GUN POWER will make history when the Allied grand fleets force a showdown with the elusive Japanese Navy. The big rifles that speak from the turrets of our men-of-war are the most powerful instruments of destruction ever used at sea. Arthur Grahame tells how they evolved from the simple brass tubes that were the first naval artillery, 500 years ago.
Hearty Approval of P.S.M.'s Two-Purpose Back Cover
A Good Steer—Straight from the Manufacturer
A Torpedoed Midshipman Gets Us Right Side Up
A Lost Poem Finds Its Author
Five Sons Keep Ma Hep to Jeeps
We Fielded This One Without an Error
We Didn't Mean to Be So Tough on Boules
For Old X-Ray Negatives —Alcohol in Moderation
ON PAGE 72 of your August issue, you give a vision-range formula that has been worked out by the Clipper captains of Pan American Airways. The formula is to multiply the square root of the plane’s altitude by 1.225, the result being the distance that a pilot can see.
Planes Back Up Ground Forces in OUR NEW THEORY OF AIR POWER
BATTLES ARE NOW FOUGHT IN THREE DIMENSIONS AS FLYERS LEND SUPPORT WITH BOMBS, GUNS, AND CAMERAS
THIS IS A TYPICAL SETUP FOR AN AIR-SUPPORT CONTROL POST
AIR SUPPORT PERFORMS MANY IMPORTANT JOBS FOR THE GR FORCES
JOHN H. WALKER
ALLIED victory in Africa and again in Sicily—first steppingstone to the invasion of Europe—was prepared and consummated under the protective web of air power, superbly co-ordinated with the attacks of the decisive ground forces and the maintenance of the essential sea lanes.
Planes based on tiny carriers spot and kill U-boats before they even see our convoys. One of these flat-tops, converted by U. S. shipyards from cargo vessels and called "Woolworth carriers" by the British, is pictured here by G. M. Davis, artist for the Illustrated London News.
ANCIENT ART OF THE POLYNESIANS IS REDISCOVERED TO AID SEAMEN AND FLYERS ADRIFT FAR FROM LAND
WATCH AND STAR CHART GIVE THE EXACT POSITION OF THE RAFT
WINDS AND CURRENTS DICTATE DIRECTION OF TRAVEL
SMALL CLOUDS AND SWELLS DISCLOSE THE NEARNESS OF LAND
BIRDS TELL PROXIMITY DIRECTION OF LAND
CONEY ISLAND AQUARIUM TO BE WORLD'S LARGEST
PARAFFIN PRODUCT FIREPROOFS, WATERPROOFS FABRICS
SUPPOSE you got tossed out on the ocean from a torpedoed ship or a plane that couldn’t make it home after a bombing raid. Do you think you could find your way to land? You stand a good chance of doing just that if you have with you on your raft a watch in a waterproof case (or, better still, in a transparent, waterproof rubber sack that can be kept closed) and two charts, one of the heavens and one a navigational base chart of the world, and both drawn to the same scale.
A distinguished war correspondent forecasts a colossal conflict in the Far East—with the Japs the losers.
Prehistoric Reptile Takes a Bow After 100,000,000 Years
Hellcat Has the Zero’s Number
DISTANT Siberia may become one of the great battlefields of this war. For years now, a defiant Russian army has glared southward across the Amur River into Manchukuo, where the treacherous Japanese maintain their powerful Kwantung Army.
America started the war under the threat of a transportation crisis . . . but then the railroads came through with a miracle.
TALK all you want about airplanes and electronics and motor transport —the part of this war effort which really rates a shout of amazement is the role played by the American railroads. The iron horse, which plowed the plains and spanned the mountains, was not what he used to be.
With the new demand oxygen mask, our flyers challenge the Axis enemy at any altitude.
ADVANTAGES OF DEMAND OXYGEN SYSTEM
"WALK-AROUND" GIVES FLYER FREEDOM OF PLANE
REGULATOR IS HEART OF DEMAND OXYGEN SYSTEM
CONSTANT TESTING SAFEGUARDS FLYERS
YEARS ago, our Army developed the first aerial oxygen equipment, along with its first high-altitude planes. This “free-flow” system worked well enough in the earlier days of military flying; the oxygen was fed from the regulator into the mask, and the pilot turned a handle to increase the flow as he gained altitude.
Our Medium Tanks Get a New Engine with Lots of Zip
OFF Ford assembly lines has come a tank engine that our fighting men hail as an Axis beater. It has what it takes to triumph in armored warfare—speed, dependability, and “zip.” What’s more, its compact construction makes it simple to service, and mass production is possible with a minimum change of available machinery.
PRECISION gauges of fused quartz, used to test parts for airplane engines, now release tons of the finest tool steel for other war needs. This new application stems from one of the many remarkable properties that General Electric research workers have found in melted and solidified rock crystal.
WHEN the order, “Prepare to ditch,” comes over the interphone system of one of our big bombers, 30 seconds may mean the difference between life and death for the crew. For that warning, sounded by the pilot, is notice that the big land plane is being forced down on the sea, and 30 seconds afloat without seaplane landing gear may be all that can be expected even under the most favorable conditions.
ALL-PLASTIC GOGGLES, set with shatterproof Plexiglas lenses that insure clear and undistorted vision, are now manufactured for war workers by the Watchemoket Optical Co., of Providence, R. I. Weighing less than two ounces, the full-framed goggles fit right over prescription glasses.
A MAN puts half his week’s pay into war bonds and stamps. After buying them, he has left just as many cents as he had dollars, and half as many dollars as there were cents in the envelope when he received it. What is his weekly pay? A BOMBARDIER is told to set fire to four enemy towns.
Great currents in the atmosphere produce the changes that make us call it a "nice day"—or swear!
AIR MASSES AND THEIR "FRONTS"
What Do You Know About Weather?
MOTION PICTURES TEACH PILOTS HOW TO AVOID THE DANGERS OF A "COLD FRONT"
WHEN Mark Twain said that everybody talks about the weather but nobody does anything about it, he did not envision the spectacular advances that lay ahead in meteorology. Nor did he foresee the day when the airplane would be as common as the horse and buggy; and when, to every pilot who took his plane into the air, the weather, instead of being a subject of casual conversation, would be a matter of life and death.
INFRARED DE-ICING RADIATORS are proposed by J. D. Altemus, of Roslyn, N. Y., as a new solution to one of aviation’s most insistent problems. Mounted on the nose and propeller hub, the radiators would focus their beams on the propeller blades and leading edges of the wings to keep them above icing temperature.
Fighting on a thousand fronts is 'Ghost Light' OUR NEW WEAPON IN THE DARK
"LIGHTING" DANGER SPOTS IN THE HOME
LUMINOUS MATERIALS HELP INDUSTRY TO "PLAY SAFE"
A LEADER of a night scouting party consults his map. As he is near the enemy lines, it would be suicide to strike a match or use a flashlight. No need. Printed in luminous ink, lines of the map shine dimly but clearly in the dark. The party moves on.
Nature gave you a marvelous pair of hearing instruments . . . Modern tests show how they are best protected and used.
SAY “Good morning” to the first 15 people you meet, and at least one of them probably will have to guess at what you said. Or, if all of them hear you clearly, you may be the one in 15 who has defective hearing. That, according to a recent estimate made by the New York League for the Hard of Hearing, is the average ratio of deafness, whole or partial, in the United States.
HOW 10 TONS OF BOMBS can be carried by a Flying Fortress is shown strikingly in this view of one of the big Boeing bombers on a practice flight near Mount Rainier in the State of Washington. Outside racks with forklike fingers hold the extra bombs on the bottom of the fuselage near the landing wheels.
AMERICA’S big bombers, which roared to fame as tough ships that could “lay eggs in a basket” from 20,000 feet and take terrific punishment, are even more famous now as killers of the sky. On one bombing mission, not long ago, a flight of them knocked out 74 Nazi fighters.
FARMERS who cut alfalfa, grass, and corn in the late afternoon instead of in the early morning may be storing in barns and silos hundreds of pounds more actual starch and sugars for their live-stock. This is the conclusion of Prof. O. F. Curtis, of the New York State College of Agriculture, Cornell University, who is supervising the study of the food contents of forage crops cut at different times of the day.
BIGGEST drainage job in North American mining history is uncovering iron-ore deposits under Canada’s Steeprock Lake, into which flows the Seine River. By raising the dam at the lake’s Inlet, making cuts between the higher Marmion and Finlayson lakes, and opening a drain tunnel into the bottom of the latter, the Seine has been directed into a new course. Pumps are now emptying Steeprock Lake.
HOW INDUCTION FURNACES ARE MAKING IT HOT FOR THE AXIS
THIS IS THE PRINCIPLE OF INDUCTION HEATING
HOW THE PRINCIPLE IS APPLIED
INDUCTION PUTS THE HEAT JUST WHERE IT IS NEEDED
WAR industry is “cooking” with electricity these days. At almost any plant where the application of heat enters into metal processing, you’ll find an induction furnace doing the job. Its magic coil is taking the place of fire to produce record-breaking quantities of fighting equipment.
What You Should Know About Propellers for Our Fighting Planes
The modem aircraft propeller is an amazingly ingenious mechanism designed to get maximum efficiency of engine and plane.
A PROPELLER BLADE IS A SPINNING WING. HERE'S WHAT HAPPENS WHEN IT REVOLVES
GIVING PROP MORE POWER
MATING PROP TO ENGINE
HOW PITCH OF PROPELLER BLADES IS VARIED IN FLIGHT
DUAL-ROTATION PROPS PERMIT MORE POWER FOR FIGHTERS
VARYING PITCH ON AN ELECTRIC DUAL-ROTATION PROP
JAMES L. H. PECK
AFTER a recent battle, American forces captured a German soldier who kept pointing upward and babbling about “big whirling swords.” Some time later, doctors discovered the cause of his hallucinations. Lightning and Warhawk fighters had run interference for the Yank advance by carrying out one of their blistering strafing attacks at tree-top altitude.
GASOLINE rationing has in many cases taxed the capacities of automobile electrical systems to the utmost. Modern generator regulators are ingeniously designed to maintain, so far as possible, a full battery charge under all circumstances of car use.
1 TIRE INSPECTION TOOLS can be made by inserting two 6" long screw hooks a short distance from the ends of two boards. If these are hooked over the beads of a casing and the ends of the boards are then pulled away from the tire, it is easy to look for breaks, other injuries, or nails.
HE PROVES THAT THE SAME SYMPTOMS DO NOT ALWAYS POINT TO THE SAME TROUBLE
IT WAS getting along toward supper time of a warm fall evening, and a half dozen of us Model Garage regulars were sitting around Gus Wilson’s shop watching him work, when his partner Joe Clark stuck his head in at the door that leads from the office and said: “Oh, Gus, I forgot to tell you—Alex Kerr called up a little while ago and said he wanted his car towed in.
OVERSIZE TIRES are now issued to Army motorcycle units for desert use. The tires, which are mounted on 15" rims, carry only a few pounds of air pressure for travel through sand. Armored Force officers say that they have jumped the motorcycle from the least maneuverable military vehicle in deep sand to the most maneuverable.
A TABLE, BENCH, AND STORAGE BOX IN ONE WILL MAKE AN IDEAL PIECE FOR YOUR COUNTRY OR SUBURBAN HOME
LIST OF MATERIALS
Improvised Wedge Made of Washer Locks Hammer Head Firmly
FOR THE BOYS IN THE SERVICE CIGARETTE CASE
Trousers Hanger Clamps Small Glued Parts in Model Making
HARRY S. ALLEN
THE box settle or table settle is an old furniture form. Tudor designs of this type reappeared in American furniture of the 17th and 18th centuries, and in simplified versions the settle still appears in country homes up to the present day.
ATTRACTIVE PHOTOGRAPH FRAME AND TWO WOOD BRACKETS AND RODS FOR CURTAINS AND DRAPES
Personal Scrapbook for Mementos from Your Own Hero
JOHN J. GALLIVAN
EASEL PICTURE FRAME. This interesting picture frame is made of ⅛" hard, pressed composition board, as shown in the drawing. Heavy cardboard glued up could be substituted for the pressed board. The picture opening is cut in the front mat only, while the ½" holes for the rings are drilled 1/16" deep in the front of the mat and in the back of the backing.
. . . ACTION MODELS DISPLAY INGENUITY OF HOME CRAFTSMEN
GUMMED STICKERS that take the place of metal paper fasteners in home or office are sold in convenient sheets bound in booklet form. Each booklet contains 500 gummed stickers. The sheets are perforated to tear apart easily and quickly. Being gummed on both sides, they can be used for attaching carbon copies to letters and for mounting photographs, clippings, and souvenirs in your scrapbook or on file cards, labels on bottles, and like purposes DRYING SMALL ARTICLES in the bathroom involves less trouble if the rack shown below is at hand.
CARE OF YOUR TOASTER is wise practice these days, for in most instances it will be impossible to replace it. Clean crumbs out of the inside frequently with a soft brush. If the toaster has a removable crumb tray, take it out often for cleaning.
Makes It Easy to Haul Out Your Boat for Winter Storage
THE incline of this easily-built marine railway is made of two planks set on edge. They must reach out to water deep enough to float the boat, and the rise should not be over 4" to 1' of length. Space the planks roughly two thirds the beam of the boat apart, fastening them with crosspieces let into their lower edges and secured with lag screws.
Extinguishers Must Be Ready for Instant Action . . . Here Is How and When to Service Them
Dainty Sprinklers Made from Oil Cans
NOVEMBER CHECK LIST
A FIRE extinguisher is a front-line weapon against fire. But, as with other weapons, its effectiveness depends on its ability to do the job for which it was designed, on its up-keep, and on the skill with which it is used. Only three types are ordinarily found in residences.
For Pocketknife Whittlers... ROCKING-HORSE BLOTTER Is Fun to Carve
Test Your Skill with This New Double-Deck Skip-Ball Game
MEET Hector Hobbyblot, a wooden (but not Trojan) horse whose happiest moments are spent riding hobby-horse fashion on unblotted ink or in standing stanchly atop a stamp box. A jack-knife job, Hector is well with-in the capabilities of inexperienced carvers.
MANY a small electric lamp looks attractive in the store, but when you sit down to read or work by one, you may find that it is better to look at than to see by. Often the lamp is too stubby and the shade too small for proper lighting. Instead of discarding the lamp or putting up with poor light, specialists at the General Electric lighting research laboratories advise, simply make an extension base and use a shade with better proportions.
EXPERT photographers desiring to produce highly artistic and dramatic photographs have long used the paper-negative process. This consists of making a positive print from a film and retouching it, and then making a negative paper print from the positive for further retouching, after which a finished photograph is finally secured by a print or enlargement made from the paper negative.
NIGHT AND DAY can be dramatically portrayed in the same picture by using a simple duplicator attachment. Build a box that can be secured to the front of your camera, fitting it with two vertical doors. Aim at a scene that will afford interesting day and night contrast and take, say, a daylight picture with one door closed.
AN INGENIOUS copying and close-up outfit, especially suitable for roll-film cameras which lack ground-glass focusing, may be built of wood scraps, a ground glass, and two lenses. The principle is simple. A vertically sliding camera holder contains a supplementary lens, while a cardboard dummy camera has a lens of the same focal length as the camera lens.
LETTER ALBUMS which combine space for six snapshots and two 4¾" by 8" writing surfaces are now on the market. Excellent for sending photos to service men, the folded letters protect pictures in transit, and may be used on receipt as pocket albums.
Special Jigs and Attachments ADAPT Your Bandsaw TO MANY USES
Stop Rod Prevents Creeping of Miter Cuts on Circular Saw
BRACES AND COMMON RAFTERS
EDWIN M. LOVE
HOMEMADE attachments and jigs will greatly extend the uses to which a small bandsaw can be put. They make possible accurate cutting of tenons, automatic sawing of irregular curves, thinning of stock for bending around forms, and other types of jobs.
Model Maker's Turning Tools Are Ground from Small Files
Discarded Razor Transformed into Keen Whittling Knife
DUSTED off and rehabilitated, many old-fashioned sewing machines are doing yeoman work to help the family budget. With a new dress to hide ugly Victorian lines, yours may be brought out into the open where it will be easier to get at when there is mending to be done or new clothes to be made.
LATCHES AND HINGES MADE FROM NICELY GRAINED STOCK FOR HOME-BUILT PROJECTS
BEAUTIFUL latches and hinges that blend so closely with the grain of your home-built cabinets and cupboards that they seem to grow out of the wood can be made from small bits of matching hardwood. Others that will have as interesting an effect and add to the distinction of a piece may be turned out by the craftsman from contrasting woods.
ONE of the oldest and most common methods of cutting gears is on the milling machine, which is still extensively used despite the fact that other machines designed specifically for gear cutting can do the job faster. Gear hobbers, shapers, and planers, for instance, can be set up for mass production of various types of gears, such as spur, helical, bevel, spiral, and herringbone gears.
BLUEPRINTS remain cleaner and last longer if they are kept off workbenches and left uncreased. One foreman lengthens the life of shop drawings by stapling two shipping tags behind the top edge of each as shown below. The blueprints can then be hung on two screw hooks over the workbench or machine where they are needed.
FITTED with a phonograph needle as a scriber, the gauge shown above will be found useful in making extremely accurate layouts on metal. Continued fineness of lines is assured since the needle can be changed when it becomes dull. The gauge is particularly suited to shops where aluminum sheet or steel plate is worked, but it will be a handy accessory also for many operations in home workshops.
SMALL ELECTRIC Resistance Furnace HAS MANY SHOP USES
Walter E. Burton
TEMPERING small tools, bluing metal parts, melting lead, and baking enameled pieces are just a few of the uses to which this efficient little furnace can be put in the small shop or laboratory. A resistance coil of the kind used in electric heaters and toasters forms the heating element.
Triode Oscillator Generates Wide Range of Frequencies
JOHN W. CAMPBELL
USEFUL though the diode is in its various applications, it was not until Lee De Forest in 1907 inserted that simple third element—the grid—between the cathode and plate that the vacuum tube came into its heritage. That controlling grid has made it the indispensable tool not only of electronics, but also of physics, chemistry, medicine, metallurgy, and astronomy.
NOISY VOLUME CONTROLS of either the wire-wound or carbon type often can be repaired simply by removing them from the chassis and cleaning them thoroughly. Soak a piece of clean linen in ordinary noninflammable cleaning fluid and rub the windings and contact arm of a wire-wound control until they are clean.
FM POLICE RADIO EQUIPMENT now incorporates “iron-core” or inductive tuning among other new features. The closely controlled movement of an iron core in and out of a small form-wound coil permits easier and more accurate tuning, and reduces the effects of car vibration on tuning adjustments.
Dissolved Oxygen Reduces Power Needs and Increases Life of Electron Tubes
THE recent solution of a long-standing electronic mystery promises new radio tubes which will have both longer operating lives and reduced power requirements. Similar improvements are foreseen for other electron tubes. It is the purpose of a vacuum-tube cathode, of course, to discharge a volley of electrons to the plate.
WHAT gives an airplane its lift? Near the beginning of the eighteenth century, a Swiss mathematician, Daniel Bernoulli, discovered a physical principle which accounts for the greater part of the answer. In the course of experimenting with fluids, both liquids and gases, he found that pressure decreases as velocity increases.
Simple Home Demonstrations To Mystify Your Friends
KENNETH M. SWEZEY
ALTHOUGH it may be a far cry from the ancient alchemist’s den to the modern laboratory, chemistry is still a science of amazement and seeming magic. Everyone who professes to be a chemist, amateur or otherwise, is expected by his lay friends to be able to conjure up wonders at the slightest notice.
Easily Made Rope Ladder Is Useful Emergency Equipment
Perky Halloween Hobgoblins Are Created from Black Walnuts
Homemade Brooder Uses Infrared Lamps as Source of Heat
Wood Supports Keep Chickens from Upsetting Water Pan
WILLIAM H. DAVIS
JOHN K. KARLOVIC
NEW SHOWER CABINETS are made of noncritical materials for quick assembly on the job. The cabinet has less than one pound of metal in it. All walls are made of hard pressed wallboard covered with baked enamel resistant to high temperatures.
AIR compressors can’t be bought readily today, so when a mining company needed one, Henry Lawrence, of Santa Fe, N. M., built it from two wrecked cars. A motor from one is used to drive a compressor made from the other motor. To convert the motor to a compressor, Lawrence removed the valve lifters and installed light springs on the valves.