IT HAD been a good dinner Francis Gordon reflected. But then the Barringers always served good dinners, he remembered. Norman Barringer came back into the living room. “Now that I've put the girls to work in the kitchen,” he said to his guest, “we’ll have time for a quiet little chat before the bridge war begins.
Radio Beginner Pleads for First Principle Articles
Does This Solve Mystery in Speed of Light Tests?
Probably Good, But It Sounds Slightly Involved
Shallow Diving Suit Wanted by This Enthusiast
Here’s a Money-Making Plan If You Have a Camera
If There Are No Gas Raids Then Everybody Is Safe
Here’s How the Figures Got Printed on the Eyeglasses
Would You Like To See Plans for a Garden Tractor?
He Has Trouble Telling One Saw from Another
This Ham Defends All His Short Wave Friends
Claim of Seventy-Mile Speed Gets a Jolt from a Racer
Our Mr. Ryder Taught Him, So of Course He Wins a Prize
Here’s the Mystery of a Pump With a Most Contrary Bump
IF A fish can be frozen, put in storage, and brought back to life, what prevents the same process being applied to all species, including human beings? Think of the possibilities! Instead of putting laid-off workers on the retired list, we would put them in cold storage.
WHEN the worst earthquake in recent American history rocked southern California, leaving its dead, its injured, and its $50,000,000 trail of wreckage, it gave to science the first accurate record of how the ground moves near the center of a violent tremor.
Infantry Regulations Made Easy So Men Can Be Trained Quickly for Movement and Actual Combat
A MID-MORNING sun beat hotly down on a shadeless drill ground. Issue shoes crunched on a crushed-stone roadbed. There was a faint smell of sun-warmed oil from carefully-tended rifles. Fifteen years of civilian life slipped swiftly away.
YOU do not necessarily see better with the eye you use most. In novel experiments at the University of California at Los Angeles, 100 students under the direction of Dr. Lawrence Gahagan of the phychology department, demonstrated that two out of three of them, looking at an object through a tiny hole, saw it with their right eye only.
NERVES of recruits in the British Army are saved by a practice rifle that fires a spot of light and makes no noise. The roar of exploding powder and the crash of range rifles upset the young soldiers and subject them to severe nervous strain. To avoid this and yet train the recruits to shoot was a problem solved by the invention of a rifle, exactly like the regular army gun in weight and appearance but which, at the click of the hammer, fires light instead of a bullet.
A NEW motion picture camera moves with the photographer. It is light enough to carry and the cameraman follows the subjects as they move about and takes their pictures. The camera is supported by a belt similar to that worn by a flag bearer. The machine’s metal handle fits into the staff socket, an arrangement that prevents vibration while the film handle is being turned.
Two eighteen-year-old boys of Turlock, Calif., have built themselves a flying instructor that provides virtually all the thrills of piloting a plane. Passengers are strapped in two miniature aircraft that fly in circles around the supporting framework, under the power of gasoline motors, as shown at left.
A NEW exhaust gas analyzer automatically tests the adjustment of a car’s carburetor. When a tube, connected to the device, is inserted in the car’s exhaust pipe, a pointer swings to “lean,” “normal” or “rich.” Operation of the device depends upon two sensitive wires, one sealed in air, the other exposed to the exhaust gases.
IDEAL for the boy who enjoys taking things apart is a convertible coaster wagon recently placed on the market. A wrench is the only tool needed to remodel it into any one of fifteen different shapes and sizes. A few minutes’ work changes the toy from a wagon to an airplane, as shown in the photograph, or to a scooter.
A GIANT X-ray tube, operating at 800,000 volts, has just been completed by General Electric engineers for use in treating cancer patients at a Chicago hospital. So powerful is the fourteen-foot tube that it is water-cooled, and its radiation is estimated equivalent to that obtainable from $75,000,000 worth of radium.
DEAD oil wells are brought to life by means of a new electric gun that is discharged thousands of feet beneath the earth’s surface. With it holes are shot through steel pipe and cement so that oil from a zone higher up can flow into the well. The gun’s .45 caliber steel bullet must pierce pipe that sometimes is nearly a half inch thick, and there may be more than one such pipe.
DESIGNED especially for travelers, a new checkerboard is unusually compact, although the pieces are sufficiently large to be handled with ease. The ring-shaped men fit into recessed compartments when the board is closed, and are automatically set up when it is opened for play.
How translucent glass panels and colored light can be used to enhance the beauty of a modern building is demonstrated in a ten-foot-high model of a skyscraper just completed at Nela Park, Cleveland, O., for exhibition at the World’s Fair in Chicago.
ANY mashie or niblick would have trouble lifting a ball over the twenty tons of fencing that protect the driving range of a new golf club at Portland, Ore. The barrier of chain link fabric is eighty feet at its highest point and tapers to thirty feet at each end.
BLOCK puzzles, distant relations of the jig-saw puzzle, are now on the market. The oddly-shaped pieces, when assembled, form a perfect cube. In the latest variant of this popular fad, illustrated above, the assembled cube is supplied in a cellophane wrapping that holds it together.
A BULLET-PROOF Speaker’s desk has been devised by engineers of a broadcasting system, to protect public men from the attacks of assassins when making addresses to large gatherings. Metal armor shields the body of the speaker from below his waist to a point several inches above his shoulders, when he stands upon a platform.
RESIDENTS of the little desert town of 29 Palms, Calif., claim that their city hall is not only the smallest in America but the most versatile—for it serves as a water tower as well. This odd structure provides a meeting place where the dozen inhabitants of the community may transact their legal and municipal business.
British Planes to Make Air Maps and Photographs of Mt. Everest
FINAL preparations were being made, a few days ago, for a thrilling aerial adventure— the first flight over Mount Everest, highest peak in the world. Two sturdy biplanes of the British expedition led by Air Commodore P. F. M. Fellowes stood poised on a runway at Purneah, in British India, ready to wing their way toward the white-capped summit.
FOLLOWING successful tests in the North Sea, the steamer Westfalen, converted to a floating airdrome, has been ordered to its station in mid-Atlantic. It will serve as a halfway stop between Africa and Brazil on the world's first ocean airline, linking Berlin and Rio de Janeiro (P.S.M., Feb., ’33, p. 13).
RAKING ground targets with machine-gun fire, members of the Ninety-First Observation Squadron recently ran up high scores at a new practice range near San Francisco, Calif. The paper targets, ten feet wide and six feet high, were propped up on adjustable mounts at an angle of sixty degrees.
LATEST among oddities in ground signs to meet the eyes of airmen is a huge white lion of glistening chalk at Whipsnade, England. This figure was cut in the ground at the request of the Whipsnade zoo, where animals had been terrified by the roaring of motors of low-flying airplanes, and it effectively warns approaching pilots to keep their distance.
Fog whistles for airports may soon enable a pilot to land safely when weather conditions make it impossible to see the field. General Electric engineers announce the development of a new sonic marker beacon that emits a series of short, high-pitched whistle blasts from a cluster of two or three megaphones.
A NEW bombing plane, developed for the American Army, may alter present styles in aerial warfare. Hitherto tiny, one-man pursuit craft have been relied upon to overtake and attack enemy bombers. In practice flights they wheel and circle about the big bombing machines, which are slowed by heavy loads.
SNARING airships out of the air, to aid them in landing, is a scheme proposed by Richard Thorpe of Mays Landing, N. J. His system resembles that used by aircraft in picking up mail on the fly, worked in reverse. A mooring mast in two split sections suspends a flexible mooring member in the path of the oncoming dirigible, which is provided with a mooring ring.
CARRYING air mail seventy-eight miles in a motorless glider was the record feat performed recently by Robert Kronfeld, German soaring champion. He took off from Vienna, Austria, in tow of an airplane that cut him loose at an altitude of 12,000 feet.
OPERATIONS ON Human Brain mark a big advance in Modern Surgery
The Remarkable Pictures Illustrating This Article Were Taken by Our Photographer During an Actual Brain Operation
SEEK DEEP-SEA FISH WITH FIVE-MILE LINES
AMERICAN COW GIVES FARMER BIG INCOME
IF YOU were in an operating room watching surgeons working on the brain, you would see things that would make you gasp. For example, at the Cleveland, O., Clinic, August 31, 1931, Dr. W. James Gardner removed the entire right half of the brain.
Ten Designs in Material Provide Wide Range in Size and Style for Frame Houses
PRE-CUT pieces of lumber that fit together as simply as the interlocking blocks and strips of a boy's toy construction set are now available for building homes. The new method simplifies the carpenter’s work and speeds the construction of a frame dwelling, since more than three-fourths of the lumber used in a house may be delivered to the site ready for assembling without further cutting.
WHEN you consult the spring catalogs and lay in a supply of seeds for your garden, do you ever wonder how they got in the packets? On these pages the POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY photographer takes you behind the scenes in the seedman’s nursery, where experts labor to make sure the seeds you buy will yield fine flowers or vegetables.
Emergency Division of Police Trained to Handle Tragedies and Freak Accidents of a Great City
Thomas M. Johnson
A NEW building was going up. Before it stood a big concrete mixer. To chew up stone, gravel, and sand, its vat-like interior had strong teeth, powerful flanges, and cogwheels. To keep these fed, was the job of one man who stood on a running-board and watched those teeth grind concrete.
Hidden Motors Give Exhibit for World's Fair the Movements of a Living Animal
A ELECTRIC cow that chews a cud, breathes, moves its head, winks its eyes, moos, and gives real milk will form one of the exhibits at the World’s Fair next summer. This robot animal has just been completed at the New York City workshop of Messmore and Damon, specialists in creating mechanical beasts that range from prehistoric dinosaurs to modern puppies.
FIRE alarms in Los Angeles, Calif., are answered more speedily as the result of an innovation in signal apparatus. When the handle of an alarm box is pulled, the number and address of the box are automatically recorded upon moving tape at the central station.
TRAINS THAT WOULD SKIM TRACKS AT HIGH SPEEDS PROPOSED IN DARING TRANSPORTATION SCHEME
An individual coach for short runs and, in rear, a streamlined train for long hauls
IMAGINE a flying railroad in which captive airplanes serve as cars. Skimming through the air, the streamlined cars are expected to attain speeds up to more than 200 miles an hour. A cage of rails restrains them from actually leaving the track.
New Auto Lamps Illuminate Blind Spot and Reduce the Danger of Driving at Night or Through Fog or Smoke
Walter E. Burton
NO LONGER need darkness take the wheel when you drive your car at night. Accurate tests have replaced haphazard judgment in designing automobile lighting equipment. At the Nela Park Laboratories of the General Electric Company, Cleveland, Ohio, engineers are fighting the dangers of night driving.
Manner of Making Permanent Record of the Wonders Seen in Your Invisible World Is Described in This Article
FORESTS IN U. S. SHOW A BIG INCREASE
IN OUR fascinating journeys into wonderland, time and time again, we come upon views so striking that we leave them with great reluctance. It is too bad that we should spend half an hour, say, in the preparation of a specimen only to take one look at it and then discard it when a little more time spent with it would make it ours for years to come.
GOVERNMENT criminologists will seek new methods of scientific crime detection at a research laboratory just established by the U. S. Bureau of Investigation of the Department of Justice. A formidable array of technical apparatus has been assembled in the guarded laboratory, including such varied objects as microscopes, ultra-violet lamps, and sensitive calibrating instruments for measuring the bore of guns.
WHEN two boilers of a Newark, Ohio, refinery had to be taken out of service simultaneously for repairs, the company engineer averted an expensive shut-down by using a locomotive to provide emergency steam. The engine, rented from a nearby railroad shop, was run on a siding beside the plant.
WALLPAPER made by spreading fine spun-glass fibers on a paper foundation is now available. The fibers are laid in one direction and the affect on the eye is that of a multitude of fine parallel lines of shiny brilliancy. Before being applied to the paper, the glass is permanently dyed.
AN EAR gymnasium, devised by a Michigan inventor, is said to aid those of defective hearing by exercising the nerve centers of the ear. Special earphones are slipped over the patient’s head and at the tone frequencies at which hearing is defective, a series of tone exercises is given at a volume great enough to be heard by the patient.
ON A piece of ground 200 feet beneath the earth's surface, Dick Wills of Miami, Okla., is growing regular crops of mushrooms. His unusual farm is the passageway of an abandoned lead and zinc mine, where he found a suitable temperature practically constant the year around.
ONE of the hardest jobs in the work of removing long lengths of railroad track has been the back-breaking one of pulling spikes with the old-fashioned claw bar. Now a machine has been developed that pulls spikes at the rate of twenty-five a minute with slight effort on the part of the operators.
THOUSANDS of geometrical designs, no two exactly alike, may be produced with a toy recently placed on the market. This instrument, an ancient device in modern guise, employs a rotating turntable bearing a sheet of drawing paper and spun with a crank.
AMATEUR movie-making enthusiasts may prepare their own titles, including animated ones, with the aid of a new title writer. This device, an illuminated stand with an easel at front and a place for the camera at the rear, works in three positions.
FIGHTING airplanes with X-rays was a possibility forecast recently when Dr. J. W. M. du Mond, of the California Institute of Technology, discharged an electroscope 100 feet away with an X-ray tube. Eventually, he said, the ray might be used to disable hostile aircraft.
A HYBRID vehicle, sharing the appearance of an automobile and a railroad handcar, is used by a Danish railway official in making his regular inspections of the road. Flanged wheels adapt the car to travel on the track, while a gasoline motor propels it at a lively pace.
NAILS may be driven into novel building bricks of clay developed by a Los Angeles, Calif., inventor and recently placed on the market. This innovation in home building material makes it possible to nail interior fittings directly to the wall.
A STRANGE fish story comes from Plymouth, England, where one of the largest hauls of gray mullet on record has just been made in a dry dock! While the great basin was being pumped dry, it was discovered that a school of mullet had entered it from the sea.
CALLING out street stops is made easy for the driver of a double-deck bus equipped with a new announcing system, developed by Bell Telephone Laboratory engineers. When he speaks into a movable microphone, shown in the photograph above, his voice is made audible by loudspeakers at the back of the bus and on the upper deck.
WRAPPING milk or cream in papers the unusual feat performed by a new machine for dairies. In one continuous operation, the device forms a container from paper, dips it in molten paraffin, cools it, fills it with milk, and seals it. A consumer receives a boxful of milk untouched by human hands in the packaging process.
WHAT probably is the most sensitive instrument of its kind, for measuring and comparing the brightness of faint stars, has been perfected by Dr. Albert E. Whitford, University of Wisconsin astronomer. The light of the star is trained upon a photo-electric cell within a brass cylinder at the end of the telescope, shown in the picture above.
A NEW lens produced in Germany, larger than a pocket camera, admits sufficient light to take snapshots by ordinary incandescent bulbs. In the rating customarily used by photographers, the speed of the lens is classed as F/O.95; this means that it will make a fully-exposed picture in less than a twentieth of the time required by the F/4.5 lens of a modern high-speed camera.
HANDY for testing spark plugs is a new combination screwdriver. When its point is held against a plug as demonstrated in the photo at left, a flash of light, appearing in a window on the handle, shows whether the plug is working properly. The light is produced by a built-in high frequency tube.
AN EXTRAORDINARY array of lighting equipment is concentrated upon a single emergency truck, recently placed in service by the fire department of Beaumont, Texas. It carries sixteen floodlight projectors and can be rushed to the scene of an alarm to illuminate a building as brightly as day for fire-fighting and rescue work.
WATER holes, like the one illustrated at the right, now help control forest fires along highways on the northern frontier of British Columbia. Should a blaze threaten the safety of motorists, forest rangers hasten to the nearest roadside tank and set up a portable gasoline-driven pump in the manner shown.
KEEPING a soldering iron at just the desired heat is the service performed by a new stand, which comprises two cradles. When the iron is first connected, it is placed in a cradle marked “Hot Iron.” Here the full voltage is applied to the iron and it heats up rapidly.
SPINNING SO fast that its surface travels at more than 100 miles an hour, an abrasive wheel, in the machine pictured at left, removes snags or projections from heavy castings. Removing these blemishes, usually the result of an imperfect mold, has hitherto been considered a troublesome operation, but the new machine, with its single operator, makes short work of them.
AN INGENIOUS stopper, devised by a New York inventor, H. L. Peden, permits the flow of gas in a main to be cut off temporarily at any point during repairs. The stopper, a collapsible disk of flexible material, is inserted in the main through a tap hole.
TWIN towers would harness the wind in a giant type of windmill proposed by a Frankfort, Germany, engineer, who has embodied his idea in the model illustrated above. Instead of pivoting the windmill disks on a vertical shaft to swing into the wind, he would support them with carriages on a circular track 260 feet in diameter.
SUPPLIED in tubes like toothpaste, a new form of rubber, of paste-like consistency, hardens after exposure to air. The product has a wide variety of uses, particularly for mending. As shown at the left, it may be used for patching the sole of a shoe.
CAR OWNERS can now have a control that operates the rear curtain from the driver’s seat. A small lever is set in the car body within easy reach, just above the left-hand window. By moving it along a slot, as illustrated at the left, the driver may lower the curtain whenever lights from the rear annoy him.
MACHINISTS know the difficulty of starting a one-piece die in order to cut new threads on a bolt, when the old ones have been damaged. A new re-threading die, hinged in two pieces, may be applied to the threads at some distance from the point of damage as shown above.
Clock in the Heavens Easily Read on Any Clear Night, Any Place in Northern Hemisphere, if a Few Facts Are Learned and Kept Constantly in Mind
SUPPOSE you are sleeping out under the stars in a vacation camp some night next summer. For convenience, imagine that it is July 1. You awake and wonder what time it is. A glance at your radium wrist watch tells you it has stopped. You forgot to wind it.
Rafts, Loaded with Rock, Save Holland’s Great Dike
WHEN the great dike that Holland has erected to shut off the Zuyder Zee from the North Sea was recently threatened with collapse, big rafts, like the one pictured at the left, were pressed into service to save it. Heavy rainfall had swollen the currents passing through the sluice gates, and scoured out deep holes in the dike’s foundation.
FOUR months of spare-time work enabled Arthur Kaufmann, Newark, N. J., engineering student, to build an electric organ for his home. Undertaking the task as a hobby, he completed his duo-manual, reed instrument without the aid of designs or blueprints.
TINY automobiles, with two front ends or two rear ends, are used in a Cleveland, Ohio, laboratory to help solve street lighting problems. The model street, ten feet long, is made to appear twenty by the clever use of a mirror. Automobiles on the right side of the street have two rear ends, so that the reflected images will correspond to those seen directly.
BABY is kept safe and comfortable, at home or on a drive, by the demountable seat illustrated above. Its spring base, a curving bar of strong steel, fits securely in a metal slot, of which any desired number are provided. One may be permanently installed in a car’s front compartment and a second in the rear; others may be placed on the porch and in various rooms of the home.
MINING for silver in a Hollywood movie studio has yielded 60,000 troy ounces, valued at $17,000, in six months. The precious silver is recovered electrically from baths that dissolve silver salts during development processes.
SHARP corners present no difficulties to a motor bus of odd design that has just been introduced in Holland, despite the large size of the fifty-five-passenger vehicle. Its forward end is hinged to the rear, and the two sections pivot in rounding a turn.
AN ULTRA-SHORT-WAVE radio station has been installed at Vatican City, Italy, for communication between the Vatican and the summer residence of Pope Pius XI at Castel Gandolfo, twenty miles away. The set uses waves only fifty-seven centimeters (about twenty-one inches) in length.
ADJUSTABLE openings in the sides and bottom of a new lamp shade, for bedside or sickroom use, regulate the illumination according to the user’s wishes. The apertures on each side are uncovered to the desired extent by turning a knob attached to a shutter.
GUMDROPS from orange trees is the most recent development in the effort of orange growers to make use of all the by-products of their groves. The new gumdrops are made of the fruit pectin, a jelly-like white compound derived from the unsalable oranges.
AN EXPERIMENT first tried two years ago was repeated recently on larger scale when an entire battalion of field artillery was rushed by air across Panama to defend the canal against an imaginary enemy. Men and howitzers boarded ten big bombers (upper right) at Bejuco and were whisked to La Chorrera at 100-mile-an-hour speed.
MOTORISTS passing through the school zones of Canton, O., are reminded to watch out for the safety of children by arresting signs placed in the center of the highways. Each of the unusual signals represents the figure of a schoolboy with upraised hand, and is conspicuously painted in black and orange.
THOUGH it resembles the globe that might be seen in a schoolroom or library, the sphere in the picture real curiosity—for it represents the surface of the planet Mars as accurately as astronomers have been able to map our neighbor planet. The Martian globe was recently brought to this country from France for the Franklin Institute of Philadelphia, Pa.
SHAPED like a warm-air furnace, a powerful projector has been designed by a German firm for throwing enlarged images of opaque objects on a screen. It is especially suitable for use in schools, colleges, and lecture halls. It requires little floor space and is so designed that it does not obstruct the view of those near it.
CAMPERS may lift from the running board of their car a small package, hoist it to their shoulders, open it like a book, and slide it into the water. It is a new small boat that folds flat for transportation. While one person may carry it, the boat will accommodate three people.
USERS of rubber stamps will hail the appearance of a new stamp pad that never goes dry. An ink reservoir, replenished through the filler tube visible in the photograph above, keeps the surface supplied.
WHILE harnessing the wind for power continues to be a favorite project of inventors, few realize such a scheme once actually reached the point of construction on a windy desert in southern California. An abandoned steel tube, sixty feet long and four feet in diameter, still stands on a circular track—a monument to an inventor’s dream of cheap power.
AN ANTI-ROLLING brake, devised by an Elgin, Ill., inventor, aids motorists in parking on a hill or in starting a car on an upgrade. Equipped with this device, a car cannot slide backward when the regular brakes are released. An automatic control running from the transmission to the anti-rolling brake automatically throws the latter out of operation when the car is put in reverse gear.
Thrilling and Practical Experiments for the Home Laboratory Are Described in Detail in This Informative Article
RAYMOND B. WAILES
WHEN you snap the shutter of your camera, you perform a chemical experiment. A sensitive chemical on the film is decomposed by the light that streaks through the opened shutter. Like heat, light causes many substances to change and on this fact hinges the study of photochemistry.
AMUSING figures, grotesquely resembling human beings, may be made with the fingers and a few simple accessories such as a tuft of cotton, eyes from a discarded doll, and a streak or two of paint. The six poses illustrated here were created by Otto Croy, German artist.
EASILY MADE CARDBOARD Scale Is World Time Table for DX Fans
EASILY MADE CARDBOARD Scale Is World Time Table for DX Fans
Making Coil Spring Binding Posts
DISTANCE fans and short wave enthusiasts will find the simple time converter illustrated above a convenient companion to their log book and list of stations. It replaces complicated time tables and gives the converted time for any part of the globe.
THROUGH the use of resistances and shunts, you can increase the usefulness of your assortment of meters. Almost every amateur experimenter and set builder has at least a milliammeter. With this one instrument, you can make measurements of voltages as well as amperages.
ALTHOUGH modern radio design presents nothing that is startlingly new, there is one development of special interest to the radio experimenter and set builder. A few years ago, the dynamic loudspeaker replaced the older cone type because it was capable of handling greater power and a wider range of frequencies with increased fidelity.
CHET HARMON coaxed his car into the Model Garage. Sputtering and coughing, it gave one last asthmatic wheeze as it reached the center of the repair shop. “Something wrong, Chet?” Gus Wilson grinned. “I’ll say something’s wrong,” Harmon grumbled.
THIS NEW Outboard Speedster WILL WIN RACES FOR YOU
How to Build an Inexpensive Little Boat
Designed for Class “A” and “B” Motors
LIST OF MATERIALS FOR RACER
SIMPLICITY of construction and strength, combined with safety on the turns, real speed, and unusual rough water qualities, are the distinguishing features of this trim, jaunty little outboard speedster Scram. It uses the small but very popular class “A” outboard motors or class “B” motors.
Tubes from Old Brass Bed Make Frame for Fine Coffee Table
E. C. WITTICK
HAVE you an old brass bed in your cellar or attic storeroom? If you have, it is a gold mine for your home workshop. From it you can make floor lamps, modernistic table lamps, smoking stands, and small tables. Here is how to go about making a coffee table like the one shown.
To THE real picture puzzle fan. the smaller and more irregular the pieces, the more absorbing is the task of assembling them. The writer has found that it helps to use a puzzle shifter like that shown at the right. The small cuplike rubber tip, when lightly pressed against one of the pieces, allows it to be moved, turned, slipped in and out of spaces in which it may fit closely, and all with little danger of disturbing the assembled parts of the puzzle.
WITH the aid of this punch, miniature girders, tanks, and other metal parts of models can be quickly embossed with “prop” rivet and boltheads. The tool is particularly useful in the construction of bridges, towers, and similar accessories for model railways.
DECORATIVE beaded effects like those to be seen on skillfully woven Indian wampum belts can be imitated with simple slipknots. Belts that are knotted together in this manner are very durable. The one illustrated was made with size 16 silk cord in blue and silver gray as a gift for a woman.
Farm Tractor and Power Plant Assembled from Old Auto Parts
J. C. MILLER
THIS combination tractor and belt power plant was made from a Ford engine with frame and front wheels, a 1025 Chevrolet gear shift, an International Model-S truck rear end. and two binder wheels. The frame was shortened 18 in. by sawing each side in two 23 in.
MOST mechanics have at times lost money or other articles of value from the pockets of their overalls or the trousers of their working clothes. This can be prevented by closing at least one of the pockets with a hookless or zipper type fastener.
IN LAYING strip composition shingles on a roof, a pair of irons made as shown at the left will save much time. They keep the strip in place and allow both hands to be used for nailing, whereas when the shingle is held with one hand and the nailing done with the other there is always danger that it will slip.
A GARDEN hose that no longer holds water makes excellent covers for trapeze bars and other equipment used in a children’s playground. The device shown consists of a rope running through an old piece of hose and secured at either end to a tree limb.
An easily built model of Capt. Mollison’s famous transatlantic MONOPLANE
Donald W. Clark
A MODEL of The Heart’s Content, the favorite plane of Capt. J. A. Mollison, England’s famous long distance flyer, makes an interesting addition to any model builder’s group of planes. It was in this little plane that he recently flew from England to Brazil, crossing the South Atlantic in one hop of 1,885 miles.
Concrete Stepping Stones Cast in Flexible Metal Forms
PROBABLY the most artistic and practical path for the lawn or garden is one that is made of stepping stones. When laid out in a natural manner, such a path will harmonize perfectly with any plan of landscaping, whether formal or informal. Contraction and expansion cannot effect it, and no subsequent attention is required except occasionally to mow the grass which grows between the stones.
TO FRIGHTEN birds away from a berry patch or a newly planted lawn, where they often do considerable damage in a short time, home gardeners sometimes tie a slightly inflated paper sack to a stick. When it becomes damp, however, the bag is useless, and the string is always getting fouled on the stick.
TRIPPING over low wire fences around flower beds or newly planted grass plots may be prevented by the method illustrated above. A heavy elastic band cut from a discarded inner tube is inserted in the fence by cutting the wire and tying the two ends to the rubber band.
Finishing the Hull of Our New Model THE FAMOUS GALLEON "REVENGR"
Captain E. Armitage McCann
MANY thousands of POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY readers make a hobby of building ship models. They continue year after year. Some of them have constructed every one of our long series of models. Why do they do it? If you have built models, you will know the answer, but if you have never tried this most satisfying form of craft work, why not begin making a model and find out for yourself?
THIS foolproof grinder shield, an invention of the writer's, has proved satisfactory during months of constant use by different mechanics, and has been praised by safety and insurance officials. When the operator steps on the pedal, the transparent shield pivots forward over the grinder wheels and in front of the worker's face.
MINIATURE toys, such as the realistic little playground illustrated above, have a strong appeal for the younger children, particularly if they can shift around the various objects to suit themselves and really play with them. The playground apparatus, table, bench, stools, weather vane, and sand-box can be made easily from scraps of cardboard, lollypop sticks or similar round sticks, and a few thin, flat sticks of the type used as handles for various ice-cold confections sold to children.
GLASS tubes containing photographic developers often have a second cork halfway down to separate one chemical from another. An ordinary corkscrew either will not reach the cork or is too coarse to use with so delicate a cork and therefore merely breaks the cork.
AFTER you have made a start in the fascinating art of metal spinning and learned the various processes described in the two previous articles in this series (P. S. M., Mar. ’33, p. 64, and Apr., p. 76), you will be ready to undertake what looks to be an exceedingly difficult piece of work, yet is simple enough when once the method is understood—spinning a hollow metal sphere.
Frist Prize Winner in our GEORGE WASHINGTON COACH CONTEST
RARELY has a coach model of finer craftsmanship or more graceful design been built than that which won first prize of $100 in our George Washington coach model contest. It is the work of H. G. Bryant, of New York, and was built on a scale of ⅛ in. equals 1 in. from careful measurements and sketches he made of the original coach, which is now in the possession of the New York Historical Society.
THE RIGHT WAY TO True Up Worn Drill Chucks and other useful machine shop hints
HECTOR J. CHAMBERLAND
PRACTICALLY all medium and small upright and radial drills have standard chuck equipment of the type shown at A in the accompanying drawings. These chucks come in different sizes to take shanks or round stock up to 1 in. While they are mechanically well designed for long service, they are subject to much abuse through no fault of their own and thus are likely to become inaccurate.
SAFE, easily handled hods for lowering brick into cesspools, sewers, and other openings below ground may be made as shown in the photograph below, from. No. 10 gage metal and a length of ½-in. rod. A rectangular sheet is bent to form three sides of the hod, which is of a size to hold twelve bricks.
A BAR with a hinged jaw, like that illustrated above, will prevent accidents in turning heavy steel beams. For the sake of lightness, the bar itself may be of pipe. To the end of this is welded a fork or clevis, the jaws of which are ¼ by 2 in., or heavier if desired.
SMALL internal grinding wheels can be made from broken or discarded surface grinder wheels by drilling a hole with a round file and then dressing the fragment of abrasive with a diamond while in place on the spindle. If you expect to obtain accuracy when cutting a gear, see that the teeth of the cutter are perfectly radial.
Our Readers Supply Valuable Hints for All Who Work on Automobiles
Hinges for Door Stops
To Remove Studs
Mirror Reduces Danger
Hidden Lock in Car to Thwart Thieves
Putting a Crankcase Back in Place
IN RAINY weather or just after the car has been washed, closed-car window glasses often tend to stick and bind in the felt sash channels. This can be overcome by lowering the windows and greasing the guides with a small wedge shaved from a bar of white soap.
Simple ways to avoid getting them too contrasty or too flat and shadowless
Frederick D. Ryder
YOU have talked quite often about how important it is to get the lighting right if you want good, clear, snappy photographs,” writes a POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY reader, “and your instructions have helped me on indoor and outdoor pictures, too, when I had time to wait for the sun to get in the right position.
KNIFE throwing is an inexpensive, exciting game of skill in which all ages and both sexes can participate. It has something of the novelty and thrill of the circus and never gets monotonous. The equipment can be set up in the cellar in an evening.
A LATHE dog can be improvised from an old model-T Ford connecting rod. It may be applied to work from ¾ to 1½ in. in diameter, a narrow leather strap being used to bush up small work. One advantage is that the Babbitt metal will not injure threads.
PICTURE puzzles, especially those made of cardboard, can be solved much easier on a board that is covered with fine sandpaper, blotting paper, or other nonskid substance and that has a rim projecting slightly above the top. The rough surface prevents the puzzle pieces from slipping, and the strips form a framework for keeping the puzzle square.
How to wind a simple coil reactance that controls the carrent, protects the fuses, and cuts down greatly the cost of the electric power
Alfred P. Lane
HEAT SO terrific that no known substance is able to withstand it for long can be developed in your home laboratory with nothing more than a pair of electric light carbons, a small crucible, and some means of controlling the flow of the electric current from the house mains through the arc.
PRIZES have been awarded as follows in the third of our $100 photo contests (P.S.M., Jan. ’33, p. 72), which was on the subject of indoor Christmas pictures: FIRST PRIZE, $50 Charles J. Belden, Pitchfork, Wyo. SECOND PRIZE, $25 W. Keibel, West Allis, Wise.
THE professional microscopist considers his light nearly equivalent in importance to the lenses he uses in his instrument, and chooses and adjusts it with equal care and discrimination. The amateur or student soon learns how essential it is to have a reliable and definitely controllable source of light for his work.
WHEN the garden hose was moved for various uses in the yard, garage, and laundry, it often happened that the coupling washer would be lost. This caused an irritating delay while another washer was being obtained, but it was finally prevented by fastening the washer securely in place with orange shellac.
THIS new and unusual type of jigsaw puzzle forms a cube when assembled and has a different picture on each of its six sides. When the parts are spread out and well shuffled on the table, they resemble those of an ordinary picture puzzle, except that some of the pieces have no indication of pictures on them at all to aid in the assembly.
Unusual Butler's Table has removable tray with folding sides
AMONG the more expensive of the many varieties of small tables so much in vogue in the modern home, the socalled “butler’s table” is one of the most unusual and serviceable. It may be made of any good cabinet wood. The frame consists of four legs and four rails joined with mortise and tenon joints.
TOBACCO tins or other sheet metal of similar thickness and softness can be used for making spun metal wheels for model railway rolling stock. To shape wheels by this method, a form is necessary. This can be one of the iron truck wheels on any available car.
A CAREFULLY selected, timesaving kit of raw timesaving kit of raw materials for building a picturesque model of the famous Elizabethan galleon Revenge is the latest addition to the construction kits offered by the Popular Science Homecraft Guild.
To ASSIST you in your home workshop, POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY offers large blueprints containing working drawings of a number of well-tested projects. The blueprints are 15 by 22 in. and are sold for 25 cents a single sheet (except in a few special cases).
IN MOUNTING specimens for examination with a low-power microscope lens, I have used very satisfactorily cells made with gummed cloth stickers sold for reënforcing the holes in loose-leaf notebook sheets. Place the glue side down on the slide, set the specimen in the center, cover the rim of the cloth patch with Canada balsam, and add the round cover glass.
IN REPAIRING harness on a farm, it is often necessary to make a stitched splice. The tools needed are a knife (preferably round as illustrated), a finishing wheel, a marking wheel, a sewing awl, a clamp, waxed and needled harness thread, and a clamp.
THIS improvised tool will cut circular holes through any comparatively soft metal up to ⅛ in. thick without marring the surface, even if painted or lacquered. It will also cut through pieces of thin gage without bending them. If a 1-in. hole is required, for example, plane a stick of hardwood 1 in. square, cut it off about 4 in. long, and round one end so that it can be gripped in the jaws of a brace.
AN ORDINARY gooseneck lamp placed close to the surface of the water in a tropical fish aquarium will supply the extra heat needed to maintain the proper temperature in the spring and fall when the furnace is out of service. By moving the bulb to or from the aquarium, the heat may be regulated so that just the right amount is radiated at all TIMES.
READERS of this column should find the following story of unusual interest, because it deals with success on a small, but perfect scale. In times like these nothing can be more heartening than to learn that young men can and do find ways of making money by methods somewhat off the beaten track.
FOR a great number of years after leaving school, my “career” was conspicuous in its lack of distinction, to say nothing of success. Mostly, I worked as a day laborer in all kinds of factories. I took any job that was to be had, as I was always up against the need of getting work immediately after leaving the last place.
MODEL railway engineers who are interested in the construction of rolling stock will find the accompanying chart of assistance. It shows the standard American truck types in “0” gage and No. 1 gage, drawn accurately to scale. Constructors who require the exact scale—that is, those who wish the parts shown full size—can have the chart photostated up to the actual size required and then use the chosen diagram as a template in making the trucks.