IT WAS 5:30 and Tom Addison was through for the day. But instead of reaching for his hat and leaving, he remained at his desk, toying with a pencil, day-dreaming. A $500.00 raise for the coming year had started him building air castles. His day-dreaming led him back to present conditions and from there it was but a short step to worry.
THE Booklet listed below will help every family in laying out a financial plan. They will be sent on request. Your Income and Your Life Insurance is the name of a brief booklet scientifically answering the question "How much life insurance does a man really need?”
MUCH is heard these days about insulated houses,” but many people who buy or build what they think is an insulated house are not getting insulation and cannot expect the warmth and economy that go with this worth while feature of modern house construction.
IN THE September issue of POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY, a Bostonian says your magazine should be barred from the mails because of your articles describing the conditions of the United States Patent Office. I think that Bostonian owes your magazine an apology.
Sets in Cars May Soon Make Nation One Big Detective Bureau
EDWIN W. TEALE
ON THE outskirts of Lansing, Michigan, a one-story brick building is the heart of an experiment watched by the whole nation. Here, a few days ago, Governor Fred W. Green threw a switch and the first state-wide police radio hook-up was an actuality.
New Craze Has $75,000,000 Invested in 25,000 Courses and a Million Players
JESSE F. GELDERS
SHOWMANSHIP and mechanical art will decide the fate of America’s newest big industry— miniature golf. Winter’s approach has been a reminder of its uncertainty to a quarter of a million vitally interested people. They are confident that fresh ideas, well kept courses, and human nature will keep it growing.
Few Survivors of Fleet Arab Steeds Left—Plans Are Laid to Rescue the Breed from Extinction
JAMES W. BOOTH
DETERMINED to save the beautiful, fleet-footed Arab, king of horses, which is threatened-with extinction in its native home, a few American horse lovers are devoting every effort and vast sums of money to perpetuating the asil, or pure Arabian strains, in the United States.
New mystery airplane, built by three American inventors on barge in Long Island Sound, is tested in secret and is said to have made short flights.
SPOOLS of metal, two feet thick, whirl on spindles to lift a strange new airplane without wings. The mystery craft, secretly being tested near Mamaroneck, N. Y., is reported to have made short flights over Long Island Sound. Its three inventors have isolated themselves and their machine on a barge until they are ready for a public demonstration.
What's Wrong with the Pictures On the Next Two Pages?
Rules of the Contest—Read Carefully
FIVE hundred dollars is a tidy little sum at any time. Here is a chance to earn it. Compete in this month’s “What’s Wrong?” Contest, and you may win the First Prize of $500. And if you are not that fortunate, you may carry off the Second Prize of $100, the Third Prize of $50, or one of the ten $10 or fifty $5 prizes.
In each picture on this page George Knowitall is doing a mechanical job in a wrong way and there are four errors deliberately put there by trick photography. Find the five mistakes in each picture, send us your answers, and one of the 63 cash prizes offered in this contest may be yours.
There's Still Time to Enter Last Month's ”What's Wrong?” Contest
WE ARE reproducing on this page in small size the four photos which made up the first chapter of our “Whet's Wrong?” contest. Read the rules on page 27, find the errors in these pictures, and send in your entry before October 30. The October issue, which can be examined free in public libraries, or at any office of this magazine, shows the pictures in larger size.
Boys, learning to sail, get old-time thrill in Swedish bark as winddriven waves crash poop deck and sails fly in ribbons—Boat is forced into Panama
THE cook could fill his pots only one eighth full to keep them from splashing over, and the lifeboats were gone because a forty-foot wave had washed them overboard. Those were highlights of an iron sailing ship’s recent trip across the Pacific in the “roaring fifties.”
ELECTRICITY lowers the lifeboats aboard the Santa Barbara, modern New YorkChile liner. A group of stewardesses, in a recent demonstration at Brooklyn, N. Y., manned the lifeboats by themselves to show the ease with which boats could be put over the side.
A WOMAN’S first finger is usually longer than her third, or ring finger. The first finger of a man’s hand, however, generally is shorter than the third. This odd fact was confirmed recently by Ruggles George, of the University of Toronto, after examining 630 typical hands.
NEWS stands and drug stores are now distributing “unbreakable” phonograph records which recently were put on the market. Made of red fiber paper, with a coating of a secret resin that carries the sound recording, the records are as light as cardboard, and so flexible that they may be folded nearly double without cracking.
IT SOUNDS like an orchestra when De Main Wood, a Rochester, N. Y., music teacher, plays a tune. His remarkable instrument, he says, took him nearly half a lifetime to build and the other half to learn to play. It combines four pieces in one—guitar, piano, mandolin, and ’cello.
STOOPING over to pick up golf balls on miniature or full-sized courses is unnecessary for those who use a new device recently designed by a California inventor. This little contrivance consists of a simple metal cap that can be slipped over the end of the handle of a golf club.
How much does a pound weigh in Washington? That is not as foolish a question as it may sound, for a pound weight doesn’t weigh exactly the same in every part of the earth. It weighs a little less than a pound, for example, on a high mountain top farther from the earth's center.
IF A BEE were to try a scheduled flight from New York to San Francisco, he probably could arrive within a second of the time at which he wanted to get there. This would not be fantastic in view of the recent discovery by Dr. Karl Frisch, of the Zoological Institute at Munich, Germany, of a remarkable “time sense” possessed by bees.
X-RAYING penguins in the Antarctic was one of the feats of the recent expedition led by Sir Douglas Mawson. While Admiral Byrd’s party was encamped on the side of that icecovered continent within the Western Hemisphere, Mawson and his men went into the opposite side of Antarctica.
OUT of an Idaho bog hole came, the other day, one of the two principal “missing links” in the horse's ancestry. Dr. James W. Gidley, noted fossil hunter of the United States National Museum, uncovered the priceless cache of horse skeletons in the Snake River Valley.
BATTLESHIP and destroyers rested at their moorings during a recent exhibition at Portsmouth, England, while the British navy’s oddest craft walked away with the show. This diminutive thirty-five-foot motorboat, without a man aboard, chugged across the harbor, turned, and maneuvered as if an unseen hand were at the helm.
A TWO-TON “earth” spins in the lobby of a New York City office building. With its recent completion, it became the center of a unique astronomical exhibit for which the structure was especially planned. The miniature earth, in a lighted pit, revolves once in ten minutes.
THE United States is still far from crowded, but it’s coming along. Practically complete returns from the 1930 census show that there are more than 122,700,000 of us now. This is an increase of seventeen million since the last official census, in 1920.
WOMEN’S vocal cords are lighter and move more easily than those of men. That, according to two German physiologists, explains how women have acquired the reputation of being the talking sex. The truth of the matter is that it is simply less effort for them to be vocal.
SUBSTANCES such as rubber and kerosene, considered among the most unpleasant of common smelly things, are now made easier to sell by adding another odor to them in the form of an “industrial aromatic.” Although this substance may sometimes be equally bad-smelling, the combination produces a pleasant odor.
WHETHER a contractor gives a city its money’s worth when he lays a new street pavement is speedily determined by a testing machine recently introduced in Cincinnati, Ohio. Ten or twelve days after the contractor finishes a street, a small truck drives up, and a core drill mounted on it and driven by a fourcylinder motor whirs into the pavement.
A STEAM turbine locomotive of unusual design has just been completed in Germany by the famous Krupp Works for duty on the Hanover-Cologne division of the German National Railroad. By the use of two turbines, one to drive the locomotive forward and the other to drive it backward, coupled with suitable reduction gearing to a crank shaft, the inherent disadvantages of high speed turbine operation have been overcome.
FILLING balloons is not the only thing that hydrogen, lightest of gases, is good for. Recently a car left East Pittsburgh, Pa., bearing a huge electric machine that is inclosed by a tank of water-cooled hydrogen gas. This machine, a rotating device known as a “synchronous condenser,” which handles as much as 20,000 horsepower of electric energy, was built by the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company to improve the quality of electric distribution over transmission lines of the Southern California Edison Company.
THE FIRE fighters of Burton-on-Trent, England, have designed a device that speeds them on their job. When a fire call is received at the station, the pushing of a button rings a bell for the firemen, starts the motor of the fire engine, and opens the doors of the fire house.
A CONCRETE building material that “rises” like bread in the oven, to attain a fluffy lightness weighing only a fraction as much as ordinary concrete, has now been successfully applied for the first time. A steel mill at Bethlehem, Pa., has laid .
CARELESS slaughter so thinned the ranks of the giants of the sea and made the whales so cautious that new ways or hunting them had to be found. The latest weapon of the whaler is the airplane. These remarkable pictures show how whales now are pursued and killed in the rich whaling waters in the neighborhood of Cape Horn.
SWEEPING a hundred miles an hour through white, blinding fog. Straining every nerve for the unexpected. Gambling your life on the accuracy of a dozen dials. That is blind flying. It is a chancy business that no pilot enjoys. My first taste of blind flying was a thrilling “fog-take-off” during the World War when I was flying Fokkers on the Saloniki Front with the Bulgarian “war birds.” Our field lay in a valley between two mountains.
Navy Builds Remarkable Tower, Filled with Sea Water, to Train Men to Escape from Crippled Craft
JOHN E. LODGE
IMAGINE a silver lighthouse, equaling a thirteen-story building in height, eighteen feet in diameter, and filled with sea water, and you have a fair picture of the “rescue tower” that has just been completed at the United States submarine base near New London, Conn.
Giant Stride in Aviation in Three Years Gave Westward Flight over the Atlantic Its Success in Spite of the Head Winds That Cut Plane s Speed and Ate Up Fuel
TWO SMILING Frenchmen shook hands a few weeks ago, under difficulties, with Col. Charles A. Lindbergh. They were crowded to the back wall of a Valley Stream, N. Y.,hangar by a happy, cheering mass of humanity that the word “crowd” fails adequately to describe.
These scenes from the Department of Agriculture's bee laboratory show how Government experts are trying to develop stronger bees capable of covering a wider range—Various strains are crossed while six million are under observation.
BETWEEN thirty and forty tons of elephant tusks from the wilds of Africa and Asia were banked together recently in a sale room at Mincing Lane, London. England—one of the chief ivory markets of the world. Seven hundred elephants contributed to this unusual hoarded treasure, valued at many thousands of dollars.
“LEAP-FROG” cars provide the latest thrill for amusement seekers on the Steel Pier at Atlantic City, N. J. Streaking down a steep descent at dizzy speed, dare-devils in small steel cars leap from fifteen to twenty feet into the air, over one another, when reaching the up-curve at the bottom of the incline.
A NEW “mouth” fer a vacuum cleaner hose sucks dust from drawers with compartments containing small articles. The drawers need not be emptied. Designed for use in printers’ shops, where type is kept in cases divided into sections, it also has proved useful in surgical supply houses and typewriter repair shops, where small parts for sales and repairs are stored in cases and drawers.
BRUSHING the teeth up and down, as dentists advise, is easy for those who use a new rotary toothbrush. When the handle is gripped and a sliding rod pushed in and out, the brush spins. After use, a few rapid movements of the plunger serve to rid the whirling brush of excess moisture and allow it to dry, preserving the bristles.
COAT hanger pedals attached by rods to the bass keys of a piano enable Charles H. Jennings, of Pittsburgh, to play parts in the lower range of the piano with his feet, while with his hands he is playing in the upper scales. With this arrangement, he can play compositions that ordinarily would be impossible.
SMALL metal hooks that can be inserted either in wood or masonry aid the house owner in achieving the picturesque effect of a wall or chimney covered completely with climbing roses or other vines. If the surface is wooden, the nail is simply driven into the wood and the soft metal hook bent toward the wall and around the vine tendril, which thus is prevented from having its own way, kept in place and safeguarded from the effects of wind.
A NEW type of ventilator, whose inlets resemble large artificial flowers, gives protection against draft, according to the statement of the manufacturer in Germany. Placed on the ceiling and walls of the room, the outlets are fashioned in a series of concave disks that break up the current of air.
SUBMARINES wouldn’t find it easy going in the shallow rivers of France. But a shipbuilding firm at Chalon-sur-Saone, a city more than 200 miles inland, recently delivered the submersible Argonaut successfully to its base in the Mediterranean Sea.
EIGHT million dollars worth of citrus fruits—lemons, oranges, limes—are put to bed under a protective blanket of oil smoke in the vast orchards of the San Joaquin Valley in California whenever frost threatens. This is the method that the fruit growers of this western orchard kingdom employ to guard their precious ripening tree crops from death by cold during the fall and winter months.
MOVIES are taken of operations in a German hospital in' Berlin by means of a queer motion picture camera suspended over the operating table in a ball-shaped metal case. The films taken in this modern addition to hospital equipment are used by doctors in studying the reaction and condition of patients undergoing an operation.
How damp is a piece of lumber? Blinking lamps tell the facts almost instantly, in an ingenious electric device recently developed by the U. S. Forest Products Laboratory, at Madison, Wis. The new “blinker” machine’s artificial “feeler” is a set of sharp prongs, mounted on a hammer to be driven into a piece of wood under test.
WHEN an oil well in Ector County, Texas, burst into flame just as it came in, the men in the drilling crew were compelled to flee for their lives. The accompanying photograph taken at the moment the explosion occurred shows clearly the powerful blast and the men running for cover.
THERE is less hunting for the missing utensils of a shaving kit, now that a brush has been invented that can be attached directly to a tube of your favorite shaving cream. The tube serves as a handle for the brush. Squeezing the tube slightly shoots the proper amount of cream right into the center of the bristles, where it will not fall off.
TRAVELING at almost fifty miles an hour, Ray Pregenzer, of Antioch, I11., recently set a new world’s speed record for outboard motorboats. His official speed was 49.723 miles an hour. The record was made during recent speed trials on Fox Lake, I11.
WHY are old shoes more comfortable than new ones? To find out, Abraham Sachs, shoe dealer of Salisbury, Md., made a practice of inserting his hand in each pair that a hard-to-fit customer had been wearing. He found that a shoe begins to be comfortable when the sole has taken the shape of the customer's foot, a process that often took considerable time.
BIG game hunters for zoological gardens can now capture wild beasts by shooting them with hypodermic needle bullets that put them to sleep. These “mercy bullets” have the appearance of miniature aerial bombs, fins at the rear keeping them on a straight course.
TIMID passengers at sea may be reassured by the fact that the cushion of a new style of deck chair is itself a life preserver. British liners recently introduced the novelty. The cushion is said to be capable of supporting three persons in the water.
THE American flag is neither beautiful nor glorious when tangled around a pole. At least that is the way it seemed to Robert Peters of New York, a World War veteran. So this former chief gunner’s mate on a Naval mine sweeper has invented a device that is expected to keep the flag from winding itself around the staff.
“ONE-PLANT hothouses” are being used on English truck farms to speed up the growth of vegetables. One farm uses 2,000 of the forcing jars which are placed over plants to protect them from chill and to speed up their development. These tiny hothouses are either solid glass and bell-shaped or tiny panes set in a pyramid-shaped metal frame.
A THIRTY-two-inch field forms the gridiron of an indoor football game invented by H. H. Jones, football coach at the University of Southern California. The manner in which the game is played gives all the unexpected twists of a real outdoor contest.
MEMORIES of the gay nineties with their bicycles built for two are evoked by a bicycle for five constructed by an ingenious family man of Berlin, Germany. His bike, however, has several advantages over the double bicycle of thirty-five or forty years ago, especially from the children’s point of view.
LIKE baseball catcher’s masks which not only fit over the head but also cover the body, extending below the belt, are curious suits of wire armor worn by boys who retrieve golf balls on a new driving practice range at Los Angeles, Calif. The contrivance with which they scoop the balls into pails is a small wire net attached to a long metal handle.
WITH a weight of only thirty-seven pounds, a new soundproof talking motion picture camera has been developed. It is mounted on a tripod and can be handled almost as easily as an ordinary studio camera. The new machine's soundproof qualities are necessary to keep out of the record all sounds that do not come directly from the microphone which picks up a speaker's voice.
A MYSTERY that science has yet to explain is the curious fact that butterfly wings can photograph themselves in the dark, according to Austin Clark, of the U. S. National Museum, who discovered the phenomenon. Clark mounted butterfly wings on paper and placed them in the bottom of a cardboard box.
WIRE-REENFORCED paper is a new building product, used as a foundation for plastering and reënforcement with concrete floors. It is made by weaving heavy wire mesh into the surface of strong fibrous paper. As a foundation for concrete flooring, the composition material is laid in long strips on the floor spaces and attached to the steel or wood beams by special clips.
A GIANT and a midget among electric lamps appeared together recently in one of the laboratories of the General Electric Company. A tiny neon light, a quarter of an inch in diameter, claims the distinction of being the smallest lamp ever made to run on the ordinary 110-volt household lighting system.
THERE is nothing new under the sun, not even the front-wheel automobile drive. Back in 1908, the pioneer racer, J. Walter Christie, entered a frontwheel-drive machine in the Vanderbilt Cup races. Two cylinders were carried directly over the front axle.
BLINKING lights instead of tooting whistles would enable river craft to communicate noiselessly with each other, in a plan proposed by the First Avenue Association of New York City. Department of Commerce rules now provide that a steam vessel overtaking another and wanting to pass on the right shall give one short blast.
AN OUT-OF-THE-ORDINARY experience for a sixty-five-ton crane working in the Tilbury harbor, England, was to be hoisted itself and moved to a new position by a mightier derrick. The monster of 150 tons’ capacity picked it up as easily as the little one handled bulky crates and cargo.
RESIDENTS of Berlin, Germany, recently listened to the strains of music from a loudspeaker twenty-five miles away. The speaker’s voice was said to equal the volume of an orchestra of 2,000 pieces. Placed on a roof for the test, by a German electrical concern, it produced air waves that could be felt on the skin 150 feet away.
You may see a strange-looking metal box in your home free library one of these days. If so, it will be a new automatic register for books being withdrawn, which was exhibited recently at the convention of the American Library Association in Los Angeles, Calif.
RIDING a twelve-pound emergency slide, oil men who are trapped by fire high up on well derricks can make their escape down guy wires. This new slide was devised by Oscar Curley and R. Hecox, employees of the Standard Oil Company of California, and is now part of the regular equipment of that company.
IF STEEPLE JACK-climbing and parachute-jumping begin to pall, here’s a brandnew sport for thrill-seeking dare-devils— “aquaplaning” on dry land behind a speeding car. Recently Louis Moore, Los Angeles, Calif., racing driver, gave Douglas Harper a surfboard ride at seventyfive miles an hour over a dry lake bed near Muroc, Calif.
STRING figures, of which the familiar “cat’s cradle” is a typical example, have proven clues, in the hands of modern anthropologists, in tracing the migration of primitive men throughout the world. Many native tribes of Pacific islanders, Australians, and North and South American Indians have their own characteristic string figures.
DIPLODOCUS, one of the biggest animals that ever lived, thought with his tail instead of his head. That is where he carried his brains, according to experts of the National Museum who have just put the bones of one of these monster dinosaurs together.
New Service Will Provide Hourly Radio Reports Along 13,000 Miles of Airways
GEORGE LEE DOWD
PILOTS plying America’s skyways from the Atlantic to the Pacific and from Alaska to the Hawaiian Islands will receive hourly weather reports and regular three-hourly forecasts in the form of radio bulletins and maps as soon as the U. S. Weather Bureau completes expansion of its special service in aid of aviation.
WHEN I was a small boy, I used to climb to the top of an old haystack and spend hours lying on my back watching the hawks and buzzards that spiraled on lazy wings in the blue sky above my father’s ranch in the San Fernando Valley of California. I remember that I determined some day to build a machine that would carry me and soar.
AVAST death belt in the Pacific was the last discovery of the strange “nonmagnetic” yacht Carnegie before the explosion that ended her career. Just made public by her navigator, O. W. Torreson, the results of the last cruise of the ship were a fitting climax to the 350,000 miles she has voyaged with scientists of the Carnegie Institution of Washington.
Nation opens campaign to aid farmers and end the yearly loss of $200,000,000 worth of rich soil that now races into the sea. Terraces and dams to curb erosion.
CHARLES FITZHUGH TALMAN
IT IS no new discovery that some of the best agricultural soils of this country are rapidly slipping away— down the hillside into the streams, down the streams to the ocean. Agricultural authorities estimate the loss to the farmers of the nation as at least $200,000,000 a year.
A FEW dozen miles south of Cairo, at Meydum, Egypt, a steady supply of cut blocks of limestone arrived along a causeway from the river Nile, across which they had been floated from near-by quarries. Swarthy gangs of men hoisted them into place on the face of a stepbacked structure of rubble.
Floating Span Is Used as Big Railroad Bridge Rises in West
WHEN the last section of the new Southern Pacific Railroad bridge over Suisan Bay, Calif., reaches its final resting place, it will have completed one of the most remarkable journeys ever made by a bridge span. Built on top of wood piles in the bay, it is being floated into each of the open-water gaps between piers.
A MAN standing on the moon could see with his naked eye the rays of an air beacon recently installed atop a Chicago skyscraper, if it were pointed toward him. To his eye it would appear like a star of the fifth magnitude, just large enough to be plainly visible, and he would notice distinctly when it was turned on and off.
So COMPACT and simplified that it weighs but twenty-two pounds, a new motor for gliders is called the “outboard” motor of aviatiou. It is even easier to carry from place to place than the lightest two-cylinder types of portable motors for water craft.
A TRANSCONTINENTAL “pony express air service” to carry mail and express across the continent in thirteen to fifteen hours was proposed recently by Capt. Frank M. Hawks, holder of all cross-continent speed records. He had just raced his Lockheed plane from Glendale, Calif., to Valley Stream, N. Y., on the Atlantic coast, in twelve and a half hours.
ONE question that has been raised concerning the new Curtiss helicopter has now been answered. It can go up. In secret tests held recently in the hangar at Valley Stream, N. Y., the plane is reported to have risen several feet from the floor.
AFTER a South Dakota pilot encountered a hailstorm, the other day, his plane looked as if it had been a target for machine gun fire. Repairs gave its riddled wings the patchwork appearance seen in this unusual photograph. It took ninetyfive patches to fix the lower right wing.
HINGED wings that can be tilted in flight are an innovation in an unconventional airplane designed by a western airport manager. In normal position, they form a straight line as in any standard low-wing monoplane. But when the pilot wishes, he can tilt them upward in the shape of a broad “V,” changing the behavior of the craft completely.
AN UNBROKEN flight of 101 miles over the Rhoen Mountains of Germany recently set a new world’s record for nonstop glider piloting. The soaring champion, Robert Kronfeld of Austria, thus broke his own previous record of ninety-three miles, made ten days before.
A NEW aid for pilots in open-cockpit planes safeguards maps from being torn in the wind or lost. This device, a glasscovered map case, holds the map on a reel. Turning cranks brings into view any desired sixty-square-mile area along the pilot’s course.
OUT on a platform behind the rudder sits a machine gunner, in Great Britain’s newest night bombing plane. His job is to repel attacks by plane from the rear. The innovation in British aircraft is believed to remove the one vulnerable spot on a bomber.
USING his landing lights as a rudder was a recent stunt of John Murray, pilot of a Boeing mail plane flying between Chicago and Omaha. The lights were adjustable, and could be protruded from the wing. After setting the plane steadily on its line of flight, Murray found that he could steer it gently to left or right by adjusting the landing lights alone, and without making any use of the rudder pedals.
WITH the installation of her first gas cell, a helium container that dwarfs in size a pair of balloons tethered in the hangar near by, the Navy airship Akron begins to look like a flying craft. The recent installation was made in the giant airship hangar at Akron, Ohio, where the craft is now half finished.
Two 35,000-cubic-foot racing balloons came to the rescue at Ravenna, Ohio, the other day when workmen cut and repaired the city gas line. Repairs were needed on a main pipe line and it was found necessary to cut the pipe. But housewives cooking their noonday meals never knew of the shutoff pipe.
ON A SMALL scale, and in favorable circumstances, fog can be dispelled artificially. But all known methods are too costly for commercial use, the United States Department of Agriculture announces after a recent survey of experiments made to date.
ARE American makers of aviation motors keeping pace with progress abroad? One of the best answers to that question was the recent substitution of American engines for German ones in the giant Dornier flying boat DO-X. The change was made at Altenrhein, on the Swiss side of Lake Constance, where the craft was made ready for its Atlantic flight.
AN OUTBOARD motorboat successfully launched a glider the other day at Birmingham, Alabama. The test showed that gliding over water, in many ways safer for novices than land flying, is practicable wherever small boats are available for a tow.
WATERING plants at their roots, where the moisture is used, is made easy by a new attachment for the garden hose. This device, a short section of metal pipe with a pistol-like grip, clamps to the nozzle of the hose in a second. For use, it is thrust into the earth beside the plant.
IMITATION “windows,” lighted by concealed electric lights, have been tried out successfully in England for office illumination. Bulbs are used that simulate the color of daylight, and the windows, placed on the walls, resemble real ones in shape and size.
AN ELECTRICALLY heated “incubator” is used in rearing prematurely born or very weak babies, in the Kaiserin Augusta Victoria Maternity Hospital, Berlin, Germany. It consists of a metal crib within a crib, the space between them heated either by an electric pad or a small electric heater.
HERE is a house that follows the sun around. So that patients at a sanatorium in Aix-les-Bains, France, could face the sunshine all day, a novel solarium that revolves upon its conical base has just been completed. An elevator at the center of the tower affords access to the upper story.
MAGNIFYING the microscopic world of nature and projecting it onto a screen is accomplished by a new instrument called a “micro-projector.” It combines an ordinary microscope with a simple projection lantern. Any small object such as a bit of fly’s wing, the body of an ant, or a group of live plant cells may be placed on the glass slide of the instrument.
A GOLF club that emits a loud whistle when the ball is hit true is the invention of Willie Dunn, of Clayton, Mo. The club, a driver with steel shaft, has a large hole in the bottom of its head, which is provided with a hollow sound chamber inside.
A HUGE steel arch, shaped like an upsidedown “U” and mounted on caterpillar wheels, aids in the Herculean task of dragging big logs out of the forests of the northwestern part of the United States to be made into paper pulp. The illustration shows how this modern device lifts one end of a log by a windlass.
SHUFFLEBOARD as a pastime for passengers on ocean linefs is being crowded out by Tom Thumb golf which, after sweeping the country (see page twenty-two), now has hit the high seas. A miniature nine-hole course, measuring forty by fifty feet, was installed recently on the sun deck of the lie de France.
WILL high-frequency radio waves kill obnoxious insect pests in orchards and fields? Henry Fleur, of San Jose, Calif., says they will, and has just built a curious “death ray” machine with which he proposes to wipe out unwelcome bugs. The high-frequency currents, generated in a small portable instrument, are carried by wire to a vacuum tube device mounted on a tripod for application.
Six months of secret tests ended the other day with a public demonstration of a “noiseless” crossing rail at Los Angeles. Designed to make America’s 400,000 railway crossings jar-proof, it was the invention of W. H. Whalen, former general superintendent of the Southern Pacific Railroad.
SHADING twenty stores, a “community awning,” probably the world’s largest, proved a boon to Sixty-ninth street, Delaware County, near Philadelphia, Pa., during the protracted hot spell last summer. The giant sunshade measured 200 by eighty feet.
SMOKE from a rocky bluff near Burke, S. D., mystifies visitors. The ground is hot to the touch, and coyotes and other animals go there to warm themselves. At the bottom of a freshly dug hole, the ground is too hot for the hand to bear it.
TWELVE men in a circuit breaker recently demonstrated the enormous size to which engineers can now build this type of electric equipment. The machine was designed by the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company to break high voltage circuits automatically and shut off electricity in a fraction of a second, saving transmission lines from lightning or overload damage.
WITHIN a short time the few dozen persons remaining on Saint Kilda Island, off the coast of Scotland, will abandon that mysterious island forever. Their departure will end one of the strangest stories of medical science. Completely isolated by gales from the Scottish coast during eight or nine months of the year, the 200 former inhabitants of this two-by-three-mile island lived in exceptionally good health.
A HINGED lever on a new automatic letter box makes life easier for the rural mail carrier. When he drives up to the box, a rod on the running board of his car engages the lever. The lid rises, and the carrier can deposit mail in the box with one hand and without leaving his seat.
ABOVE is Paul Goldieri, sixteen-yearold amateur shipwright, of Brooklyn, N. Y.; seated on the framework of a motorboat he is building in his back yard from POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY plans. Paul saw and liked the plans and complete working directions for building a fifteen and one half-foot family outboard published in POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY in March and April, 1930.
TERE are no knuckles to be preset, nor air hoses for trainmen to connect, in a new safety coupler for railroad cars. According to its inventor, a Texas railroad man, it eliminates thirteen hazardous operations in connecting cars. So fully automatic is the new Coupler, cylindrical in shape, that cars may be joined as rapidly as a locomotive can push them together.
Two metal-hulled ferryboats of San Diego, Calif., once berthed at the same pier, are now kept separate at opposite sides of the bay. They had been discovered to form a gigantic electric battery whose current was eating their hulls away. Formerly the copper-sheathed boat Ramona was tied alongside the steelhulled Coronado.
Now anyone can build his own bridge lamp. If he tires of its shape, it readily takes on a brand-new form. A set of parts for building the changeable lamp has just been placed on the market. The fittings may be assembled entirely by hand, without need of screw driver, pliers, or other tools.
MEET the first cousin to the water tower—the “gooseneck” tower, a new invention to fight fires in oil tanks. Recently adopted by California oil companies, it shoots a spray of foam that blankets the flames and smothers them. When fire starts in an oil tank, the gooseneck tower is backed up to the base.
DARK corners do not inconvenience the user of a dial telephone equipped with a new lamp-and-glass attachment. A small flashlight throws a beam of light upon the face of the dial, while a magnifying glass makes the characters easy to read. Both are a part of a clip that fastens in a moment to the telephone.
COLORED automobile tires, whose hues match the car’s finish, are announced by a Detroit, Mich., maker. They are the result of long research to find a way of imparting a color that will last. Automobile tires present unusual problems because of the moisture, mud, and extremes of heat and cold.
AN ELABORATE reproduction of an Arabian village, built in miniature, furnished spectacular target practice for airplanes in a recent Italian aviation meet. The airplanes, flying low, raked the tiny village with aerial bombs. A photographer snapped the destructive result just as the highest spire toppled, while flames leaped up to destroy the rest of the town.
BRICK veneer only an inch thick has been developed by a Detroit engineer. This new coating for houses is one fifth the weight of ordinary brick veneer. It is made with twelve bricks to a unit, the bricks themselves being one half inch thick, cemented to insulating board of the same thickness.
A REVERSIBLE rack, holding a slated cloth on rollers, is the invention of a Daytona Beach, Fla., man. Swinging the rack around brings the other side of the blackboard into use. The new device is portable.
America's First Monorail Line Planned for New York
NEW YORK may get the first suspended monorail line in America. Officials are considering an eastern concern's proposal to build an overhead, rapid transit railroad that would have but one or two counterparts anywhere in the world. Cars suspended in mid-air would run at forty-five miles an hour over the tops of automobiles and street cars.
Now real wooden walls, for home or office, come in rolls. A new wall covering is as flexible as wall paper, and as easy to apply, yet it is made of wood. Laid in strips on a wall, it gives the appearance of wooden panels. Oak, mahogany, walnut, or maple may be applied to the wall in all the beauty of its original grain.
WHEN a gas explosion rocked a part of London’s streets the other day, it brought to light a curious relic of the past in the shape of a heavy iron vehicle on close-fitting wheels. Few recognized it for what it was—a vehicle designed by an early inventor in an attempt to speed the London mails through huge pneumatic tubes, among the largest ever built and far larger than any in use today.
The Architect Builds His Own Home—A Series Avoid Fads, Plan for the Future
Dallas Builder Stresses Simplicity as a Sound Investment and Good Art
HARRE M. BERNET
IT DOES not necessarily follow that the house an architect builds for himself will be architecturally supreme; no more so than that all mechanics have smooth-running cars, or that doctors are never ill. Indeed, I have found that the houses in which architects live are more often than not, not designed and built by themselves at all—bearing out the adage that the shoemaker’s children often go barefooted.
THEORETICAL ownership of the land, the ground under it, and the air above it would mean all rights in a section of space beginning at a point in the center of the earth and extending upward in a cone that would ultimately take in an area of infinite extent including a few million stars with their attendant solar systems.
Input Energy Is Like Gasoline in Motor and Grid Is Throttle—Where the Broadcast Hum Comes In
A B C's of Radio
A CLEAR understanding of what goes on inside a radio vacuum tube will prove helpful to any radio beginner and experimenter. Studying the actual operation, and comparing it with similar action in other machinery with which you are more familiar, is the easiest way to master the subject.
Future sets may be out of sight while tuning is done by buttons in any room in house—Two systems described here.
ALFRED P. LANE
WHILE the new models of radio receivers are not radically different from last year's sets in operative efficiency, there is one new development which may revolutionize all our ideas of what a radio set should look like. This new development is remote control.
Electrical Engineer Learns from Gus That Things Not Found in Books Happen to Cars
Letter Contest Winners
"AND so I decided that there must be something wrong with the generator and that’s what caused the lights to burn out,” the car owner concluded positively. He had drifted up to the Model Garage out of the blackness with all lights out, like a smuggler’s boat creeping into port.
Ten Shots at a Clip with This Easily Constructed TOY MACHINE GUN
H. V. PATTERSON
"oH, SON!” “Yes, Dad?” “Come down here to the basement workshop. I have a great idea.” He came on a breathless run, and I explained that the night before, while he had been playing war, I had noticed the fine wooden cannon his friend Jack was using.
How to build a set of hazards for both indoor and outdoor use
Midget Golf for Christmas
Rules of the Game
GEORGE H. VAN WALTHER
FORE! No longer need that cry die with the coming of winter, for you can now have a miniature nine-hole golf course, hazards and all, right in your own living room. How simple becomes the problem of entertaining guests when you have nine interesting holes of golf stored away on the top shelf of your hall closet!
BECAUSE of the rough treatment it receives, the carrying case purchased with a kodak does not, as a rule, last nearly as long as the camera itself. For this reason, many folding cameras, after being used for a few years, are without cases.
WHEN the stripe lines on a miniature stagecoach or similar model are reduced to the proper scale, they are so narrow that it takes more than the steady hand and skill of an artist to draw them. Obtain some thin gummed paper or ordinary large gummed stickers with red borders.
Sampan Model Illustrates a Novel Way of Making Hulls
E. ARMITAGE McCANN
HERE is a new and easier way to make a yacht or ship model hull by jig-sawing all the sections or “lifts,” as they are called, from a single board, one within the other, and then telescoping them out to make a hollow, troughlike form from which the main hull can be carved with the least possible work.
The construction is of the simplest and the cost can be what you please, since it depends mainly upon your selection of the covering material
Materials for Screen
TO BEAUTIFY a room and, incidentally, to conceal an unsightly doorway or other architectural defect, there probably is no other article of furniture as effective as a fine screen. And screens are among the easiest pieces to build, for they can be made with a few ordinary hand tools if powerdriven woodworking machines are not available.
PITCHING horseshoes is a game that maintains its popularity, but it can be played later in the year and is more fun if the pitching court is properly prepared so that it never becomes muddy and unsightly. Such a court can be laid out with the following materials: Two old axles from a small auto for pegs, odds and ends of lumber for forms, twenty pounds of cement, and sufficient sand to mix concrete.
Novel way of getting clear when blocked by parked cars–How to install neon stop light on any car
NOVEL CARBON SCRAPER
NEON STOP LIGHT
WHEN you leave your car parked at the curb and if while you are absent other cars are parked in front and behind yours, you are blocked in if the other cars are locked. A way out is illustrated in Fig. 1. Put your jack under the center of the front axle and work the jack as high as it will go.
How to make stagecoach and covered wagon Weather Vanes
J. W. BOLLINGER
FROM a decorative and artistic standpoint, weather vanes are becoming more and more popular. In fact, a welldesigned and properly placed weather vane gives an added note of charm and character to any house. any The present interest in making models of stagecoaches and covered wagons has led to the development of weather vanes based on the same decorative elements, and both are excellent.
HAVE you ever wished for more drawer space in a bedroom that was too small to accommodate another piece of furniture? One solution is to build a shallow cabinet into the bedroom closet. It will be out of the way yet almost as handy as if it were in the room.
Making reamers cut oversize—Using taps for force fits—Hints on center drills—How to improve surface blocks
ONE of the biggest questions in the all-around machine shop is how to reconcile economy with up-to-dateness. The kind of economy that is content to get along on worn-out micrometers and “lead” drills is the worst kind of waste, but there is a real economy that consists in making the most out of the equipment on hand—the economy that finds new jobs for old tools and unexpected ways of extending their range of work.
WHEN driving a dowel pin out or in, use a short, accurately fitting, soft punch. It is less apt to swell the pin. Better results in cutting small irregular shapes from sheet metal can be had by clamping the tin snips in a bench vise and using it as a shear.
ALTHOUGH oil does not damage some belts seriously, any excess of oil does cause slipping and a loss of power directly proportional to the slip. Continued use of a leather belt soaked in mineral oil also will cause cracks to develop from the fiber abrasion inside, because the protective film of natural animal oil has been removed by the harsh mineral oil.
Herman Hjorth tells how to make one with adjustable back and bookshelves
W. L. A.
NO HAPPIER hours are spent than those that come after the strenuous work or sport of the day, when one can lounge at ease in a comfortable chair. But you must have the right kind of seat—one, for example, like the homemade Morris chair illustrated.
THE construction of a special swinging frame that makes possible instant belt-tension adjustments was described in a previous article (P. S. M., Oct. ’30, p. 75). However, quick belt-tension adjustment solves only one of the two important small-tool belt problems.
SOOT is the enemy of heat and should be removed from flues, smoke pipe, and chimney periodically. First attack it by means of the fire. Every week or two throw a heaping handful of common salt on the hot coals. This will loosen any small accumulations that may have formed and send them flying.
TO the ELIMINATE chilling drafts that constantly seep into a house in cold weather and cause discomfort as well as costly waste of fuel, one must seek and seal the source of entry. In most cases the two main points of influx will be found at the doors and windows, which must have sufficient clearance on all sides to allow them to work properly.
BY CUTTING the top from a square tin can, by making slots ¾ in. deep in two opposite edges, and by drilling holes in your paintbrushes just above the metal band, you can provide yourself with a handy brush container. In drilling the brushes, stack them up so that the brush ends are even, and mark the hole centers.
HOW TO BIND MAGAZINES WITHOUT SEWING THE SECTIONS TOGETHER
AMATEUR bookbinders often find that sewing the page sections of books or magazines upon tape or cords is the most difficult part of the work. For one thing, a sewing bench or frame must be provided; then, unless drawn expertly, the thread often tears through the sections, and a single loose stitch is certain to cause a break in the binding at some future time.
BECAUSE of its simplicity, this Ford trimotor model, which is constructed almost entirely of wood, should appeal to the model maker who does not care to undertake intricate and difficult detail work on so small a scale. The drawings are self-explanatory.
TO ASSIST you in your home workshop, POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY offers large blueprints containing working drawings of a number of well-tested projects. Each subject can be obtained for 25 cents with the exception of certain designs that require two or three sheets of blueprints and are accordingly 50 or 75 cents as noted below.
A MATEUR woodworkers who have built a cabinet, bookcase, or cupboard often encounter difficulty in hanging the doors. They find that some slight change in design or construction would have greatly simplified the door hanging process if they had been familiar with the various types of butt hinges which can be purchased.
TO START a nail in an inaccessible or awkward place with one blow of the hammer, first grasp it by the point end and force it between the claws as at the right. The head of the nail should rest firmly against the metal neck of the hammer. This method will hold the nail while it is being started even in positions which require one to reach far above the head.
An article on plating fabrics, plaster, and other nonconductors.
BABIES’ shoes, plaster casts, art objects, and novelties of many kinds can be electroplated without difficulty, although they are nonconductors of electricity. Since the work can be done at home and little equipment is needed, the cost is relatively low.
FOR twenty-five cents or less it is possible to convert an ordinary doorbell into one of the new musical bar bells now being used extensively. First, remove the original bell frame from the wall, unfasten the gong, and replace the frame in a horizontal position.
SINCE the advent of the model airplane and its sudden growth in popularity, many different means of motive power have been suggested, but upon experimentation none has proved as efficient as rubber. Due to its wide use, every model enthusiast should understand a few of the basic facts concerning rubber and its action.
REGULATION separatory funnels with glass stopcocks are rather fragile and expensive, but an excellent substitute may be made from an ordinary funnel of the desired capacity. Fit a rubber stopper to the outlet tube, drill this stopper halfway through with a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a stirring rod, cement the stirring rod into the hole in the stopper, and use as shown in the accompanying sketch.
IN WORKING on my car recently, I came across some nuts which none of the sockets in my socket-wrench set would fit. By bending a small piece of sheet steel as shown and using this with a slightly oversize socket, I was able to turn the nuts with ease and without danger of damaging THEM.
MORE convenient than either glass jars or labeled drawers, this home workshop container for nails, screws, or other small parts is built on the order of an automatic chicken feeder. It consists of a series of glass-front hoppers, the contents of which are always available in the divisions of what corresponds to a trough running across the bottom.
CLEANING blackboard erasers, which is a problem in many schools, may be easily solved by using an ordinary vacuum cleaner with an attachment such as is provided for furniture and draperies or one of the small so-called “whisk broom” cleaners, as illustrated.
WHEN you have to describe circles bigger than the capacity of your largest compasses, you can easily improvise a beam compass. Take a strip of wood about ½ by ¾ by 18 in. or longer, drive a slim nail through it edgewise near one end, and file the projecting end smooth and sharp for a center.
THE little paper or cardboard square illustrated is an aid in fastening curtain rod brackets so that they are uniformly located and so that the rods will be level. It saves making individual measurements at the upper corner of every window casing.
PERMANENT colors can be given brass by submerging it in certain easily prepared salt solutions. In this way chests may be ornamented with brass corners, hinges, and bands that have been colored to give a more pleasing effect than the plain metal; and it is also possible to prepare brass inlays of various colors.
HAVE you enough information at your finger tips to enable you to go about the work in your home shop with a reasonable amount of assurance that you are doing the right thing in the right way? If you have, you should encounter little difficulty in editing the statements below by crossing out the incorrect terms.
TO IMITATE a tile effect with stenciled designs requires only a stencil pattern, a stencil brush, and some paint. The method is especially useful in an old house where it is impractical to reconstruct a wall for laying genuine tiling and in any building, new or old, where the effect of tiles is desired at a small cost.
A SURPRISINGLY efficient little water pump may be obtained by connecting a discarded automobile oil pump to a small electric motor by means of a fan belt taken from an old car. Such a pump is a labor saver in draining a flooded basement and it is equally useful for providing running water with which to wash an automobile in a locality where the water supply comes from wells or springs.
MANY of the more difficult details in the building of ship models may be obviated by using timesaving kinks and simplified methods of construction. For instance, many parts used in the rigging of a ship can be made from celluloid of the type to be obtained in the form of a flat comb in almost all “five-and-tencent” stores.
WHEN it is not essential to have individual locks for a group of lockers, the doors can be secured by a single board hinged across the top of the cabinet as shown and fastened with a padlock. A coil spring raises the board when the padlock is removed. This method of construction, which was recently used in a small machine shop, not only saved the expense of individual locks, but it allowed one man, in this case the foreman, to be charged with the sole responsibility for opening and closing the group of LOCKERS.
BELOW are given the correctly edited statements in the home workshop test on page 125. The wrong word or terms have been omitted in each case. 1. A hand tool used to cut threads in a hole or on an internal surface is called a tap. 2. The center terminal on a dry battery is positive.
MOST amateur photographers have to be satisfied with an ordinary printing frame because the amount of work to be done hardly warrants the purchase of a so-called printing machine. In its simplest form the printing machine is really nothing but an elaborate printing frame built as a permanent part of the body of the cabinet, inside which is placed the printing light.
FOR sanding flat surfaces by hand, a sandpapering block should be used. One can be made as shown at A from a piece of whitewood or other soft wood 1⅛ by 3 by 4½ in. and a piece of plain linoleum a little larger than 3 by 4½. Glue the linoleum to the block under pressure and trim the edges when the glue is dry.
FINDING that he had some spare time “between cases,” Dr. Noble H. Logan, resident physician at the Oakland (Calif.) Emergency Hospital, took up the hobby of model making with the tools at hand— surgical instruments. He found that the delicate tools of the surgeon are excellently suited for building ship models.
DAMP cellar walls, aside from being unhealthy, prevent the use of the basement for much else than a catchall for dust and an accumulation of old furniture, boxes, and rusted gardening tools. This condition, however, can be remedied in many cases merely by the application of a good grade of cement paint.
MANY builders of model airplanes have difficulty in straightening thin piano wire. Pliers, if not designed for the work, make a bungling job of it, so I devised the tool illustrated, which insures a neat job and incidentally saves time.
CONSISTING of a metal casing filled with asbestos or other fireproof material, a new electric plug, recently placed on the market, is said not to burn out. The inside of an ordinary plug usually is made of treated wood.
The judges decision in the contest announced on page seventy of the August POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY is as follows: FIRST PRIZE—$75 D. C. Marshall, Manhattan, Kansas SECOND PRIZE—$25 Gilson Willets, San Francisco, California FIVE PRIZES of $10 each Ellis J. Bardsley, New Britain, Connecticut Arthur Cromson, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Wm. C. Gardner, Clover Lick, W. Virginia John P. Picco, San Francisco, California Fred C. Savage, Charleston, West Virginia HONORABLE MENTION: Akana, Francis K., Kailua, Hawaii; Bentley, Cyril E., Macon Ga.; Bernhard, E., Rock Island, I11.; Bowen, Charles, Cincinnati, Ohio; Bulen, Leon L., Missoula, Mont.; Butts, Heber, Nashville, Tenn.; Cameron, A. H., Wichita Falls, Texas; Carveth, T. H., Montreal, Canada; Coakley, Frank N., Buffalo, N. Y.; Elliott, Charley R., Gueydan, La.; Ellis, J. S., Scranton, Iowa; Fassitt, Mrs. J. B., Rising Sun, Md.; Godfrey, Harry M., Mingo Junction, Ohio.
DAIRY cows work harder for farmers than horses. So concludes Dr. W. L. Gaines, of the University of Illinois Experiment Station, who has found a way of comparing the “horsepower” of each. His way of figuring takes into account the heat value in the milk and butterfat.