ONE Sunday morning, after dropping their respective children at Sunday School, Ned Chadwick and Arthur Perkins set off for home, walking, and discussing their finances, savings, prospects, etc. “Have you ever thought about building and loan shares as a means of accumulating a good sum of money in the fastest, safest way,” asked Chadwick.
MORE than seven cents of every dollar spent in building goes into the heating plant, it is estimated. Of each dollar spent for maintaining a home, including taxes, repairs and similar items, as much as fifty cents or more is often spent for fuel. Therefore it is extremely important for the home-builder to get the most he can from his money, remembering that it is much easier to plan a heating system properly before it is installed in his home than to remodel it afterward.
I SHOULD like to take this opportunity to ask readers of POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY who, they think, is the greatest airman the world has ever seen? To start the ball rolling I may say that I would confer that honor on Commodore Kingsford-Smith—perhaps you have heard of him.
RADIO has given new impetus to the oldest brand of pseudoscientific hokum known to man—astrology. Over a large part of the United States, from two to twenty times a week, the air carries the pompous parlance of charlatans whose like, more than two hundred years ago, were denounced by Swift, the great English satirist, as “ignorant, sottish pretenders.”
Twelve Centuries of American History Revealed by Ancient Trees
ANDREW R. BOONE
PUSHING the horizons of American history back to seven centuries before the coming of Columbus, solving puzzles of ancient Indian ruins in the Southwest, revealing tense dramas in the lives of prehistoric men, and adding invaluable information to our knowledge of weather and its mysterious cycles, a 1,200year tree-ring calendar has been pieced together by Dr. Andrew E. Douglass, of the University of Arizona at Tucson.
More Thrilling Than Any Fiction Written by Master Novelists Is This True Record of Swift Solutions of My sterious Crimes
EDWIN W. TEALE
STUMBLING through swirling snow along an outlying street, a Wilkes-Barre, Pa., policeman tripped over the body of an elderly man crumpled face downward in bloodstained drifts. Papers in an inner pocket identified the victim. The patrolman flashed word to headquarters.
BY TAMING the electric hum that annoys owners of all-electric radio sets, and putting it to work to produce music, Capt. Richard H. Ranger, radio engineer, Newark, N. J., has created an amazing new musical instrument. This remarkable pipeless organ produces music electrically from loudspeakers instead of organ pipes.
PHOTOGRAPHS of butterflies enlarged to many times their natural size now teach Los Angeles children to recognize familiar kinds by name. The big pictures were recently introduced in the nature classes of the schools. They give a more vivid impression of the insects’ beauty than the average textbook drawing, and are accurate to the minutest detail.
AN ELECTRIC current “sat for its portrait” recently in a New Jersey laboratory and the result strikingly resembles a picture of grains in a hardwood floor. Controlled by frequency, two needles bobbed up and down, striking an inked ribbon above a chart, every time the direction of the alternating current switched.
ELECTRIC alarms now guard the baby. An official of a Chicago electrical concern recently declared that a dozen parents had rigged up these devices so that they could keep tab on the youngster. One couple connected a microphone over the baby’s bed with a loudspeaker in a neighbor’s home.
ROUND-THE-WORLD record seekers are shrinking the size of the globe we live on, measured in the time it takes to get from one place to the next. When Wiley Post and Harold Gatty circumnavigated the earth in slightly less than nine days a few weeks ago, they cut in less than half the best time that had previously been made in 412 years of globe circling.
ONE motor was not enough for Frank van Slyke, of Anita, Iowa, so he and the town blacksmith took the four-cylinder power plant out of his old sedan and put in two six-cylinder motors instead. Now he says his car flattens the steepest of hills. On level roads he can drive at racing speed.
SHEEP were shorn, and the wool woven into a man’s suit, in 130 minutes in a speed trial held recently at a British clothing factory near Huddersfield. One of the accompanying photographs, showing the lambs being shorn, was taken at 10:25 A.M. and the other shows the completed suit being exhibited at 12:35 P.M. the same day.
A HUGE model of a sailing craft, unusual in its dimensions, appeared recently at Rochester, England, to take part in a historical pageant. Named the Victory, this novel creation recalled the days when square-riggers with wooden hulls fought the battles of the sea.
IN THE year 2750 B.C., people rolled dice that closely resemble those in use today. This surprising discovery is announced with the return from Mesopotamia of Dr. E. A. Speiser, who excavated one of the ancient dice. It is made of baked clay and is cubical in shape.
AN ILLUSTRATED newspaper printed by radio in your home will give you up-to-thesecond news, if plans of a New York radio firm are realized. Already an experimental home receiver, which prints news broadcasts automatically, has proved successful in tests, officials of the concern have revealed to POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.
No LONGER do scientists picture an atom as a sort of miniature solar system, with individual electrons swinging like planets around a sunlike nucleus. Difficult to visualize, outside of a mathematical formula, is the more modern idea of an atom, which has been described as like “a swarm of bees around a hive, when the observer is too far away to see the individual bees.”
ALL appointees to the Federal Civil Service are now fingerprinted, and the prints are attached to the application papers and retained permanently in the Civil Service files. This procedure marks a departure from the old association of fingerprints with criminals.
NEW removable “heel tops” for women’s shoes may be interchanged between left and right foot to compensate for uneven wear, or replaced entirely by new ones. Each top carries a metal prong that fits snugly into a socket in the special heel of the shoe.
SELF - CLINCHING is a new automatic rivet, which may be applied by a single workman from the outside of the work. When it is placed in the hole, a few taps of a hammer drive a “firing pin” down its center. This spreads the slotted end and forms a head inside the work. The new rivets are made in iron, brass, and duralumin, the last being used in airplane construction.
How the world’s tallest building protects its neighbors from lightning was demonstrated strikingly the other day in the highvoltage laboratory of the General Electric Company, at Pittsfield, Mass. A model of the Empire State Building and the New York area surrounding it was exposed to 5,000,000-volt bolts of artificial lightning.
ODDEST of glider accidents was the experience of fourteenyear-old Sidney Carlson, of Sea Cliff, N. Y., when he tried to fly a friend’s soaring craft. He took off from a hill, rose to a height of about forty feet, and then lost control. The glider dived into a number of telephone and power wires and hung there.
A STUDY in wheels is the Army’s newest armored car. Six of them are used in ordinary travel, but a fourth pair on the side lifts the car’s middle over high bumps that would otherwise strike the frame. These pivoted wheels are interchangeable with the others.
ON A HALF-ACRE plot at Samarkand, in central Asia, Soviet engineers are rushing to completion a monster plant designed to harness the sun’s rays for power. This solar power station will supply industrial plants with both hot water and electricity.
A NEW attachment for any lawn mower equips it to trim the edges of lawns along a path. For this purpose, the mower is turned upside down and drawn along the border. A sharp cutter disk is forced into the turf by the weight of the mower, leaving a clean, sharp line.
FIRST large office building in the United States to make elaborate provision for the use of radio is a thirtythree-story structure now rising in Philadelphia. Each of its 425 offices will be wired for receiving programs. Special services to business are expected to be added by broadcasters.
Cable, Strung between Mountains, Acts as Antenna to Gather up Lightning
AT THE peril of their lives, three young Germans have just succeeded in drawing electric currents of 18,000,000 volts from the skies during a violent display of lightning. On the slopes of Mt. Generoso in Switzerland they duplicated Benjamin Franklin’s famous experiment of catching atmospheric electricity with a kite and key, on a scale which that pioneer never dreamed of.
Europe and America Unite to Broadcast Weather Reports
FOR the first time, American and European weather stations have joined in an international hook-up to aid mariners. Through this new service the captains of vessels receive, by radio, weather information collected over the entire hemisphere and broadcast from the Naval radio station at Arlington, Va.
WHEN is a tank not a tank? Germany’s answer is the fleet of queer vehicles shown in this photograph. Each is built on a special automobile chassis, carries a gun of small caliber, and is manned by a crew of four men wearing crash helmets. Technically it is classed as an armored car and not as a “tank.”
HERE is the first picture of the new “asbestos automobile” built in England, of which an advance report appeared in the July issue of POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. The original car so equipped has just passed its experimental tests in which leading motor car and bus companies are coöperating.
FROM a perilously close point of vantage, a photographer made this remarkable camera study of the last plunge of the Australian steamer Wodonga. The occasion was her burial at sea after a long and distinguished service. In 576 trips the liner covered more than 4,000,000 miles.
WHEN the rammed British submarine Poseidon went down in the Yellow Sea off the Chinese coast,six of its trapped crew probably became the first to escape from a sunken undersea craft without outside aid. First, they donned Davis “lungs,” a recently invented type of oxygen mask combined with a life-belt and eye-protecting goggles.
So THAT installers of electrical apparatus may have both hands free for work in dark places, a new “inspection lamp” resembling a miner’s headgear may be worn on the forehead. It is held in place by a rubber headband. Current is supplied through a cord hanging down the wearer’s back, with a special connection that parts instantly at any sudden strain.
ONE of the windiest spots in the civilized world is Pali Pass, near Honolulu, where a motor road crosses a mountain ridge. After numerous accidents to pedestrians, authorities have now strung a steel cable to aid those traversing this natural wind tunnel on foot.
Six Thousand Men and Women in California Make Yards Pay for Their Homes While Holding Other Jobs
H. H. DUNN
NINE years ago, Frank Fasano and his wife paid $200, their combined savings, on a purchase price of $2,000 for two acres of land in Chula Vista, Calif. Frank had a job in town that paid $35 a week. For six months, the Fasanos used some of this pay check to prepare their land.
SCIENTIFIC facts in the history of human beings are told in this dialogue in which is continued the story of LIFE...the World’s Greatest Mystery
MR. MOK: Dr. Gregory, you told me last month that we got our upright position from the monkeys. You subscribe, then, to the theory that we are descendants of monkeys? DR. GREGORY: That is no longer a theory, but an established fact. We are not only descendants of monkeys, but we still are monkeys.
FOUR Alabama scientists have just made chemical history by finding, in sea water, the missing element. No. 85. It completes the roll of ninety-two elements, or fundamental substances of which all things are made. They are named on this page, with sketches showing familiar uses where possible—from hydrogen, burned in gas ranges, to uranium, used to tint glass yellow.
Wolves, Coyotes, Bobcats, and Rats Cost Farmers Millions a rear
SETTING A TRAP FOR A COYOTE
IF YOU don’t help us quick, everybody in this section will be ruined before fall.” Letters like this, often as not scrawled in pencil on ruled tablet paper, come almost daily into the field stations of the Predatory Animal and Rodent Control of the Bureau of Biological Survey.
Read the Remarkable Story of How 39,000,000 Tons of Scrap Are Saved in America Each Year
What the Pictures on Page 40 Really Are
KENNETH M. SWEZEY
NEW railroads for old, skyscrapers and bridges from obsolete battleships, 1932 sport cars from automobile graveyards! This is not a prophesy, but a cold statement of a routine miracle of the steel age in which we live. At the rate of several million tons a month, outworn, mangled, discarded articles of iron and steel, from borings and tin cans to ships and locomotives, are collected, prepared, and finally transformed into brand-new articles of steel.
Close-up Photos Alter Appearance of Familiar Things
2 You certainly know what this is and how you have hated it at times! The world is full of people who consider it the greatest nuisance known to mankind. 1 Take a good look at this picture. Do you know what these queer things are? Just to help you and get you started right in solving the picture puzzles on this page we will tell you they are cigarettes.
TRAINED dogs now help German as well as American railway policemen hunt for criminals and car thieves (P.S.M., July ’31, p. 13). The Germans, with typical thoroughness, have established training schools for police dogs. After months of hard schooling, the Alsatian dogs are ready to go through the performances shown on this page.
NIGHT pilots flying between Portland, Ore., and Pasco, Wash., now pass through a lighted “tunnel” fifty miles long. Because of the danger of running into neighboring mountains in a fog, they follow the course of the Columbia River. The high walls of the river gorge form the sides of the tunnel, and low-hanging fog often completes it with a roof.
IMITATING the loosely feathered wings of an eagle, an Austrian mechanic, Julius Franz Ziegler, has just built an airplane with wings like a Venetian blind. Built up of slats fastened together elastically, which are designed to adjust themselves automatically to air currents, they curve downward and to the rear in the shape of a letter “C.”
A FEW months ago, Lieut. William Caldwell, U. S. Army flyer, crashed and was killed. He was accompanying another plane speeding Japan’s ratification of the London naval treaty eastward across the United States. When news of this tragedy flashed over the cables to Japan, it was heard with especial sadness by Shigeyoshi Fukushima, sixth grade Japanese schoolboy.
THE picture at lower right shows workmen erecting a combined air beacon and advertising sign at Indianapolis, Ind. The eight-by-ten-foot letter “O” is used in the ad. A four-sided steel tower on the roof of an office building carries the aerial beacon, said to be the largest in the world.
Plane Catapulted into Air by Powerful Merry-Go-Round
As BOYS throw stones from slingshots whirled around their heads, so a rotating catapult just patented will enable aircraft to take off from restricted areas, like the roofs of buildings. To a vertical pole that rotates at high speed is attached a long lever.
A NEW color scheme for the U. S. Department of Commerce planes paints the top of the wings “international orange.” Wheel fairings and front cowlings are maroon. Fuselages, and bottom wings of biplanes, are painted aluminum, and landing gear is black.
So THAT aviators will have no difficulty in distinguishing an airway beacon from a city’s lights, a new beacon has been invented that projects a fan-shaped sheaf of six rays into the sky. The beacon was successfully tested recently by the U. S. Army Air Corps.
JETS of compressed air enable a remarkable 180-foot airship recently tried out near Milan, Italy, to land without a ground crew. The nose of the ship contains five valves, through which a centrifugal pump spurts air in any direction. There is a similar set of valves in the tail.
FRENCH army engineers have created a fog that may replace the camouflage used during the World War: The chemical fog, formed of lime and sulphur compounds, covers large areas. During recent experiments in France a region many miles in extent was covered, effectively concealing troops from airplane observers.
No VAST sums of money change hands over its counters nor do high-speed tickers record its many transactions, but one of the busiest and oddest of Los Angeles’ commercial enterprises is its “Milk Bottle Exchange.” Here lost milk bottles, returned by mistake to the wrong dairy, are started on the way to their owner.
ESCALATORS, used to handle crowds in department stores and railway stations, will be installed in two large New York office buildings to be opened next year. In one the moving stairs will serve the three basement floors devoted to employees’ lunch rooms.
How many pins can you drop into a level glassful of water without making it overflow? When a Bournemouth, England, experimenter tried it the other day, the result surprised him. It took 1,320 pins to send the first drop of water trickling down the side.
WHAT will railway trains of the future look like? According to O. Kuhler, New York City design engineer, who had practical experience in handling the movement of German rolling stock during the war, they will be streamlined to the utmost degree in order to reduce wind resistance at high speeds.
A JUNKYARD automobile is doing the work of five men in rolling tennis courts at a Lincoln, Nebr., country club. The chassis of the resurrected car is mounted at the rear on a halfton chain-driven roller. Wide-tread wheels are used in front.
A NEW style of arrow that is literally two, one inclosed within the other, has given greater accuracy and range to the bow and arrow. Its hexagonal shaft is built of strips of bamboo, glued around a balsa wood core. The balsa gives lightness and the bamboo strength.
ORDINARY sugar is turned into a plastic substance by a newly developed process, about to be introduced commercially. The resulting product can be made into a bewildering number of articles, from artificial leather to combs, buttons, and electric insulators.
WHY sounds like gunfire can be heard plainly many miles away, yet are inaudible to listeners at much nearer points, seems a mystery well on its way to solution. Not long ago Dr. F. J. W. Whipple, superintendent of the Kew Observatory in England, played the part of a detective to find out what happened to the sound waves between the time of their birth and their reappearance miles away, after having skipped a “zone of silence.”
A MINIATURE hand-held mowing machine, run by a one-eighth-horsepower motor, is designed to make edging lawns and trimming around shrubbery a simple matter. The new garden accessory can be plugged into any lighting circuit by means of an extension cord.
PATIENTS are flipped over like flapjacks on a griddle by means of a hospital bed designed by a Canadian inventor. The bed is expected to facilitate examination of an emergency patient as soon as he is received, before the extent of his injuries is known.
TOY soldiers of lead are cast in a miniature “foundry” that can be operated by a boy. Pigs of lead, melted in a small pot heated by current from an ordinary household electric circuit, are run into molds. When the casting is taken from the mold it is a complete soldier when sharp edges are removed with a file.
ORDINARY vacuum cleaners are being used to clear land of tree stumps. The new method was developed by experts of the State College of Washington. The cleaner is used to supply forced draft in burning the stump. With dust bag removed, a distributor is substituted, to which lengths of air hose are attached.
ADJUSTABLE walking stilts now provide fun for youngsters of all sizes. Their steel steps, held firmly in a groove by a wing bolt, may be adjusted to three heights. Should the stilts be used indoors, there is no danger of slipping or marring polished floors because live rubber feet make them noiseless and skidproof.
To GIVE the children all the thrills of playing at railroading, W. F. Blue, of Montezuma, Ind., built a novel miniature railway in his yard. Its “locomotive” is a diminutive handcar, with side rods on the drive wheels just like those on a real engine.
A FRENCH inventor has perfected a device for improving the rearward vision of auto drivers, for use with the mirror that is standard equipment on closed cars: A large-diameter lens is mounted in the back window of a car. This greatly widens the driver’s field of vision, enabling him to see the road back of his car, with a clear view of following machines.
A STUDENT of public speaking at the University of Minnesota takes his examinations in a strange manner. With a metal harness strapped about his waist and chest he delivers a speech into a microphone. This is connected to loudspeakers before a group of judges.
MAKING pictures with his typewriter is the unusual hobby of Charles H. Young, of Ketchikan, Alaska. His tool is a stock model of a machine with several fonts of type, intended for technical writing. Young’s work combines ingenuity at using these characters with his skill as an artist.
AUTO tire chains, according to the manufacturer, are quickly mended with a metal sleeve that slides from one side to the other of a repair link. The sleeve is first pulled to one side of the repair link, the other end of which is hooked into one of the free links where the chain is broken.
MODERN methods of mining salt on Lake Baskunchak near the northwestern coast of the Caspian Sea show how rapidly the new is replacing the old in Russia. Formerly camels and horses drew crude wagons out into the shallow waters of the lake, while men waded around and dug the salt up by hand.
JUST as a rifle sight aims the bullet, so a new accessory for the car helps its driver to guide it past garage doors or park it near the curb. A twelve-inch upright rod is clamped to the fender. By looking past the knob at its top the driver is able to judge how much room he has.
NOT primarily to look at stars was this new type of twelve-inch reflecting telescope designed by Pasadena, Calif., optical experts. Several of the instruments will be used to investigate “seeing conditions” at eight or ten possible locations for what will be the biggest telescope in the world— the 200-inch reflector planned for the California Institute of Technology.
WIRE one fifth as thick as a human hair has just been drawn out of tungsten metal by the engineers of the Westinghouse Lamp Company at Bloomfield, N. J., who pulled it through a tiny hole bored in a diamond. It is used for the filament of a special type of electric lamp.
A PLANING machine recently completed in Germany is designed to smooth off blocks of iron or steel, as a carpenter planes a piece of wood, on an enormous scale. Unlike the carpenter’s plane, which moves over the work fixed in place on a bench, the cutting tools of this monster machine are stationary as in smaller types, while the work moves.
DUBBED the “turkey airplane,” a strange craft invented in Germany has three sets of wings. The hindmost pair may be tilted sharply upward, giving a striking resemblance to the tail feathers of the domestic fowl from which the plane takes its name.
WHILE radio men are still talking about the future broadcasting of sporting events by television, the first experiments along this line have been made in England where, it is said, there are 5,000 home television sets in use. Experimental broadcasts are being made by John L. Baird, television pioneer, of the finish of horse races.
SINCE an incompetent linesman working on a high-voltage electric line is flirting with death, an Ohio electric concern has constructed an examination room to make sure its employees are properly trained. Seven transmission poles, standard in everything but height, rise from the floor of this room.
A NEW pocket screw driver, invented by a Boston man, is no larger than a half dollar and may be carried on a key ring. Four short blades project from the circular portion, each of a different width, giving a screw driver that fits most screws. It is useful on radio sets and sewing machines.
A QUEER structure resembling an unglazed window frame was used by Professor Wallace Fenn, of Rochester University, N. Y., in testing the speed limit of runners. Sprinters raced in back of the apparatus while a movie camera filmed their actions.
SCHOOL children, who wear out or lose pen points rapidly, may be helped by a new “magazine” penholder. A cylindrical cavity within it holds five extra pen points. When a new one is needed the holder is opened, a point extracted, and the holder twisted back in place again.
FROM England comes a device that supports a pipe in the mouth of the smoker. A small suction cup rests upon his chin, and to this a bent rod is attached, which carries most of the pipe’s weight. The holder also serves as a stand for the pipe and can be folded to carry pipe in pocket.
GREEN, amber, and red lights control a parade of small auto parts as they pass through a new inspecting device at a Lansing, Mich., motor car factory. If the amber light goes on as a part is placed between its jaws the operator knows it has been machined to within allowable limits above or below a certain dimension.
A REMARKABLE view of one of the huge camera cranes that take “shots” from unusual angles for motion pictures comes from Hollywood, Calif. Camera, director, and operator ride on the end of a large girder of duralumin. Mounted on a rotating base, and capable of movement up and down as well as sidewise, this device gives the photographer a bird’s-eye angle from which to shoot the scenes.
THIS fierce and medieval looking piece of statuary is one of the two stone eagles designed for the Soldiers and Sailors Memorial bridge at Harrisburg, Pa. Each eagle is made of Indiana gray limestone, contains thirty-five separate pieces, and weighs approximately 392,500 pounds.
So STEERED and propelled that it can “turn on a dime” is the newly commissioned Mississippi River towboat William Dickinson. To help it negotiate the narrow and tortuous channels and to pass between bridge piers, it boasts four rudders—one forward and one behind each propeller, all worked by hydroelectric machinery instead of by hand.
A “LIQUID gasket” that comes in cans has just been introduced in this country. This gray paste, made of a secret combination of graphite and oils, is applied to any joint with an ordinary putty knife, and forms a joint that the manufacturers claim will remain tight under 1,500° F. heat and pressure of 5,000 pounds to the square inch, it has wide use in home, garage, and factory.
A SUMMER house owned by Arthur C. Lapham, of Carlisle, Mass., is a single section of a giant California redwood tree, taken from a point about fifty feet above the ground. The hut was constructed by standing the huge tree trunk on end after it had been hollowed out and putting a shingled roof over the top.
To SOLVE the problem of handling rings of concrete for a storm sewer at Richmond. Ind., tractors with rollers mounted at the front were pressed into service. The machines rolled the rings about like hoops.
ORDINARY styptic pencils for treating razor cuts easily lose themselves in the medicine cabinet and when needed in a hurry oftentimes are difficult to find. A recently patented shaving brush carries a styptic pencil fitted into the handle of the brush.
Light Rays Refracted by Water Give Distorted View of Things at Surface
VICTIM’S LOST BLOOD IS PUT BACK IN VEINS
LET US try to put ourselves in a brook trout’s place, see what he sees, and understand the strange topsy-turvy world that a law of optics creates for him. Since it is obviously impossible to dive into a quiet pool of the trout stream and observe the odd views the fish gets from the bottom, we must find some way to duplicate these same effects of light under laboratory conditions.
THREE million dollars in nuggets of gold! That is the lure that set a small band of adventurers sailing from Seattle, Wash., a few weeks ago. It lies in the hold of the ill-fated S. S. Islander, sunk in collision with an iceberg off Juneau, Alaska, thirty years ago.
CAN animals be hypnotized? “Yes,” is the verdict of experimenters who have actually put them into artificial sleep. Science has as yet no satisfactory explanation for such strange phenomena as are illustrated by the unusual photographs on this page, but that they occur is undisputed.
“Breathing Dome“ for World Fair Built Like Suspension Bridge
SUSPENSION bridge construction is applied to architecture, probably for the first time, in an unusual “breathing dome” for the Travel and Transport Building—one of the structures that is being rushed to completion for Chicago's World's Fair in 1933.
CHARLES BITTINGER, noted artist, whose canvases have been exhibited in the famous Paris Salon and in numerous cities of the United States, turned his talent to an unusual task the other day. The photograph shows him in a Washington, D. C., laboratory of the United States Bureau of Standards, engaged in painting the spectrum of the chemical element rhenium.
A SHOWROOM that advertises its wares in unusual ways has been established by a New York City firm manufacturing systems of conveyors. Seats and backs of each chair are samples of belting. The top of a center table rolls back to reveal a standard section of a roller-type conveyor.
THOUGH they appear to be crinkled, the odd rear wheels of this tractor are actually round when viewed squarely from the side. They are an English invention, and enable a tractor to pull heavy rollers over a golf course without marring the fairway.
ONE of these days when you call to have your portrait made, the photographer may ask you whether you wish to be taken in three dimensions or just plain flat. A new process developed by Dr. C. W. Kanolt of New York City produces a transparent picture—or a print on paper —in which objects seem to have actual depth.
INGENIOUSLY versatile is a new “bomb” flashlight for householders and campers. It stands on its own base, hangs from the wrist or a hook, or slips in the pocket. A milled ring on its face focuses the beam, and a three-way switch sets it for ‘steady,” “signaling,” or “off.”
AN ENORMOUS wooden dummy, representing a big gun, was used as the target for aerial bombers at Hendon, England, during recent airplane maneuvers of the Royal Air Force. Theoretically, it was put out of business by the attacking planes. The size of the unusual mimic fieldpiece may be gaged by the workmen seen erecting it, in the photograph shown above.
FLEXIBLE railway ties recently were announced as the discovery of a German inventor. They are nearly oval in cross section and are open at the bottom so they give to the weight of trains. Their open centers are filled with ballast. Steel plates keep them from slipping.
A NEW idea in electrical prospecting for oil deposits recently has been given a trial in some parts of New Mexico. A light motor truck, fitted with large wire reels and an electric generating set, arriving in a region where there is thought to be a possibility of oil, strings two miles of wire over the ground.
A NEW free-wheeling device with which two popular makes of light cars can be equipped, enables their drivers to enjoy the benefits of this coaster-brake for autos. When a car rolls downhill and the speed of its wheels exceeds the speed of its engine, if the driver's foot is off the throttle, the free-wheeler automatically disengages the drive shaft, permitting the car to coast.
GOVERNMENT agents in Cincinnati the other day captured a bootlegger's automobile with a smoke screen. A device beneath the dashboard enabled the driver to throw out a white haze that hid it from armed pursuers. According to W. C. Barcus, U. S. Department of Justice special investigator who is demonstrating the car’s smoke screen in this photograph, a mixture was used similar to that employed by Army aviators.
WINDOW washers use a trolley to help them polish the 30,000 panes of glass in a Pittsfield, Mass., building. The miniature trolley cars are propelled by hand, and travel on an overhead rail around the outside of the structure. They may be raised or lowered on chains.
A STANDARD length of garden hose becomes a lawn sprayer with the addition of one or more clamp-on spray nozzles, devised by an Adler Springs, Calif., hotel man. The hose is punctured at any desired point and a nozzle attached. A pair of screws draw it firmly in place.
A SLIGHT earthquake felt the other day at Manchester, England, spoiled the day for two golfers. One of them had missed holing his putt by a narrow margin, when the earth tremors tumbled his ball into the cup. He claimed the hole, but his opponent would not allow it.
A NEW paint and oil container recently put on the market by a Milwaukee, Wis., manufacturer, has a spout that slides in and out. During shipment, the telescoping spout is pushed down into the container. When in use, the spout, which tilts at the proper angle for pouring, is pulled out.
THE washtub size of the moon as it appears above the eastern horizon is explained by this simple optical illusion: Take two strips of black paper and cover the type matter above and below the line of dots from A to B. Then decide which distance seems longer—A to B or B to C, judging entirely by the eye and using nothing with which to measure the relative distances.
UNTIL a few weeks ago, the workman who turned his chattering rock drill against a cliff was likely to be committing slow suicide. Sharp-edged, microscopic particles of rock rose in clouds of dust from his drill point and attacked his lungs, in the often-fatal disease known as “silicosis.”
THE passenger who rides beside the motorcyclist gets limousine comfort in a novel sidecar that made its appearance not long ago on Berlin streets. Its buglike body carries a weatherproof top with wide windows. A windshield protects the occupant from the buffeting of the weather and streamlining gives the car its curiously unconventional appearance.
To MAKE reception better for broadcast listeners, the Canadian government is using two dozen special cars to hunt down the causes of radio interference in the larger cities. Man-made static may come from oil burners, telephone lines, electric signs, and a host of other sources.
FOR camping and for outings, a table and seats, combined in one folding unit that resembles a suit case when collapsed, as illustrated in the photograph above, is now on the market. It takes about a minute to unfold the seat and get it ready for use.
IF THE Arctic-bound submarine Nautilus succeeds in reaching its undersea goal at the North Pole, its depth finders will have a chance to test a startling theory of the earth’s interior. According to Dr. Richard O. Meents, former professor of geology at Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas, soundings should reveal a great bottomless hole of funnel shape beneath the Pole.
THE best way to bake a cake on a mountain peak or to brown a pan of biscuits at the seashore is being studied at the State Agricultural College of Colorado at Fort Collins. Within an “altitude room,” the first of its kind in the world, experiments are carried on to determine the proper ingredients to be used for high and low altitude baking.
AUTO thieves who steal machines equipped with a new combination lock will have to be trained bank robbers, according to the inventor. The lock is attached to the dashboard. Similar in appearance to the dials used on safes, it operates electrically through the car’s battery.
LIKE an aircraft designer's most fantastic dream is England's new “flying bat.” Its swept-back wings and extraordinary fuselage gave it an impressive resemblance to a bat in flight when it soared recently over the Royal Air Force station at Farnborough, England.
LIGHTED matches failed to ignite a fuel as powerful as high-test gasoline in a demonstration made recently by research engineers at Langley Field, Va. This new aviation gas promises to eliminate fire hazard in crashes. It is a yellowish fuel containing less sulphur than ordinary gasoline and results from a new refining method developed by a leading American oil company.
FROSTED glass for office partitions and doors is now made by using the amazing pulling power of shrinking glue. First a sheet of glass as smooth and clear as a window pane is lightly sand-blasted. Then a strong adhesive, such as animal glue, is applied with a brush.
SOMETHING new for your garden hose is a coupling that has no threads and connects easily. Placed on the market recently by a Berkeley, Calif., manufacturer, it has a fitting that screws over the end of the faucet and is left there. In this is a slotted outer face into which the coupling on the hose slides.
GUARD THE TOOTHBRUSH. This metal rack, with pivoted cover, for the bathroom wall is designed to hold toothbrushes and paste and protect them from dust and insects found in even the cleanest home. ROLL CLOTHES CLEAN. Wearing apparel placed in this can, which contains a special fluid, is cleaned by rolling the can.
Secrets of Nature Sought on the High Roof of the World
HEADING A GREAT EXPEDITION. Into the remote wilderness of Turkestan in the southern part of Central Asia, this caravan of camels bearing provisions is headed with the Alai-Pamir Mountain region as the destination. There on a wild plateau surrounded by grinding glaciers, distinguished German and Russian scientists will pitch their tents prepared for thrilling work and sport and adventure on this far famed and wildly desolate “Roof of the World.”
ON ANOTHER page of this issue, you read of Capt. Richard H. Ranger’s pipeless organ. If this revolutionary instrument attains wide popularity, what will it be named? Will it possibly be called the “ranger"’ after its creator? This thought occurs to us because the “theremin,” the latest invention so to be named, is another musical instrument which also produces sound by what may be called radio methods.
THE difficulty of telephoning while the radio is filling the room with sound has resulted in the development of ways to turn off the radio automatically while the phone is being used. One way of doing the job was shown in this page several months ago (P. S. M., Dec. ’30, p. 83).
This Article Describes New Marvel in Radio That Makes It Possible to Find Peak of Volume from a Station IVith Loudspeaker Disco?tnected
ALFRED P. LANE
A WEIRD column of red light that flows up and down inside a thin glass tube like the red liquid in a thermometer is the latest thing in visual tuning for the modern radio receiver. Instead of jiggling the dial back and forth until the station seems loudest, the new tube makes it possible to tune a station with mathematical accuracy even though the loudspeaker be disconnected.
QUEER noises from radio headphones now give the facts about the quality of the paper used as insulation in many types of radio condensers. Condenser paper is made extremely thin so that the bulk of the condenser may be kept within reasonable limits.
"GIMME ten gallons of plain gas!” the owner of a smart roadster called out as he pulled up in front of the Model Garage. Gus Wilson, half owner of the garage and mechanical mainstay of the establishment, unlimbered the hose and turned the crank for the required ten gallons.
WHAT’VE you been doing—buying out the five-and-ten?” my neighbor Don Marshall called out as I staggered up the front steps with the load of television parts I had bought on the shopping tour I described last month. I dumped the bundles on the top step and fished for my door key.
A TOY electric motor instead of the wind turns the vanes of this illuminated garden mill, which is 8 in. wide at the bottom and 15½ in. high. The walls are of in. thick concrete made over an eight-sided wooden form, on which thin blocks of wood had been fastened to indicate where the door and window openings were to come.
WITH its close-set, bristling points, the metal band illustrated forms an impassable barrier against cats and other animals that might attempt to climb the tree to kill birds and rob and destroy their nests. The band is made from a piece of galvanized iron 5 in.
MUCH more convenient than a nail or hook for holding one’s work gloves is a spring clothespin. To mount it, the clothespin is taken apart and a ⅛-in. hole bored through one of the jaws so that it can be fastened to the wall with a screw. Then the clip is reassembled by slipping the jaw back under the spring.
AN ARTIFICIAL garden pool, even of small size, can be made more realistic and attractive if it contains a real island decorated with appropriate plantings. To form the island, rocks can be piled up one layer on top the other in the usual way, but a far better plan is to build a cone of concrete, cap the edges with irregularly shaped field stones, and then fill the interior with rich earth to receive the plants.
W. Clyde Lammey shows how easy it is for the home craftsman to rival the work of skilled cabinetmakers
FOR years the home craftsman has been obliged to design his shop projects within the limitations of hand tool methods. He has had to keep in mind the difficulties and inaccuracies of handwork. But all this is changed now' that small, reasonably priced power tools have come into general use, and he is able to duplicate every essential operation found in the best cabinetmaking.
MANY amateur woodworkers would like to fashion small, oddshaped gift boxes of decorative and individual designs. This is not difficult to do. A miter box will give the correct angles for sawing the edges of pieces that are to form the sides of boxes with more than four sides; casein or other highgrade glue "will fasten the joints permanently; and a clamp for holding the pieces in contact while the glue sets can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations.
GUIDED by an illustration that appeared in this magazine (P.S.M., Dec. ’30, p. 67), John Tabb, of Erie, Pa., built the realistic model of the Cape Halteras (N. C.) lighthouse shown in the accompanying photograph. It is really a large electric table lamp.
THOSE who take pleasure in making something useful from cast-off materials can easily convert a discarded auto horn —minus motor and housing—into an unbreakable, yet attractive, flower holder or vase. The horn may be left as it is or decorated as desired.
IF YOU take photographs—and in these days, who doesn’t?—you are certain to be caught from time to time without a tripod when you wish to take a time exposure. Take two chairs of the same height and set them as shown so that the tops of the backs form an acute angle; then lay a book or any flat object on them to make a platform for the camera.
The clash of hand-to-hand combat and the groans of galley slaves driven by the lash once echoed from ships such as this—symbol of the power and glory of Rome.
ROMAN soldiers went to sea at times in great, slave-rowed galleys and fought desperate battles with enemy fleets. They were led in action by a consul or general—there were no Roman admirals—on board a fast, richly ornamented galley which gleamed in brilliant colors and gilded carvings from prow to stern.
ALTHOUGH it has the appearance of being an expensive piece of pottery, the jardinière or flowerpot holder illustrated is nothing more than cardboard and paper. It is light and unbreakable, fits the flowerpot it is designed to conceal, and costs next to nothing.
JAPANESE wind chimes, which consist of several pieces of thin glass and are sold for as little as ten cents, can be converted into a unique electric doorbell. If a strong electromagnet is not available, make one by winding magnet wire around a soft steel core.
To KEEP a small quantity of shellac, brushing lacquer, or enamel in good condition and the brush soft and ready for instant use, punch or drill a ⅜-in. hole in the screw lid of a glass jar, such as a discarded mayonnaise container, and solder a tire-valve dust cap over the hole.
Low priced jig saws rarely have a holddown to keep the saw from lifting the work on the up-stroke, but one can be made from wood without difficulty. Into a base of suitable size—mine is 2 by 6 by 22 in.—fasten an oak upright 1 by 2 by 16 in. in the position shown, using a strongly mortised, glued, and screwed joint.
MECHANICAL drawings must often be laid out, especially in the home workshop, on a sloping drawing board which is much shorter than the T-square used with it. The right end of the square has an annoying tendency to slip down. While there are, of course, various excellent devices available to steady this end of the square, a practical substitute can be made as shown from a lead pencil and a strong rubber band.
KEEPING a record of the various service and repair jobs that have been done on your automobile is, in theory, a relatively simple job. All you need is a small notebook in which to enter the various items. In practice, however, it doesn’t work out that way.
The work is easy and the results better than you obtain from some “hurry-up" professional finishers
Nine Simple Rules Insure Success
Here's a Chance for You to Win $10
FREDERICK D. RYDER
"TAKE a look at these,” said a friend of mine, handing me a bunch of photo prints. “I’m disgusted. I’ve taken enough pictures this summer to paper a room, and each roll is worse than the last. Do you think there is something wrong with my camera?”
THREE MYSTIFYING CARD TRICKS REQUIRE NO SLEIGHT OF HAND
THESE three tricks, to parody a magician’s patter, are “simply startling” and “startlingly simple.” The only preparation required is to obtain a deck of cards with borderless backs, remove the jack of clubs, and trim off 1/32 in.
IN THE small shop where low cost of production is an all-important factor, a great saving of materials and labor can be effected by shaping forming tools on the surface grinder rather than in the miller. A comparison of costs such as that outlined in a recent issue (see P. S. M., Aug. ’31, p. 85) shows conclusively that the grinding wheel offers the most efficient and economical means for bringing small forming tools up to shape.
IN SHOPS where considerable vise work is done, the addition of removable pins as shown to the vise jaws will prove a convenient timesaver when working on connecting rod caps or similar pieces having two or more holes. The pins, which are made a neat sliding fit in the holes of the piece of work to be held, are threaded at one end and the top surfaces of the vise jaws are tapped to receive them.
A UNIQUE and efficient heater for tempering small hardened steel tools such as punches and dies can be made from an ordinary electric iron in the manner illustrated. The electric iron is held bottom up in a vise and a tin can or other similar metal container two-thirds full of quenching oil is placed on top of the iron.
BAKELITE is best drilled with a drill ground to start through the bottom before the full diameter begins to cut on the top surface of the work. Keep your splining tools .001 in. undersize; it is a safe way to maintain a perfect fit for the key. A milling machine vise, rotated by hand, will serve in an emergency as a rotating table for the milling of contours.
THIS attractive little yarn holder should appeal to the handy man whose wife has to spend her evenings alone, perhaps crocheting, while he is busy in his workshop. Lay out the design of the ends and handle on cardboard, and transfer the outlines to ⅝ in.
WHEN drilling a hole with a very thin drill in material which requires a good deal of pressure, run the drill first through a block of wood that is as thick as the length of the drill minus the depth of the hole to be drilled. Hold or clamp the block stationary while drilling.
PATCHES of heavy cloth or adhesive tape fastened to both sides of drafting triangles and French curves and to the underside of the T-square are a great aid in keeping mechanical drawings from becoming smudged. The tabs slide easily, interfere very little, and greatly reduce the danger of blotting.
AN ATTRACTIVE verd green finish on either copper or brass can be obtained through the use of nitric acid. Place a small quantity of commercial nitric acid in a jar and carefully drop small pieces of scrap copper into it until the acid will not dissolve any more.
RARELY is there enough room in clothes closets for hats, especially when guests are being entertained. It is a simple matter, however, to make a hatrack that will carry five or six hats and still be out of the way of the clothes hangers and shelf in the average closet.
WHEN worn away unevenly in the center, an oilstone can be restored to a true surface with very little work. An old flatiron (or any scrap piece of flat surface cast iron) is set up on the bench as shown. Carborundum powder is dusted on the iron and moistened with kerosene.
IF YOU were given the wooden puzzle illustrated and asked to remove the two notched blocks from the piece with the square hole, how would you do it? You would probably find it impossible, yet the solution is really simple. The ends of the two small blocks are soaked in hot water for a few minutes until the wood is soft and pliable and can be compressed sufficiently to allow the pieces to be taken apart.
SPEED grace, and daring are all symbolized in this simplified scale model of the famous Fokker D-7. At the close of the World War, Fokker ships were supreme in the German army, and the D-7’s especially were accredited with being the most efficient scout and fighting planes in the air.
WOODEN strips of awkward shape often can be held for planing, boring, shaping with a spokeshave, or sandpapering by the method illustrated above. A cabinetmaker’s bar clamp is set up in the vise, and the work is gripped lengthwise in the position desired between the jaws of the clamp.
A PLANING support for long work is a valuable addition to any woodworking bench, especially if made so that it can be set up in several different positions like the one illustrated. This attachment is useful not only to hold the rear end of long, wide boards, but also doors to which lock and hinges have to be fitted, and other work which cannot conveniently be held in the ordinary bench vise alone.
RUDY WOODS, boy of 15, Builds His Own Machines for Model Making
WHAT can be done by an ingenious and energetic boy who enjoys working with tools is graphically shown by the accompanying photographs of shop equipment and models made by Rudy Woods, 15 years old, of Portsmouth, Ohio. Not being able to spend a great deal for tools, Rudy makes his own whenever possible.
A SIMPLE little autogiro for your kite string can be made from thin balsa and a stick. Make the four revolving blades as shown and fasten them to the stick with a glass-headed pin so they will turn freely in the wind. The blades should be very slightly twisted, all in the same direction.
ROTARY knives from a discarded pencil sharpener make good milling cutters for surfacing soft metal castings or for edging irregular pieces of wood before finishing them with sandpaper. The knife is placed on a small bolt, which passes through its center, and is held firmly by a nut.
BY BUILDING the fuselage shown in the accompanying illustrations, you can convert the unique new POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY twenty-in-one airplane model into any one of ten different types of fuselage models. How to make the parts for assembling ten single-stick models was told last month (P.S.M., Aug. 31, p. 72), but those who missed that issue can easily build them from POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY Blueprints Nos. 135 and 136 (see page 99), which contain complete, full size drawings of the parts for all twenty models, ten of the single-stick type and ten of the fuselage type.
AFTER spring-wound mantel and alarm clocks have been in service for some time, they often stop because they are clogged with dirt. This may be remedied by using a gasoline bath. Remove the works from the case. If it is an alarm clock, be sure to take off the face; and if it is a mantel clock, remove the pendulum.
Lifelike Figures Win PRIZES in Match Stick Contest
MANY realistic models whittled from ordinary kitchen match sticks were submitted in our recent match stick model contest (see P.S.M., May ’31, p. 85). Some of the models were human figures, some were intricately carved chains, and others were diminutive pliers and similar examples of trick carving.
THESE novel iron candlesticks are really “bewitching.” Put them on a mantel in a dark room, light the candles, and you’ll see. They are easy to make, too; for all you will need is a hack saw, a 3/16and 7/32-in. metal drill, a No. 12-24 tap, and a tap wrench.
CLEAR telephoto pictures can be taken by attaching a field glass to a camera by means of a strip of fairly soft leather slightly longer than the width of the camera and a small spiral screen door spring shortened so that when it is placed around the camera and the ends are hooked into holes in the ends of the leather strip, the latter will be held firmly in place.
ALTHOUGH designed as a typewriter desk, the table illustrated could be used for playing bridge or other purposes. It is easily constructed because almost every cut is square. I did all the cutting on a very small, inexpensive circular saw.
A SIMPLE and effective way to protect the edges of linoleum mats and rugs from becoming cracked and torn is to reënforce the margin wherever necessary with a strip of zinc, thin brass, or copper in the manner illustrated at the right. The length of the strip will depend on the amount of the edge which is likely to be damaged.
WHEN installing a small home workshop lathe it is sometimes difficult to set up the countershaft and motor without ruining the walls or ceiling. The accompanying illustrations show how this was overcome in one case by mounting the ¼-H.P. motor directly on the bench with the lathe.
TO SATISFY a small child’s natural craving for action, few toys are better adapted than the easily made and inexpensive spring health horse illustrated. The spring is from an automobile bumper of the type illustrated in the drawings, obtained in a “graveyard” of old cars.
BIRD owners all know how difficult it is to pour seed into the feed container in a cage from the ordinary cardboard box in which the food is usually packed. A solution to this problem was suggested by the pivoted spout on a salt container. I cut out the top of the salt box and placed it inside the metal rim of an old style two-section mason jar lid, as illustrated.
UNIQUE TILTING MIRROR FOR USE ON DRESSER OR CHIFFONIER
THIS unique and decorative little vanity mirror can be constructed by anyone who owns a wood turning lathe. It is intended to be placed on a dresser or chiffonier. The glass is screwed to a slightly larger wooden backing piece, which is fastened to the turned uprights in such a way that it may be adjusted to any desired angle.
BY RUNNING an insulated wire from the frame of your home workshop motor to the nearest water pipe or section of electric conduit, you can effectively ground it and thus avoid the possibility of receiving a shock in case a short circuit should occur.
A NOVEL string telegraph capable of furnishing much amusement to children, yet efficient enough for practical use, can be easily made of odds and ends. I first built the apparatus described below for two boys of the neighborhood who were convalescing in adjacent houses, their bedrooms facing across a small yard, and have since applied it for use in a dairy, a foundry, and a farmhouse.
HAVE you ever found it necessary to take down a dollar watch to learn just what was the matter with it or had to do some other equally delicate work only to discover that you lacked a screw driver small enough for the tiny screws? Small screw drivers can be made in an emergency of this kind merely by cutting off the hook part of a fishhook and flattening out the cut end of the shank to form a screw driver blade.
MODEL making, especially the building of ship models, calls for the drilling of numerous very small holes. It is difficult to handle very small drills in the ordinary hand drill because the slightest twitch of the hand while turning the hand crank breaks the drill.
WITH the addition of a small weight suspended from a thread, an ordinary protractor will serve satisfactorily as a hand level or clinometer for measuring slopes or gradients in degrees. It can be used in leveling fixtures and laying foundations, and also for running small drainage and irrigation ditches and other work where the cost of construction would not justify the employment of an engineer.
WHEN a large number of window screens have to be hung or other work done which requires the driving of numerous screw eyes, it pays to make the special tool illustrated. I have made two different sizes and never again would bother trying to insert screw eyes in the old way with a pair of pliers.
POLES and posts sunk in the ground usually begin to rot in a short time. Locust wood, of course, lasts for a great many years, but often it cannot be obtained conveniently. Other woods can be made to endure almost as long by treating them chemically or in various other ways.
BY USING three straight, stiff broom straws 8 in. long, it is possible to make a miniature tail kite that will fly like a full size one. The straws are arranged as shown and bound securely at the center with thread. A length of thread is then tied to the ends of the straws to form the outline of the kite.