DESTROYERS have carried a big load in this war. Always versatile, they have taken on jobs of which the naval theorists never dreamed. Read the history of the scrappiest naval-vessel type afloat, which was originally designed as a counterweapon and grew up to be the work horse of seapower.
Give a Thought to Chestnuts While Developing the Oaks
This Will Echo Through the Ages As The Smith Idea
IT HAS been found that certain rays of about the frequency of those from neon light will kill bacteria. It has occurred to me that probably stronger rays might kill the termites that work so much damage in wooden houses. I also thought that it would be interesting if the matter could be discussed in P.S.M.; then possibly an experimenter would be able to find some way to kill termites at work through several inches of wood.
"WELL, I guess I’m the fellow to see, for I’ve repaired thousands of refrigerators (home and commercial both), vacuum cleaners, radios, washing machines, irons, fans, lamps, mangles, motors, etc. In fact, many of my customers call me their “electrical appliance doctor.”
A veteran war correspondent tells how fanatical hatred and weird rites send pilots of Kami-Kaze Corps to death.
OUT of the depths of savagery and superstition the Japanese have forged a fantastic weapon to hurl at their American enemies by land, sea, and air. It is merely an idea—the glorification of death in battle. The high command of the Japanese armed forces has taken this idea and indoctrinated picked groups of young men with it, so that they deliberately go out seeking suicide in attacks on their Empire’s foes.
NOW we can fully understand why GI tank men “griped” about the General Sherman medium tank when they had to pit their weapon against the German Royal Tiger in their sweep through France and western and southern Germany. Stewart Rouse, POPULAR SCIENCE staff artist, visited the Army’s Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland, where he inspected both the 60ton Tiger and the 75-ton Royal Tiger, brought over here for study by American tank experts.
Here's the heart of precision bombing, which blasted Berlin and is even now razing Tokyo.
FINDING THE RANGE AND COURSE ARE THE SIGHT'S TWO PROBLEMS
FOUR MAIN ELEMENTS OF THE NORDEN SIGHT AND WHAT THEY DO
THE Norden bombsight, one of the most fascinating, hush-hush tools used in winning World War II, is both a magician and a mathematician. It creates an illusion, and uses that bit of magic to solve two problems in trigonometry faster than a professor of mathematics could do it.
AFTER the war, a man may bring home unexpected dinner guests—and escape the well-known icy stare. His wife will merely have to take the necessary number of Maxson “Sky Plates” out of the refrigerator, slip them into racks in her stainlesssteel, electrically operated Whirlwind oven, and set the table.
AN EIGHT-TUBE, stationary rocket launcher that shoots out 4.5-inchers 4,400 yards has been added to American armament in the field. A development of the infantryman’s single-tube launcher (P.S.M., Nov. 1944, p. 79), this new weapon, which is fired electrically, is easily transported and quickly set up by artillerymen moving against the enemy on the heels of the infantry.
A PERISCOPE attachment on the German machine gun at the left made it possible for a Nazi gunner to aim the piece without exposing his head to enemy fire. Two mirrors, one above the trigger and the other at the top of the attachment, give a sight along the barrel of the gun.
SOME of the “new” weapons of this war aren’t so new, after all. The “duck” amphibious truck, for instance, is the direct descendant of the Sea Turtle, a strange vehicle built 18 years ago and used by a National Geographic Society expedition among the volcanoes of Alaska.
THE NEW THUNDERBOLT P-47N, developed by Republic Aviation and the Air Technical Service Command, has a combat range of over 1,000 miles and speed above 450 m.p.h. Added range was obtained by redesigning the wing section, increasing the span by 18 inches, and adding 22 square feet of area.
Men who will fly and fight the Shooting Star go to school in our first jet job, the P-59.
AMERICAN jet-fighter pilots, who soon will be taking the new P-80 Shooting Star into action, learned their stuff in the P-59 Airacomet, the Army’s twin-engine jet fighter-trainer. For months tests have been run, tactics developed, and pilots checked out on the P-59.
SOAPLESS CLEANSER. A new synthetic skin detergent, known as pHisoderm, which cleanses thoroughly and more quickly than soap, has been developed by Dr. B. Thurber Guild, president of Fairchild Brothers and Foster. It is produced in the form of a thick, fluid cream which contains no soap, no fatty acids, no alkali, and no perfume or coloring matter to produce allergy.
Surgeons, engineers, and artists join forces to help wounded GI's return to civilian life as happy, useful members of society.
MODERN MOULAGE CREATES NEW FACES
OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY REBUILDS MORALE AND HEALTH OF WOUNDED
SPECIAL TOOLS ENABLE THE BLIND TO WORK IN GARDENS
Science Makes Rosier Apples
Shotgun Shells Form Drill Case
AS NEVER before in the history of American wars, wounded men are being returned to civilian life with the scars of battle healed—thanks to the surgeon, the engineer, the craftsman, the sculptor, and the artist. A quarter of a century ago, in the First World War, 46 out of every 100 men who received fractures of the limbs were permanently disabled.
WHIRLING turbine blades, instead of flashing pistons, will drive powerful streamline locomotives to drag the crack steam-powered trains of tomorrow. Two leaders of this new trend in American rail-roading are shown on this page. Most revolutionary is the turbo-electric engine above, designed for the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway.
THE steel-and-canvas “flak jackets” (P.S.M., Mar. '44, p. 54) that protect our bomber crewmen from enemy bullets and shell fragments have caused a reduction of 58 percent in the number of men wounded and have reduced the number of wounds sustained by 60 percent.
BORING THROUGH HARDENED STEEL is now done with a triangular-shaped drill provided with chip-clearance grooves at its point. No annealing is necessary with the Hardsteel drill, for it works on the principle of annealing the work beneath the drill point by frictional heat, then wiping out the softened chips.
YOU may be held up by a thug. When that happens, you will be glad you studied these pictures. They show how you can out-smart and often overcome a bruiser who makes a surprise attack. It’s science and quick thinking pitted against brute force, and the advantage is likely to be with the little fellow who knows how to meet attack.
ARMY AND NAVY SET AN EXAMPLE FOR THE HOME FRONT WITH NEW METHODS AND MATERIALS FOR PROTECTING LIVES AND PROPERTY
HE ANATOMY OF FIRE
FOAM EXTINGUISHES A FIRE BY SMOTHERING IT
"SMOKE SLEUTH" DETECTS SHIP FIRE, FIGHTS IT WITH CO
ANCIENTS WORSHIPPED FIRE AS POWERFUL GOD
CARBON DIOXIDE KILLS FIRE BY REMOVING OXYGEN
Magnet Hangs in Air
THE Army and the Navy have discovered the means of keeping tens of millions of dollars’ worth of military equipment from going up in the smoke of wartime fires. On war fronts from Fairbanks to Accra and from Kwajalein to Chengtu, flames are being quenched almost as they start.
AERIAL LADDERS and a full complement of ground ladders feature the new fire-fighting trucks at home. Other modern equipment includes a ladder pipe for use at the end of an extended aerial ladder, an outrigger jack, and deluge guns to make large streams of water.
CONVERTIBLE HAT can be adjusted to the prevailing mode or to the style of hair-do. It is the invention of Klara Halmos, New York, N. Y. The crown remains the same, but the brim is twisted into a wide variety of shapes and secured in position by elastic.
FROM the many entries in P.S.M.'s cardboard contest, the judges picked the winning projects shown here. The working model of a farm windmill, which spins merrily at a breath, was awarded first prize. Second prize went to a picture frame for which cardboard was shaped into surprisingly strong and attractive molding.
PLYWOOD SHIP CARRIES FIVE TONS OF TROOPS, GUNS, OR SUPPLIES
DISASTER TAKES A HOLIDAY
Here’s how some B-25’s squeaked through.
A TWO-ROOM wing now carries more soldiers than one of the French 40and-eight boxcars used in World War I. Twenty men ride in each room, and two pilots occupy a transparent compartment on top of this 200-mile-an-hour glider. Instead of one nose and cargo chamber, the XCG-16 has two, side by side.
THIS NAVY PATROL SHIP, THE PV-1, RAINS RUIN ON JAPANESE LAND AND SEA FORCES WITH BOMBS, DEPTH CHARGES, TORPEDOES
YOU can’t be absolutely sure of seeing a Ventura. It is painted blue on top and white underneath, so it’s hard to spot from either above or below it. From above, seen against the water, the blue top fades into an almost invisible shadow. If it is hard to find, once discovered, it’s harder yet to keep in sight.
SMUDGED, stained, or otherwise illegible labels may be dangerous. At best, they are time-wasting. You don’t want to stop to figure out whether a bottle contains sal soda or sal ammoniac. Harold Frediani, young chief chemist of Eimer & Amend, New York City, wanted something that would protect the labels on laboratory bottles from chemical action.
ONE WAY TO BEAT THE ENEMY IS TO DESTROY HIS WILL TO FIGHT. THAT'S THE TASK OF PSYCHOLOGICAL WARFARE— AND WE'RE DOING IT WELL.
A BULLET properly directed at an enemy soldier’s body will, as everybody knows, put him out of action. Less well known is the fact that, under certain conditions, he also can be taken out of the fight by propaganda “bullets” aimed at his mind and scientifically devised to destroy his will to fight.
Popular Science brings you the inside story of the Luftwaffe's last desperate gamble to wrest air supremacy from the Allies.
TWO Eighth Air Force Mustang pilots cruising over Germany on July 28, 1944, must have thought they were nearing Mars. What appeared to be a Buck Rogers version of the flying wing zipped past them like an express train through a whistle stop. It was a rocket-propelled ME-163, pioneer of the German jet threat.
Invented centuries before the airplane, the 'chute was still just a stuntman's toy at the end of the First World War. Now it saves countless flyers' lives, ferries weapons and supplies, and spills airborne troops from the sky to strike behind the enemy's lines.
TYPES OF PARACHUTES
THE 'CHUTE HAS MANY JOBS
What’s New in Modern Living
JAMES L. H. PECK
THE airborne forces that parachuted to earth beyond the watchers on the Rhine this spring mushroomed out of an idea that is older than Uncle Sam. The parachute was invented before the airplane, but, until after World War I, parachuting was mainly a showman’s stunt, on a par with sword swallowing.
JUST after Joe Clark had opened the Model Garage office one morning, Doc Marvin telephoned him that his partner Gus Wilson had the flu. “What!” Joe yelped. “Gus sick? You’re kidding me, Doc! Gus has never been sick a day in his life .... When will he be in— tomorrow ?”
Better than you may think. Army mileages suggest tires may outlast the postwar car.
THE MODERN CAR HAS A GREATER VOLUME OF RUBBER IN ITS BODY THAN IT HAS IN ITS TIRES!
AMERICAN motorists, many of whom have been running on synthetic rubber for some time now, are going to get synthetics not only on their first postwar cars but probably on most of their cars for a long time to come. This, in case there is any question about it, is good news.
Autographs Burned into Wood Decorate This Cigarette Box
Carton Turned into Useful String Holder
Spare the Brush— But Save the Bowl!
1 DAMAGED WHEELS often result when trucks or trailer tractors have been run with loose wheel-mounting lugs. To repair this defect without providing new wheels, remove any similar wheel in good condition, fit it over the damaged one as a guide, and drill new holes in the spaces between the enlarged openings.
ONE of the oldest sports in the world, archery is still going strong both for hunting and target shooting. Many hunters prefer the bow and arrow, and some states, especially during the war shortage of ammunition for sports, set aside hunting areas for archers only.
WOOD is one of mankind’s oldest structural materials. We all know that it has its faults—that, for instance, it is weak across the grain and subject to attack by fire, by termites, and by rot fungus—but it is comparatively cheap, readily available, and easy to use.
HAVE you ever pitched a shoe at a yowling cat with only the light of the moon to aim by? Unless you’re big-league material, the chances are that you missed Old Tom by a mile. Here’s a tricky game that shows how tough it is to knock puss off a fence and, incidentally, helps sharpen your aim for future contests with back-fence feline tenors.
RICH decorations suggesting the hand of a master craftsman are possible with the ancient art of inlaying and marquetry; yet anyone who has fair skill with tools can undertake this work with confidence. Some uninvolved designs, especially many suitable for inlays, may well be cut with a hand scroll saw; but for more intricate patterns, such as those on the chessboard shown above, a power jigsaw is essential.
WHEN 14-year-old Sally O’Neill sets to work to clean house, that is, her doll house, it takes a good five or six hours to dust all the tiny fittings thoroughly. The house is 4' by 8' and has three stories, 11 rooms, a roof garden, a garage, and a recreation room.
Shutoff Nozzle on Water Pipe Is Garden Drinking Fountain
WHEN your head begins to spin, you may just as well quit trying—but you won’t. Rolling the ball on the tortuous path to its goal requires a keen eye and a steady hand. The game is made of 14-ply show-card board. Cut the individual parts with a sharp knife and a metal-edged ruler.
FIRST you take the whatchamacallit and cut a 6" thingamajig across the whosis—why, what’s the matter? Don’t you understand simple English? Well, as a matter of fact, shop-talk sometimes does sound like double-talk because you can’t find just the word you want.
B-24 . . . Our Air Force's Giant Four-Motor Bomber in Miniature
CARRYING a heavier bomb load farther and faster than any other American bomber of the same size, the Liberator has been of yeoman’s service to our armed forces. Winging its way across flak-filled skies, it has carried out countless missions against the enemy.
AN ADJUSTABLE DOG comes in handy if you use faceplates of several different sizes. The one shown in the photos above may be put together from a piece of ⅜" steel plate, a short length of steel rod, and a hollow-head screw. Draw the layout of the dog on the plate and drill a row of overlapping holes in the tailpiece, as at the left above.
MOST lathe operators, whether they are in commercial or basement shops, take particular care to see that the power feed is disengaged in time to keep it from driving the carriage into the head-stock. That one time in a million, however, when attention is diverted for too long or at the wrong moment may mean a costly breakdown of irreplaceable equipment.
Micrometer Standard Saves Time in Locating Work on Lathe
Wire Bushing Holds Small Drills Securely in Large Chucks
MAGIC YOU CAN MAKE
BY CARVING dies from pressed composition paneling or similar material, the home craftsman can emboss sheet-metal plaques and jewelry, fittings for model ships, name plates, and countless other decorative items. You need only a few ordinary tools, and the procedure can be mastered in a few minutes.
EVER wondered how they “explode” a picture? As you’ve probably read, exploded or “pull-apart” photographs have done valiant duty in war plants. They’ve taught intricate assembly jobs to housewives who once thought that a blueprint was a wash dress, or a lock washer a man who scrubbed keyholes.
FOR those who like to take their ease along with their nature photographs, a long-range camera gun built by J. W. Jackson, of Brush, Colo., should have special appeal. All Jackson has to do is to drive in his car to where wildlife frisks, scurries, or creeps, and without getting out of his seat, as shown in one of the photos on the following page, he can aim, fire away, and drive back home to his darkroom.
CLEVER DODGES BRING WIND AND WEATHER, BATTLE FLEETS, GHOSTS AND OTHER WEIRD EFFECTS TO YOUR LIVING ROOM
SPECIAL TECHNIQUES FOR ANIMATING TELEVISED NEWS MAPS
A REGULAR movie-goer can call to mind many clever photographic stunts Hollywood has used. Camera viewpoints zoom in for close-ups over the heads of a crowd. Titles animate and write themselves. One picture “wipes off” another like a growing soap bubble.
SMALL UNIVERSAL MOTOR AND HOMEMADE CONTROL CONVERT AN OLD TREADLE MODEL INTO A PORTABLE TABLE UNIT
HAROLD P. STRAND
Dry-Cell Lantern Provides Two Separate Beams
Spring Clothespin Acts as Automatic Switch for Low Voltages
Rustic-Type Woven Trays Are Good Circular-Saw Project
Ax in End of Log Keeps It Steady Under Saw
HOW MUCH OF THIS LABORATORY EQUIPMENT CAN YOU IDENTIFY?
HOME EXPERIMENTS DEMONSTRATE MECHANICS OF FLUIDS
Harold P. Strand
ELIAS HOWE’S brainchild never had a bigger job to do than it has today. Clothing shortages, together with the duty of contributing garments for war victims, have put sewing high on the homemaker’s list of necessary chores. And the sewing machine is so important to the maintenance of the family wardrobe that its care is well worth a few hours of the home mechanic’s time.
Titration, One of Chemistry's Most Important Techniques, Enables You to Analyze Acids and Bases Quantitatively
Table of Weights of Acids and Bases in Standard Solutions
KENNETH M. SWEZEY
NEUTRALIZATION IS one of the most important and frequently used operations of chemical testing and manufacturing. By mastering the technique, you can determine how much acid or how much base a solution of unknown strength contains. Acids and bases are, of course, those two classes of substances that react to form salts.