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TO INCREASE the circulation of warm air throughout a room, Clarence M. Woolley, of New York City, conceived the idea of installing a brace of electric fans beneath a radiator. To provide room for the fans, which are mounted on a metal base and pointed upward, the radiator legs are jacked up on supports attached to the floor.
LIGHT in weight, an electric paint-spray gun has recently been placed on the market at a price that puts it within the reach of home owners who want to redecorate furniture or woodwork. Said to produce results comparable to large industrial types, the unit consists of a high-speed motor that runs a compressor capable of developing sufficient pressure to perform professional quality jobs of painting with enamel, lacquer, and other materials.
PAINT, varnish, putty, wall paper, and other surface coverings are easily removed with a flameless electric burner now available. Plugged into an outlet, the lightweight unit is slid along a surface with one hand, while the other clears away the softened finish with a scraper or wire brush.
STRINGING up a back-yard clothesline is a simple job with a new wall or post hook that ties a knot in the line when the latter is looped through it. Given a rustproof coating, the metal hook has a lag screw that makes it easy to anchor in wood. The hook will not cut the line nor will it allow it to slip when the weight of heavy laundry is added to the clothesline, it is claimed.
Q.—I HAVE a concrete floor in my garage that is a poor mix and as the garage is part of my cellar I cannot very well relay the floor. Every time I sweep out the garage I get a lot of loose sand and cement from the floor. What can I do to stop this?—P.C.S., Staten Island, N. Y.
IN THE gray stone building of the Department of Justice, in Washington, D. C., 230 picked men from police departments in various parts of the country are being schooled as scientific spy hunters. Under the direction of J. Edgar Hoover, they are mastering the latest technique in outwitting the secret agents of foreign powers.
As AN aid to tourists planning to visit the Old Mission House and other sites of historic interest in Santa Barbara, Calif., municipal officials recently evolved a novel plan of directional signs. On the two main highways entering the city, large signs were erected directing motorists interested in viewing historical spots to follow the “golden arrows." These are directional arrow's, marked on the white center lines of the streets in glistening gold paint to make them easily visible.
ALTHOUGH it looks as though a motorist planned to make a balloon ascension with an automobile serving as a gondola, the photograph below shows an English car whose motor has been adapted to run on either regular gasoline or coal gas. The fabric “balloon” on the car top serves as a reservoir for the coal gas, whose use as a motor fuel may become general in Great Britain to conserve gasoline.
To demonstrate the superior heat-conducting qualities of copper-plated cooking utensils, a store display card has two thermometers joined by a half-steel, half-copper-plated bar. When a flame is held at the bar’s center, the thermometers prove the point.
REMOVING and replacing internal brake springs in automobiles, usually a difficult and time-wasting job, is now greatly simplified by the use of specially designed pliers just placed on the market. Fitted with a pointed set screw on one jaw which grips the lining, and a hook on the other jaw which holds one end of the spring, the tool makes it easy to pull the spring into place with one hand.
MOISTURE that collects on chilled beverage bottles when they are removed from a refrigerator can be wiped off quickly and easily before the drinks are served, with a novel wiping device now available. As shown in the photograph at the right, the wet bottle is drawn through the center hole in a disk of soft, flexible sponge rubber, and the bottom is then wiped across a rubber squeegee on top of the unit.
EXCELLENT trout fishing through a street drain—that is the break that Wautoma, Wis., anglers get, since the cold waters of the White River flow at one point through a cavern below Wautoma’s Main Street. All that local fishermen have to do is lift the drain grating, drop in a line, and haul out a nice mess of trout.
To PROVE that a new type of treated cotton is fireproof, a Texas manufacturer recently built a fire on top of a mattress made of the cotton and covered with fire-resistant ticking. The mattress failed to ignite and the ticking was only slightly scorched.
V-SHAPE cuts in a new type of display board now on the market make it easy to shape the material into columns, steps, and other forms useful in making backgrounds for store displays, amateur theatricals, and photographic studios. Bevels cut into the cardboard allow strips to be removed, thereby providing cutaway spaces along which the cardboard may be folded without cracking.
DETAILS of the fur coats on sale are furnished to customers of a New York City furrier by the advertising device pictured below. When a disk is turned so that the name of one type of pelt appears in a window slot, other slots show the cost of a coat, value of pelts, and other pertinent facts.
THESE PAGES TELL THE TRUE STORY OF THE TRAINING OF AN AIR CADET
CLOSE your eyes,” said the Army doctor. Rick Jones leaned hard against the head rest as the test chair began to spin. “Twenty seconds. Reverse.” Hands slowed the motion, sent the chair turning in the opposite direction. “Time up,” said the doctor. "Now look out the window at that tower just beyond the hangar.”
THOUGH it contains only thirty-six lenses, a new aid in fitting eyeglasses can reproduce more than 61,000,000,000 different prescriptions. Heretofore it was necessary to slip different lens combinations, by hand, into a spectacle frame until a satisfactory prescription for the wearer was found.
BLACK-OUTS in England, the hiding or extinguishing of all lights for protection against night air raids, created a new line of business for an enterprising street vendor. Going from house to house with rolls of dark fabric and tools for applying it, he was kept busy fitting windows with the lightproof covering.
BUMPY marks left by ordinary clothes hooks are avoided when a sweater is thrust through the loop of the hanger shown above. The ornamental fixture of brass, designed to resemble a riding-boot spur, also provides hooks for a coat and hat.
FROM the top of a six-story tower, a man leaped into space. Spectators gasped—and then saw him brought up dangling in mid-air, gently but surely, and drawn back to safety. What a parachute is to an aviator, the new life line that he demonstrated is to workers in high places.
COMPLETELY swathed in protective clothing, rubber boots, steel helmet, and a gas mask, the British air-raid warden in the photograph at the left is shown swinging a large wooden rattle, a noise maker of the type often used in celebrating such festivities as New Year’s Eve.
“LEADED” steel, made by adding small amounts of lead to batches of steel, is industry’s latest trick to increase the machinability of its products. Leading does not decrease the strength of the steel, but does make it easier to cut and shape.
A LARGE rubber-tired hoop is both the body and the traction wheel for an unusual vehicle recently completed by Julius Rose, a Glendale, N. Y., auto mechanic. Fitted with a diminutive front wheel steered by means of handlebars, as shown at the right, the curious cycle is powered by a gasoline engine placed between the operator’s legs.
AIRPLANE passengers over North Beach Airport in New York City recently experienced the thrill of looking into the viewing screen of a television receiver installed in the cabin and seeing the plane in which they were flying glide down to a landing.
WHAT skilled hands can do with a cake of soap, besides using it for washing, is illustrated at the right. Carved by Miss Helen Beling, and entitled “The Spirit of ’76,” the 600-pound work of art was one of hundreds of pieces of soap sculpture recently exhibited at the Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, Pa.
Giant Hand for Hitch-Hikers Thumbs Rides in a Big Way
LAUGHS mean lifts for Robert D. Wassail, resourceful hitch-hiker of St. Louis, Mo. By waving a Gargantuan hand of papier-mâché at passing motorists, he thumbs his way on a grand scale—and more than 100 miles freely slip away between his home and the University of Missouri where he is a student.
To SAVE time and trouble for the butcher, a new electric saw, demonstrated for the first time recently at Chicago, Ill., makes short work of slicing off a piece of meat. When the flesh has been cut in the conventional way with a knife, the power-driven blade of the saw quickly severs the bone.
GRANDMOTHER used to recommend soaking them in a pail of hot water, but nowadays sore, aching feet can be relieved by a special vapor bath, according to the makers of a novel electric unit recently demonstrated in Chicago, Ill. The footsore patient places his feet in a cube-shape container that is plugged into an electric outlet.
MAKING violins that are said to equal the best ever constructed by master violin makers is the accomplishment of William Moenning, Jr., of Philadelphia, Pa. Stringed instruments produced by Moenning were recently judged by experts to be even superior to those made by Stradivarius.
WITH board the and open their sky airplanes as a blackas pencils, Andy Stinis and Dave de Blasio, sky-writing pilots flying from Floyd Bennett Field, in New York City, recently staged a game of ticktacktoe thousands of feet above the earth.
PREPARING for long treks over broad, barren stretches of ice, the sled dogs scheduled for use by Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd on his present Antarctic exploring expedition, recently completed a stiff training course at a New Hampshire kennels.
WHILE furnishing healthful exercise and serving as an aid to learning the rudiments of walking, a novel exerciser for infants keeps the baby within a safe radius of five feet from one spot. Strapped to a sliding safety belt within a framework fitted with handlebars and high side rails, the baby toddles around, partially supported by the caster-wheeled carriage, which is pivoted to a fifteen-pound metal weight, as shown at the right.
To PROVIDE the ultraprecision timing required by modern broadcasting studios, a Hollywood, Calif., radio commentator has invented a two-in-one “program clock.” Its upper dial reveals at a glance, in minutes and seconds, exactly how long a program has been on the air.
STRIPPED to their waists in the ovenlike heat, gunners within a mammoth tank are pictured at their battle stations, in one of the first photographs to be released showing the interior of a giant French “land battleship.” Protected by extra-heavy armor, these mobile steel fortresses are said to mount high-powered guns in addition to their regular battery of machine guns.
BECAUSE man-made structures are no stronger than the foundation soils on which they rest, the erection of huge skyscrapers, dams, and piers has led to the development of a new science of “soil mechanics” for testing the shearing and compression of the earth under the tremendous weights of gigantic structures.
FIRST to respond when the alarm sounds in the fire house of Engine Company 13 in Chicago, I11., is Minnie, the firemen’s cat mascot. From wherever she happens to be, she makes a dash for the fire pole, wraps her paws tightly around it, and plummets down to the fire-engine garage, ready for action.
ROARING across the bed of Rosamond Dry Lake, Calif., in a speeding car, Jack London, Jr., ground mechanic for the pilots of a seaplane which recently broke existing endurance-flight records, replaced a blown-out wing light in the plane as it flew dangerously low beside the automobile.
"WE WANT,” said the boss engineer, “a picture record of all the tunnels on the Colorado River Aqueduct.” Bill Fox squinted across the desk, high in a Los Angeles office building. “You mean,” he replied, “I should take pictures of a hole ninety miles long?”
READING a newspaper and eating a meal at the same time is usually a rather difficult job which ends up with a paper badly crumpled and a spot or two of food on your vest. To make the process easier, the owner of a Cleveland, Ohio, restaurant installed a special newspaper-reading rack above a wall counter.
AN ELECTRIC fan may be converted into a 1,000-watt circulating air heater through the use of a novel electric unit. Attached in front of the fan by means of four spiral springs, the disk-shape attachment has a central opening crossed by wire heating elements.
SANDBAGS can be made to produce food as well as to play their protective rôle in air-raid defense, according to an English horticulturist who has perfected a new liquid plant food. Vegetables planted in the sand grow out through the bag fabric, and are watered and fed with the chemical plant food, which is piped into the base of the sandbag through rubber hose.
HOTELS generally pride themselves on top-notch service in every detail that can make a guest comfortable. Even the possibility of an air raid does not interrupt that standard in a London hotel where a concrete observation room was recently erected on the roof for a sentry to scan the skies for the first sign of approaching enemy airplanes.
WATER pressure is used in a new type of sharpener for double-edge razor blades. The blade is placed between the unit’s two plastic arms, which are then inclosed in a transparent cover. By means of a rubber faucet adapter, the sharpener is attached to a cold-water tap.
To MAKE it easy to place tooth powder on a toothbrush without spilling is the purpose of a novel powder container recently invented. When the container is held in position over the bristles of the brush, a lever is pressed, and a measured amount of powder is ejected onto the brush.
DEEP strangest inside mines a Pennsylvania in the world, hill, are in two one garden of the beds that may have a great influence on a popular eating habit. One is the world’s first electrically heated mushroom bed, and the other is a normal “control area” for comparing results.
STOCKS and fore-ends made of synthetic plastic instead of wood are now being provided for shotguns, and are being considered for the mass manufacture of military weapons. Said to be more durable than wood, as well as capable of being produced easily in large quantities, the material has lower moisture absorption and greater resistance to shock and vibration than wood, while presenting the same smooth-grained surface effect of fine walnut.
CHEMICAL baths that remove the reddish skins from shelled peanut kernels have been devised by research chemists who claim a new high in freshness and flavor for the lowly but popular food when thus treated. Heretofore, methods of removing the skins have had the effect of drying the kernels, splitting, shrinking, or deflavoring them.
REQUIRING no winding once it is started, a perpetual clock recently introduced runs without further attention except for possible periodic adjustments for accuracy. Its carefully designed and delicately constructed mechanism is driven by a spring that is wound by the changes in atmospheric pressure that constantly take place.
A GALVANIZED pail equipped with a built-in electric water-heating element is now on the market. Furnished with a ten-foot rubber-insulated connecting cord, the fourteen-quart pail features an automatic safety device that ejects the plug from its socket at the base if the liquid contents should boil down to a dangerously low level.
PROTECTION for pedestrians walking at night along unlighted roads is afforded by an inexpensive new flash light designed to be hung onto the walker’s belt. Fitted with a wooden battery case, the light has a translucent plastic tip that surrounds the bulb and gives off a red glow to warn motorists.
GRANTS PASS, ORE., was the scene of one of the oddest contests ever held, when women recently gathered from the surrounding country to compete in an outdoor paperhanging contest. Striving for substantial prizes, the female paper hangers were required to cover with wall paper a slab eight feet high and five feet wide within a time limit of three minutes.
WHEN a well in a western oil field got out of control recently and spouted thousands of cubic feet of highly inflammable gas into the air, oil operators called on the movies for help. They borrowed a wind machine of the type that creates storm scenes for films, trained it on the well so that it blew the gas away from hot boilers near-by, and then capped the well after a two-day battle, thus preventing a dangerous explosion.
WILL hearing aids for humans correct partial deafness in animals? To find out, a Kansas kennel owner recently brought a partially deaf Dalmatian to Kansas City, Mo., for a series of tests by experts in hearing-aid devices. Experiments soon showed that instruments of the bone-conduction type aided the dog’s hearing, and a special unit is being developed to fit the dog.
WOOLLY fibers, with many of the properties of the wool of animals, can be produced from ordinary American corn, research chemists have announced. The fibers are derived from “zein,” a by-product of corn processing, which also can be made into plastics and waterproof wrappers.
Novel Dressing-Table Mirror Shows Any Part of the Head
A TRIPLE dressing-table mirror just introduced allows the user to see any part of the head or face with ease. The adjustable side mirrors, placed to the rear of the center mirror, act like the mirrors in a periscope to give a view of either the top of the head or the underpart of the chin.
IT IS impossible to imagine yourself doing something and, at the same time, remain completely relaxed, with no muscular reactions. That is the contention of William A. Shaw, Columbia University professor of psychology, who recently conducted a series of interesting electrical tests in a study of the relation between muscular activity and mental imagery.
WHAT we face is happening a shortage to of the food fish in from the this sea ? imDo portant source ? Some startling news recently has been reported by ocean-going scientists who have tagged thousands of fish caught above the narrow continental shelf off the west coast of the United States.
YOU that follow winds a into country the road hills east of Greenville, N. H. A mile and a half from town, you pull up before a gray, one-story structure, nestling on the edge of a hillside orchard. Once the building was a blacksmith shop. Now it houses William G. La Pierre’s one-man, mass-production factory—probably the most unusual manufacturing plant in the country.
SHROUDED in an inky pall, the streets of London during a nighttime air-raid alarm when all lights are extinguished present serious traffic hazards that British pedestrians are now meeting in a number of ingenious ways. White coats worn over regular clothing reflect the dimmed headlights of cars, trucks, and busses.
TWENTY-THREE ears of corn on one stem is the agricultural freak that appeared in the cornfield of William B. Hewitt, of Cooper’s Mills, Me. The ears were knotted together in a tangled mass, as pictured above.
SAID to be the only carbon dioxide type of fire extinguisher that can be operated with one hand, the unit pictured below is aimed at a fire like a gun. When the forefinger pulls on the trigger, the nozzle discharges a thick, heavy blanket of carbon dioxide gas that smothers the flames quickly.
AN ELECTRICAL “rat” that aids in testing the vitamin content of various foods and drugs has recently been developed by Dr. Douglas J. Hennesy, of Fordham University, in New York City. Before the development of this apparatus, the potency of vitamins was generally measured by performing slow biochemical tests on live rats, in which the substances being examined were injected into the bodies of rodents, and then checked by determining the physical reactions of the rats.
TWO-WAY between the radio, pilot of establishing a soaring sailplane contact and the driver of a cruising automobile on the ground, facilitates the gliding activities of a New York glider club. Installed in the club’s all-metal sailplane is a two-way radio set that operates on a frequency of five meters and weighs but twelve pounds, including the batteries that supply it with power.
SLASHED American by farms rains are and slowly floods, fertile being washed away. Each year, as water and wind ravage the land, thousands of acres of rich earth are laid waste by erosion, and rivers act like sewer drains to sap away the fertility of the land.
STRIPS of thin plastic material woven in a basketlike pattern form a novel garden pergola erected on a lawn in Jamestown, N. Y., by Nicholas Demikoff, a machinist whose hobby is large, elaborate projects using plastic materials. As a companion piece to the oriental pergola, Demikoff built a plastic fountain, elaborately decorated and fitted with several tiers of jets.
CALLED the largest ever seen to fall and subsequently recovered in this country, a meteorite that landed in Quincy, I11., some fifty years ago has just been located by Loren C. Cox, POPULAR SCIENCE reader, using a metal-locating device of his own design.
TWIRLING a knob on the top of a new ash receiver permits its stand to be lengthened or shortened and then locked in position for use either as a table or floor model. The stand consists of telescoping metal tubes set in a circular, weighted base.
MEASURING temperatures at the tip of each glider wing to within one tenth of a degree, and transmitting their average or mean to an instrument in the cockpit, are the purposes of the “thermal sniffer” shown above. So important are air-temperature changes in gliding that the device, developed by Gustave Raspet, University of Maryland student, is considered a gliding boon.
Improved Weapons for Antiaircraft Defense Meet the Menace of Destructive Attacks on Our Great Cities
ALDEN P. ARMAGNAC
THREE miles above the Army proving ground at Aberdeen, Md., a 300-mile-an-hour pursuit plane streaked at full speed across the sky. IT towed a sleeve target, resembling the "wind socks" used at airports.
DESIGNED to race across thousands of miles of open ocean at a top speed of 200 miles an hour, a gigantic seaplane conceived by John Molinet, of Rosedale, N. Y., is pictured in the photograph above in scale-model form at the U. S. Coast Guard Base at Floyd Bennett Field, New York City.
PAINTED to resemble a uniformed attendant, Oscar, a life-size dummy set up in front of a Los Angeles, Calif., service station, waves one arm up and down as a means of attracting the attention of passing motorists. Made of sheet metal, the waving arm is pivoted to a body cut from five-ply wood and operated by a mechanism made from a truck-type windshield wiper powered by a six-volt storage battery, which, placed at the base, helps to keep Oscar from blowing over.
TWELVE different styles of hairdress printed in color on cardboard cut-outs enable anyone to judge in advance which style of “hair-do” is most flattering. Held so that the cardboard coiffure fits around the head and face, as shown here, the user faces a mirror to see how that particular style looks. An instruction leaflet is furnished with the novelty, showing details of each hairdress so that the user can duplicate the most becoming style after it has been determined by means of the cut-outs, rather than by time-consuming actual trial.
IN PREPARATION for possible air raids, German defense officials in Berlin have outfitted underground shelters with complete sets of tools for use in emergencies. In the photograph at the right, above the fire extinguisher and buckets on the floor may be seen a rack containing a shovel, ax, pick, hammer, and other tools.
FRESH pineapple juice has an important medicinal value according to two University of Wisconsin research scientists, Julius Berger and Conrado F. Asenjo. The juice, according to tests, contains a substance called bromelin which is not poisonous to man but can destroy certain types of parasitic, disease-causing worms.
HOW sky MUCH onto the star earth dust every drops year from ? That the is the problem being tackled by Harvey H. Nininger, Denver, Colo., meteorite expert, who has devised a meteorite-dust measurement system that anyone can follow. To try it yourself, obtain several small aluminum pie pans, a few small magnets, and a thin rubber bathing cap.
WORKING secretly for three years in a tiny, vine-covered laboratory at Pacific Palisades, Calif., Theodore Earle, a retired mining engineer, has perfected a startling new process for separating seeds according to their ability to grow.
HOME-WORKSHOP craftsmen can do precision drilling and milling on a drill press with the aid of a new unit that resembles a compound-rest assembly on a machine lathe. Nearly seven inches square, the table of the attachment has crossed slots for receiving bolts holding the vise jaws.
STUDENT pilots, anxious to practice flying technique and build up experience in the air, often forget all about time, and overstay their allotted period aloft, according to Archie Baxter, light-plane operator at Floyd Bennett Field, New York City.
Amazing Siamese-Twin Snakes Have One Heart Between Them
SIAMESE-TWIN snakes, one of nature’s rarest freaks, were born recently to a diamond-back water snake caught by a University of Michigan zoologist. The tiny reptiles have separate heads, tails, and spinal columns, being joined together only at the middle.
WHAT would happen if surgeons were forced to conduct an emergency hospital operation during a wartime gas raid by enemy airplanes? To prepare for that possibility, French doctors in Paris recently conducted a major operation, with the patient, as well as surgeons, assistants, and •nurses all wearing gas masks.
POPEYE the Sailor never relished spinach more than Paul J. Ouellette, Pasadena, Calif., diamond setter, likes oranges. But while the brawny cartoon sailor man has little difficulty getting at his muscle-building greens, Ouellette always had trouble skinning an orange without having the juice rain onto his clothes and the peelings drop all over the place.
To AID blind persons in following the news events in Europe and other corners of the world, a special Braille globe map has recently been developed. Small pins on the boundary lines of various nations project above the surface of the globe to enable a sightless person to trace the outline of a particular country with his finger tips, and thus judge its geographical size, position, and relation to the territory of other nations.
EXCESS paint spray is trapped by a cascading wall of water in a novel system installed recently in an Endicott, N.Y., metal-finishing plant to protect workers and reduce fire hazards. Operating his spray gun, the painter faces a wall down which flows a curtain of water at the rate of twenty-two gallons a minute.
WARMING the baby’s food when on long automobile trips proves to be no problem for Thomas F. Spackman, of River Grove, Ill. Spackman attaches a wire basket below the heater underneath the dashboard of his car. When mealtime comes around, the heater is turned on, and hot air warms the baby’s milk bottle and other food placed in the basket, as shown in the photograph below.
TO of MAINTAIN the seas, will her vaunted Britain position revive as her mistress famed World War “mystery ships” for battling the menace of German submarines? Officially named Q-boats, these vessels were tramp steamers, colliers, small oil tankers, and other ships fitted with hidden guns and manned by Royal Navy crews dressed as merchant sailors.
IN A darkened laboratory at the Leningrad Institute of Physical Culture, Russian athletes looking like ghostly skeletons pedal stationary bicycles while experts operate special photographic equipment to film the movement of tiny lights strapped to the rider’s legs, arms, and other parts of the body.
AN INSTEP STRAP of strong flexible rubber, just introduced, is designed to aid skiers in keeping the heels of their boots down flat against their skis in the correct position for most ski running and turns. As shown in the photograph above, the ends of the strap are fitted with metal arms that fasten into an adjustable clamp attached to the ski behind the ski harness.
MADE like the bellows of an accordion, a metal tube for tooth paste, shaving cream, or the like is fitted with horizontal, circular plaits. Its French inventor claims that the design makes it easier to squeeze out the contents by pressing it as shown below.
Four-Ounce Gas-Raid Outfit Designed for British Women
STYLE is the last and not the first factor considered in an odd outfit for British women recently placed on sale in London. The costume, made of lightweight oiled silk in various colors, consists of a jacket, hood, mittens, and knee-length pants, all guaranteed to repel poison gas.
Every Letter Is a Puzzler on New Jig-Saw Stationery
RECOMMENDED only for correspondents known to have a keen sense of humor, novel note paper now available is made in jig-saw-puzzle form so that after the writer pens his message in the ordinary manner, he can break up the ready-cut stationery into tiny “jig-sawed” pieces.
FURNISHING shadowless illumination without glare, a lighting unit just placed on the market is designed specially for use with typewriter desks. Fitted with an adjustable shade, the lamp is held in position above the typewriter by means of a long metal arm attached to the back of the machine.
In Walks Near H is Own Home, Dr. A. P. Ousdal Has Gathered an Amazing “Library in Rock“ Showing Secrets of the Past
ANDREW R. BOONE
CHIPPING away patiently at a gaint slab of sandstone, scientists at the University of California at Los Angeles are uncovering what may prove to be an archeo-logical "find" of immense importance. Embedded in the rock, Which far antedates the know beginnings of human life on this planet, is an object that appears to be an ancient vase.
TIME and labor are saved in moving barrels and large drums by a novel pushing device just placed on the market. Four caster wheels are mounted on a framework fastened to a long handle, as shown in the illustration above. By manipulating the handle, a workman finds it easy to push loaded barrels along the floor, and to steer the rolling drums by exerting pressure toward one side or the other.
DESPITE the fact that all the nuts lying around are crackproof, a family of baby squirrels has adopted the automobile repair shop of Eddie Power in Great Neck, N. Y., as a home. Domiciled in a cardboard box, the tiny rodents scamper around the workbenches and tools with the greatest contentment as Power goes about his work.
Pocket-Size Sander Renews Worn Reeds of Wind Instruments
MUSICIANS who play wind instruments employing reeds should welcome an economical reed-sanding device now available. Instead of being discarded after long usage, the reed may be sanded down and reshaped to give it new life. The reed is first placed on the polished metal plate of the unit, and then stroked with an abrasive cloth wrapped around a flexible roller, as shown below.
UNABLE to climb through the tumbling waters that cascade over Grand Coulee Dam on the Columbia River in Washington, tens of thousands of salmon heading upstream to spawn are being lifted in electrically operated elevators, transferred to ice-chilled trucks, and released in four near-by streams.
TO SOUND alarms during wartime air raids, and direct pedestrians to the nearest underground shelter, British officials have installed public-address systems on police motor cycles in London. The loudspeaker is mounted in the normal headlight position, while amplifier and batteries straddle the rear wheel.
STRUGGLING to put chains on the tires of an automobile is a thing of the past, according to the makers of a chain clamp just marketed. Made of spring steel, the clamp is clipped snugly onto the tire, and the chain fastened to hooks on the side of the clamp.
NEW YORK CITY has 2,000 families that receive their mail by Rural Free Delivery. OCEAN SUN FISH between birth and maturity, increase their weight as much as 60,000,000 times. DOGS are able to digest bones because their stomachs secrete hydrochloric acid.
To PROTECT the feet and ankles of ice-hockey players from injury by the slashing skate blades of other players, a new type of skate shoe has been devised. Except for the toe portion, the exterior of the shoe is completely covered with a tough protective layer of strong steel mesh.
METAL tips and “nocks” for fitting arrows to bow strings are easy to crimp on arrow shafts with a novel archers’ accessory just marketed. When the nock or tip is slipped on over the arrow shaft, the latter is placed in the hand machine as shown below.
To SAVE time in adjusting a polarizing filter to the right angle for cutting down glare, a figure-8-shape filter holder, pivoted at its center, has been developed for miniature-camera use. The upper half holds the filter in a convenient position for viewing the scene to be photographed, and the lower half fits over the lens.
EVEN margins on enlargements made on a new easel are assured by the action of a mechanical guide that sets the position of the edges of the paper when a handy button is moved. After setting the paper by means of the device, the user then lowers two hinged margin arms over the paper, and moves them into place according to the position indicated by a white marker on the black metal strips, to give the desired width to the margins.
Automatic Device Tests Accuracy of Camera Shutters
Automatic Device Tests Accuracy of Camera Shutters
CAMERA owners visiting a recent photographic exhibit were given an opportunity to check the accuracy of the speed settings of their camera shutters with the unusual tester shown at the left. Placing a camera in an opening in the device and flicking the shutter at a given speed gives an immediate check-up on the shutter’s condition.
PERMITTING control of density in enlargements, a new developer lets the photographer watch the image develop under his enlarger. Furnished in powder form, the developer is mixed with water, and the sensitized paper is soaked in it for thirty seconds.
SETTING a dial on a new photo-electric exposure meter to any given combination of film-emulsion and shutter speeds—if used with a movie camera, film speed and frames to the second—gives a direct reading on its dial of the proper aperture for snapping a scene at which the meter is aimed.
UNFOLDING to a maximum height of ninety-four inches, a photographic lighting unit just developed consists of a pantographlike standard that supports two reflector and lamp units and a light-diffusing screen at its top. The device stands upon a caster-equipped case when in use.
1 Archimedes declared he could move the earth if he had (a) the power to divert the Gulf Stream (b) a pendulum with a length of 3.1416 stadia (c) a daily diet of spinach (d) a fulcrum on which to place a lever. 2 “Mansard” is the name given to a kind of (a) pavement (b) roof (c) automatic loom (d) flask used by chemists (e) bridge truss.
It's an Ill Wind That Blows Nobody Good, and Winter's First Icy Blast Sends Ailing Cars to Gus's Model Garage
IT HAD come on cold during the night—the first real cold snap of the winter. So Gus Wilson and Joe Clark had come down to the Model Garage earlier than usual that morning. They knew that they had a busy day ahead of them. “Yes,” Gus agreed with his partner as he pulled on his overalls in the snug little office, “when winter comes a lot of automobile grief comes with it.
They Rival Daylight in Illumination but Give Out Little Heat
HAROLD P. STRAND
FLUORESCENT available in most lamps electrical and fixtures, supply now houses, produce a quality of light that is the nearest approach to daylight yet attained by practical, everyday means. Their efficiency is also much higher than that of comparable incandescent lamps.
Dry batteries may be connected in different ways to vary voltage and amperage. Figure 1 shows a series hook-up of three cells giving 4½ volts, 25 to 30 amperes (depending on the freshness of batteries). The same series connection is shown in Fig. 2, but using six batteries.
A DETACHABLE butter tray mounted on top of an electric toaster will supply melted butter, which can be applied to the toast with a white-bristled pastry brush. The materials are a thin piece of bright tin from a discarded coffee can and a bicycle spoke to give the tray a rolled edge.
THE folding of circulars and letterheads may be expedited by the use of a printer’s trick—the application of a thin film of glycerin on the finger tips. Apply a little glycerin to the back of one hand where the finger tips may be touched lightly as they become DRY
IN FIRST-AID rooms and medical stations in factories, department stores, and similar institutions, a practical method of keeping cotton handy is to place the roll in the glass tube of a paper-cup dispenser. The cotton is pulled through the opening at the bottom as required.
Narrow band saws are usually set on a small hand-driven machine having two setting hammers and a feed finger, which automatically propels the saw forward. Band saws therefore must have an even number of teeth. Once the machine is adjusted, the setting takes only a few minutes.
CONFIRMED tourists will find that a “personalized” wall map makes a decorative, permanent record of their trips. The one shown is 25" by 40". The background is a piece of V± " plywood upon which the oceans and large lakes are painted blue. Land is indicated by ⅛" plywood glued onto the background, and the states are stained different colors.
THE electric pencil sharpener illustrated was constructed by removing the crank from an ordinary sharpener and substituting a sprocket wheel so it could be driven by a motor from a mechanical toy set. The sprockets and drive chain are from the discarded movement of a player piano.
THE rear clamping knob used on many small circular-saw and band-saw rip fences sometimes becomes so tight from vibration that it requires a pair of pliers to loosen it. This is not only somewhat annoying, but in time the pliers are certain to damage the knurling on the knob.
A SERVICEABLE fish knife can be made from an 8" or 9" length of heavy hack-saw blade. Grind it to shape and file or grind teeth into the back, then draw the temper in the handle end. Shape the handle from two pieces of maple and fasten with three hard brass rivets, which should be ground flush with the wood.
SOMETIMES the clip will break off even the best-made and most expensive refill pencils. When this happens to one’s favorite pencil, a clip can be improvised for temporary use by inserting a paper clip under a slip-on eraser as illustrated
SMALL colored mirrors are always attractive, and one that is tinted a light red will present a natural-looking reflection when used at the dressing table. All that is necessary to color a mirror is to attach a smooth sheet of colored cellulose wrapping material over the face.
ON HOME workshop machinery, V-belt pulleys often are such a tight fit on their shafts that they are difficult to remove without causing some damage or possibly bending the shaft. A simple method to do this without running any risk of a mishap is to use two clamps and a piece of wood as shown below.
Metal Edges Applied to Skis for Less than a Dollar
R. O. LISSAMAN
COUNTLESS thousands who enjoy skiing have yet to experience the thrill of more perfect control that comes from having metal edges on their skis, to say nothing of the longer life the edges give the skis. Steel edges may be purchased at large sporting-goods shops ready to apply, but they can also be prepared for less than a dollar from what is called “body metal.” Visit a sheet-metal worker’s shop and have him cut for you from twenty to twenty-four pieces of 16gauge (depending upon the length of your skis) body metal 5/16" wide and 10" long.
NO LEGS are necessary on this durable double hog trough made from a discarded hot-water tank. The tank is cut along the ends and one side with a torch or by any convenient method. Two pairs of “two by fours” are then hinged together with heavy sheet iron strips and used to pry the tank open as shown.
THE letters of a theater marquee sign, which slide on metal strips, can he changed easily with the aid of a bamboo pole made as shown. The eraser on the bent end prevents scratching the frosted glass under the letters.
AN ORDINARY slip-on pencil eraser, if placed over the handle of a small paintbrush as shown, acts as an excellent rubber stopper to prevent liquid evaporating in a bottle of touch-up enamel or lacquer.
Odd Candlesticks Decorated with Bits of Baling Wire
BALING wire sounds like an unpromising material for decorative metal work, yet it and all sorts of other cheap or scrap metal can be used by the ingenious amateur craftsman for obtaining odd effects. The candlesticks illustrated, for example, were made simply to see what could be done with two scrap pieces of brass tubing, some waste bits of thin sheet copper, and a coil of discarded baling wire.
A CLEAN job of cutting pipe can be done by inserting a suitable cutter in the stationary jaw of a monkey wrench. A 10" monkey wrench will cut pipe up to 1¼". The cutter may be ground from a broken drill bit and inserted in a hole drilled at an angle into the wrench jaw.
THERE is no form of photography where expensive and elaborate equipment makes less difference than it does in taking pictures of the things you make in your home workshop. If you want to take photographs of your handiwork, just mix a little headwork with your button pushing and you will get really satisfactory pictures.
STACKED washers form the locking mechanism for a simple tilting tripod head that enables a camera to be swung at any angle from straight up to straight down. That shown employs seven washers measuring 1" in outside diameter, about 3/32" thick, and having 7/16" holes.
DISSOLVING-VIEW stereopticans are costly compared with a single-lens projector, but the latter can produce a similar effect if a double slide holder is used. Hold a piece of black cardboard in the left hand and, just before the slide holder is to be pushed along to show the next view, lower the cardboard before the lens.
A PROTECTIVE varnish for photo prints consists of 1 oz. sandarac, 4 oz. benzol, 4 oz acetone, and 2 oz. absolute alcohol. Filter through muslin when solution clears, and apply with a camel’s-hair brush.
OWNERS of miniature cameras will find that so-called “candid” shots are easier to make if they do not themselves face in the direction of the unsuspecting subject. This can be accomplished by hinging a small strip of mirror at one end with adhesive tape to the camera in such a way as to cover the focusing and sighting windows.
IF A MASK is made as shown to fit the negative carrier of an enlarger, it is possible to focus very accurately without loss of time or the extra handling that is necessary when a separate focusing strip is used. The mask is a very dense negative made by exposing a film to the light and developing it.
A—No. 0 Superflash; B—No. 1 Superflash or No. 11 Photoflash; C—Press 40M Superflash or No. 7 Photoflash; D—No. 2 Superflash or No. 16 Photoflash; E—No. 3A Superflash or No. 21 Photoflash. Note; The figures in the table above are lens apertures when the camera has been set for “time” or “bulb.”
AN ELECTRIC food mixer can be utilized to agitate roll films in the tank during development — but get the permission of the housewife first! Two geared wheels of a ratio of about 7½ to 1 are used. The wheels illustrated are of bronze and cost 25 cents a pair at a secondhand hardware store.
FROM three to five roll films, provided they are of similar size, may be developed by the tray method shown in the same time it would ordinarily take for one roll. This is done by passing a stick about a foot long through the film clips at each end of the ROLLS.
If practical, it is best to use distilled water for all solutions. Tap water, however, is quite satisfactory providing it is free from suspended matter and contains very limited quantities of such impurities as calcium, magnesium, iron, and sulphur.
Holiday lighting presents unlimited opportunities for exercising imagination and ingenuity. Among the most picturesque displays are those of a symbolic nature cut from composition board and arranged in three planes. These are of approximately the same shape, but proportionately larger the farther back they are mounted.
Most of the entries submitted in our recent spool contest (see P.S.M., Sept. '39, p. 153) were made by men and boys, but it took a woman to design the most outstanding novelty.Mrs. Luna Mae Fletcher, of Newberry, Fla., fashioned an attractive miniature cottage from ordinary thread spool and won first prize of $25.
CORK, metal, and lacquered wood are combined in this attractive cocktail tray. The base is ¾" by 8" by 16" plywood, to which a sheet of 1/16" thick cork is glued with waterproof casein glue. The cork can be obtained at almost any automobile accessory store.
GLASS bottles and jars can be drilled more easily if a wood bushing is made and cemented on with liquid solder to steady the drill. The counterbored section of the bushing acts as a reservoir for holding an ample supply of turpentine. If a carbon-steel drill is used, it pays to heat the point to a bright red, dip it in sulphur, and then quench it QUICKLY.
A DESK lamp of the type illustrated is well suited for illuminating work at the wood lathe. It can be placed on a shelf in back of the lathe or fastened to the wall. A 60-watt bulb furnishes ample light.
MADE from an old vibrator of the type illustrated below, this tool-post grinder has many uses in the lathe. It may be used for such work as truing hardened centers, sharpening milling centers, and finishing the bore of model cylinders. The photograph above shows the parts of the vibrator and, in the foreground, the new grinding-wheel shaft that was made to replace the old, shorter shaft.
WITH these long-handled mechanical fingers one may pick up, without stooping, any odds and ends that litter the floors and are a menace to the vacuum sweeper. The rubber fingers grip anything from pins and string to cloth and marbles. The flexible arms are made from 12" lengths of 24-gauge sheet iron, folded to measure ⅝" in width and attached to a broom handle or other pole of suitable length.
Safety Pins Cut Off for Use as Price-Ticket Holders
NEAT price-ticket holders can be made in a jiffy by the simple expedient of cutting off the catches of safety pins and using the pointed parts. The cards are held by inserting them in the springlike coils, as indicated in the sketch at right.
WHAT a home woodworking shop have? tools That’s should a touchy question, for so much depends on the user and his hobby. Some authorities even say there is no basic list. However, there certainly are some tools that are needed by any average home mechanic, and these are mentioned in the following questions and answers:
Materials: Umbrella ribs, hack-saw blades, handles. Heat steel red-hot to soften. Flatten umbrella ribs while hot, and file to shape. Each shape should be made in duplicate, one with outside, the other with inside bevel. Harden by heating red-hot and quenching in water.
WOOD-TURNING centers on round or square work can be located quickly with a centering tool made from hardwood as illustrated. The blade and handle are glued and nailed together, after which the tool is given a coat of linseed oil.
A CLAMP or vise for small round work can be improvised from a pair of slip-joint or gas pliers. The handles of the pliers are fastened with a U-clamp of the type used to bind wire ropes together. The pliers can then be gripped in the vise or, for some kinds of work, held by HAND.
BY MAKING a holder as shown for a drafts-man’s ruling pen, it becomes a simple matter to touch up or stripe your car, models, or pieces of furniture. It takes less time to do the job than with a brush, and the stripes are more EVEN.
WHEN it is desired to erase a letter or a word in typewritten material that has been prepared for reproduction on a hectograph, it can be done easily by using a bit of cellulose mending tape. Cut the tape to fit and apply it over the mistake by catching the sticky side with the point of a pin and pressing the patch down firmly with another pin.
SAWDUST can be quickly blown out of woodworking motors and machines with a compressor, especially if a nozzle is added by connecting a 30-deg. push-type hydraulic grease fitting to the air hose with a ⅛" by ¼" pipe-thread bushing. These fittings, which will fit a ½" hose, can be obtained at auto supply houses.
IF BRISTLES have a tendency to come out of a calcimine brush, hold the brush upright, push the bristles apart at the end of a row, insert a small funnel, and pour into it a generous amount of rubber cement or waterproof casein glue, thinned sufficiently to flow around and penetrate the “knots” or groups of bristles.
To AVOID having to cut recesses into concrete walls in order to accommodate the wiring of plug-tacles, the complete installation can be housed in the baseboard by the method shown. Wall board can then be applied in the usual manner, except that the top edge of the baseboard instead of the floor serves as a base.
WHEN a social letter has to be written, or a check or application blank filled out in ink and no fountain pen or ordinary penholder is at hand, a common pencil clip can be made to serve as a pen-nib holder. Push the clip to the top of the pencil and insert the nib under it, as shown.
More than six year have passed since the National Homeworkshop Guild was organized. During that times thousands of craftsman have discovered that their that their enjoyment of the home workshop hobby increases manyfold as home workshop club.
Guild Club Builds Workshop with Lumher from Razed House
A CLUB workshop is being erected in Jackson, Mich., and it has cost the members of the Hillside Homeworkshop Club only $1.25 to date. The shop will measure 15' by 24' when completed. To obtain the lumber, the men offered to raze a house in their spare time, and in this way they obtained the bulk of their materials free.
AN INEXPENSIVE automobile dimmer switch mounted in a small wooden box and wired as shown makes an excellent foot control for any small machine tool, especially a drill press. If a plug-and-socket arrangement is used as in Fig. 1, one switch will serve several tools.
WHEN it is desired to hold a door open against a wall in a shop or any other place where appearances are not of great importance, one of the most convenient ways to do it is by using the type of outside, double-acting, bumper catch made for keeping a screen keeping a door tightly closed.
TIGHTENING hand screws requires little effort if an auxiliary handle is made as shown from maple or hickory. Select a strong, pliable piece of leather, such as old belting, for the grip. If you have several hand screws with handles of different diameter, select one with the largest handle, wrap the leather snugly around it, and use that size.
OILSTONES often become worn hollow in the center, but they can be trued up like new on a fluted rubbing brick or stone, if available. Take long, full strokes over the entire surface of the rubbing stone, as illustrated in the photograph below, and keep changing the position of the oilstone.
MOST gas water heaters have considerable wast space above them, occupied only by unsightly water and vent pipes. This space can be put to good use by raising the water heater and installing a clothes-hamper cabinet beneath it. The cabinet is constructed of ¾" pine throughout with the exception of the door, top, and corner post.
CHAIR rungs or legs that break off at the dowel or tenon cannot, as a rule, be repaired with a dowel in the ordinary way because a hole cannot safely be bored into the end as large as the hole in the adjacent member. To overcome this difficulty, turn a piece of hardwood down to the full size of the original tenon, then reduce part of this so it can be inserted in the leg or rung.
...A BEAUTIFUL, INEXPENSIVE STONE THAT CAN BE SAWED, PLANED, AND TURNED LIKE WOOD
D. C. MARSHALL
ANCIENT craftsmen used alabaster for some of their most beautiful and costly articles, and the general impression is that the material must therefore be very expensive. In reality this fine gypsum rock is found in many parts of the country and sells for about $1.25 a hundred pounds.
AHAMMERED-BRASS knocker like the one illustrated can be made from a scrap piece of 3/16" sheet brass, 3" by 7½", and a 12" length of ⅝" round brass rod. Cut out the plate with cold chisel and hack saw, and hammer on one side with a ball-peen hammer. The knocker, after being tapered, is heated to a cherry red and allowed to cool gradually so that it can be bent.
YOU CAN HAVE LOTS OF SPORT ON THE ICE WITH THIS SAIL
WALTER E. BURTON
THIS skat sail, which will take you over the ice with the swiftness of the wind, is patterned after a design suggested by the Skate-Sailing Association of America. It is one of the easiest types to make and is suitable for all-around use. For normal pleasure sailing, a sail of 38 sq. ft. will suit the average youth.
MORE substantial than usual, yet quite attractive, is a picture or clipping album with the cover and back made of ¼" plywood. A good size is 12" by 18". On the cover lay out your name or any desired title in block letters, then cut away the waste around the letters on a scroll saw.
OWNERS of portable power paint-spray outfits of the type illustrated above will find it less bothersome if the oil-and-water filter is connected directly to the air compressor instead of hanging it on the trousers belt as is usually customary.
TABLE-TENNIS balls can be stored conveniently in a slanting holder made as shown and fastened under the table with three small angle irons. To prevent the balls from rolling out of the holder, either a rubber band may be stretched across the opening or a hinged piece of wood can be used.
ALTHOUGH costing very little, this stump puller will be found useful for small stumps. A chain with a hook on one end is passed around the stump close to the ground and hooked on the side next to the puller. With the spar vertical and the puller close to the stump, hook the chain in the steel plate at the top of the spar and apply power at the loose end of the chain by hand or with a car or TRUCK.
A FIVE-CENT lampshade clip, if nailed to the end of a broomstick, is handy for unscrewing old light bulbs from high ceiling fixtures and inserting new lamps. The clip is of the type sold for converting bridge lamp shades for use on table lamps and may be obtained at most hardware stores.
A COMMODIOUS end table which holds both magazines and books, and a reading lamp to match are combined in this unusual piece of living-room furniture. If it is to be enameled in a solid color, an inexpensive softwood such as pine may be used. Stock ¾" thick, rabbeted and dadoed as shown, is used for the top, end pieces, bottom, and semicircular shelf.
DECORATIVELY scroll-sawed mirrors of early American design, or boudoir mirrors as they are sometimes called, make acceptable gifts yet do not cost much for materials. A very simple way to construct such mirrors is shown in the accompanying drawings.
A SHUTTLE for a hand loom is easily made by the method illustrated. Cut the four pieces of maple and drill the necessary holes. Glue the parts together, holding them between hand screws, and, when the glue has set, shape the shuttle with a band saw or by hand.
TO THE discriminating judge of furniture, this footstool of the Duncan Phyfe period has that handmade quality which cannot be duplicated by factory methods. It may be built of mahogany, maple, or birch. The original stool was made of beautiful curly maple and stained with a half-and-half mixture of boiled linseed oil and turpentine to which dry burnt umber had been added to give a slightly darker tone.
WHEN small pulleys must be used to give a machine the correct speed, the belts often have a tendency to slip. A simple way to prevent this is to mount a roller-skate wheel on a suitable bracket as shown below. This method works equally well on V-type or flat belts.
CANCELED postage stamps form the decorative element of this novelty lamp shade. The base is a plain parchment shade of the type that may be purchased complete at almost any appliance store. The postage stamps should be mounted firmly and smoothly with thin glue, rubber cement, or sodium silicate (water glass) and given a thin coat of varnish.
THE U. S. Revenue Cutter Joe Lane was classed as a topsail schooner. If you have completed all the desk work and have the masting ready to be set in place as shown in the two preceding installments, you are ready to start rigging your model of this picturesque little ship.
JACOB’S ladders give a touch of realism to a ship model that is often lacking. I always place such ladders over the bulwarks to reach slightly below the water line. They can easily be made of thin wood and thread, as shown in the accompanying sketches.
IN FASHIONING small ship-model carvings from balsa wood, a cleaner result can be obtained if the lines are cut in lightly with a sharp knife and then molded into the wood with a blunt, round-pointed tool, such as a mimeograph stylus. This is also a much faster method.
SHIPPING clerks, checkers, and others who use ordinary colored pencils can save time by fastening a red and a blue marking pencil together with rubber bands, as illustrated, so they point in opposite directions. This forms a handy double-end combination.
DIFFICULT furniture repairs, such as a broken table or chair leg, have been successfully made in a number of cases by using a steel dowel and Babbitt metal. The leg is sawed off square just above the break, and a new piece is turned, band-sawed, or carved to match the broken portion.
FINE work on soap carvings can be done with linoleum cutters such as are used in making linoleum blocks for block printing. The cutters may be purchased in various sizes and shapes from art stores. I have followed various patterns in doing soap sculpture, but prefer the figures illustrated in articles that have appeared in POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY on wood whittling, such as “Hobo Hank" (P.S.M., Jan. ’37, P.71).
Empty shoe-polish cans, because of their shape and the tight-fitting but easily opened style of lid they have, are useful containers for tacks, small screws, and parts of models and small fittings which require to be kept in dustproof containers.
WOODWORKING repairs often have to be made where no bench or flat surface is available for planing boards. In such cases a stepladder, if equipped with a casement latch as shown to act as a stop, makes a satisfactory planing bench. A small wooden wedge props the latch at right angles to the planing surface.
HOME workshop enthusiasts who wish to make a case for twist drills that will protect them perfectly yet enable any size to be instantly selected, will find the design illustrated has unusual merit. This case holds a set of wire drills from 1 to 60. When the case is closed, each drill is locked in a separate pocket.
As AN aid in obtaining a smooth, glass-like finish on table tops or flat surfaces, especially if lacquered, an automobile windshield wiper is useful as shown above for removing the sludge while sanding and for facilitating the inspection of any remaining unevenness or “orange peel,” as it is commonly called.
DEPTH of cut on a jointer can be quickly determined by the use of a scale as shown. Two Vs" holes are drilled and tapped opposite each other in the base and rear table. The upper screw acts as a cam for the pointer, which has a ⅛" by ½" U-slot cut in the top. The lower screw is used as a pivot. The scale can be graduated from 0 to ¼" by thirty-seconds, which is usually sufficient.
EXCELLENT wood shaping can be done on a modern high-speed drill press in the absence of a regular shaper. A special spindle replaces the chuck spindle. This spindle has a shaft to accommodate standard three-lip cutters with a 5/16" hole. A set of depth collars and six assorted cutters are then all you will need to turn out a variety of shaped edges.
WHEN the sleeve bearings in an electric motor need renewing, it is often easy to replace them with ball bearings by making a few changes. A simple way to do this is to face off part of the motor bells, attach a bushing to this faced-off part, and then bore out this bushing to take the ball bearing.
THE “woodworker’s slave” is what I call the planing support shown in the accompanying illustrations. It will help hold work of any length or width at the bench. The upright is 1¼" by 2½" and as long as the bench is high. A series of ⅜" holes is drilled along one edge, and slots are cut as shown at a 45-deg. angle.
BY UTILIZING the hub and ball-race assembly from the fan of an old automobile cooling system, it is possible to make an excellent cone center for a small lathe. The parts from the fan are marked A, B, and C in the drawing below. A 60-deg. center is turned on the hub A, and the shaft is turned down to make a running fit in a 5/16" hole through E.
IN THE garage or small shop, a useful forming anvil may be made by filling a discarded bullet-type head-lamp shell with a rich mixture of Portland cement and sand. Embed one or two ½" bolts in the cement before it sets for securing the anvil to the bench top and then allow five or six days for drying.
PRACTICALLY every owner of a metal working lathe has need for a furnace to aid in hardening and tempering tools. The furnace illustrated, which was constructed from odds and ends of metal found about the shop, gives ample heat without compressed air.
SMALL holes, such as cotter-pin holes, can be drilled exactly through the center of small rods and pins by using a geared 0-½" drill chuck as a jig. First, a drill guide must be made from a 5/16" cap screw, cut to the proper length and drilled through the center with same size drill that will be used later.
WHEN an electric clock stopped recently, no amount of adjustment would start it. Finally the works were removed and drenched in carbon tetrachloride to wash out dust and dirt in the gears. It has functioned perfectly ever since.
A FAIRLY deep aluminum top from a discarded salt or pepper shaker, if fitted with a metal handle, makes a good strainer for removing the scum or slag from a pot of molten solder or lead, or for skimming off various impurities from liquid soldering flux.
THIS boring and milling table replaces the cross-feed assembly of a small lathe and supplies a rigid table to which work may be ted. The table is made of cast iron with all surfaces planed. A screw secures the table to the nut on the cross-feed screw, and the V-way is provided with a gib and the necessary tightening screws. An angle plate, also of cast iron, may be bolted to the front or rear edge of the table as the work requires.
WOOD turning may be speeded up and measurements more accurately scribed on the wood when the tool rest is graduated. A plain slot was milled across the beveled surface of the tool rest shown about ¼" below the top horizontal surface. A scale was cut to fit and cemented in the groove.
ALMOST any type of small work can be held with these easily made clamps and they are especially useful to model makers. The clamps stand up very well under heat when used to hold work for soldering or light brazing. The body is formed of cold-rolled steel, turned or filed to shape.
WORK that cannot be swung in the lathe may be fastened to the carriage and bored with this tool. Certain types of milling may also be done; for example, a tool with a 60deg. point will cut V-ways in steel. The tool is made from cold-rolled steel. One end is turned to a No. 3 Morse taper to fit the spindle of the lathe, and a 5/16" square hole is broached through near the other end.
FOR the owner of a small metal-working lathe, this accurate indicator is a novel and useful project. The body is threaded so it may be fitted to any type of holder; it can thus be used for various other purposes besides centering lathe work. Thread and knurl the body first; then protect the finished surface while it is gripped in the chuck for drilling the holes.
IN EXPERIMENTAL work it is often necessary to make a few small, odd-sized nuts. One method is to drill a length of “hex” stock, tap it as deep as possible, and after cutting off the nuts immediately needed, mark and store the remainder for future use.
A PAIR of rubber brake-pedal pads, which can be bought for a few cents at an auto accessories store, can be used to cover the jaws of a machinist’s vise, as shown, so that soft or polished material can be gripped without being marred. If the rubber pad is a trifle too small, a few slits in the back with a knife will probably make it fit snugly over the jaw of the vise.
AFTER the stem, frames, and transom of a small boat have been assembled, the problem comes of setting these parts up and bracing them. In general there are four ways of doing this. The boat may be set up right side up or upside down, and with or without the use of a keel form.
A SMALL boy always appreciates a toy truck that is large and substantial enough for him to ride on himself. The truck illustrated is of this type and correctly proportioned for children from eighteen months to three years of age. The chassis consists of two strips ¾" by 1¼" by 23" joined by the cab, hood and axles.
IF YOUR breakfast alcove or set of kitchen furniture has taken on a drab and battered appearance, but is well built and has good lines, it can be refinished to look like new. In most cases No. 2 steel wool and denatured alcohol will remove the old finish.
1. Make up or buy an oil stain of the required color. 2. Add 10 to 12 lb. of natural paste wood filler per gallon of oil stain; then add 1 pt. linseed oil per gallon. Keep stirred. Oak, mahogany, and walnut stains require more paste than closer-grained woods such as birch.
Woodwork that has been finished with mahogany stain, especially of the penetrating red type, is difficult to refinish with enamel because of the tendency of the stain to bleed through and discolor any number of coats. To overcome this, proceed as follows:
IF SANTA CLAUS leaves a microscope in your stocking, you can start your exploration of Microland as soon as all the gifts have been unwrapped. And, even if you are already a veteran lens enthusiast, the holiday season offers many new subjects worthy of examination.
LET’S put away the laboratory supports, the retorts, and the siphon jugs—and go on a chemical spree. This time we needn’t bore stoppers, bend glass tubing, set up a train of chemical apparatus, and tend Bunsen burners. For here is a series of experiments—with a spectacular display of self-luminous solutions for a grand finale—that needs no more equipment than a beaker or so, a medicine dropper, and a few test tubes, glasses, and bottles.
COMBINING a five-tube receiver and a glare-less reading light, the outfit shown in use above attaches readily to the head of a bed. Operating on house current the set has its controls at the bottom for convenience.
SMALL enough to fit inside conventional portable radios, a new power unit is designed to convert battery-operated portables into electric receivers for indoor use. Operating on either alternating or direct current, the device will power any receiver using l½-volt tubes, quickly converting it and eliminating both “A” and “B” batteries.
OF NOVEL design, a new streamline audio transformer has all its terminals protected by a flexible transparent-plastic cover that safeguards radio experimenters against accidental shocks and protects a radio circuit against short-circuits.
A CLAMP STAND just introduced for holding any type of soldering iron at any desired angle provides an effective “third hand” for facilitating the work of radio fans. A thumbscrew holds the supporting bracket at a convenient height while the bracket’s adjustable jaws grasp the iron.
New "B" Supply of Small Size Designed for Portable Sets
ALMOST halving the size of conventional “B” batteries for small, portable receivers, the new-type battery shown in the illustration at the left has the same capacity as older types, weighs only two pounds, and measures but 1¾" by 3½" by 5⅜". The battery incorporates a special type of flat cell that eliminates waste space, and a special expanding composition seal in place of the usual air space to take up room as the gases escape from the cell chemicals during the time it is supplying current.
WITH a map of the world on its surface, an indoor antenna that may be used with any radio receiver modernizes the appearance of a set and dispenses with unsightly room aerials. It may be placed in its special stand or hung on the wall like a picture.
SIMPLY plugged into an outlet, an ingenious soldering iron for radio builders is brought to working temperature by an electric arc in less than ten seconds. Little larger than a fountain pen, the iron has a handy power switch conveniently located on the handle.
MAKING an attractive decoration for the library table, this book radio will appeal to all builders who prefer housing their receivers in some unusual type of cabinet. It can be easily assembled and built at home by any beginner, and the entire set, including the cabinet, should cost less than ten dollars.
USING a new cone-type permanent-magnet speaker only 2" in diameter, this radio midget among midgets is inexpensive, easy to build, sensitive, and powerful despite its size. The broadcast-band set uses a four-prong coil consisting of a grid winding and a tickler winding (L1 and L2).
DRIVERS of trucks with dual-type rear wheels will do well to provide themselves with two lengths of round or square timber for emergency use when the going gets tough on muddy roads or in sand pits where heavy loads must be carried across particularly soft or spongy spots.
MOTORISTS who smoke pipes will find that an ordinary ten-cent suction-type clothes hanger makes a most convenient pipe holder for the automobile. Fastened to the instrument panel in a handy position, the hook can be bent easily to accommodate any standard-size pipe shank and hold the pipe in an upright position, as in the typical installation shown in the illustration at the right.
A STURDY picnic table for use at the rear of your car can be made easily from thin plywood as shown in the accompanying sketch. If the floor of your luggage compartment is large, the table can be of one piece. Otherwise, for storing, it can be hinged in the middle to fold like a table-tennis table.
YOUR initials in block letters two or three inches high and a half inch thick make an attractive decoration for your car’s radiator grille. Cut the letters from wood with a jig saw, and mount them by means of wing nuts and bolts attached to the backs of the letters with sheet-metal clamps shaped as shown below.
I MADE a very useful tester for vacuum-type windshield wipers out of an old tire pump. I took the pump apart and reversed the packing washer on the end of the plunger, then reassembled the unit. Next, I cut off the fitting of the pump hose. To test wipers, it is only necessary to disconnect the vacuum line, insert one end of it into the pump tube, and draw out the pump handle.
HELD firmly in place behind your car’s front bumper with iron straps and bolts, a length of heavy iron pipe provides an effective stiffener to help the bumper withstand blows near its center where it ordinarily is most elastic.
PLASTIC body “solder” is now available to the motorist for filling in small holes and dents on his car body or fenders prior to touching up with paint. The faulty surface is cleaned, roughed with sandpaper, and the solder applied with a knife.
MOTORISTS have much to be gained by following the frequent practice of operators of large fleets of cars and trucks in replacing worn tires during the cold weather. Four thousand additional miles, it is claimed, can be gained from tires that are broken in during the winter months.
Three Hundred Ways to Solve the Problem of What to Make Next
WHAT shall I make next? That’s a question that occurs over and over again in every home workshop. We suggest that you choose some of the projects listed below, or else send for our latest blueprint list, which contains more than 300 items. Are you going to be near water next summer?
A BENCH drill-press outfit of the triple type may be the very tool you need for your work, and it costs little more than some floor type presses of conventional design and similar size. One of the greatest aids to efficiency with our present-day metal-cutting tools is the selection of the proper cutting oil to suit the job.
OUR construction kits make excellent gifts for those in your family, or among your friends, who enjoy making ship models. Each box contains all the raw materials for building some famous ship, and the necessary blueprints and instructions are included.
EARLY shedding of Christmas-tree needles is easily prevented by setting the tree in a wide-mouthed container that holds about a gallon. Then mix 5 grams of citric acid and 6 grams of citric acid or pectin in 3 quarts of water, add 15 grams of calcium carbonate, and pour the solution into the container.
IF YOU keep a complete file of back copies of POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY, send at once for the 1939 Home Workshop Index. During the past year nearly 850 pages were devoted to the home workshop and to such hobbies as radio, microscopy, and chemistry.
AN OLD alarm clock can be adapted for timing developing solutions by adding an arrow-shaped tin hand outside the glass as shown. Cold solder is spread in the center of the glass and a small nut is pressed gently into the cement. When the cement has hardened, the tin arrow is mounted by means of a small bolt.
A DARKROOM thermometer is not likely to become lost or broken if it is kept in a wall pocket made from an oblong piece of old inner-tube rubber. Fold it over as shown and cement the edges. Attach the pocket with a couple of thumb tacks to a convenient spot on the darkroom wall.
MORE negatives can be hung in a smaller space on the portable negative drying rack illustrated above. Window hooks, obtainable at large stationery stores, are used for the negative clips. The upper curved portion is flattened out and cut off about 1" from the clip.
WHEN working in crowds or with heavy filters, there is always some danger of losing a slip-on lens shade from a miniature camera. If the camera is of the type having an enlarged end on the lens, narrow loops of black elastic will hold the shade securely.
ACCORDING to photographic authorities, stock developing solutions should not be diluted with plain water, as the air dissolved in the water tends to oxidize the developer. Instead of water, a dilute solution of sodium sulphite is preferred—about 1¼ oz. sulphite to 2 qt. water. The sulphite has a great affinity for oxygen and delays deterioration of the developer by acting as a preservative.
AFTER the catch on the focusing knob of a camera becomes worn, it may allow the lens carriage to slide forward or backward without the photographer’s knowledge, causing out-of-focus pictures. By applying a liberal amount of paraffin wax to the focusing track, much of the play will be taken up and the lens will remain at the point at which it is set.
IF MANY model railway trains are run from one transformer, it will be found that ordinary rheostats overheat to a dangerous extent. Resistance wire that will carry any model railway load without overheating may, however, be obtained from discarded open-type heater coils from electric ranges.
SCALE model railway tracks, if of steel, look much more realistic when the rails are rusty, as the real thing always is. The rail should be wiped with a cloth dampened with soldering acid (15 percent muriatic acid), preferably before the tracks are laid. The rust will appear in a day or two.
Roundhead Brass Screws Support Third Rail on Model Layout
FOR O-gauge scale model railways, an inexpensive third rail may be made from No. 10 hard brass wire soldered to the heads of ⅝" No. 5 roundhead brass screws. Brass strip, either square or rectangular, is even better than wire. In O-gauge, the third rail is placed ⅛" higher than the running rail and is centered so as to be 11/16" out from the gauge line.
WHEN your model locomotive approaches a grade crossing, give two long and two short blasts. To apply brakes, the signal is one short whistle ; to release brakes, two long; for flagman to protect rear, one long, three short; for flagman to return, four long.