TANKERS carry the lifeblood of the United Nations’ bombing offensive—the high-octane gasoline that sends the Lancasters and Fortresses on their devastating raids. Where are we getting these floating fuel tanks? A story and pictures take you through the whole process of building a tanker, from the drawing of the plans to the launching of the ship.
Cover-to-Cover Reading Helped Him Win a Scholarship
Suggestions Would Be Gratefully Received
Sorry That We Couldn't Publish It Sooner
P.S.M. Wives—They'll Do It Every Time
Query on How to Bottle-Feed a City Gas Stove
E. S. C.
J. L. S.
F. W. R.
Mrs. C. U.
J. D. W.
M. A. C.
J. H. N.
I HAVE often admired the drawings and paintings in your magazine. I am sending you a painting of my own, showing an American tank in action. I am 15 years old and I like to paint very much. I would be very happy if you could use my painting in P. S. M.
Every alarm isn't a U-boat, but the lads who man these new watchdogs of the convoys aren't taking any chances.
Water-Resistant Tape Seals War Shipments
BOB DENNISTON took his clothes off only to bathe, and once when he got himself well lathered up for a shower, the bellclanging call to battle stations sent him racing to the flying bridge clad largely in soapsuds. I have seen him at 3 a.m.—his necktie neatly tied, of course—running around with one foot bare, because in the dark he had jumped into his roommate’s outsize clodhoppers and lost one in the mad scramble up the ladders.
How the world's biggest aerial gun is mounted in the North American Mitchell B-25 medium bomber (P.S.M., Feb. '44, p. 105) is shown in this drawing by G. H. Davis from the Illustrated London News. Mounted beside the pilot, with its muzzle protruding from the lower left of the new metal nose section, the 75-millimeter cannon is loaded by a special crew member.
Even a veteran combat pilot gets a thrill out of flying a mission in the Air Forces' magic carpet, the Celestial Navigation Trainer.
A LOOK INSIDE THE NAVIGATION AND BOMBING TRAINER
ROBERT L. SCOTT
THE other day, I took off in a fourengine ship, maneuvered to altitude. Crossing the Atlantic Ocean, Africa, the Arabian Sea, India, Burma, and China, I bombed Japan. After I saw my bombs blast Tokyo, I could have flown on over Kamchatka, along the Aleutians to Alaska, then home to Florida.
THE enemy threat to the Salerno beachhead had been broken. The Fifth Army was beginning to push the Germans slowly back into the mountains. German troops literally had been blasted from Battipaglia by a concentrated bombardment from the air, from the warships offshore, and from land artillery batteries.
Newly designed airscrews undergo grueling tests at Wright Field, where delicate instruments show how they will withstand strains encountered in actual flying.
INGENIOUS DEVICES FERRET OUT VIBRATIONS IN THE BLADE AND ITS MOUNTING
HOW WHIRLING BLADES ARE GIVEN THE RAIN TEST
GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OF THE PROPELLER TEST RIGS
MOTOR NO. 1 CAN TAKE THE BIG PROPS OF THE FUTURE
ALDEN P. ARMAGNC
HOW will a propeller blade of new design behave when it whirls at full speed through the air? Tiny oblong strips of carbon, attached along its length, help answer the important military question in the great propeller-testing laboratory of the Army Air Forces at Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio.
LONGEST RANGE and heaviest bomb load of any naval plane in combat service mark the U. S. Navy’s Boeing Sea Ranger. The mammoth flying boat owes its phenomenally long range to its wing construction, which employs sheet-metal fabrication to incorporate six giant integral fuel tanks.
A $1,000,000,000 armada of thousands of landing craft, ranging from rubber boats to transocean tank carriers, forms the flotillas of victory.
THESE ARE SOME OF THE LANDING CRAFT
NOW BEING USED BY AMERICAN FORCES
THE WRONG WAY TO BEACH A LANDING BOAT
THIS IS HOW IT SHOULD HAVE BEEN DONE
SECRETS OF THE CORVETTE, A HEROINE OF THE BATTLE OF THE ATLANTIC
THE building for our Navy in less than two years of a billion-dollar armada of over 25,000 landing craft of unprecedented design, ranging from 16-foot rubber boats to 4,000-ton ocean-crossing tank carriers, ranks high among all-time naval construction achievements.
ARMOR that was worn by Italian nobles before Columbus discovered America, and the tools with which it was fashioned, are being used today in the design of aviators’ armor. In New York’s Metropolitan Museum of Art, which houses 10,000 items of arms and armor besides the world’s largest collection of armorers’ tools, Steven Grancsay, curator of this branch, heads a secret workshop where models for both head and body armor are made for the Army Ordnance Department.
Glenn L. Martin's flying freighter joins the Navy and proves her mettle on a first flight to Hawaii.
ALFRED H. SINKS
WE DIDN’T come out to Hawaii just for the ride. We wanted to get the feel of the peacetime airways that will circle the globe after the war is won. We wondered what kind of ships will take the long water hops on those future trips. That’s why we jumped at the chance when the Navy offered us permission to take this particular trip.
Flying the new jet plane is as simple as handling a primary trainer, say pilots who have done it
THIS IS THE PRINCIPLE OF HOT-AIR JET PROPULSION
DEVELOPER OF JET ENGINES . . . AND AN EARLY DESIGN
THE IIALIAK3 IKIED II, 100
Your Pin Up
C. B. COLBY
ANNOUNCEMENT of the Bell jetpropelled plane has set off a train of speculation as to what special training will be required by our pilots before they can handle this new type of aircraft in combat. Jet-propelled aircraft — sometimes erroneously called “rocket planes,” immediately suggest to the layman flametrailing, bulletlike aircraft piloted by supermen specially prepared for this nerve-racking work after months of conditioning and training on the ground.
SO TINY that it takes 111,111 to make a pound, miniature precision bearing balls play a vital part in our war machine. Set in flawless steel rings, some of which are hardly larger than a pinhead, they are pivotal parts of such instruments as the pilot’s gyro-horizon (artificial-horizon indicator) and autosyn motors (informers on ailerons and retractable landing gear ); they serve in the compass of a ship and in bombsights.
The B-17's can dish it out. That's their job. But Boeing's big babies con take it, tool Pitted against the best that Goering and Tojo can throw against them, they have proved repeatedly that fighting American boys and rugged American planes make a combination that is hard to beat!
are cut by this giant plow, a seven-ton monster with a share as tall as a man. The world’s largest plow, it was built by Post Brothers, of Santa Ana, Calif., to turn up rich soil that had been covered by two to three feet of sand deposited by a flood.
with-out disturbing near-by brick pavement when jerked by a wrecker developed by boilermakers of the R. G. LeTourneau, Inc., war plant for the Peoria, I11., Junior Chamber of Commerce scrap drive. The “Tournajerk,” operated by one man, has a 60-ton pull and, in removing 15 blocks of tracks, outdistanced a patching crew cementing the openings it left.
SELECTED first in experiments for a substitute when the supply of natural rubber was threatened, a resilient synthetic-resin compound is now being used by the RCA Manufacturing Co. in over 15 war-industry operations. And in nearly every case this new substitute has been found to outlast the original by far.
BACK of the amazing and versatile performance of the P-38 Lockheed Lightning is a long line of famous planes. Although the first Lockheed (built by Allan and Malcolm Loughead) appeared in 1912, the story really goes back only to 1927, when the first of the famous "star" series— the Vega—was born.
QUARTERMASTER combat forces at Camp Lee, Va., have a brand-new jitter killer. It’s a 275-foot, shallow trench of horrors through which trainees and officers must crawl at night. This twisting, slimy passage—suddenly alive with sounds and smells that rival the worst war can offer—accustoms men to unexpected happenings and prepares them for situations faced in actual battle.
A high-speed prime mover for our 155-mm. rifle is provided by the new M-4 tractor, which not only drags the big gun many times faster than the tractor formerly employed but also carries the gun crew and some ammunition. The six-bogie-suspension chassis is the same as that used on the M-4 medium tank and M-7 and M-10 tank destroyers. The tractor mounts a .50 AA machine gun.
a vegetable enjoyed for centuries in India and China, has been introduced to America by the W. Atlee Burpee Co., of Philadelphia. The plant, which is shown below, grows to about two feet in height and produces tender leaves that can be cut throughout the summer.
that will not explode when struck by machine-gun bullets have removed one of the dangers facing high-altitude flyers. A second weld at the seams causes the compressed-gas containers to tear when punctured, as illustrated.
MEETING a scarcity of shellac, which is normally made from imported materials, a substitute has been developed from a waste product of cornstarch and is already being used on planes, ships, and tanks, and in hundreds of special war applications.
TRULY echoing the fighting spirit of our young Air Forces, the colorful Disney cartoon designs that identify squadrons and groups hide a grim message of hate under a deceptively frivolous appearance. The first identifying insigne for an aircraft squadron, a "Hat in the Ring" motif symbolizing Uncle Sam's joining the Allies—used by Eddie Rickenbacker's 94th Squadron in World War I—was more studiedly patriotic than today's flippant but effective markings.
ACCURATE day or night measurement of cloud ceilings, so important at airports where exact information is required by pilots, is made possible by triangulation with a new photoelectric development. A pulsating beam from a high-pressure mercury arc lamp is directed straight overhead, while a tuned pickup known as a “ceilometer” receives the reflection from the point where the beam encounters cloud formations or other ceiling densities.
ONE of the most important aerial advances of the war is strip photography —a big step forward from the laborious piecing together of a series of reconnaissance shots. The Sonne camera, designed to perform this feat, is much like other aerial cameras in appearance, but it operates without a shutter.
A JAPANESE manual on aircraft recognition, recently captured, lists the B-24 Consolidated Liberator as a “fourehgined fighter.” Considering the number of Zeros that these far-ranging bombers have knocked down in the last few months, this classification is not so far from the truth.
MAINTENANCE and installation of constant-speed propellers have been simplified by unit construction that is now being done with production-line methods. These propellers, used widely by the Army Air Forces, have a new-type hollow steel blade with a longitudinal rib and are designed to hold engine speeds constant and meet variations in load requirements by automatic changes in the angle of the blades.
A .50 CALIBER Browning machine-gun mock-up that shoots plastic bullets and trains a student in marksmanship while conditioning him to the distracting sounds of battle has been developed for ground and aerial gunners. As the student manipulates the gun in a 50-foot indoor range and tries to hit moving models of planes, tanks, and men, two loudspeakers directly behind him blast out the ear-splitting noises of combat that jangle a gunner’s nerves.
HIT-AND-RUN photo reconnaissance over Germany and the occupied countries is one of the newest uses for the famed Supermarine Spitfire. Stripped of its armament and other surplus weight, this fast RAF plane dashes in and comes back with pictures of Nazi defenses.
ALL the thrills of real baseball are packed into this game, which may be played by two or more contestants. Flipping a lever, one player pitches the ball toward home plate. An opposing player, by twirling the batter, who swings on a pivot, then tries to knock the ball out of the park.
Brand-new Army clothing is worn to tatters in a proving ground where muddy fields, barbed wire, and brambles show up the physical fitness of our combat dress.
OUR Army travels on its stomach—also on its sides, back, elbows, knees, and feet. When a U. S. doughboy goes after the enemy, he goes after him in any posture that suits his purpose. If crawling’s the thing, he crawls; if he must do “land backstrokes” to get under barbed-wire entanglements, he backstrokes; if it takes hiking to reach an objective, he hikes.
OBSTACLES ARE DESIGNED TO TEST EVERT PART OF A SOLDIER'S CLOTHING
THE CROTCH. To test this part of the trousers, soldiers scale a high wall by stepping on cleats purposely placed at wide intervals so as to strain the seam and fabric. Often two men going over the course together will wear trousers submitted by two different manufacturers.
Over a 2,000-foot track that has every type of terrain found in combat zones, including the beachheads of the Pacific (sand) and the lava-covered sections of Italy (slag), a pair of inferior shoes can be quickly tested to death. Other track parts test waterproofing and durability under severe flexing (corduroy)
THIRTY TIMES as fast as previously used power-drilling methods, Boeing’s new “porcupine” die punches 388 riveting holes into Flying Fortress catwalk parts in a single press stroke. Accuracy to 5/10,000 of an inch speeds assembly by insuring absolute alignment of matching parts.
FLOATING ON ELBOWS in the wings instead of on separate pontons, this Claude Dornier-designed seaplane does away with the defects of conventional floats. An integral part of the wing, the elbows do not increase air resistance. They have no struts to carry away under stress, and they prevent heavy and sometimes dangerous rocking.
New drugs and simplified techniques bring relief from suffering among both fighters and civilians as science meets the challenge of wartime needs.
AUTOMATIC HYPODERMIC MAKES INJECTIONS FOOLPROOF
PHYSICAL pain is a disrupting force that must be eliminated as far as possible among our fighting men. It is a complex phenomenon whose analysis has taxed the best brains in medicine. We all know that, from an unpleasant sensation, pain may become intolerable.
RECONNAISSANCE SHOTS YIELD TELLTALE CLUES TO TRAINED EYES. TRY YOUR OWN SKILL AT IT —AFTER READING THIS
Chemical Coating Gives Protection to Metals
ALDEN P. ARMAGNAC
TO a layman, many an aerial photograph of a bombing objective resembles an amateur cameraman’s first attempt—and an unfortunate one at that. Looking at the same reconnaissance picture, an Air Intelligence expert sees trenches, machine guns, houses, factories, railroads, and highways.
GLOWING SEATS and carpets to guide entering moviegoers to empty seats are the suggestion of James H. Owens, Camden, N. J. Sit down and you automatically black out your seat, giving fair warning that it is occupied. Source of the glow would be fluorescent dyes activated by invisible ultraviolet rays blanketing the theater.
Sown by millions to slow our advancing troops, they must be removed by experts who know all of their fiendish tricks.
THESE ARE THE TANK-KIILERS
THESE ARE THE MAN-KILLERS
NEW MINE REQUIRES NEW DETECTION METHOD
DETECTORS SPOT THE METAL MINE
SAPPERS MUST PROBE FOR THE NEW MINE
THE dragon’s teeth of this war are land mines, sometimes rated the most devilish defensive weapons man ever devised. The Axis has used them by the millions—in Africa, on the beaches of Sicily and Italy, in the Pacific island areas. Every land avenue to Hitler’s Inner Fortress is virtually paved with them.
GERMAN armament captured by the Allies reveals that the Nazis are now using a kickless 75-mm. gun that can be dropped by parachute and quickly brought into position in support of advancing infantry. In place of the heavy spring mechanisms or hydraulic cylinders usually employed to cushion recoil in guns of this size, this new weapon has a butt consisting of an open tube through which gases can escape to neutralize the backward push of the exploding powder charge.
OUR driving habits are in for a healthy change. The Army is shaping them to meet the urgent needs of a force on wheels that can be depended upon to get troops and equipment to the right place at the right time. Good driving is a must for soldiers, and the Army has called on our civilian front to produce more driver material.
THESE HARD-WORKING PARTS TAKE A BEATING EVERY TIME YOU STEP ON THE GAS
EVERY time you drive for one hour at 40 m.p.h. in an eight-cylinder car the 16 valves open and close 840,000 times. Your exhaust valves are exposed momentarily to temperatures as high as 3,800 deg. F. and operate normally at cherry-red heat.
GUS WILSON tore three coupons out of the A book handed to him by a worried-looking young fellow behind the wheel of an apparently well-kept sedan that had paused at the Model Garage gas pump. “Well, Al,” he said, “you report at your induction center pretty soon now, don’t you?
A TABLE GAME WITH THE THRILLS OF BIG LEAGUE BASEBALL
Carl W. Bertsch
"BATTER UP!” As “Home Run” Joe steps up to the plate, his head cocked toward the pitcher’s box, he takes a few tentative swings with his bat. “Strike Out” Kelly, facing him from the mound, winds up slowly. Then comes the call, “Play Ball!”
FINISHED with a limed-oak effect, this two-piece refreshment server combines convenience and usefulness with an appearance handsome enough to make it the envy of your guests. When not required as an extra table, the server is designed so that its folding legs can be stored compactly, and its tray placed over the top of the coffee table described on the following page, saving the latter from the effects of hard use.
NOVELTY and design of real merit are combined in this coffee table that, like the informal serving stand on the preceding page, is given the appearance of limed oak by applying a paste filler to which white pigment has been added. Although the table is intended to be used independently, its top is proportioned so that the tray of the serving stand will fit exactly upon it.
Breeze Gives Realistic Motion to Its Paddles and Walking Beam
Skate Wheel Forms Vane Mount
AS THE vessel turns with the wind, the paddle wheels of this steamer supply power enough to cause the walking beam to oscillate in even a moderate breeze. Painted as indicated, the little boat is an effective outdoor ornament. Except for paddle wheels and boxes, walking beam, masts, and capstan, the entire ship is silhouetted in ¾" pine cut from a 10" board.
MANY a model railroad is a small replica of its big brothers, with rolling stock carefully scaled and conscientiously built—only to travel a roadbed which is laid upon a terrain quite as monotonous and barren as a desert, and far less real.
DOVETAIL joints, well known for their strength, have long been used in fine cabinet work. Nowadays they are frequently displaced by other types of joints that are easier to make with power tools, but where a self-locking joint is needed for use without glue, the dovetail is unsurpassed.
Split Branches Lend Realism to Walls of These Novelties
Homemade Die Embosses Names and Monograms on Stationery
Dowels and Segmented Arches Are Combined in Sturdy Bird Cage
G. A. BURROWS
ROBERT L. EBY
A BREATH of outdoors is brought to the den or study by these rustic book ends. Cut two blocks to the shape shown or glue them up from four thicknesses and a gable piece as indicated by the dotted lines. Make the roofs of thin strips of wood with the grooves cut at a slant; but make the cuts straight into the wood for the gabled ends.
Two-Toned Frame of Cardboard Is Tailored to Suit Pictures
APRIL CHECK LIST
C. W. B.
SUITABLE for displaying full-page color pictures such as those that appear in POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY, this laminated frame is glued up of five layers of cardboard or matboard, as shown in the exploded drawing below. Note how the two layers next to the back are left open at the top to provide a slot for the insertion of the picture and its protecting glass.
CANVAS CAN BE PAINTED with a new chemical coating that is water-repellent and comes in 10 fast colors and black and white. The paint will not crack or stiffen fabrics, can be sprayed or brushed on, and can be employed to refresh fiber rugs, since it is very penetrating and imparts strength and pliancy to any fiber that absorbs it.
MADE of nicely grained ¼" mahogany or other wood, and inlaid with metal initials, this box for stationery can be assembled with precision if it is constructed as a unit and a bandsaw is used to cut apart the lid and the lower portion. In following this procedure, be sure to make grooves in the side panels for the partitions before assembling the box unit.
GLASS SINKS, heat-tempered for strength to resist heavy shocks, have been tested with good results since the first units were installed in 200 apartments of a housing development in Bridgeport, Conn. Modern in design like the one at the right, the new sinks come in black and pastel colors.
INTENDED primarily as a decorative piece, this wall rack in the Colonial manner reflects beauty and good taste. Its sturdy construction gives it utility as well, for it may also be used as a hanging bookshelf for small volumes. The warmth and attractiveness of its traditional Early American design are probably best displayed, however, if it is used to hold plates, small figures, and bric-a-brac.
Round Work Is Easily Centered for Machining a Stopped Slot
DOUBLING for a slotter or keyseater, the versatile modern power shaper can be used for cutting keyways accurately in round stock if a few precautions are observed to be sure that the work is properly held. It is particularly important that the shaft be so clamped that the center line of the keyway will become the vertical diameter, for otherwise the sides of the slot will be at an angle that will not fit the key.
HALFWAY between a telescope and a microscope, a scale-reading telescope is highly useful in many shop applications involving minute movements or exact distances. The one shown, made of brass scrap and three inexpensive lenses, has a working distance of 3" to 4", measured from the objective (front) lens.
Four Useful Faceplate Dogs Simplify Many Lathe Setups
C. W. WOODSON
ALTHOUGH largely supplanted by the four-jawed chuck, the faceplate dog is still a valuable accessory in certain faceplate setups where side pressure with accuracy of adjustment is desired. A set of four of these dogs can be easily turned out for use on a small lathe equipped with an 8" faceplate with ⅜" slots, as shown in Fig. 1.
Broken Lathe Center Salvaged with Part of Old End Mill
H. D. Chapman.
WHEN a lathe center has been broken, as at right, it can be restored to working condition with stock from a discarded end mill. Anneal the center and machine off the old point square with the shank, and in the shank bore a Morse taper to take the stem of the new point.
BLUEPRINT CORRECTIONS can be made in the most legible manner by using a bleaching agent, rather than ink, to write in an omitted dimension. One such agent is a water solution of sodium carbonate—washing soda. Applied with an ordinary pen, it bleaches away the blue color, leaving a highly visible yellowish line.
COMMON causes of uninteresting photographs, or failure to get a picture at all, are flat lighting and incorrect exposures resulting from attempts to get pictures with some other kind of lighting. In photographic parlance the term “flat lighting” means that most or all of the light illuminating the subject comes from a point approximately in line with and behind the camera.
THIS COMPACT ENLARGER, built for use in the cramped quarters of a house trailer, is made chiefly from a cigar box, a piece of opal glass, two lengths of plate glass, a cylindrical cardboard container, and an enlarging lens. A 60-watt, 110-volt enlarging bulb in the dome light recessed above the trailer sink forms the light source.
Sticking Pin-Tumbler Locks Are Easy to Repair If You Know What's Inside Them and Work Carefully
HAROLD P. STRAND
PIN-TUMBLER cylinder locks have long proved efficient safeguards on outside doors, and on inside ones too when special privacy has been important, and for just as long they have intrigued amateur locksmiths who, for the most part, have been too timid to take a look at what makes them work.
HOW TUBES GENERATE HIGH-FREQUENCY CURRENTS THAT SPAN SPACE, HEAT WITHOUT FLAME, AND SMASH ATOMS
JOHN W. CAMPBELL
ALMOST everyone knows how the electricity of dry cells and household power lines behaves. But the same electrons comprising these currents can, under different circumstances, move in baffling ways. They will be transmitted through insulators and will be insulated by metal wrappings.
FEW people realize how much of the static heard on a radio receiver may come from electric appliances in the home. Especially noisy are the older types of appliances, for much of the later equipment is provided with some sort of built-in filter.
SOUND PROJECTION has been so developed that, in tests of one new mobile unit, readings of 68 decibels have been recorded at 3,200'. Other tests have shown it to be efficient within a range of from one to 18 miles. This amplifier is mounted on a twowheeled trailer that can be attached to any kind of car, or pulled by hand, for use at any spot it is needed.
AIR CONDUCTS HEAT POORLY when enclosed in “dead space” so that the heat can’t be transmitted by convection. You can demonstrate this by fluffing a small ball of cotton lightly around the bulb of a thermometer, as at the right above, and holding it a certain distance from a lamp for a definite length of time.
Generously Supplied by Nature, This Vital Element and Its Compounds Play a Tremendous Role in Man's Everyday Life
IRON, in its pure, solid state, is rarely found in nature. Its occurrence in meteors indicates that—if the earth is not much different in chemical makeup from the rest of the universe—the center of the earth is composed largely of iron. It is from the earth’s crust, however, that we must obtain the metal, usually in oxide form.
How much do you know about chemistry? Try to select the correct answers to the questions below, and then turn the page upside down to see how many you got right. 1. Ionization. 4. Reversible. 7. Dry cell. 2. Heat of fusion. 5. Twice fold it double.
Farm-Built Tractor Plow Equipped with Right and Left Shares
PARTS from all sorts of machines went into the construction of this home-built garden cultivator that can be powered either by an electric motor or a small gasoline engine. Steered by hand like any standard push cultivator, the mechanized device will save much hard labor as it moves with a speed of about 1½ m.p.h. through ordinary soils.