Sir: In your excellent article, “Taming the Turbojets,” (Oct., p. 82) you state that air is bled from the compressor, routed around the engine, and burned in the tailpipe. As I understand it, the bled air is not routed around the engine, but is ducted beneath the burners and splashed against the turbine disk face to cool it.
SOME people, I notice, are afraid of the word “science.” They seem to think it’s too hard to understand; or it reminds them of the schooling they didn’t like or didn’t have. This is as silly as not using a knife and fork because you don’t know metallurgy. It’s shut-eyed thinking because we live in the very midst of science.
A famous explorer of the stratosphere designs a remarkable undersea craft for a journey to ocean depths never before reached by man.
Armor Withstands Pressure
Color of Sea Changes
Program for Record Dive
Army Tries an Expendable Spoon
BRUSSELS, Belgium—(Special to Popular Science Monthly). By applying the lifting principle of a balloon to a diving chamber, Prof. Auguste Piccard, pioneer explorer of the stratosphere, has found a way to descend to greater depths of the ocean than man has ever reached before.
ENGINEERING refinements are featured in the 1948 motorcycles announced by Indian and Harley-Davidson. Starter noise, for instance, has been cut down in the Indian by means of a silent kick starter, in which the usual ratchet is replaced by a freewheeling ball-lock device.
THE flying wing and the jet engine have been married to produce the mightiest bomber of them all—the Northrop YB-49— shown here taking off with a roar of smoke on its first test flight. Its eight, giant J-35 turbojets develop 32,000 hp., almost three times the power of its propeller-driven counterpart, the B-35 Flying Wing. Bomb bays, cargo space, crew quarters for 13 men—including bunks for six off-duty members—are all in the sevenfoot-thick wings. Designed for the Air Force as a very heavy bomber, the tailless plane can be adapted to cargo or transport use.
IF YOU cut over that sacred white line on a New Jersey .highway, don’t be surprised if the road tells you off. The “voice” is a corrugated strip of white cement, 24 inches wide, that hums loudly when tires roll over its hills and valleys (at left, above).
SCRUBBING the grime of travel off a giant electric locomotive by hand takes three hours. But a monster mechanical washing machine in the Pennsylvania Railroad’s yards at Long Island City, N. Y., now gives engines a top-to-toe bath and puts them back on the road in 15 minutes.
The biggest airplane in the world, Howard Hughes’ huge flying boat, has taken to the air at last. Hughes himself, shown above at the controls, unexpectedly lifted the big ship between 70 and 80 feet in the air during a taxi test in Los Angeles harbor.
ONE day last September our four-engine transport plane squatted on an airport in the wilderness of Newfoundland. The pilot pushed a button in his cockpit—and then sat back and put his hands in his lap. The airplane took off by itself. The landing gear retracted itself.
WHEN Hollywood couldn’t deliver a trained butterfly called for in a movie script, studio mechanics came up with this metal one, wired for action. The wings are made to flutter by remote control, out of camera range. As shown at right above, two thin metal strips are attached to the hinged wings of the imitation insect.
GIANT “tripod” at left is world’s largest lightning arrester, its three 29-foot-high legs designed to carry thunderbolts harmlessly to the ground. Constructed by Westinghouse, it is installed on a 500,000-volt test transmission line in Ohio to protect delicate equipment.
LOOK alike, don’t they, these two star rubies? But the one on the left is a natural stone, valued at $12,000, while the one on the middle finger is synthetic, worth about $600. Developed for industrial use, synthetic star rubies and sapphires will soon be on the market as jewelry.
SCIENCE’S snow makers are crossing ice off the list of flying dangers by removing the supercooled clouds that cause the ice to form on wings and control surfaces. They “sand” the clouds with ordinary dry ice—and in 15 minutes there is a hole big enough for a plane to land through.
THE bottom of Bikini lagoon was televised during a recent scientific resurvey of the atomic bomb test area. Above left the television camera is shown inside its steel housing. With the cover bolted on, underwater scenes were photographed through glass panel in the center.
THIS new low-priced electric bed warmer, developed by Westinghouse, works like an electric blanket, but costs less because the coils are sewed into muslin sheeting. The electric sheet is placed on top of the regular sheets and covered with an ordinary blanket.
FACED with the high freight cost of returning empty barrels, the British have come out with a collapsible model. It is assembled by fitting 10 oak-lined, laminated-plywood staves into the grooves in the ends (right above). The job is completed by hammering hoops home (left above).
THE “feelers” jutting out from this novel boat follow the ups and downs of waves and troughs. In turn these “jockey” skids change the angle of the hydrofoils to provide extra lift so that the Hydrofin boat rides the wave crests in rough water. The result is a smoother, faster ride, according to the craft’s British inventor, Christopher Hook.
THE coins you jingle in your pocket may not buy much nowadays, but to Uncle Sam they are big business. Only by using modern mass-production methods can his money factories keep up with the demand. Making a quarter today doesn’t take too much hand work—unless you’re a counterfeiter.
How laboratory research “finger-prints” human hair as an aid to scientific identification.
Andrew R. Boone
A DEFENDANT was on trial for assault. The jury was in doubt when Dr. Paul L. Kirk, of the University of California’s crime laboratory, showed them a pair of similar hairs wound around a glass bobbin. One hair was found on the scene of the crime; the other taken from the accused.
A NEW grounding device has been developed for use in hospital operating rooms to guard against explosions caused by static electricity touching off the highly volatile anesthetic gases. Heart of the device is a bronze box (shown in inset) that is set flush in the floor and grounded to the nearest water pipe.
SOUNDING off like a squadron of fighter planes, this jet-powered bike can make 25 miles an hour—but not for long, because of rapid fuel consumption. The three power units shown are miniature, gasoline-operated jet engines used for powering model aircraft and racing cars.
THIS typewriter-size rayon hand loom makes samples of new fabrics in a few hours that would take weeks if woven at a mill. It is operated by Mooresville Mills, of New York City, to whom manufacturers bring ideas for new patterns and designs. The guide-woven sample can be tried out in the trade before the design goes into production.
CONSOLIDATED’S slim XB-46, developed for the Air Force, has a speed of more than 480 m.p.h. It is powered by four GE J-35 turbojets, two in each nacelle. Knife-thin wings have span of 113 feet; the fuselage is 106 feet long, holds 10 tons of bombs.
Everybody has his own pet idea of some gadget he would like to see in general use. What is YOURS? Popular Science Monthly will pay $5.00 for every such suggestion that it accepts for publication. Contributions cannot be acknowledged or returned.
FABRIC designers in search of inspiration may well turn to a television receiver, General Electric engineers suggest. When they test cathode-ray tubes for modern sets by applying varying voltages, the engineers have found that the flyingelectron beam often sketches .
HERE is how you can take a watch—or an aircraft engine—apart and put it together again without even a screwdriver. It’s all done with transparent plastic, printer’s ink —and painstaking techniques. Using them, the Trans-Vision process can turn a machine inside out for you and not lose a screw.
Sweating 11 tons off the big bomber by ingenious engineering techniques stretches its range 2,000 miles.
EVERY pound of weight in the Air Forces’ huge six-engine B-36 bomber requires nearly a pound of fuel and oil to permit the plane to carry its peak bomb load across oceans and Arctic wastes. That is why this 139-ton aerial giant has been on a strict engineering “diet” from its drawing board days through the assemblyline and flight-testing phases at Consolidated Vultee’s plant in Fort Worth, Tex.
The Problem: The mess of string on a map (above, at right) at the Airborne Instruments Laboratory in Mineola, N. Y., shows New York City’s air-traffic problem. There are almost 600 strands, representing that many scheduled air-line flights every 24 hours.
ONLY part of a big ship’s lifetime is spent in the water. Periodically she must be dry-docked, usually twice a year, to repaint her bottom and effect any repairs that may be needed to maintain her hull in seaworthy condition. This may be done either in a graving dock—a basin that can be shut off from the sea and pumped dry—or, more spectacularly, in a floating dry dock, which actually lifts the vessel bodily from the water.
ALTHOUGH metals for toys are more plentiful now, the war-born use of plastic substitutes is still enjoying a wellearned popularity with the toy makers— and the youngsters. Here are three new recruits to the growing ranks of plastic toys. Plastic and elastic allow Swimbo to wiggle through the water like an elusive trout.
A NEW highly efficient, low-cost pumping system may bring new life—and profits —to oil fields abandoned as depleted. It uses oil under pressure to pump production oil up from the bottom of the deepest wells. Developed by the Kobe Hydraulic Pump Company, of California, the operating unit of the system consists of a hydraulic engine connected to a double-acting piston displacement pump, both contained in a slender steel cylinder.
THE RFD she ain't what she used to be. Not down in southern Arizona, anyway. Thanks to enthusiasm for ingenious receptacles, the last thing a rural letter carrier expects to drop the mail into is an oldfashioned mailbox. Instead, he is confronted with everything from a converted bomb to a covered wagon.
Runners Convert Wagon. Four small wheel runners quickly convert this child’s wagon into a steerable sled for use in winter. Patented by Emil Lersch, of Pensacola, Fla., the ski-like, turned-up metal runners are each clamped firmly to a wheel of the wagon by a pair of side plates shaped to conform closely to the wheel’s contours.
CEMENTS in various hues offer intriguing possibilities to the craftsman who works with plastic. Consisting of a dye in a plastic solvent, these cements are specifically intended for producing color in laminated sheets of clear plastic.
yOU push down the handle, wait . . . and the bread pops up all by itself, toasted to a turn. Ever stop to wonder how the toaster knows enough to brown your slice without burning it? Automatic toasters are mostly of two types—both ingenious. One has a thermostat that cooks with the toast and switches off the current after the right amount of heat.
DON'T let this odd contraption fool you. It’s artist-flier John T. McCoy, Jr.’s idea of how a giant air liner the size of the B-36 might look. Despite its unconventional design, its features have all seen actual use in past or present aircraft.
it takes 1,200 kinds for the many uses of nails $ here's how they are made.
Fiber Scales May Shrink Wool
X-Rays Developed Automatically
William P. Vogel
TODAY the lowly nail is just as hard to come by as an automobile—for about the same reason. Demand far exceeds supply. Not only is building booming, but the nail is the end product of a long, complicated, steel making process. Nails must compete for raw materials with a host of other products.
HARVEST time is approaching on the Black River at Carthage, N. Y., where the New York Central Railroad still cuts an annual crop of natural ice. It will cool next summer’s milk cars, passengers’ drinking water, and be used in cabooses for the convenience of freight-train crews.
IF ANYONE is cold in this house, it won’t be for lack of heat—the house has nine complete heating systems, while scores of special heat-measuring gadgets take its temperature by the square foot. Built by the National Bureau of Standards to test heat distribution and equipment, the bungalow was equipped with gas, oil, and electric heaters of various types, with meters to determine heat loss through walls, floors, and ceilings; thermocouples for temperature variations; and recording thermometers.
THE problem of navigating a round world with a flat map may be solved by the use of curved maps that eliminate the distortions of flat projections—distortions that complicate long-range, high-speed flight planning. Devised by Col. Carl J. Crane, U. S. Air Force, the slightly curved maps are actually sections of what, if assembled, would be a giant, 17-foot globe.
TAKE some straight and curved rods, snap them together with steel clips, add a few wooden wheels, and you have built the toy jeep shown above. Secret of the new construction set, made by the Clip-Craft Corp., of New York City, is in the specially tempered steel clips that hold the aluminum parts tightly in place.
BARSTOW, Calif., the gateway to Death Valley and once a desert junction for overland wagon trains, will soon be the center for servicing the Santa Fe Railway’s fleet of huge passenger and freight Diesel-electric locomotives. Although some of the overhauling and servicing shown on these pages is now done at other points, most of it will be transferred to Barstow as soon as new facilities are completed.
GLOBAL air power needs global radio communication. The United States Air Force has both. Recently a flight of B-29 Superfortresses left Tokyo bound for Washington on a one-stop flight. Forty minutes out, they turned on their radios and a few twists of the dials brought them into direct contact with headquarters-on-the-Potomac, some 6,000 miles away.
Washer Eliminates Dishpan. A new dishwasher introduced by Caldwell-Noel Corp., of Los Angeles, Calif., operates on any standard combination faucet. Soap is inserted and the water turned on to the desired temperature. Two streams of water emerge, one soapy for washing the dishes and the other clear for rinsing. Selling for about $7, the washer is available in polished aluminum or in enamel in pastel shades.
It Blows Hot or Cold. Containing a heating element, this new oscillating heater-fan may be used to circulate either warm air or cooling breezes through a room. It offers a choice of two speeds and two temperatures, can be set to oscillate or remain stationary, and may be tilted on its base by the turn of a knob. Priced at about $22, the appliance is a product of the Wittie Manufacturing & Sales Company, of Chicago.
Cigarettes Pop Out. Upward pressure on a thumb plate snaps open this cigarette case and lifts a carrier that forces the cigarettes up so they may be easily grasped. When pressure is removed, a spring returns the plate to its original position. The case, priced at $9, is a product of the Arthur C. Sogno Co., of New York.
Light Shines When You Rise. If you get up at night, removal of your weight from the bed permits a spring-actuated switch to turn on this light. When you return to bed, it turns off again. The device, adjustable to the sleeper’s weight, is made by the Rise N Shine Company, San Diego, Calif. It may be turned off during the day.
Device Grips Hot Pans
Device Grips Hot Pans. Operated like a pair of pliers, this stainless-steel kitchen tool is designed for easy handling of hot pans or plates. Priced at about $1, it is made by the Taylor Products Manufacturing Company, of Colorado Springs, Colo.
Thermostat Saves Heat
Thermostat Saves Heat. Fully automatic, a time-control thermostat announced by the Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Company, Minneapolis, Minn., includes a new electrical mechanism that prevents the heater from overshooting the daytime temperature limit during the morning. External controls permit easy setting.
Toy Has Three-Way Action. This wooden rocker is designed to give a child an active ride. When the arms set the rockers in motion, the feet move up and down with the platform on which they rest, and the seat glides back and forth. The rocker is built by Hall Industries, Inc., of Chicago. It costs approximately $9.
Lamp Has Switch on Top
Lamp Has Switch on Top. A table lamp made by Homecraft Electronic Products, of Chicago, has the switch conveniently located on top of the shaft, eliminating the need of reaching under the shade. Using a circular 32-watt fluorescent tube for diffused light, the lamp has a brass base and wood shaft. Various shades are offered.
Stand Turns Yule Tree
Stand Turns Yule Tree. Powered by a small AC motor, this stand not only supports a Christmas tree but turns it at the rate of three revolutions a minute. In addition, a special device supplies current to sets of tree bulbs while the tree is turning. The stand is produced by the General Die and Stamping Co., New York.
WHEN one of your tires goes suddenly flat along the highway, perhaps miles in the country on a dark and blustery night, it’s a pretty safe bet that you might have detected the impending trouble and taken steps to prevent it. There’s evidence to prove that some 90 percent of all such inconvenient tire failures can be avoided.
Arm Rest Is Removable. Although designed particularly to support the driver’s right arm on long trips, this arm rest also may be used by a passenger in either the front or rear seat. If turned side-ways, the foam-rubber cushion also doubles as a high chair for a youngster. A broad metal base keeps the rest upright while in use. Manufactured by the Perlin Perfect Products Company, of Chicago, the rest sells for about $3.50. It stows away compactly when not in use.
the Perlin Perfect Products Company
Key Springs from Lock. Designed to prevent drivers from leaving the ignition key in the lock, a key case manufactured by Robert Hetherington & Son, Inc., of Sharon Hill, Pa., contains a spring that causes the key and case to spring out into the hand as soon as the ignition is turned off. It retails for about 40 cents.
the Perlin Perfect Products Company
Hand Throttle Rests Foot. Pivoted under the steering column so it may be swung right or left for use by either hand, this hand throttle is connected to the carburetor by a flexible wire and may be used interchangeably with the foot accelerator. The throttle is placed so that it does not interfere with operation of the gear shift, gas being fed by drawing the lever gently upward toward the steering wheel. Made by Trans Continental Industries, Inc., of St. Louis, Mo., it sells for about $6.
the Perlin Perfect Products Company
Awnings Are Transparent. Made of transparent plastic in blue or smoky green, these car-door awnings provide shade without materially reducing the visibility. In addition, they afford protection from rain and snow. Introduced by the Toadroy Manufacturing Co., of Wellington, Kan., they sell at $13.50 to $19 a pair.
the Perlin Perfect Products Company
Caution Sign Reflects Light. A caution sign introduced by Strayline Products Co., of Dobbs Ferry, N. Y., measures 9" by 24" and stands 24" high, but it may be collapsed into a compact bundle for storage. Made of aluminum, the sign has reflecting letters that are clearly visible up to 250' at night. It sells for about $3.
JOE CLARK’S voice over the wire was waspish. “That highbinder charged me twice what the job was worth to put in those new rods—and when he got ’em in the engine wouldn’t even turn over. I told him that I wouldn’t pay him for work that hadn’t done any good, and he said he’d hold the car until I did pay him.
MEXICAN craftsmen introduced this patio furniture to the Southwest. Working with primitive tools and materials, they have managed to fashion such comfortable and eye-appealing pieces that the supply of imported chairs and taborets like those illustrated has fallen hopelessly behind the demand. If you have a spot in your porch or garden that calls for this rustic furniture, you’ll find that the quickest way to fill the vacancy is to build it yourself. The drawing shows a simplified adaptation of the original; it can be made with jackknife, saw, and hand drill. Willow withes or other flexible branches that may be picked up in the woods are ideal for the frame. Hickory or ash should be used for the seat and base hoops, and lattice splints for the diagonals that join them. Rawhide or raffia, and cowhide or canvas, in any combination, serve for the lacing and seat and back. Soak or steam the ash or hickory and bend it around a rough form to make the three semicircular hoops needed for the chair. Bind them to the four legs with rawhide or raffia set in casein glue or shellac. The curved top frame and arms are installed next, and the diagonal slats are bound inside the hoops as shown. Rawhide strips are crisscrossed over the seat to support the cowhide or canvas cover, which is then fitted and laced in place. Seat and back are cut separately, and each piece is laced tightly in its frame.—Hi SIBLEY.
BESIDES being a convenience, swinging doors of the ship’s-cabin type bring a note of distinction to a doorway between the kitchen and dining room. The dimensions and requirements given in the above drawing are for two doors to suit a 3' by 7' doorway.
IF YOU are looking for a project worthy of becoming a real heirloom piece, here’s one with absolutely no strikes against it—an electric clock housed in a handsome case along with a Swiss music-box movement that plays music on the hour, every hour.
YOU’VE gotten past the stage of wondering how you are going to buy all the clothes your growing youngster needs, you have probably started wondering where you are going to put them. That’s the time to dig out the hammer and saw and get to work on this handsome, modern child’s wardrobe or closet.
KICKED along like a kiddie car, this little tractor will give a child many happy hours. As maneuverable as a tricycle, it runs easily because of the large wheels. Build up the body from pieces cut approximately to the sizes in the photo below.
A clothesline can be taut though detachable if it is fitted with a tightener as shown. Slide the stick back until the line is tight; the weight of the clothes will keep it that way. If you have to take a baby out into rain or snow, wrap him in a transparent plastic table-cloth.
DESIGNED for use under a bed, this shallow chest solves the problem of where to store those extra blankets that overflow all available closet space. Mounted on casters, it may be moved easily when desired. Except for the /4" plywood top and bottom, /4" stock is used throughout.
THIS simple device has opened up a production bottleneck in the drafting room where I am employed. Instead of having to wait for ink to dry before continuing a job, we now just snap on the light, hold it over the wet ink for a few seconds, and get on without the usual delay.
WHEN a carpenter’s level is not available, a typewriter ribbon spool makes an excellent substitute if the surface is smooth. Put down on edge, it will indicate even a very slight incline by rolling toward the area that is LOWER.
Boat Has Plastic Hull. Supplied in kit form, this speedy hydroplane has a molded plastic hull. Quickly assembled with only simple tools, the boat is 25" long, has a beam of 7¾", a maximum depth of 3¾", and weighs only 34 oz. without its air-cooled gas engine. Special molded ribs increase the strength of the hull, enabling it to withstand shock and vibration. The boat is manufactured' by Reuhl Products, Madison, Wis.
Fly by Thumb
Fly by Thumb. A new plastic control for control-line model planes has a wheel that may be operated by thumb to raise or lower the elevators. Victor Stanzel & Co., of Schulenburg, Tex., makes the handle.
Pistol Has Various Uses. An air pistol introduced by Healthways of Hollywood, Calif., is supplied with two interchangeable barrel nozzle attachments. These make it possible to shoot corks, darts, BB’s, or imitation bullets—just as you choose. Sold for about $4 with a supply of each projectile type, the pistol is accurate within 20'.
Cribbagc Game Fits Pocket
Cribbagc Game Fits Pocket. Made of lightweight plastic, this portable cribbage set fits easily in the hand or vest pocket. Opened flat, it forms a standard cribbage board. Closed, it serves as a container for a deck of cards and the score pegs. The price is about $2, and the manufacturer is Kencroft Associates, Inc., of Buffalo, N.Y.
Plastics Kit Available. Materials needed for internal carving of plastics (PSM, Aug. ’47, p. 160) have been assembled in kit form by the Chicago Wheel & Manufacturing Co., of Chicago. The kit includes special cutters, sanding disks, buffing and polishing compounds, polishing wheels, plastic dyes, and cements.
Here are seven handsome home accessories that you can make in a jiffy from a few Venetian-blind slats.
R. J. DeCristoforo
Knickknack Shelf. Painted or stained, a pair of these shelves will help dress up a bare wall. Several slats may be sawed simultaneously if clamped in a vise. Sandpaper the cut edges. Cookie Server. Although dainty and fragile in appearance, it is quite strong.
THERE must be some little girl on your Christmas list who has written to Santa for a real big doll house. Her mother probably didn’t mail the letter because she knows that a big house for daughter’s dolls won’t leave much space for the rest of the family.
UNLESS you choose to smash it with an axe, you’ll never succeed in robbing this bank when you’re short of change. The only way to get back the pennies, nickels, or dimes already in it is to put in more— and more—until the bank is full. Then, the last coins unlatch the mechanism and allow the two halves to fly apart.
HERE’S a rubber-band gun that looks like a gun, cocks with a click, and shoots three bands one after another on one loading. By making several of these guns and a target panel, on which pictures of big-game animals are revealed when the flying bands knock aside covering disks, you will have an interesting indoor game.
MECHANICAL toys seem so much a product of our own century that it may be hard to believe this one originated around 300 years ago. In the tavern scene reproduced on page 129, Jan Havicksz Steen depicted an ingenious plaything held firmly in the hands of its young owner.
Mousetrap Garners Gauntlet. While insulating my attic, I dropped a work glove into a partition. It came out promptly when I sent a string-suspended mousetrap down after IT.-HOWARD A. GUNDERSON. Freezing Holes in Rubber. I can’t drill or cut sponge rubber cleanly when it’s soft, but by soaking it in water and then freezing it in dry ice, I get a crisp, workable material.
GLASS-TOPPED wrought-iron table in either of the two designs shown here will quickly make a place for itself in the household. Impervious to weather in a terrace, porch, or garden spot, it’s equally at home indoors as a serving table, a plant stand, or simply a side table.
Copper Overlay on Clear Plastic Makcs Modcrn Book Ends
GLEAMING copper and clear plastic are combined in this distinctive pair of book ends. The contrasting materials and simple design make them an appropriate accessory for use with modem furniture. Two 5" by 6" pieces of ⅜" clear plastic, two 6" by 10" pieces of 16-gauge sheet copper, and six ¼" tubular copper rivets are the required materials.
WITH this adapter your lathe chucks and faceplates can be used on the drillpress table, often without disturbing the way the work is chucked or clamped. Lathe work can be transferred to the press with assurance that all drilled holes will be parallel to each other and to the axis of turning, and at exactly 90 deg. .to the face.
Vise for End Milling. I tried counterboring a hole in a boring bar by holding it on the drill press in V-blocks, but the bit caught on a transverse hole tapped for a setscrew and would not stay true. Finally I gripped the bar in the four-jaw chuck on the lathe tailstock and fed it against an end mill, with good results.
PICK up these spring calipers and you’ve got a reading before you can say, “What size?” The geared pointer indicates on a magnified scale, making it easier to read small fractions. It’s a fascinating job to turn out this toolbox gadget. You can save time by getting some ¼" graph paper instead of drawing the ¼" squares.
Magnet Aids Welder. A magnetic dispenser for use with arc-welding starter powder is made by the Electrical Engineering Company, of Indianapolis. It consists of a weighted base enclosing an alnico magnet, with a conical depression in the top.
Jeeps Still Have Glamor. For their young owners, there’s plenty of excitement left in these pedal-powered composites of the two plans offered PSM readers in Dec. ’45. Above, a version of “Bizerte Gertie,” made by G. E. Nicholls, of Wanganui, New Zealand, who had to use such Australasian wood as jarrah and rimu.
THIS pump unit was rigged up to eliminate the necessity of lugging oil from the cellar every time a kitchen-range tank needed filling. A switch upstairs near the oil outlet turns on the motor. The pump was obtained from an old furnace oil burner and the /4-hp. motor from a washing machine.
BLUEPRINTS that have been rolled up may be prevented from rolling off the end of a table by two or more stops fashioned from paper clips. Bend the clips to form an angle and then secure them to the table with thumbtacks. With these in place, several rolls can be conveniently stacked in no danger of sliding off the table.
IF YOUR pot stove is the type that has a water jacket only around the dome, its efficiency can be virtually doubled by winding a continuous length of copper tubing around the firepot and connecting the coil into the household hot water system.
Bigger-than-life blow-ups are a cinch with these homemade lens tubes. They’ll work on almost any camera.
PICTURES that show small objects bigger than life size can be taken with almost any camera, provided it has a removable lens. The trick, of course, is to use a lens extension tube. Don’t fret if you do not have facilities to machine metal tubes; card-board tubes do nicely if fitted with care.
LIGHT in weight and water-resistant, a gas-mask holder may be easily converted into a bag for carrying a small camera and accessories. Its size makes it particularly suitable for a 2¼" by 3¼" Speed Graphic. In this case, a pocket of waterproof canvas was made to fit the camera snugly.
SNAPSHOTS under water are easy, inexpensive, and fun. This outfit was built on a South Pacific island and used among the coral reefs in those wonderfully clear waters. You can borrow the idea for future use at your favorite swimming hole.
Synchronizer Easily Checked. An instrument made by Hall-Barkan Instruments, Inc., of Tuckahoe, N. Y., guides adjustment of solenoid synchronizers. The primary mechanism is an up-and-down slide containing a slit that moves in front of a lighted screen of equal width bands of red, yellow, and blue.
If you built the tester described last month, you will want these further pointers on its use.
SINCE all the essential information needed for building three types of multimeter was given in the two previous issues, you probably have your tester pretty well under construction. The two smaller units illustrated last month present no special problems. Most of this discussion, therefore, concerns the featured instrument.
WHETHER or not you have built, bought, or borrowed a general-purpose multitester, you will find a place in your electronic tool kit for a midget meter that measures the things you most frequently need to know. If you are a beginner, building it will teach you the principles and uses of multitesters; if you are an experimenter or service man you will find unlimited applications for an auxiliary, pocket-sized instrument both in and out of the shop.
Sockets Grip Miniature Tubes. The wire prongs of miniature tubes frequently slide out of their sockets or make intermittent contact. A remedy is offered by A. W. Franklin Mfg. Corp., New York, in the sockets shown above. Metal eyelets converge around the pins to assure positive, constant contact.
PROJECTS executed in wood, plaster, plastics, or ceramics can be permanently encased in a resplendent metallic sheath that will greatly enhance their beauty. You’ll need a plating tank big enough to handle your work. Calculate tank size by allowing at least 6" from the object to be plated to the anodes, and at least 1" from the anodes to the tank sides.
COPPERPLATING a pair of baby shoes will not only please a mother for whom they have sentimental value, but will also afford an easy introduction to electroplating. Mix plaster of Paris and water to a thick paste and fill the shoe to about ½" from the top.
TRANSFORMATION of tree fibers or cotton linters into rayon fabrics is one of the greatest achievements of modern industrial chemistry. Chemically, rayon is almost pure cellulose, the same as cotton and linen. But instead of using cellulose as found in nature, the rayon chemist starts with cheap and plentiful spruce and hemlock trees, or the fuzz that clings to cotton seed after it has been ginned.
THIS efficient oil stove, which uses old crankcase drainings as fuel, has for several winters provided cheap heating of a goodsized repair shop. Compressed air from the shop air line “atomizes” the fuel and gives a steady, hot flame. A 55-gal. drum, fitted with a door and a stovepipe chimney, serves as the body of the stove.
Folded Paper Locates Centers Baby Enjoys Carriage Window
T-Square Marks Guide Borders
J. RODGER DARLING
PAINTING upstairs windows usually involves manhandling an extension ladder into place and then teetering alongside the window during work. This homemade platform, set in place from inside the room, can be moved easily from window to window, and affords a steady and convenient working surface Use sound hardwood for its construction, and pad the crosspiece to prevent marring the finish inside. Carriage-bolt assembly will allow compact storage when the unit is not in USE.
THAT all energy is somehow related is very evident in the behavior of heat and electricity. The toaster and electric iron convert kilowatts into useful heat. But a thermocouple—simply two pieces of dissimilar metals welded or soldered togetherchanges heat directly into electricity when one joint is put into a flame.
PUMPS installed in pits and other hard-to-reach places can be serviced more readily if equipped with these aids. At the left, an extension plug makes it easier to open a drain hole, and at the right a removable drip shield protects the motor.
IF YOUR oil burner is not designed to shut down automatically in case of a “puff back” explosion, the illustrated setup will do the job—and prevent what might become a costly fire. Should the door be blown open or the flue wrecked by delayed ignition, the rising heat will melt a fusible link and allow the spring switch to open the burner circuit.
Gate Fits Any Opening. Steel members at the ends and center of this gate encase two-by-fours that may be cut so the length of the gate suits the opening. Supported by double hasp hinges, the gate swings in either direction and is held shut by a lever-operated latch.
BASKING in the brilliance of 82 newtype GE street lamps, Schenectady’s Erie Boulevard, shown above, becomes the eighth brightest lighted street in America. One of three recent contributions to better lighting, the new system averages more than two foot-candles of light over the street.
A DECENT interval after this issue reaches subscribers, about a thousand interested readers will sit down to fill out a question form they have received. On this long, detailed questionnaire they will check their readership of every major article and department in the magazine.