochester, N. Y., sells the trap for about $4.
WITH iron and steel still scarce and costly, I couldn’t bring myself to throw away my old disk-harrow cutters even after I had replaced them with a new set. I’m glad I saved them, because I have discovered countless uses for the 15" hard-steel platters.
HENS favor these homemade laying nests over the flat-bottom kind in our laying house. The depth of the nesting straw and the sloping sides probably account for this. To make them, first cut down along one corner of the 5-gal. cans. Next, cut out half the top with the filler spout along a diagonal as shown, and a similar piece out of the bottom.
SMOOTH sidewalks can be made less slippery by acid etching, which exposes some of the aggregate. The method, recommended by the Portland Cement Association, is to wet the surface and then to apply a 10-percent solution of muriatic acid. Let this stand until the surface is sufficiently etched.
CLEATS had to be screwed on inside the carrying case to hold an amplifier. Hammering failed to start the wood screws. With no room to use a drill, they were pressed part way into the wooden wall with a C-clamp, and tightened with a screwdriver.
THE simple wooden bracket fastened to the bottom of this cellar door allows you to open it with a foot when both hands are full. A scrap of ¾" plywood is the ideal material. Bandsaw the bracket to shape and attach it with two wood screws.
RUNNING a cord from a light pull so that it can be operated at a distance or from two points is a familiar dodge. But the cellar light above was to be controlled from two opposite directions. One cord was therefore run directly to the spot. The other was carried over a small pulley and then back the other way.
THIS page marker keeps several places and won’t drop out. Bend a strip of tin-can metal as shown. Crimp one or more 6" lengths of ribbon into the fold, using cement as well. Clip to the cover or back of the book.—H. B. Crawford, Arvada, Wyo.
A REFLECTOR of the kind used on photo flash guns gives extra shaving and makeup light from the type of bathroom fixture above. Slightly scratched reflectors can often be bought as "seconds" at a reduced price. The one shown was mounted by a short brass screw through its mounting bracket and one of the holes in the flange on the fixture that previously held the glass shade.
HERE’S an end to stepping on the rake in a dark shed or garage and having the handle remind you it’s there the hard way. Two fruit boxes of the more substantial sort, with sides of ½" stock, and a couple of short boards will make a sturdy wall tool rack.
HERE’S an effective way of supporting tomato plants. From wire fencing 26" or 32" high, form cylindrical racks about 18" in diameter and set a rack over each plant while it’s still small. Racks are easily made by bending wire fencing in a circle and hooking the ends together.
GARDEN plants frequently suffer from rabbit intruders. You can frighten them away by setting up toy windmills among the plants. Make the windmills from tin-can stock in the shape of flowers and paint them bright colors. These are both effective and attractive.
IF YOU are looking for a way of holding cloth or burlap bags while they’re being filled, an old ash can will do the trick nicely. Just solder three or four nails around the lip of the can and hook the edges of the bag over these. It may help to file the nails sharp.
A LAWN MOWER doesn’t have to cut grass to be useful. Even one that has seen better days can do a good job of transporting heavy or bulky items. Simply remove the cutterbar assembly and bolt on an iron frame such as that shown at the right. Though welded construction is shown, either rivets or nuts and bolts can be used to hold the pieces of angle, strap, and sheet iron together.
IF YOU like your breakfast bacon crisp and greaseless, this new griddle does the trick to a turn. Grease drips down the slanting sides, so no drying is necessary. The strips come out flat, with a minimum of shrinkage. Distributed by Allegretti & Co., of Los Angeles, the El Ranchero Ⓣ griddle is made of die-cast aluminum, and can be used for cooking other meats as well.
No MORE "wait till I get a pencil and paper" with this new Tel-Sec Ⓣ as a part of your telephone. As shown above, an ordinary scratch pad and a pencil are contained in a metal pull-out slide that remains rigid when extended. Made by Lanko Industries, of Detroit, Mich., the Tel-Sec comes in two types, one fitting under the oval-base telephone; the other (illustrated) for use with the newer square-base instrument.
A LAMPSHADE of durable Lumarith plastic not only gives more uniform diffusion of light, but its smoother surface makes it an appropriate "canvas" for a hand painting. The design on the lampshade above, produced by Lamp Fair, of New York City, gives the illusion of a third dimension when the lamp is lighted.
SHARP screen images are possible without shutting out all the light in a room when the new Kodaslide Projector is used. Built for projecting 2by 2-inch slides and transparencies, this Master Model has a 1,000-watt lamp and extremely fast lenses —coated with a microscopically thin layer of magnesium fluoride—that increase the amount of light delivered to the screen.
HERE’S a reel for fly fishing that will please anglers who want either automatic or manual right-hand line take-up. The finger-operated trigger shown above controls the automatic take-up and folds back when manual operation is desired.
UNIFORM sanding of curved surfaces is possible if you use a new sponge-rubber pad, shown above attached to a portable electric sander. It serves as a flexible, inchthick backing for the abrasive sheet so that it can follow the curves. The pad is adaptable to all No. 1,000 sanders made by Sterling Tool Products Co., of Chicago.
PS ARTICLES seem to live on forever. By now we’re accustomed to requests for reprints of stories that appeared 10 or even 20 and 50 years ago. But it was a pleasant surprise to discover that plans published in POPULAR SCIENCE way back in 1935 helped a young high-school senior place in the finals of the Westinghouse Science Talent Search.