WALTER HOPKINS sat at his desk. In front of him was a framed picture of his wife and two children. At ages four and five his children understood only the rosy side of life. They knew that new shoes came from the store, but had no idea how the money was obtained to pay for them.
Why a Home of Sound Construction Gives More for the Money Than a Flimsy One with Fancy Fittings
Choose the Essentials
COLLINS P. BLISS
IN OUR neighborhood are two new houses which, I understand, cost about the same to build. Two more different ways of investing the same number of building dollars would be hard to imagine; but both owners, Mr. Adams and Mr. Doan, are thoroughly satisfied— for the present, at least.
NO ARTICLES you have printed for several years have appealed to us like those by Larry Brent. Personally I'd gladly miss a meal for a copy of your magazine. I am just an ordinary, happily married woman, whose first thoughts are for my husband, two children, and home, but I am intensely interested in progress, and in aviation in particular.
How School Teachers in Tennessee and Arkansas Spread Prohibited Knowledge by Ingenious Evasions
ORLAND KAY ARMSTRONG
WITHIN a few weeks, the state of Arkansas is to become the scene of an entirely novel form of law evasion. The illicit traffic will not concern itself with whisky, gin, or other ardent spirits, but with as intangible and non-intoxicating a commodity as a scientific doctrine.
Mammoth Hangar for the Navy's New Airships Would Almost Swallow the National Capitol!
ARTHUR A. STUART
WITH the British sky leviathan, the R-100, groomed for its fight to America; its sister ship, the R-101, undergoing tests in England; the Graf Zeppelin tackling a round-the-world trip, and work commencing upon the world’s largest hangar at Akron, Ohio, in which are to be built two record-breaking air monsters for the U. S. Navy, public attention again is attracted to lighter-than-air craft.
Mercury-Vapor Turbines Now Run Electric Light Plants and Soon May Drive Locomotives and Ships
GROVER C. MUELLER
SOON locomotives and ships, as well as thermometers, may be run by quicksilver. Already engineers of an Eastern power plant have put the fluid metal in their boilers and made it generate about 13,000 horsepower of electricity. The mercury boiler presents a powerful potential rival to the steam engine and may revolutionize present methods of producing energy.
Apples, Root Beer, Cigarettes, Gasoline, Candy, Radio Also Dispensed by Automatons—Eggs with a Cackle Next
A DARK young man with a restless eye sauntered into a store at Forty-second and Broadway, New York. Sidling up to a change machine he was informed by the directions that if he dropped a quarter in a certain slot, five nickels would be delivered below.
COLOR television is here, at least in the experimental stage. In the darkened auditorium of the Bell Telephone Laboratories in New York City the other day, a young woman wearing a colored dress sat before a cabinet of frosted glass—part of a new radio vision transmitter developed by Dr. H. E. Ives and his associates in the Laboratories.
A New 1,400-Mile Beacon—Protecting Our Cities from Air Attack—Notable Flights and Inventions
REACHING out 1,400 miles, a new radio beacon at Mitchel Field, N. Y., guides pilots who are flying "blind" in fog or darkness safely to the Army airport. During daylight, the beacon has a radius of 400 miles. The pilot who approaches the beacon in thick weather is led by a band of wireless signals.
FOURTEEN passengers recently arrived at Los Angeles, Calif., completing the first regular transcontinental air-rail trip in sixty hours. Their mixed voyage from New York by train, airplane, and another train marked the opening of the first of several such services.
IN NEW YORK one night, in Los Angeles the next, and back again in New York by the next bedtime—that was the amazing record recently hung up by Capt. Frank Hawks, the fastest transcontinental traveler in history. He took off early in the morning in his speed plane from New York City, and landed at Los Angeles nineteen hours and ten minutes later.
TAKING the peril from the dangerous “flat spin” of airplanes out of control—and even putting the spin to practical use— is the latest object of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. At its Langley Field, Va., laboratory it has constructed a new wind tunnel of unconventional design, a vertical instead of a horizontal tube through which air blasts howl.
RECENTLY arrived in Los Angeles, Calif., the 128-foot dirigible Volunteer is to make daily flights to study weather conditions. The information is to be used by pilots of giant 100-passenger airships that may ply between the United States and Hawaii within three years.
LOST two hours in fog over the ocean, three French aviators found their bearings in time to blaze a new trail across the Atlantic. Their achievement in reaching Comillas, on the northern coast of Spain, less than thirty hours after leaving Old Orchard, Maine, ended fears for their safety when they failed to appear in Paris, their announced destination.
EVERY important American city will be fortified against possible air attack in a re-armament program drafted by the General Staff of the Army for presentation to Congress at the December session. A minimum of $13,000,000 will be asked to start the project, which, it is estimated, will take five years to complete.
SOME idea of the distance flown by American planes is revealed by figures recently made public on the second and third birthdays, respectively, of two great American air lines. One line, completing three years of operation between New York and mid-western cities, says its planes have flown a total of 4,700,000 miles, of which more than a third were covered at night.
FORMATION of a $70,000,000 firm to manufacture airplanes and motors is the latest event that indicates aviation is to progress rapidly under the impetus of “big business.” The new concern merges two huge airplane manufacturing companies, a great motor making organization, and nine affiliated businesses.
A GIANT magnet propelled by a tractor recently has been obtained to remove numerous particles of wire and nails from the runway of an El Paso, Texas, airport. When it is driven across the field, scraps of metal half-buried in dust leap upward and cling to the end pieces of the magnet, from which they are easily removed by hand at intervals.
JUST nineteen years after Glenn Curtiss stood in a field near Albany, N. Y., watching puffs of cigar smoke to be sure that no air was stirring before starting his famous Albany-New York flight, a regular, rain-or-shine passenger service between those two points has been established.
WHILE the Daniel Guggenheim Safe Aircraft Competition at Mitchel Field, N. Y., was getting under way with the first entrants listed, Harry F. Guggenheim, president of the Daniel Guggenheim Fund for the Promotion of Aeronautics, announced seven cardinal rules for air safety.
A MAN in a bathing suit stood before the air-tight covered diving tank at Washington Navy Yard. Strapped around his middle was a flat bag, similar in appearance to the war-time gas mask container. Two tubes emerged from the top of the bag and their ends he gripped in his mouth.
Charles F. Kettering, Famous Auto Engineer, Tells of the Amazing 100-Mile-an-Hour Cars We'll Drive in the Future
HENRY MORTON ROBINSON
"SUPPOSE I offered you a modern 300-watt Aladdin's lamp, and told you to wish for any improvement you could think of in the automobile of tomorrow. What would you ask for?” Charles F. Kettering, upon whose vice presidential head the General Motors Corporation has placed a four-million-dollar insurance policy, shot the question at me with an incisive gesture of his big lean-muscled hand.
THIRTY years ago there were 700 automobiles in the United States. Today there are about twenty-five million. The first steam-propelled wagon, pictured on this page, traveled two miles an hour. Today Maj. H. O. D. Segrave has driven a car nearly four miles a minute! Back of the wonderfully efficient machine you drive is a strange and fascinating ancestry, the story of which is told here in photographs of early days of motoring.
I WAS almost run over by one of the new Oldsmobiles the other day—a dream of a car, sleek and quiet and the latest word in everything. Being run over by it would have been a distinction. But as I dodged I said, “You needn’t get so high-hat with me, you proud beauty; don’t try to make me think that you were always as grand as that, for I know better.
Strange Adventures of Great Lakes Skippers Who Brave Freezing Gales, Reefs, and Fogs in Their Ships of Steel
"WATCH yourself!" I had crawled up a greasy ladder from the dock into the hot engine room of the ore carrier Patrick McCorkell, then mounted another ladder to the deck and walked forward in the narrow passageway between the aft deck house and the rail.
That First Solo Flight—It Brings a Thrill You Never Forget; and a Bigger One When You Try to Land!
A THRILL that comes once in a lifetime—your first solo! I’ve done it! It happened at my seventh hour and fortieth minute of instruction. That, I've learned, is a very fair average. Some students solo their fourth or fifth hour, but they are rare.
SCENE: Any American city. Time: 1979. Action: A family is leaving on vacation. Over the house hovers a huge dirigible. Cables are lowered and made fast and away sails the airship, the dwelling dangling below with its occupants undisturbed! At the seashore, the house is lowered and anchored to a twelve foot square concrete foundation.
TWO strange warships, with huge funnels curling down toward the water like elephant's trunks, recently joined the Japanese Navy. They are the latest airplane carriers, the Kagi and the Akagi. With them the problem of keeping smoke and fumes from the engines away from the landing platform on the upper deck was solved by using the down-curving “trunks” in place of upright funnels.
Prospectors Desert Dog Teams for Wings as Planes Chart the Northern Wilds and Open Land of Wealth
JAMES M. NELSON
FOR more than two months the ancient quiet of mighty forests in southeastern Alaska has been disturbed by the roar of four amphibian planes systematically criss-crossing thousands of square miles in that district. High above precipitous crags, expert aerial photographers have been recording the secrets of a coastal region so rugged as to make mapping by ground methods almost impossible.
WHEN you travel by train, use the elevated railway in New York, or take a steamer for Europe, your life and Europe, your life and limb all along the way are safeguarded by automatic signal lamps and lighthouses designed by a scientist who for almost seventeen years has lived in total darkness.
TO LOVERS of music the name John Powell long has been familiar. They know him as an eminent concert pianist and as the composer of a Negro Rhapsody for piano and orchestra, a violin concerto in E major, the In Old Virginia overture, the Psychological Sonata, and other works.
American Glider Pilots Try for New Records in the Growing Sport of Riding Air Gusts
EDWIN W. TEALE
A GERMAN glider pilot, the other day, soared to a height of more than 6,000 feet with no other motive power than rising currents of air. It was the unofficial altitude record for motorless planes. The man who set it was Max Kegel, champion of a spectacular new air sport, “cloud flying.”
THE huge steel girders of a skyscraper skeleton now are being used to replace an elaborate system of wiring for carrying radio programs to the rooms of a New York City hotel. The inventors of the new system are Dr. F. L. R. Satterlee, a New York X-ray expert, and Louis Kalozsy, a Hungarian engineer.
THE balloon got its name from a bottle. In 1783, when the Montgolfier brothers made their experiments with a bag filled with hot air, their invention was called a “balloon” because it resembled a large, round, short-necked bottle of that name, then used in chemistry.
A CRANK shaft almost as long as a freight car will turn in each of the two mammoth Diesel engines driving the new White Star motorship, the Britannic, on its forthcoming maiden voyage from Liverpool to New York. The vessel is the largest motorship ever constructed in Great Britain, having a length of 680 feet and a beam of eighty-two feet.
THE surface of the earth would be one vast ocean if it were not for earthquakes which, by producing mountain ranges and high levels, are responsible for the continued existence of the continents, in the opinion of the Rev. Francis A. Tondorf, seismologist of Georgetown University, Washington, D. C.
A PORCUPINE with rattles in its tail and three birds similar in general appearance to a crow but with each tail feather shaped at the end like an arrowhead, were among the rare specimens recently added to the collection at the Field Museum, Chicago.
THE ocean tide is the mailman for the island of St. Kilda. north of Scotland. At this lonely spot there is no post office and no stamps can be purchased. So letters for the outside world are placed in tin cans, with the coins to pay their postage, and thrown into the ocean attached to sheepskin buoys with wooden floats marked “St. Kilda Mail. Please Open.”
THE triumph of a whaler was caught by a photographer in the Arctic recently. Surrounded by six finback whales, their characteristically ridged bodies billowing above the sides of the ice-mantled whaling craft, he is pictured standing beside the harpoon gun that had helped in their capture.
AS A reward for her heroic service to medical science, Congress recently granted a $125 monthly pension to Mrs. Joseph Goldberger, of Washington, D. C., widow of the late Dr. Goldberger, who, while serving with the U. S. Public Health Service, solved the mystery of pellagra, the skin disease that had baffled the medical profession for years.
AFTER a dozen years on the bottom of the sea at Scapa Flow, north of Scotland, the dripping hull of the German dreadnaught Kaiser, sunk by the Germans at the close of the war, recently was brought to the surface. The raising of this battleship by an English concern is described as the greatest feat of salvage ever accomplished.
A RECENT plunge of 135 feet from a new bridge into San Francisco Bay, trusting to a parachute to break his fall, was regarded by Captain Vincent Taylor, of Australia, as a commonplace event in his adventurous life. He says he was making parachute jumps before anyone ever thought of a Caterpillar Club, that mythical organization of airmen who have saved their lives by relying on the silken folds of their ’chutes when planes become disabled.
ONE of the queerest trap lines in the world has just been laid in the District of Columbia. The trappers are Government experts of the Department of Agriculture, fighting the destructive orchard pests, the Japanese beetles. Baited with extract of geranium, the “catnip” of the beetles, the traps attract the insects, which fly against a piece of tin, are stunned, and fall into a fruit jar or other receptacle fastened below.
A NEW substitute for iodine has been discovered by Prof. Hans Friedenthal, Berlin University physiologist. He has called the new drug “metajodin.” According to its discoverer, metajodin has all the antiseptic properties of iodine, but does not sting when applied to open wounds.
THOSE who “fight and run away” are sick, according to Dr. Ernest Jones, noted British psychologist, who says everyone in good health is naturally brave. Cowardice is a form of illness, he maintains, and can be cured by an expert physician or psychoanalyst.
A MAGIC eye known as a “rotoscope,” that weighs but seven pounds and may be carried in the hand, confers “slowmotion vision” upon its user. Observed through its eyepieces, whirling airplane propellers, spinning wheels, or gears appear as if they were standing still.
THE life of an eight-weeks-old baby suffering from pneumonia was saved recently in a hospital in Toronto, Canada, by the use of a new “oxygen tent.” The small victim, in the last stages of the disease, was placed inside an inclosure, given air with high oxygen content, and the congested lungs cleared up.
POISONOUS chemicals will cause dormant plants to flower and bear fruit, and may, at some future time, free the farmer and the gardener from the tyranny of the seasons. Dr. F. E. Denny, of the Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, at Yonkers, N. Y., recently announced the results of a series of experiments, in one of which lilacs, through the application of poisonous fumes, were made to bloom at Christmas.
"INHALE—exhale,” the directions used in setting-up exercises, are far from being a recent invention. Two thousand years ago, according to Dr. O. S. Johnson, of the University of California, the Chinese practiced deep breathing as a road to long life.
TELEVOX, the mechanical servant, has a baby brother. It has been given the name “Telelux,” because it is operated by light instead of by sound. The Latin “lux” means light; “vox,” voice. At an electrical exhibition at Pittsburgh, Pa., recently, Telelux was put through its paces, turning on and off lights and performing similar tasks, when commanded through light signals from the operator.
THE “Old Faithful” among oil wells is located near Newhall, Calif. After nearly sixty years, it is still producing its four and a half barrels of oil each day. It was the first well sunk in California and led to the discovery of the rich fields on the Pacific Coast.
THE Philippine goby, besides being the world’s smallest fish, is the tiniest backboned creature known to science. measures only three sixteenths of an inch—the size of an ant! Only seventy-five specimens of the goby have thus far been caught and observed by scientists.
WHEN an orange-colored captive balloon sways in the air high above a California movie studio, it signals to airmen: “Silence! Talkies being made below!” Flyers, who see the balloon, increase their altitude or turn aside so as to pass no nearer the studio than 2,500 feet.
A MECHANICAL giant, with swinging steel arms hundreds of feet long, is tearing down a hillside and moving its soil to fill in adjacent swamp lands near Leipzig, Germany. Called the largest mobile crane in the world, it moves ahead on endless-tread tractors, which appear like pygmy machines below the central tower of the crane which rises more than 200 feet into the air.
SIX-LEGGED “cowboys” of the ant world, that guard the “herds” of little green aphids which excrete a sweet “milk” prized by their keepers, were recently given special study by Dr. Herman Eidmann, of the University of Munich, Germany. He discovered that only certain designated individuals in the ant colony are assigned to watch the herds of “cows.”
IMAGINE a six-hundred-word letter traveling to a destination a thousand miles away in one minute! This is said to have been made possible through a new radiophoto apparatus invented by Dr. Vladimir Zworykin, of the Research Laboratories of the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Co., East Pittsburgh, Pa.
“AS LIVELY as a flea” does not apply to all fleas, according to Dr. C. L. Williams, of the U. S. Public Health Service, who recently made a “census” of the parasites found on ships entering the port of New York. Some fleas like to travel, others prefer to remain in one place, he found.
ARMOR that protected a Chinese warrior four centuries ago has been made into a unique clock by Fred W. Jensen, of New York City. The metal pieces of the suit of mail, fitting together like scales of a fish, house a clockwork that moves the hands from one to another of the heads of small Oriental gods, used in the place of hour numbers.
MUCH of the difficulty of an early-morning shave in Paris, where the hot water supply is limited, has been removed by the recent invention of a siphon that spouts hot water instead of soda. The device contains an electric heating element placed inside the metal tube through which the water is forced by means of a rubber bulb which resembles that of an atomizer.
DRIFTING helplessly out to sea in a crippled blimp, with two bombs on board and 90,000 cubic feet of inflammable hydrogen gas overhead, was the thrilling experience of three U. S. Army flyers during the war. The adventure was recalled recently by the arrival in this country of snapshots taken from the Norwegian steamer which effected the rescue.
THREE record-holding aces of the model airplane world recently demonstrated their skill in flying their toy machines before Secretary of Commerce Robert P. Lamont and William P. MacCracken, Jr., Assistant Secretary for Aeronautics, at Washington, D. C. William Chaffee, junior outdoor champion; Thomas Hill, national outdoor champion; and Aram Abgarian, holder of the world’s indoor endurance record, were the three boys honored.
FABULOUS wealth is contained in the Dead Sea, in Palestine. British chemical interests not long ago obtained a concession to exploit its vast mineral resources. The deposits of pure potash, bromine salts, gypsum, and magnesium chloride and other minerals valuable to agriculture and industry have been estimated to be worth twelve hundred billion dollars—three times the British war debt to the United States!
A NEW type of machine “gun” whose peaceful function is one of preservation rather than destruction has recently been invented in Germany. From this “gun” a fine metallic spray, consisting of tiny particles of zinc, aluminum, or other substances, is “shot” upon the surface of railroad and motor cars and even of entire bridges to cover them with a thin but durable film of noncorrosive metal that protects them from rust.
AN 8,300-MILE voyage by a tiny “ship” of glass was recently reported by the U. S. Navy’s hydrographic office in Washington, D. C. On September 27, 1927, an officer of the American steamer K. R. Kingsbury tossed a bottle, containing a message giving the location of the ship, into the Pacific off the coast of Lower California.
SCIENCE has invaded the kitchen in Germany and given rise to a new profession, the “household engineer.” Dr. Max Mengeringhausen, an efficiency expert, recently reported successful results from experiments designed to reduce the waste motions of housewives.
THE story of John Ericsson developing his screw propeller in a bathroom workshop is no stranger than that of Peter Lepicier, an amateur aviator of Brooklyn, N. Y., who built his airplane in a parlor. In this queer nest for a flying craft, Lepicier worked evenings for more than a year.
PERMANENT creases can be put in trousers, M. M. Munsch, a French inventor, maintains, by the use of a new chemical preparation he has discovered. A narrow strip of the plastic material is placed down the inside of the trouser leg where the crease will be formed.
TALES of treasure lost in ships sunk at sea recently found a parallel in the wreck of an air mail plane near Dixon, Ill. When engine trouble developed the pilot jumped with his parachute and the machine, carrying more than $25,000 worth of black diamonds, crashed into a swamp and burned.
NAMES of people, as well as automobiles and clothes, have their changing styles, research by Professor George R. Stewart, Jr., of the University of California, has revealed. Studying the records of the university officers and students over a period of years, he found cycles in the popularity of different feminine names.
THE tusks of 4,000 elephants are needed each year to supply the world with billiard balls, which cannot be made from any substance except ivory. Most of the material, gathered from dead elephants found in jungles and on feeding grounds, is sent to London, whence it is reshipped to Hamburg, Germany, the world’s chief ivory market.
ON THE highways near Pasadena, Calif., a mystery automobile with question mark in place of a name plate was recently tested. As wide and as long as the usual car, it is so low that a medium-sized man, standing beside it, could rest his elbow on the roof of the inclosed body.
YOU’VE seen countless terrestrial sunrises and sunsets in the movies, but it has remained for the Princeton University observatory to take motion pictures of the sunrise on the moon. With the twenty-three-inch lens of the telescope substituted for that of the camera, the burst of dawn on the peaks of Copernicus, one of the moon’s 200,000 craters, was caught for the first time.
BEING photographed has become such an everyday occurrence for the sea lions in the London, England, zoo, that they often approach within a few feet of the photographer to pose for a close-up. Balancing themselves with their armlike flippers on the rocky edge of the pool, they twist and turn, examining the camera with great curiosity.
WHERE does all the rain go? A three-year study by the U. S. Geological Survey has answered this question. The Pomperaug Basin, in Connecticut, which is believed to be typical of the country at large, was given intensive study. The results showed that of the annual rainfall of forty-four inches, twenty-one inches flow out through streams.
REMOVING the heart from a cat, substituting an electrically operated double-action rubber pump for the organ, and thus not only reviving the animal but keeping it alive several hours, was the startling experiment conducted some weeks ago by Dr. O. S. Gibbs, professor of pharmacology in Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia.
A DISCOVERY in South America which reveals the world’s greatest chain of rivers was made recently when two German explorers in the wilderness of Paraguay found a connecting link between the mighty Amazon and the rivers which wind to Rio de La Plata.
ALUMINUM is taking its place beside mahogany, walnut, oak, and birch as a material for building chairs. One company in Buffalo, N. Y., is producing 3,000 aluminum office chairs a month. An aluminum alloy that has approximately the strength of mild steel is used. The weight of an aluminum chair is about one half that of the same type of chair made of wood.
FLAMES that travel 4,000 miles a minute have been found in the giant sun, Beta Cephei, which shines near the North Pole star. From a size of 10,000,000 miles in diameter this great star swells, in a little more than four hours, to a flaming ball 11,000,000 to 12,000,000 miles in diameter.
MOTION pictures in natural perspective were thrown on the screen during a recent demonstration of a new system of photography and projection developed by George K. Spoor, veteran producer (at the right in the photograph), and John J. Berggren, an inventor (left).
A SCIENTIST recently placed a small cube of whitish “rock” in a dish of water in his laboratory. Thirty-six hours later be returned and found that the cube had bred a whole family of other cubes! As the mineral swelled in the water, each face except the lower one, which was protected from the action of the fluid, produced a new cube as large or larger than the original !
A PICTURE of Edison's first electric lamp was placed recently on a special two-cent U. S. stamp. Edison’s portrait could not be used because of a general rule against portraying living persons on stamps or money of the nation. The lamp is one of the few inventions to be honored in this way.
AFTER seeing the North Pole from the air, Capt. Hjalmar Riiser-Larsen and Capt. Luetzow Holm, veterans of the Amundsen-Ellsworth 1926 flight from Spitzbergen to Alaska in the dirigible Norge, are setting out to hunt whales in airplanes.
"SEAWEED quilts” form the unique insulating material recently used to line the walls of a new bank building erected in London, England. After long green ribbons of the sea plant had been dried and put through a special process, they were “quilted” in sheets about the width of ordinary wall board and attached to the walls to form an insulating lining under the plaster.
FIRESIDE legends in northern Germany for nearly four centuries have told of the lost village of Lonzke, which was swallowed by a mountain of moving sand. The other day, remnants of the village were discovered in the wake of a drifting sand dune on the Baltic seacoast of Pomerania.
IN MOMENTS snatched from his work as a weigher in a grain elevator at Brooklyn, N. Y., William Peters has painted on his office wall an elaborate mural which represents the progress of transportation from the oxcart to the Zeppelin and the seaplane.
A PORTLAND, Ore., high school boy recently suffered the unusual experience of being burned by ice so severely he had to be taken to a hospital. Climbing Mount Hood glacier, he lost his footing and slid 2,500 feet down the gleaming mountain side.
THE tops of your shoes, your soap, and the feed for your chickens may have had their origin in wild horses roaming the deserts and plateaus of the Far West. For an industry which captures, kills, and markets thousands of wild horses annually for these products has grown up in Montana, Idaho, Nevada, Utah, California, and Oregon.
THE handwriting of men, as a rule, is angular, irregular, unconventional, and possesses an individual slant. That of women, on the other hand, is usually curved, conventional, and uniform. Those were the conclusions reached by members of the faculty of the California State Teachers College at San Diego, who recently conducted an experiment to determine whether sex characteristics in handwriting could be readily recognized.
MORE oaks are planted along streets and roadsides in the United States than any other kind of tree, the Bureau of Public Roads reports. Maples hold second place in popularity. In cool and dry regions, the green ash, locust, hackberry, box elder, and poplar trees are in wide use.
THREE hundred people can ride in the Princess Mary, said to be the largest motor lifeboat ever built, recently tested at Cowes, Isle of Wight, England. Equipped with radio apparatus, the craft will be stationed at Padstow, Cornwall, near the southwestern tip of England, as part of the equipment of the life-saving station there.
ONE MILLION reindeer are now living in Alaska, according to a recent Government estimate. Known as “the camels of the frozen North,” they are said to have greater value as beasts of burden for long-distance travel than the husky dog, and to be able to outdistance horses on a short stretch.
THE red and yellow onion make their own antitoxin to kill parasitic fungi that try to live at their expense. The less fortunate white onion, however, falls a prey to the fungus. A recent laboratory analysis by chemists of the University of Wisconsin showed that the red and yellow varieties contain an acid belonging to the phenol series which stops the growth of the parasitic plants.
A CANVAS belt becomes a movie film through the magic of a new process recently announced by a Pittsburgh, Pa., experimenter, Dr. Fred W. Hochstetter, who is pictured above with a strip of his new film. The invention is said to permit the use of paper as well as silk, linen, and cotton cloth as a base for movie and talkie films.
A SERIES of postage stamps, having currency for a single day, and none intended to be put on letters, were recently issued in the island of Madeira. The purpose of issuing the special stamp was to raise money to build a national museum. Their rarity is expected to make them valuable in the eyes of stamp collectors and thus bring extra revenue to the island government.
RAISING marigolds and mignonettes, beets and beans, usually does not come within the province of a big industrial concern, but a copper company whose smelting and refining plant is located in the Borough of Queens, New York City, has gone in for truck farming and flower gardening.
A TINY reading lamp that clips onto your book, magazine, or newspaper and provides illumination for the page is the latest innovation in lighting comfort. An adjustable shade, covering the little bulb, can be tilted to direct the light out of the reader’s eyes and onto the printed matter.
MOVING like huge buildings across the water of Lower New York Bay, five sections of two dry docks recently began a trip down the Atlantic Coast to the Gulf of Mexico. Harnessed to them with heavy cables, five powerful tugs puffed and strained, dragging the unwieldy structures into the open sea.
THE first word-of-mouth messages from ocean voyagers to the folks back home were dispatched from the French liner Ile de France by means of phono-graph records dictated by outbound passengers. The records, which are seven inches in diameter, will run for two minutes and record about 300 words.
A HANDY pencil sharpener for desk use, pictured below, is designed to prevent breaking the point by pulling the pencil out of line while turning it. The sharpener is swiveled so it can move up or down or to either side to accommodate the pencil if jerked out of line.
WHEN you go to the photographer’s in the future you may choose your own pose and see what your portrait will look like when finished, if a new invention by Luther G. Simjian, director of photography in the Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn., is universally adopted.
TO PREVENT the corrosion or cracking of priceless manuscripts in the Vatican at Rome, two types of machines for conditioning the air have been built by the General Electric Company. In the damp summer months the atmosphere in the Vatican library becomes so humid that the books show a tendency to decay.
THE theory that animals think and reason like human beings received a setback recently when experiments directed by Dr. John F. Shepard, professor of psychology in the University of Michigan, revealed that they depend more upon their sense of hearing than upon sight, smell, touch, or any reasoning power.
Tests Prove This New Radio Receiver Is Ten Times as Sensitive as the Average High-Grade Instrument
Assembling the Receiver
Wiring the Receiver
ALFRED P. LANE
HERE is a radio receiver designed especially to reach out and bring in the stations. It is the most sensitive circuit ever tested in the Popular Science Institute of Standards radio laboratory. According to the modern standardized methods of testing the sensitivity of a radio receiver, the new POPULAR SCIENCE Screen Grid Distance Getter, when coupled to the usual two-stage audio amplifier, will produce a standard loud-speaker signal when the strength of the broadcasting is less than one microvolt per meter on any wave in the broadcast band.
A Neat Job Is Easy When You Know the Trick—Caring for Your Battery—Simple Ways to Test Radio Parts
IN RADIO construction, as in most other home workshop jobs, much drilling has to be done. Drilling a hole through a piece of metal, bakelite, or wood is simple if you go at it in the right way, so that the drill bites in, cuts easily, and makes a clean, accurately sized hole.
TRYING to locate errors in wiring in a home-built radio receiver after the job is complete is difficult enough without making things worse by including defective parts in the assembly. Of course, all manufacturers test the parts they make before they are packed for shipment, but sometimes inspectors get careless.
A RADIO storage battery is not exactly a parlor ornament, but that’s no reason for stowing it away in some out-of-the-way corner where it is hard to get at. Conceal it if you wish, but place it where you can get at it easily to add water and to keep the top clean.
RADIO waves can be specified either in wave lengths or in frequency. The wave length is the distance from the crest of one wave to the crest of the next. The frequency in kilocycles gives the number of waves that pass a given point in one second.
Easy Ways to Get the Best Possible Reception Where No Electric Light Current Is Available
THE modern completely electrified radio receiver is the latest thing in radio, but if you happen to live where no electric light current is available, such a set is useless. There is no reason, though, why you cannot get adequate reception with a battery-operated receiver at very reasonable expense.
A Typical Home Builder Learns from an Expert the Merits of Warm Air, Hot Water, Steam, and Vapor-Vacuum Systems
ROGER B. WHITMAN
WHEN Bob Kersey set out to decide on how to heat his new house, all he knew about heating was to turn on the radiator when the room was cold, and to telephone the janitor if nothing happened. Aware of his ignorance of the subject and impressed by his architect with its importance, he adopted a program of self-education.
It's Easy to Construct and a Brilliant Ornament When Hung Up in a Scenic Case
E. ARMITAGE McCANN
SO SIMPLE is this picturesque little ship model to build that only a jackknife is required for making everything but the case. The necessary materials are a few scraps of white pine, some sewing thread, putty, and paint. This type of model is called a scenic half-model because only half the hull and sails are used, and these are fastened to a board that is painted to represent the sky and to a base that carries a putty sea.
IF YOUR home workshop is equipped with a small combination woodworking machine or with individual machines, you can build the graceful little Priscilla sewing cabinet illustrated with practically no handwork except that required for cleaning up some of the material, assembling the parts, and applying the finish.
A New Design for a Three-Ounce Replica of a Famous Plane—Flies Half a Minute
List of Materials
REALISTIC as it is in appearance and accurate in even minor details, the Lockheed Vega scale model airplane illustrated is also remarkable for its lightness and flying qualities. It can be constructed to weigh less than three ounces and will then fly for thirty seconds if hand launched.
ELSEWHERE in this issue, Orland Kay Armstrong reviews the extraordinary situation that has arisen in Arkansas from the passage of a law prohibiting the teaching of the theory of evolution in state-supported schools. A number of teachers, bitterly opposed to the measure, have devised ingenious schemes to evade it in their classrooms this fall, if they can do so without getting into trouble.
A “High Brow” Learns from Gus the Trick of Smoothing Bumps with Shock Absorbers
Ask Gus—He Knows
THE young man behind the wheel repeatedly jabbed his toe down on the self-starter button until, in the end, the battery became so exhausted that it refused to spin the motor at all. And with each succeeding failure he became more flushed and embarrassed.
How to Construct a Duplicate of a Genuine Eli Terry Pillar-and-Scroll Shelf Case and Fit a Ready-Made Movement into It
FREDERICK J. BRYANT
ANYONE who is interested in antique furniture will recognize this shelf clock. The design was made and perfected by Eli Terry, one of the most noted of the early clock makers in Connecticut. Terry’s “pillar-and-scroll” shelf clock was first made in 1814.
Here’s an Emergency Device That Will Get Your Car Out—Other Ingenious and Useful Ideas for Motorists
EVEN the motorist who sticks to the main highways sometimes encounters a mudhole on a detour, so that the idea shown in Figure 1 for extricating a mired car is one which any auto owner may find useful. As indicated in the diagram, brackets are built with clamps to hold special boards beneath the running boards.
AN EMERGENCY repair for a torn fabric gasket, in the event that a new one cannot be obtained, can be made by placing a piece of wire netting over the tear, as shown in Figure 2. With care a gasket replaced in this manner will hold for some time with little sign of leakage.
THE only way of assuring ease in steering with modern balloon tires is to have the gear ratio between the steering wheel and the front wheels extremely low. This means that you must turn the steering wheel a considerable distance in maneuvering the car.
THE design for a homemade jack you can build easily from a few pieces of two-by-fours is shown in Figure 4. It is excellent if you have occasion to jack up your car quite frequently. A pair of these jacks will permit you to jack up both rear wheels or both front wheels at the same time for brake adjustment, and if you properly proportion the jacks to your car you will find that they can be worked very easily.
WHEN you find that the ball cap on the steering apparatus fails to hold the ball on the end of the tie-rod tightly enough to prevent play, the trouble can be eliminated by taking off the cap, placing a penny over the ball, and clamping the cap in place again, as in Figure 5.
At Small Cost You Can Make a Softly Glowing Pedestal Lantern in Japanese Style
THE pedestal lantern is a feature of every garden in old Japan. The writer has seen as many as seven in a space not larger than 10 by 15 ft. Most of these lanterns are of stone and as old as history, but in the newer homes one finds uncommonly quaint designs in wood.
How to Shape Them by the “Raising” Method from Disks of Sheet Metal
MOST fascinating of all operations in decorative metal work is that called “raising.” Those of you who have tried it will agree with me, I feel sure; and those who haven’t will be amazed to discover what can be done with a disk of sheet metal, a hammer, and a stake— nothing more.
Old Bill Explains the Differences Between Three Principal Methods of Knitting Metal Together
RETURNING from lunch a quarter of an hour before hour before whistle time, Old Bill went through the office into the shop to see how the welding of a large casting was progressing. Two of his welders were working straight through the noon hour to finish the job without a stop.
Short Cuts in Solving an Often Troublesome Shop Problem—How to Get Along without Trigonometry
THE easiest way to hold machine shop work at an angle is by the use of a universal vse. But the trouble is that this way often will not do when we need it most. Many times there is not room enough for the vise on table or faceplate. Or where the work is large and the operation is heavy, it may not be possible to get a proper grip in any vise.
AS birthday present for my daughter, I built the play store illustrated. It is stocked with cans and containers just like a regular store and has a realistic weighing scale, yet the whole cost was less than one dollar for materials.
An Expert Angler’s Hints on the Care and Use of Your Rod, Reel, and Line
WALTER E. BURTON
OF ALL the little kinks and stunts that every fisherman should know in order to get the greatest joy out of his sport, the following suggestions are considered the most helpful by an angler who has been designing fishing equipment for the past half century.
How to Construct New Apparatus for Performing an Old and Popular Trick
GEORGE S. GREENE
THE trick of causing cards to rise from a deck usually requires a duplicate deck interwound with threads. With the unique apparatus to be described, any unprepared deck may be used and shuffled immediately before the trick. The performer places the deck in a transparent celluloid case resting on a stand on the stage or platform.
How to Make a Triplicating Device for Your Camera from a Small Round Tin Lid
CHLOE H. NULL
IN THE illustration above the subject apparently is doing three things at once. This photograph was made possible by a triplicating device made from the tin lid of a vaseline jar. A lid 1⅞ in. in diameter was the size necessary to fit over the barrel of the lens of the camera used.
AFTER making some changes in the piping around the boiler and engine of an excavator during a temporary cessation of work, I marked the valves clearly to correspond to some written explanations with tags made as shown by pushing the bottoms from empty tobacco cans.
WHEN a hole is to be drilled with reasonable accuracy on a drill press, start it with a pilot drill in a small center-punch mark rather than with the final drill in a large center-punch mark. Be sure that the size is correct on the tools the crib attendant gives you.
How should one choose a new lawn mower? FOR those who want a small, lightweight, low cost mower for use on lawns of small area, steep grades, rough surfaces, and terraces, there is the mower of 12-in. width, 35-lb. weight, having 8-in. wheels and three blades on the rotating cutter assembly.
IN AUTO camping the main thing is to carry the essential equipment in the least possible space. I have a compact double container for all the small tinware, knives, forks and spoons, coffee pot, canned goods, and the like; it is also used to carry drinking water and to heat water for dishes.
GLASS stoppered bottles sometimes are difficult to open. If the handle of the stopper is flat, hold the bottle in the right hand and place the flat of the stopper against the table or bench. With the left hand, press a piece of wood about a foot long against the stopper and the table or bench.
A COLORFUL and decorative viking ship electric wall light can be constructed from scraps of wood at a cost of next to nothing by following POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY Blueprints Nos. 61 and 62 (see page 115). Instead of making the whole ship, about 6 in. of the bow is built and mounted on a baseboard of any suitable design.
WINDOWS on the sunny sides of the house can be protected from glare by building a simple awning frame as shown and training vines over it. The foliage is far more attractive than the faded awnings so often seen. The design can be adapted to single windows, pairs, or groups.
HEAVY strap hinges make good bearings for a porch or a basement swing. Bend one leaf of each hinge as shown to form a hook and then screw or bolt the other leaf to the joist or beam from which the swing is to be suspended. Keep the hinge joint thoroughly oiled.
Child’s Towel Rack Supported by Two Elephant Heads
EDWARD T. PAYSON
WITH a few odd pieces of lumber and a little paint, a novel and useful accessory for the nursery can be made—a towel rack which may induce even a small boy to wash his face. First cut out two elephant heads from clear pieces of ½-in. hardwood. The heads may be made any size by enlarging the construction squares, but a practical size is obtained by reproducing the pattern in ½-in. squares.
CARPENTERS, glaziers, and others who frequently have to reglaze windows and doors will find a mallet made as illustrated of considerable help in driving glazier’s points. The handle should fit rather loosely so that the head will lie flat.
PLYWOOD packing cases are an excellent source of material for the home craftsman. The stock seems mainly to be oak, maple, birch, and poplar. As a rule in the writer's locality the purchase price of a case is from thirty to fifty cents. While the plywood is not made quite as well as regular cabinet stock of this kind, nevertheless careful selection will produce some really good sides that will answer many purposes.
ALTHOUGH I spent many years as an amateur yachtsman and have sailed practically everything this side of a battleship, I am convinced there is as much “kick” to sailing models as there is in navigating the larger craft. In this connection I should like to offer a suggestion that may save t he model yachtsman much tedious sewing.
BUILDERS of ship and yacht models, as well as draftsmen who have to draw many large irregular curves, will find particularly useful a curve ruler made as shown from a length of chemist’s rubber tubing of 3/16 in. inside and ⅜ in. outside diameter, a ten-cent screen door coil spring, and a ⅛ in. square strip of lead cut from the edge of a piece of sheet lead.
HOUSEWIVES sometimes experience trouble in putting up fruits in glass jars of the type illustrated because the cap is not held tightly enough against the rubber ring. This difficulty usually can be remedied by giving the clamp wires a slight offset with a pair of heavy pliers.
SANDPAPERING the edges of boards, especially the irregular edges of scroll-saw work and concave curves of various kinds, can be done easily if a wood-turning lathe is available. Simply turn a perfectly true mandrel of wood of any convenient size, say 3 in. in diameter and 7 in. long, and before removing it note the position of the spur center so that the drum may be replaced the same way and remain properly centered.
FIGURE 7 shows a conventional two-stage audio amplifier which can be built as a separate unit to be used with this receiver. The only additional apparatus you will need will be a transformer to heat the filaments of the 224 and 227 tubes and also the 171A tube, a good B-eliminator, home built or factory built, and a loudspeaker.
THE proper antenna to use with this set depends on your location. If you are hundreds of miles away from the nearest broadcasting station it is desirable to use an outdoor antenna, usually not over fifty or seventy-five feet long. Use also the tap on the antenna coil which puts the most number of turns into action.
IF YOU should happen to visit the Bell Telephone Laboratories in New York City, and there overhear an engineer telephoning, “Joe took father’s shoe bench out,” or “She was waiting at my lawn,” over and over again, he is not merely repeating meaningless phrases.
OCEAN travelers soon may talk in mid-ocean to their families and business associates ashore. Radio telephone equipment was installed recently aboard the steamship Leviathan of the United States Lines and successful ship-to-shore experiments were conducted.
INCREDIBLE though it may seem, psychoanalysis was responsible for the fact that Giuseppe Mario Bellanca, the distinguished designer of airplanes, embraced aviation as a career. About twenty years ago, when Bellanca was graduated with honors from the Royal Institute at Milan, there probably wasn't a more melancholy youth in all Italy.
TALL, spare, cultured, and bearing a striking resemblance to the late President Wilson, August Vollmer, chief of police of Berkeley, Calif., since 1905, who was recently appointed “professor of police administration” at the University of Chicago, presents the appearance of the typical educator rather than that of the traditional police chief.
GRADUATION from college at the age of seventeen, after completing her entire education in less time than most children spend in grammar school, is the remarkable achievement of Miss Betty Ford, of San Francisco, who recently received a degree from Stanford University, California.
THE apparently smooth gelatinous substance on one square inch of sensitive motion picture film is composed of more than a billion silver bromide crystals varying in size and shape. Measurements of the crystals have shown that the gradation of light and shade in a movie is due to the wide range of crystal sizes in the negative film used in the camera, while on the positive film, containing the printed pictures projected on the screen, the grains are much more uniform in size, giving sparkle and life to the pictures.