MOVING TROOPS across the oceans by the millions is one of the biggest jobs of global war. How is it done? Alden P. Armagnac will tell you about the ships that carry our armies abroad in the greatest mass movements of human beings ever made. You’ll be amazed at the complicated transport system that puts America’s fighting manpower on the fronts where it is needed.
Two Readers with But a Single Thought—and a Good One
Revolving-Door Generator Seems to Have Drawbacks
Maybe This Is the Last Word in the Monkey-Wrench Controversy
Molecules Bump Their Little Gums and Light Up the Place
I NOTE that the V-tail idea was used in one of the entries for your very interesting contest “The Plane You’d Like to Own.” Of course it had been in the works here for some time before your contest results appeared, but the soundness, of your contestant’s idea gains striking proof from the enclosed picture of the modified Beechcraft AT-10 trainer in flight.
"WELL, I guess I’m the fellow to see, for I’ve repaired thousands of refrigerators (home and commercial both), vacuum cleaners, radios, washing machines, irons, fans, lamps, mangles, motors, etc. In fact, many of my customers call me their “electrical appliance doctor.”
We're finding out through an amazing invention that plunges miles deep to photograph the ocean's floor.
NEARLY two thirds of the earth’s surface is still unexplored, because it is hidden beneath a mile or more of water. By delving deeper into the oceans, we can learn as much about the birth and evolution of the world as by peering farther into the heavens.
COMMON actions, such as lighting a cigarette or tying a shoelace, involve a surprising amount of complicated hand movement. Photographer David McLane proves it by attaching lights, as at right, to the wrists of a subject, who performs the action before a camera in a darkened room.
THE P-51 mechanic, curiosity and perhaps a trace of contempt written on his features, squatted under the wing of the jet-propelled plane and ran an eye over the flame tube. Other mechanics were installing an engine in the jet job. S/Sgt. Earl Kohler, in charge of the project, glanced up.
SHRINKAGE CONTROL of wool yarn is effected by a melamine resin trade-named Lanaset. The picture at left shows samples of processed and unprocessed yarn after severe test washing. Strands of the untreated yarn are practically fused together.
DESIGN FOR HEELS has recently been originated for use by the Gotham Hosiery Co. to make stockings fit better at this strategic point. Difference lies in the new heel’s being knit at right angles to the leg, thereby preventing the wrinkles that may occur with the ordinary round heels.
PLASTIC EYES, made in the U. S. A., are now taking the place of the glass artificial eyes formerly imported from Germany. They are made of acrylic resin and, besides more closely resembling human eyes than do the glass substitutes, are practically unbreakable.
RUBBERIZING SHAFTS that drive warships of various types now guards them against pitting by electrolysis. Synthetic rubber can be applied by flame-spraying, as shown in the photograph above. Otherwise, a thin sheet of buna-S or GR-S is wound around the part normally exposed to salt water, wrapped with tape to hold the rubber against the metal, and vulcanized by a 24-hour steam bath.
EGGS KEEP LONGER and look better when treated by a process called thermostabilization, devised at the University of Missouri. The eggs are immersed in liquids, with air circulating around them, and warmed to a relatively low temperature so that heat can penetrate the eggs before any part is coagulated.
Will the Air Age be kept hovering while it waits for a place to land? We haven't nearly enough airports for our postwar plane traffic.
WILL YOUR TOWN BE ON THE AIR MAP?
LANDING FACILITIES FOR PRIVATE FLYING MAY RANGE
A PROGRAM FOR POSTWAR EXPANSION OF LANDING FIELDS
FROM SINGLE FLIGHT STRIP TO FULLY EQUIPPED AIRPARK
PLANNED AIRPORT CONSTRUCTION: HOW A CITY OF 5,000
PLANS TO KEEP ABREAST OF ITS GROWING AIR NEEDS
INGENIOUS ACCESSORIES WILL
SPEED THE DISPATCH OF PLANE PASSENGERS AND CARGO
THREE times in 150 years of United States history, transportation has been revolutionized. First came the development of canals and other inland waterways; then, the construction of our great railway network; finally, the building of an incomparable highway system.
ORANGE flames flash and smoke puffs along the decks as American landing craft approach hostile shores. But these jets of fire in the dawn’s dim light cheer the men about to land, for they mark the departure of a salvo of rockets to clear the coast of Japs.
BUILDING a home out of paper in 59 minutes may be the answer to housing problems created by fire, flood, or other disasters. Two workmen recently did the trick with materials that had been developed for a four-season test by the Institute of Paper Chemistry, Appleton, Wis.
EVER wonder what it's like inside the big belly of the Boeing B-29 Superfortress? All right, come along. We’ll go through one from nose to tail. Up in the tip of the long nose, where the bombardier sits between the feet of the pilot and copilot, you have the feeling that you are riding on the tip of a spear hurled, through space.
LAYERS of thick cloud no longer shield enemy industrial centers and other objectives from the devastating attacks of Allied bombers. While it has been known for some time that our planes could strike invisible targets, details of the amazing invention that makes it possible have just been made public in this drawing by G. H. Davis for The Illustrated London News.
Their purpose is not to permit stratosphere flying, but to let the plane seek its best operating level.
IF ANYONE should ask you why the big transport planes being planned for post-war global air routes are to have pressurized cabins, you would probably say that it is because they will fly in the stratosphere at altitudes from 40,000 to 50,000 feet.
RUST PROTECTION for buried iron pipe is a new job found for magnesium by The Dow Chemical Co., Midland, Mich. Corrosion of iron underground is caused largely by galvanic currents set up by the interaction of impurities in the iron and chemicals in the soil.
ARMADILLO is the name given by the British to this armored vehicle that they adapted from a delivery truck for use in protecting airfields in the event of enemy landings during the Dunkirk period. The tanklike defense wagon, was made by workers in the shops of the London Midland and Scottish Railway.
FOR many years, chemistry students have taken the word of their instructors that the “benzene ring”—a hexagonal structure of six carbon atoms—forms the nucleus of a great class of organic compounds. Now, for the first time, they may see the real thing.
SHOULDER HARNESS developed by the Air Technical Service Command holds a fighter pilot against his seat in a crash landing or upside-down flying. It is locked or released by a hand lever as shown. (Courtesy Air Surgeon’s Bulletin.)
ANTI-"G" SUIT. Fighter pilots are not so likely to black out when they wear this suit with built-in air pockets (P.S.M., Jan. '45, p. 85). Air pressure from the plane’s vacuum pump automatically inflates the pockets when centrifugal force raises the flyer’s weight to 2½ times the normal pull of gravity.
FIGHTER TACTICS against a level-flying bomber are taught to student pilots with this device developed under the supervision of the AAF Training Aids Division. A tiny model moving along a straight metal strip represents the bomber; nine other models, on curved strips, show possible fighter approaches.
WORLD'S BIGGEST BOMBER, the AAF’s experimental XB-19A, has been given new power with the installation of four new 2,600-hp. Allison liquid-cooled engines, with turbo-superchargers and reversible-pitch propellers. With a wing span of 212 feet, 1½ times that of the Superfortress, the big Douglas-built plane was designed to carry 18 tons of bombs or 124 fully armed men.
JET-PROPELLED HELICOPTER. Invented by Antoine Gazda, father of the Oerlikon 20-mm. AA cannon, this craft is designed to use a jet tube on the tail to overcome torque and to push the “Helicospeeder” along.
GLIDER BOMB. Here is a specimen of another German “secret weapon’’—the radio-controlled glider bomb. Nazi planes would carry these aloft and launch them against their targets, usually ships. Once on its way, the bomb would be guided by radio from the releasing plane.
THE HOLY GHOST SHELL, otherwise known as the sand dollar or beach dollar, is being collected by soldiers along the Carolina coast. They have learned that it symbolizes the birth, crucifixion, and resurrection of Christ. In the photograph above (right), an outline of the Easter lily is shown (A) on the top side of the shell.
CHARTING INVASION WATERS is the big wartime job done by the Coast and Geodetic Survey in collaboration with the Navy. Shown below is the E. Lester Jones, one of the fleet of five vessels that survey the entire Alaskan and Aleutian coastline.
TORQUE GAUGE of screwdriver type measures the relatively slight holding power of small screws and nuts both with and without lock washers. It was developed by A. C. Millard, of the Bell Telephone Laboratories, New York City. A calibrated spring connects with the cone that clamps the screwdriver or wrench socket.
TRANSPARENT CENTER PUNCH has a bell cap of Plexiglas to enable the operator to position the point visually while centering holes in template work for aircraft construction. Once in place, the punch is actuated by extending a spring with a knob and letting go.
STEEL DISINTEGRATOR, made by Don Thomas, of the Clinton Machine Co., Clinton, Mich., is used for electrically removing taps, reamers, and broken-off high-speed drills that have become embedded in expensive, machined pieces. A hollow copper electrode (right) is brought into intermittent contact with metal to be disintegrated by a vibrating head.
FINELY proportioned miniature ships are eased in and out of a scale-model dry dock at the New York Navy Yard to train naval officers in the procedure followed with real war craft. If reproduced full size on the water front, the dry dock would extend 250 feet for every normal footstep alongside the model.
We asked the private flyers of tomorrow to write their own ticket. The analysis of 3,345 contest entries shows what they are looking for.
FIRST-PRIZE WINNER IN PROFESSIONAL CLASS INCLUDED
MANY FEATURES THAT INDICATE FUTURE POPULAR TRENDS
49% WANTED PUSHER PROPS
8% WANTED A MID-WING MONOPLANE
46% WANTED A LOW-WING MONOPLANE
14% WANTED FOLDING WINGS
18% WANTED A HIGH-WING MONOPLANE
29% WANTED TWIN ENGINES
COMFORT WHILE FLYING WAS A PRIME CONSIDERATION
MANY INTERESTING NEW ACCESSORIES WERE SUGGESTED
10% WANTED ROADABILITY
15% WANTED A HELICOPTER
16% WANTED AN AMPHIBIAN
ENTRIES INCLUDED MANY NOVEL CONSTRUCTION IDEAS
A DRAFTSMAN in the evergreen section of the Pacific Northwest wrote POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY last fall that of all the things he would like to see incorporated in his postwar private airplane, a foot throttle was on the high-priority list. He wanted other items of comfort, too, did Tom Phelan of Seattle—a cigarette lighter on the instrument panel, and arm rests built into seats for his passengers.
NEW BRAKE CLUTCHES ROAD when lowered in front of rear wheels, which roll upon it to a standstill and drag the apronlike pad on the pavement. Designed as an emergency brake, this invention by Arch Robert Jackson, Shavertown, Pa., supplements the regular brake equipment standard on motor cars.
FLUORESCENT HOME LIGHTING may be made available through a small spherical lamp devised by Jefferson E. Gates, Jacksonville, Fla. Unlike the system used in commercial and public establishments, it involves no unusual expense of installation, since the new lamp is provided with a specially designed adapter for attaching to conventional light sockets and for housing the necessary ballast and starter units.
HERE ARE THE “MAKINGS" and a machine to fashion them into well-tailored cigarettes, all contained in one pocket-sized unit. The outfit was originated by Maurice Alland, of Los Angeles, Calif. It consists of a tobacco can containing a humidifier in the bottom, while on the inside of the lid is secured a clever device for rolling cigarettes with almost professional dexterity and neatness.
PINCER COAT HANGER holds clothing safely, and may be made entirely of wood, plastic, or other composition. Constructed in two interlocking parts, so designed that their leverage establishes a firm grip on the supporting hook or rod, the hanger is easily disassembled for packing.
BABY GOES SKIING when there is snow on the ground if mother has a set of these sleigh-runner attachments for the carriage. The wheels fit into curved casings mounted on the runners, and are clamped by an easy operation. Adjustment means are provided for wheels varying in size, tread, and wheelbase.
PRODUCTION LINE for pancakes and fried eggs that will turn out from 15,000 to 20,000 an hour for Army and Navy men is an idea suggested to American inventors by Lieut. Comdr. C. M. McCay, of the Naval Medical Research Institute at Bethesda. Md.
AN INFLATABLE CHAIR to provide comfort on beaches, lawns, shipboard, airplanes, or motor vehicles is a device originated by Kenneth Graeme Hann, Cyncoed, Wales. The chair form is made of suitable fabric or other material, inside of which is arranged a series of rubber tubes equipped with one or more valves for either lung or pump inflation.
The brilliant Monarch flies from the Gulf to Canada as it feeds on sprouting milkweed.
HERE is the life cycle of the familiar Monarch butterfly, told in a new and remarkable series of Kodachromes by Corydon M. Grafton, noted amateur photographer, of Norwalk, Conn. These are typical examples of the results he obtains by special techniques of his own devising.
PAINT “tears” are drops that hang from pieces that have been coated by dipping. A method for “de-tearing” such objects electrostatically has been devised by the Harper J. Ransburg Company’s electric-coating division, Indianapolis, Ind.
STUDY the accompanying clock face, and you’ll be able to tell time by ships’ bells and by the 24-hour military system. First, it explains the six watches of Navy time. The bell, ringing from one to eight times, sounds every half hour during each four-hour watch.
BULL’S-EYE TRAINING. A new Instructional Sighting Device makes it possible for the marksmanship pupil to aim at a target, then hand the rifle to his instructor and be checked for accuracy. A movable target is attached to the end of the rifle and adjusted to conform to what the pupil believes is the correct aim.
BLAZING a trail for future commercial navigation across the top of North America, the Canadian Northwest Mounted Police schooner St. Roch last summer completed the first round trip ever made through the Northwest Passage. Starting at Vancouver, B.C., in 1940, the specially constructed polar ship made the pioneer west-to-east passage to Hali-fax, N.S., in 28 months, spending two winters locked in the ice.
HOW fast a shell leaves a gun’s muzzle now is determined by superfast chronographs at the Aberdeen, Md., proving ground. Suitable for testing projectiles from weapons of any size, they help to perfect guns and ammunition, and to compute firing tables used by U. S. gun crews.
From spears to dive bombers, it has always been a prime necessity of war. How America is supplying the vast needs of today.
REFINEMENT BY FLOTATION, SMELTING, AND ELECTROLYSIS
PRODUCES AN ALMOST PURE COPPER FROM LOW-GRADE ORE
COPPER DOWN THROUGH THE AGES
COPPER AT WAR AND IN INDUSTRY
IF IT hadn’t been for a spring freshet in a Utah canyon, the Japs might still be holding a strategic Pacific island from which, instead, our bombers are now operating. That freshet leached copper sulphate from the stripping dumps of a copper mine, and from that sulphate was recovered copper vital to the dive bombers that cleared the way for our forces.
Take Your Pick at the WORLD'S BIGGEST BARGAIN COUNTER
SOME OF THE GOODS THE GOVERNMENT PLANS TO SELL
Phosphor Crystals Have Role in Postwar Electronics
Simple Paper-Perforating Knife
Novel Sandpaper Pencil Pointer
COULD you use a pair of paratroopers’ snowshoes? And don’t say “no” too quickly, because you may soon have a chance to buy them at a throw-away price from some store dealing in surplus war goods. At first glance, you’d say that their only value would be for sportsmen in the far north, or boys who want to go snowshoeing for fun.
The Nips are doomed when they meet us in the open. Their tanks and guns can't match ours.
Here's the Score:
JAPAN'S BEST TANKS ARE NO MATCH FOR OURS
ORIGINAL DESIGNS ARE FEW...AND INFERIOR
JAPS ARE COPYTATS... AND NOT GOOD AT THAT!
THEIR COPIES FALL FAR BELOW THE ORIGINALS
THEY EVEN COPIED A U.S. GUN OF CIVIL WAR VINTAGE
INFLEXIBILITY AND LACK OF STANDARDIZATION MAKE
JAP ORDNANCE CONFUSING...EVEN TO JAPS
GOLD V. SANDERS
WHEN MacArthur’s invading infantrymen broke away from the Lingayen beachheads into the valleys of central Luzon, they started a new and decisive phase of the land war in the Pacific. Now, at last, we had the Japs in the open where we could get at them with the weight and power of our superior armor and guns.
NO MATTER how busy a day he has ahead, Gus Wilson tries to start it slowly. He takes his time eating a he-man breakfast, and when he gets to his Model Garage shop he begins operations by doing some easy job before he tackles a hard one. “It’s common sense,” he says when we kid him.
TIRE THEFT is made extremely difficult if you make use of the simple procedure outlined in the photos and drawings above. In principle, the method consists of rounding one tire-retaining nut or bolt so that it cannot be turned by a lug wrench without a special key.
Does Your Engine Purr . . . or Does It Knock, Thump, Pound, and Chirp?
COMMON ENGINE NOISES
ANNOYING though it may be when your engine develops a click, rattle, thump, squeak, or pounding that you haven’t heard before, such noises serve two valuable purposes. They act as danger signals, and they also serve as clues by which you can determine where the trouble lies.
DANDELION TIRES are now being manufactured at the B. F. Goodrich plant in Akron, Ohio. The rubber from which they are made, shown in bales at the right top, is produced from kok-saghyz, a Russian variety of dandelion. Seeds of the plant were flown here from the U.S.S.R. in 1942, and from them was grown the kok-saghyz used by Goodrich.
DRAINAGE SCUPPERS that work satisfactorily in a wall can be improvised from ordinary building tiles of the kind shown in the photo at the right. The openings can be cut efficiently with a silicon-carbide abrasive saw. Leaving a baffle down the center between the outer and inner openings, as indicated, makes the tile scupper lightproof.
OUR Navy uses this 65' tugboat extensively in its home waters. With many of the details simplified, and reduced to a scale of ⅛” to 1', it makes an interesting, easily built model. The profile, plan, and sectional drawings that appear on the next two pages are full-size reproductions; you can trace the necessary templates and patterns directly from them.
PATTERNED after the well-known corner cupboard of Colonial days, this project has three shelves. The bottom one is slotted for holding belts; the two others will accommodate a few small trinkets. Use ¼" plywood for all the parts except the two side-pieces (Fig. 2) which are made of ⅛" stock.
BOATING ENTHUSIASTS Donald L. Miller and J. M. Enyedy, of Pine City, N. Y., built this 17' cabin cruiser from P.S.M. plans. Because of wartime scarcities—both of material and of time—the boat took four years to build. A Brennan four-cylinder marine engine gives a speed of 10 m.p.h. with four passengers aboard.
WHAT you do with your necktie when you stand in front of your mirror in the morning often means the difference between whether it stays put or needs adjustment whenever a blonde walks by. Raoul Graumont, of New York, author of the Encyclopedia of Knots, has made something of a study of knotting ties.
Discarded Decoys Attractive for Decorating a Country Home
Archery Sight Permits Snap Shooting at Different Ranges
JOHN L. STORY
TRUE examples of practical American art are the familiar well-shaped game-bird decoys, such as those made to represent the duck, gull, sandpiper, goose, or curlew. An old decoy can easily be adapted for use as a mantel decoration, cigarette box, or lamp, as shown at the left.
1. First hold the pack with the face up, when both words are reversed in the mirror. Then say that you can turn one word right side up at will—and turn the pack over as shown. 2. You can bet the dime on this. But use an old one and a worn brush or whisk broom.
Pipe Cleaner Tacked to Drawing Board Forms Draftsman's Pen Wiper
C. W. B.
M. A. J.
THIS handy angle enables one to determine quickly, and with accuracy, the proportions of photographs or drawings for enlargement or reduction. To make the instrument, cut the legs of a 90-deg. angle from thin plastic, wood, sheet aluminum, or brass.
THEOBALD the turtle would have you believe he is on his way. But he gets nowhere fast—no further than the top of your desk, where he holds paper clips, stamps, or other small articles. This is a jackknife job. Lay out the three parts—the shell, the body with the legs, and the head and neck—on any soft wood 1" thick.
Building a Pocket Telescope from an Exposure Meter
MANY people, especially sportsmen and theatergoers, have use for a small, efficient, but inexpensive pocket telescope. To make one, all you need is an old exposure meter of the extinction type, or a similar one having a tube, plus a pair of salvaged lenses and some paper and glue.
The P-63 . . . Bell's Superb New Fighter and Low-Level Strafer
THE Kingcobra is a larger, improved version of its famous older brother, the reliable P-39 Airacobra. Its greater speed, faster rate of climb, higher ceiling, and increased combat range are achieved by using a bigger engine—the P-39 has a 1,150-hp.
WHEN timesaving is an important factor, it will pay you to build adjustable machine attachments that will be useful year in and year out. They will end the necessity of hunting for suitable blocks and clamps—not always conveniently at hand—every time stops and the like are needed, and should be welcome not only in the shop operated for profit, but also in the home workshop where even a few minutes gained at the start add to an evening’s enjoyment.
Notched Jig Accurately Gauges Round Edge of Corner Shelves
W. B. WEBER
1. Atter scoring tne back of tne moretise, make full-width, full-depth chisel cuts across the grain from ¼" to ⅜" apart to break the waste into small chips and prevent splintering into the bottom. 2. Cutting should be started near the center and the ends trimmed last to avoid crushing beyond the gauge lines.
Smart Tin-Plate Accessories Set Off Candy or Flower Bowl
Paper Plates Secure Ink Bottle
Lapel Ornament from Fountain-Pen Cap
A. D. SLATER
TIN cans useless for salvage afford material for this attractive gift ensemble. Designed to hold short-stemmed flowers, it serves equally well as a candy or nut dish. On a sheet of tin plate paste a paper pattern of the bowl holder traced on ½" squares from the drawing above.
HERE are some puzzlers in checkers that may make the impetuous player get himself into a trap or, at best, a draw. They are favorites of Millard Hopper, the checker king, who furnishes some really tricky solutions that are given below. Before you read his answers alongside the boards, try to solve the games yourself—but look beyond what may appear at first to be obvious.
HIGH scoring and some exciting manipulation of the board are possible with this new game played with seven checkers borrowed from your regular set. The board itself is easily made. It consists simply of a frame of ½" by ¾" stock around a sheet of stiff cardboard.
Ball-Bearing Swivel Caster Makes Excellent Mount for Punching Bag
K. M. MARTIN
THAT young "commando” in your home will be the envy of the neighborhood when he goes out to play war with a toy walkie-talkie like that shown above. For all its G.I. look, the toy is built of scrap stock and a length of webbing or a belt. The rectangular case is a 2½" by 3" by 10" closed box, with rounded top and bottom pieces overhanging the sides ⅛" all around.
Tricky Keyless Latch Opens Only to Secret Combination
JOHN M. AVERY
AN INTRIGUING addition to a cabinet or desk is a door that can be opened only by those in on the secret. A certain combination of twists is required to throw the latch shown, tricky enough to puzzle the uninitiated. Turn the shaft and bushings from steel or brass, make the latch to suit the door, and drive the latch bushing into an undersize hole in the latch.
WATCH THE SURPRISE on your friends’ faces as you get the laugh on them with this napkin-tumbler trick. Ask one to extend his arms, grasp a covered tumbler in each hand, and lift them quickly over his head. One tumbler will fly up; the other will prove unexpectedly heavy—for that one you will have filled beforehand with lead shot, iron nuts, screws, or nails to add weight and catch your victim unawares!
EVER since the introduction of the modern tungsten-filament bulb, the amateur photographer has had at his command easily controlled illumination in quantities limited only by his pocketbook. Later, when the short-lived but brilliant photoflood lamp was marketed, he really got more light than he could properly handle.
TWIN OR REFLECTION? In this case it is a twin. The dog in the foreground posed for its photograph just when, as chance would have it, a dog in the yard next door posed in exactly the same manner. Annette Parguey, of Howard Beach, L. I., snapped the picture at just the right time.
SPECIAL EFFECTS for independent Hollywood producers are a specialty with Lee Zavitz, who achieves remarkable movie illusions with the ingenious use of commonplace materials. To obtain the effect of a sky filled with cumulus clouds, Zavitz directs a strong light through a pane of glass that has been daubed with shoe whiting.
ADJUSTABLE RACKS designed by employees of the Glenn L. Martin Company have almost halved the time required to load formed parts for insertion in an anodizing tank. One type of rack consists of a center post with a toothed frame at the bottom; work is stacked log-cabin-style about the post and held at the top by an adjustable pressure plate.
A GAS-FIRED furnace is almost a “must” when you want to heat-treat or carburize steel; melt aluminum, brass, and similar metals; or perform any other operation that requires temperatures up to 2,000 deg. F. Such a furnace, built primarily for salt-bath treatment of tool-steel parts at temperatures in the neighborhood of 1,500 deg., is shown in the accompanying photographs.
SWISS NEEDLE FILES are easily broken if kept with heavier tools. This case, small enough to fit into a machinist’s tool box, accommodates 28 files and unfolds as bench stand. Make the case of ⅛" mahogany to the dimensions shown, assembling it with glue only and rounding all edges and corners.
TURNING long, slender work is an irksome job at best and sometimes almost impossible with the ordinary lathe steady rest; but here is a combination steady rest and tool that permits reducing the diameter of drill rod for nearly its entire length.
Circuit for D.C. Shunt Motor Needs No Starting Rheostat
Holes in Pulley Reduce Slip
Plaque Conceals Light Switch
HAROLD P. STRAND
W. H. KISSEL
THE string-and-spool switch arrangement shown in the drawing and photographs was originally devised as a temporary measure to give convenient control of a motor that operated two power tools. It has, however, given good service for more than five years.
Wrapping Cord Woven into Baskets Around Ice-Cream Sticks
KARL J. BURG
J. LEORA BROWN
ONE or a pair of these hurricane lamps will make good-looking ornaments for a living room or dining room and will be found useful in warm weather for lighting a porch or terrace. A 1½" by 3½" by 3½" hardwood block is required. The circular recess for the chimney is easily cut with the piece mounted on the faceplate of the lathe.
TO MAKE a photographic dryer, Smith used a 600-watt replacement coil sold for use in toasters and stretched it over a series of hooks inside an asbestos-lined box. But he found the wire heated to redness, scorched the prints, and threatened to burn the box itself.
WARPED PHONOGRAPH RECORDS that slip against other records on an automatic changer can often be straightened simply by placing them between glass and leaving them in a warm place for a few hours. Use two scrap pieces of plate glass at least 12" square and lay a sheet of paper between each surface of the record and a glass to avoid damaging the grooves.
WITH strict wartime prohibitions against the use of radio transmitters by amateurs, and with sharp-eared Government monitors waiting to pounce on the source of any unauthorized transmission, many a radio experimenter has found carrier-current communication the best legal outlet for his energies.
TELEVISION PROJECTION of images of a size to suit the room or auditorium in which they are viewed is possible with a reflective optical system developed by RCA. The principle has long been used in astronomical telescopes, but RCA experts in optics, electronics, and mechanical engineering were required to adapt it to short-throw projection and also to cheapen the cost to make it practical for television sets.
EACH MOLECULE in magnetic material is itself a tiny magnet, according to the generally accepted theory. Ordinarily these molecules are arranged haphazardly, and the material has no definite polarity. When iron or steel is magnetized, however, the molecules are lined up in the same direction, and the ends exhibit both attraction and repulsion for another magnet.
. . . most useful precious metal, it is prized for coins, jewelry, plate, photography, and medicine.
KENNETH M. SWEZEY
OF THE precious metals, gold, silver, and platinum, silver is both the most common and the most useful. Beauty, malleability, sonorousness, and resistance to atmospheric oxygen have put it in demand for coins, jewelry, tableware, ornaments, and bells since the beginning of history.
KING TUT'S TOMB, so you tell your friends as you present the puzzle above, was protected against vandals by a trick device like this. The chances are that most of your friends who try to open the little puzzle will have many a moment of frustration before they learn the secret.
Wire and Planks Serve as Unloader of Gravel or Coal in Truck
THE farmer or other country dweller whose land sometimes produces a profusion of fruit or vegetables frequently finds that a roadside stand is a simple and profitable venture. Most stands, however, must be permanently placed, remaining out in full view in seasons when they are of no use.
Rotating Lights Scare Ducks Away from Newly Planted Fields
E. M. BERNARD
WIDGEONS were a tough problem for farmer Joe McMillan of La Conner, Wash., and none of the classic methods of widgeon assault—beating dishpans, waving red flares, shooting off firecrackers, and even potting a few with shotguns—seemed effective to him.
Miter-Gauge Rod Serves as Auxiliary Fence on Circular Saw
COLORFUL figured or plain satiny oilcloth can be made up in your own home into durable, washable window shades. Patterns are available to carry out the decorative scheme of a kitchen or bathroom, while for other rooms there are handsome felt-backed oilcloths in white or cream with stain-finished brocade designs.
Base Added to Station-Wagon Seat for Use in a Recreation Room
IF YOU are planning to hold a large party in your basement recreation room, you probably will need extra seating facilities. You can use the leather seats from a station wagon for the purpose simply by adding temporary wooden bases to them. Make each base, as shown in the accompanying drawing, from four boards and four 2" by 4" corner posts.
MODEL OIL DERRICK, 10½ feet tall, including base, duplicates all the important operations of the full-size rigs. Built by engineers for the Baash-Ross Tool Co., Los Angeles, Calif., it displays the operation of various tools far underground by showing them turning inside transparent plastic tubing.
MODEL PREVIEWS of complete factory layouts have become standard with planning engineers of the Westinghouse Co. and others. Since every piece of model equipment is accurately scaled, engineers can tell the space each machine will occupy.