DALE HATCH was lonesome. A tough day in the big city and dinner alone left him in no mood to take interest in the movies or the theatres of Times. Square. His mail from home only made him feel more lonesome. He went down to the hotel lobby and just sat . . . looking the picture of loneliness.
IN MANY homes a refrigerator does duty until it gets too small for family requirements, fails to fit satisfactorily into a new home, or is about ready to fall apart. Almost never is a refrigerator replaced for sanitary reasons, and yet the essential and important thing wrong with most refrigerators is that they do not refrigerate and are not safe containers for perishable foods.
YOU’VE heard the mythical story of the man who consented to work for one cent the first day and double his wages each day, and how there would not be enough money in the world to pay him? Well, did you ever apply the same idea to count your grandfathers?
OUTSIDE the little printing office in the Prussian Academy of Science building in Berlin, on a Wednesday afternoon, a young man waited his turn to pay one mark for a little pamphlet to be published that day. He scowled at his watch; he had been there since early morning.
An Actor Tells from His Own Experiences Just What Goes on in the New Sound Studios
Two Important Flights
I'M IN the “talkies” now! After five years as a Broadway stage actor, I have begun work in my first talking movie at the Paramount studios near New York City. On my first morning there, I was ushered into a strange and bewildering world where shadows are made audible, words and music photographed; where sights and sounds are printed, canned, and shipped to the four points of the compass! For the first time in years, I suffered stage fright when I stood upon the "stage."
How Engineers, Deep in the Earth, Aim Gigantic Tubes at an Invisible Bull’s-Eye and Make Them Hit the Mark
GEORGE LEE DOWD, JR.
NEARLY a hundred feet below the East River, at Fifty-Third Street, New York City, recently there took place an amazing example of engineering skill. Months before, workmen had started on opposite sides of the river, burrowing toward each other, building a new subway tunnel.
How the Radio Compass Found the Florida and Defeated Death at Sea
H. C. DAVIS
WHILE a sixty-mile gale lashed the Atlantic into shifting mountainous seas, thirty-two men, 700 miles off the Virginia Capes, clung to the rail of the sinking freighter Florida. For days it had drifted with the wind, rudder broken, decks awash, rails coated with ice.
FLYING into the Antarctic, over territory no one has ever seen before, explorers, with the latest aerial equipment, are heading into a land of mysteries. How much is unknown about the Antarctic and how much can be learned by a single flight over its frozen waste was illustrated recently by Capt. George H. Wilkins, the daring Australian who also flew over the North Pole from Alaska to Spitsbergen in 1928.
RECENTLY newspapers published a story of a “chinless” young man who had been provided with a “strong” face by a bone-grafting operation. A piece of his shin bone had been transplanted to his lower jaw. The patient reported that, soon after the operation, he had obtained a job which he had been unable to get before because of the impression created by his receding chin.
Valuable Facts About How to Choose and Use the New Health Lamps
More Elements to Find
ROBERT E. MARTIN
PRESS a button and turn on the sun. It’s that easy. Anyone can have a private sun hitched by a few feet of lamp cord to the nearest convenience outlet. “Health lamps” now are being offered in many varieties. All have one aim—to supply artificially the healthful rays of sunshine.
In the Air at Last!—More of the Stirring Adventures of a Greenhorn Who Is Breaking into Aviation
Named the “Best Flyer”
AMECHANIC in greasy brown overalls jerked the propeller of the blue biplane. The motor snorted, barked, roared. A blast of brown dust swept back. In the forward cockpit sat a begoggled instructor. In the after cockpit sat a pale, begoggled young man.
JAMES L. SMITH is, in a sense, mayor of one of the busiest and most spectacular cities in the world. He is operating manager of the Woolworth Building in New York, the tallest building in the world—a skyscraper city within a city. He watches over the welfare of 12,000 and more inhabitants of a perpendicular town larger than Emporia, Kan., or Reno, Nev.
HERBERT HOOVER’S supporters, during the late caloric campaign, called him the second engineer who had ever stood for the office of President; the first being George Washington. In this, they merely made a flourish of politics. Washington, so far as I can find, never gave himself that title.
FROM coast to coast Americans are trying a hand at the thrilling sport of motorless flying. Here are views of the first official glider contest held by the California Gliders Association on the sand dunes near San Francisco. At the right a ground crew is catapulting one of the machines into the air by means of a towrope. Vance Breese, noted Pacific Coast pilot, is handling the craft.
RESEMBLING a giant scow, this 500-ton steel gate was launched with a mighty splash recently at Brooklyn, N. Y. It is to be the portal of a new dry dock for ocean liners in the Erie Basin of New York Harbor. This dock, 715 feet long and 113 feet wide at the top, will accommodate larger vessels than any similar structure near New York.
HERE is the latest speed creation of Major Malcolm Campbell, famous British driver who broke the world’s record at Daytona Beach, Fla., last year, only to be surpassed soon afterward by Ray Keech, the American. Like Maj. H. O. D. Segrave, whose new car is pictured on the opposite page, Campbell expects to capture world speed honors for England this year.
America's speed supremacy on land and water is being challenged this spring by the famous British racer, Maj. H. O. D. Segrave. He recently brought to America a new speed car, the Golden Arrow, and a powerful hydroplane, the Miss England. Above: Major Segrave (right) and the giant engine in his water craft, with which he expects to beat the record of 92.8 miles an hour set by Gar Wood last year.
When he’s not racing, Major Segrave tinkers with a model railway for recreation. At the right he shows part of the elaborate four-track system which he has been building for fourteen years. It has bridges, tunnels, and automatic electric control devices.
Seth Bert Gracier, a San Francisco chemist, claims to have discovered a way to harden gold, silver, and copper with an alloy of aluminum. Gracier is seen taking a piece of the new alloy from a crucible in his laboratory.
Latest Engine Uses Every Hour Enough Coal to Heat Two Houses All Winter
ATWENTY-TWO-WHEELED juggernaut of the rails, the largest steam locomotive in the world, recently was delivered to the Northern Pacific Railroad. Shown above, it is the most powerful Mallettype train-puller ever built. It weighs 1,100,000 pounds and, with its tender, is 125 feet long.
CIRCLING the North Pole in a 125-foot saucer is the recent amazing proposal of Capt. Robert A. Bartlett, Arctic veteran who commanded Peary’s polar ship Roosevelt, and whose own famous schooner, the Morrissey, has plowed repeatedly into the frozen North.
America’s latest air liner—new twenty-passenger cabin monoplane on recent test flight at Newark, N.J. With ninety-foot wing spread and two 625-horsepower motors, the huge plane is designed to remain aloft twenty hours. Notice the unusually wide body shaped to increase lift.
Getting new license plates is one worry of motorists that doesn’t bother the airplane owner. To obey U. S. Department of Commerce rules, all he has to do is to paint new letters and numerals on his machine. Lee Wiley, a Los Angeles flyer, is seen here showing how simple it is.
Mammoth Flying Hotel for 80 Passengers—A Rival "Question Mark"—Unusual Ideas and Inventions
COLOSSAL flying hotels are reported nearing completion in Germany. Roomier and more comfortable than the Graf Zeppelin, it is said, is a heavier-than-air Dornier machine for eighty passengers, now nearing completion on the shores of Lake Constance. Weighing fifty tons, it will be four times the size of any known airplane.
FULL-SIZED airplanes would be tested without flying them, in a $900,000 wind tunnel proposed in a bill recently reported by the House Appropriations Committee at Washington, D. C. The project calls for a tube of enormous size. Hitherto only the action of propeller and fuselage have been observed with full-scale parts, while test of a whole plane required the construction of a miniature model.
CLOSELY guarded from the curious, a strange flying machine is being built for the British government at Saunders Aircraft Works at Cowes, Isle of Wight. It is an improved type of "helicopter," designed by the Italian inventor, M. V. Isacco, to lift itself vertically into the air.
FIRST tests of a new anti-eyestrain type of goggles developed by the Army Air Corps at Wright Field, Dayton, O., have proved so successful that a large shipment of the eyepieces has been ordered, according to Dr. S. M. Burka, associate physicist qualified in aerial photography at the Army field.
IMPRESSED by the recent sixday flight of the American plane Question Mark, refueled from the air, Britain is going after a few endurance records with her own "Question Mark" plane. A giant Fairey monoplane, just completed, will attempt first to break the world’s nonrefueling record of sixty-five hours in the air; then it will be flown to Cape Town, South Africa, where it will attempt a nonstop return trip of some 8,000 miles—a third of the way around the earth—to London.
COVERED wagon—stage coach—railroad—and now it’s the air-rail! This simple map tells the latest chapter of the amazing story of progress in transcontinental travel. It shows the route of cross country air-rail service soon to operate on schedule.
How Wilbur and Orville Wright Climbed on Wings at Last—The Stirring, Inside Story of the World's First Powered Plane
JOHN R. McMAHON
PHUT! boom! Hutphut-tut! Bang! Bang! A fat dozing policeman sprang quickly from his back - warming chimney prop and swung his club wildly. Dogs barked, a cat ran, small boys with ear muffs hurrahed, and shopkeepers in white aprons ran outdoors in the wintry air after their customers to find out the meaning of the terrible racket.
How the Human Mind, Craving Miracles, Manufactures Them and Deceives Itself
ARTHUR A. STUART
TWO hundred and thirty-seven years elapsed between America’s two famous witchcraft trials. As a result of the first, the “witches” were hanged; as a result of the second, the people who killed the professed witch, or “hex,” were sentenced to life imprisonment.
BEHIND every important new discovery or invention lies a story. Behind hard-sounding technical names and phrases usually can be found a wealth of wonder, adventure, and understandable knowledge. You’ll enjoy the little stories which make up this feature each month.
THE daily news bulletins telling of the grim battle for the life of King George V. of England drew world-wide attention, not only because the ruler of an empire lay near death from pneumonia, but because at his bedside were gathered perhaps the greatest force of diverse sciences ever focused on one task.
WITHIN a quiet building in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, a group of men are experimenting with the world's most dangerous plaything. It is a 5,000,000-volt thunderbolt of laboratory lightning. Only once before has an attempt been made to produce such voltage.
CYANOGEN, one of the most deadly of all poisons, recently was discovered in the heads of comets by Dr. N. T. Bobrovnikoff, of Lick Observatory, by means of a spectroscope. He found also that the comet’s tail is almost equally dangerous, for it is full of carbon monoxide, the same deadly gas which is given off by an automobile exhaust.
ANEW scientific offensive has been launched at Stanford University, California, where two chemists are pumping dyes into the blood of rabbits, pigeons, and guinea pigs as a remedy for diphtheria, ptomaine poisoning, snake bite, and other diseases and poisons.
It was a lucky day for Thomas Hatton, a student pilot of Scranton, Pa., when his plane crashed into a tree top at Cincinnati, O. Not only did he escape injury, but a hook-and-ladder company was there to bring him down, and a photographer was on the spot to take this unusual photograph of the rescue.
A YOUNG inventor from New Zealand, Ernest Godward, recently brought to America a device which he thinks may save bus owners in this country $50,000,000 a year. His invention enables the ordinary gasoline motor to run on cheap fuel oil, such as is used in oil-burning furnaces.
A RECENT little newspaper item, which told of the overhauling of the British ship Fullagar, failed to express the interest with which electrical and construction engineers are waiting for complete reports on the condition of the little vessel, which is only 150 feet long.
Piles of sandbags and a concrete wall between operators and machine are used at California Institute of Technology, in Pasadena, to absorb the dangerous offshoots from powerful X-rays generated by 1,000,000 volts of electricity in a fifteen-foot tube, the world’s largest apparatus of its kind.
One of the newest testing devices of the U. S. Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C., is this odd looking machine which measures the accuracy and durability of hand numbering machines used in business offices to number pages and documents.
ONE of Benjamin Franklin’s contributions to science, heretofore unnoted, was disclosed at the latest annual meeting of the National Broom Manufacturers’ Association, where an old diary was quoted, telling how a woman of Franklin’s acquaintance had sent him a whisk broom from India and so enabled him to establish the broom-corn as an American farm product.
DR. F. G. BANTING, Canadian discoverer of insulin, used in the treatment of diabetes, is going to investigate the life-prolonging possibilities of "royal jelly," the food provided for the queens by worker bees. This substance prolongs the life of the queen bee for several years, and Doctor Banting hopes to discover something that can be used similarly for huma beings.
Rocked by a gale blowing seventy miles an hour, this model of a steel water tower will reveal wind pressures and strains to engineers of the U. S. Bureau of Standards at Washington. The model, shown here with Byron H. Monish, a Federal expert on winds, is placed in the Bureau’s huge wind tunnel to prove how it can stand up in a gale made to howl around it.
Uncle Sam’s plant experts in the U. S. Department of Agriculture have developed a new variety of white potato which, they say, is immune to most of the diseases and blights that prey upon America’s tuber crop. Dr. William Stuart exhibits here a few of the world’s healthiest "spuds" he helped to grow.
IF A man were sixty feet high he couldn’t walk. That is, he couldn’t walk without breaking his thigh bones, which will support only about ten times one’s weight without breaking. If you multiply one’s height, width, and thickness each by ten the total weight will be multiplied by a thousand, but the cross section of each bone is multiplied only by a hundred, so that each bone has to carry ten times as much strain as in the normal individual.
GLASS is not nearly as leakproof as most of us think, according to Professor G. P. Baxter, Dr. H. W. Starkeweather, and Dr. R. B. Ellestad, of Harvard University. They sealed about a quart of helium gas in a globe of fireproof glass. After a year and a day they found that a little more than one percent of the gas had escaped through the tiny pores of the globe.
THE United States Bureau of Standards recently announced that radio engineers confess being baffled by the problem of static. Behind that announcement lurks opportunity. The inventor of the really effective static eliminator can become a multimillionaire.
THE mystery of the rise of sap which has puzzled scientists for years apparently has been solved. Dr. D. T. Macdougal, of the Desert Laboratory, Tucson, Ariz., recently announced his discovery that the sap is hoisted by the leaves to the tree top from above, not pushed up by the roots, as experts long believed.
Australian kangaroo hunters stumbled upon this 1,400-pound meteorite which had plunged from the sky in the vicinity of Queensland. Brought to America and analyzed, it was found to contain ninety-three percent iron, some nickel and platinum, and particles of other minerals.
"Cow trees" recently discovered in the Puerto Barrios district of Guatemala by Prof. Samuel J. Record, Yale University forestry expert, give milk that looks and tastes like the familiar dairy product and is said to be highly nutritious. This picture shows how natives "milk" the trees by gashing the bark.
CANNONBALL BAKER holds more endurance and mountain-climbing records than any man who ever lived. For twenty-three years he has daringly tested the products of auto manufacturers in his whirlwind “road laboratory” of actual performance, speeding in all weathers over all kinds of roads, taking chances only with his own life.
Psychologists Prepare a Series of Questions That Will Help You Get a Line on Yourself
RUTH MOORE MORRISS
ARE you happy in your job, or do you chafe under the drudgery of your daily tasks? Do you know whether you are doing the kind of work for which you are best fitted? Science has just reduced to a minimum the guesswork in answering these questions.
Frozen Giants Blasted to Bits—How U. S. Patrol Boats Trail Atlantic "Growlers" and Guard Ships from Peril
FOUR bergs in sight in a radius of seven miles. Fog getting dense. Danger to westbound traffic. Sixty growlers northeast Cape Race." Here is a message typical of the radio flashes that are now being received daily by the U. S. Hydrographic Office at Washington, D. C., from the International Ice Patrol.
LOOPING-THE-LOOP and topsyturvy flying cause strains that are mild compared with those to which wings are subjected in an airplane factory at Burbank, California. Before new wings are attached to the streamline fuselage of this make of machine, they are loaded with several hundred sandbags while testing engineers watch their strain-recording instruments.
TROPHIES filling the entire west wing of the Jefferson Memorial in St. Louis, Mo., prove the world’s esteem for Col. Charles A. Lindbergh. During his tours of Europe and Latin America after his spectacular crossing of the Atlantic Ocean in May, 1927, medals and plaques, pictures and loving cups were showered upon him.
THE light of stars is measured by photoelectric cells. Dr. Joel Stebbins, of Washburn Observatory, Madison, Wis., recently explained that a photo-electric cell is an electric lamp which works backward; in an ordinary bulb you put in current and take out light, while in the photo-electric cell you put in light and get a current dependent in intensity upon the strength of the light.
A FREIGHT car float, several hundred feet long and sixty feet wide, has been turned into a unique runway for amphibian planes by the Loening Aeronautical Engineering Co., of New York City. One end of the float is attached to the bank of the East River.
BY ANALYZING the breath of the honeybee, Prof. G. H. Vansell, of the University of California, discovered that in winter, when the hive is at rest, the bees absorb moisture from the air, while in summer, when they are working, they give off twenty-five times as much moisture in breathing.
AN AIRPLANE that wears “pants” is the latest development in streamlined aircraft. Both wheels of the forward landing gear, and the struts supporting them, are incased in streamlined “trouser legs ” to reduce head resistance. Lights are provided at the top of each "leg" to aid in maneuvering the plane to a landing at night.
LIKE a tiny ant dragging a large butterfly along the ground is the small tractor which hauls a new big air liner to the starting point at the Oakland Municipal Airport, Oakland, Calif. This new twelve-passenger biplane recently took off on its first flight on a regular OaklandChicago air service.
IN LITTLE cylinders, two inches long and two inches in diameter, “cast stone,” the new building material recently described in POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY, is being tested at the Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C. Its average compressive strength was discovered to be 6,250 pounds a square inch.
TWO hundred and seventy feet above ground, passengers on the British dirigible R-100 will step from the airship to the landing platform of a mooring mast recently completed at Montreal, Canada, to serve as a terminus for the sky liner on its maiden voyage from England this year.
THE latest invention of the Brazilian aviation pioneer, Alberto SantosDumont, is a tiny air-cooled motor and propeller which, strapped to a man's back, pushes him uphill on skis, thus saving his energy while engaging in the sport. The single-cylinder motor, complete with gasoline tank, propeller, and framework, weighs but three pounds.
DASHING over the water at thirty-five miles an hour, a tiny hydroplane, the Oh Kay, its outboard motor racing at full speed, shot up a greased slide, tore through a paper hoop, and leaped forty feet when it recently inaugurated a nerve-tingling sport on Lake Elsinore, Calif.
SLIDING off the ways at Manitowoc, Wis., the first of a series of unique dipper dredges, designed for Great Lakes service, struck the water of Lake Michigan recently and was started on the journey to the scene of its first operations. The new type dredge is of all-steel construction and the dipping machinery is operated by electricity generated on board.
GERMS also prefer blonds. In choosing a victim, the chainlike bacteria streptococci, which infect man with various diseases, pick a person with a light skin rather than one with dark, according to Dr. Samuel J. Holmes, of the Department of Zoology, University of California.
AN INSTRUMENT so small it would take a thousand to equal the size of a drop of water was used recently by Dr. Edison Pettit and Dr. Seth Nicholson, at Mt. Wilson Observatory, to measure the heat of stars billions of miles away (This device was constructed under a microscope.
A POISON gas offensive is being waged by pineapple growers in the Hawaiian Islands against the nematode, a worm pest that attacks the roots of both pineapples and sugar cane, destroying from fifty to ninety percent of the crop. Multiplying rapidly, the plant enemies have increased tremendously in recent years.
TWENTY-FIVE years old and still going strong! That is the record of an early steam automobile in Los Angeles, Calif., which still is able to bowl along the streets of that city at a good speed. The original owner of the machine is not known, although he is believed to have been the president of a western railway.
A THANKSGIVING turkey furnished the keel for an unusual model yacht built by Harry Bock, a workshop enthusiast of Manchester Center, Vt. Upon the polished breast bone, the deck and masts were fastened. Smaller bones from the breast were used as spars to tauten the rigging of the miniature sails.
A NEW hybrid variety of cucumber whose flowers do not have to be pollinated was described recently by Prof. Richard Wellington and Leslie K. Hawthorn, of the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station. The certainty of a crop is assured by this new species, they declared.
OIL from Chinese tung nuts, which long has been used in paints and varnishes, will be produced on a large scale by T. Morris Carnegie, nephew of the late Andrew Carnegie, famous steel maker and philanthropist, if experiments being carried out on his estate near Fernandina, Fla., prove successful.
SCIENCE needs another word to designate what we now call ultra-violet light. “Ultraviolet” simply means “beyond the violet” band of the solar spectrum, which indicates that the rays are invisible and so are not light at all in the ordinary sense of the word.
NEW shapes and colors of glass are being sought for airway markers. How to mark radio antenna poles is a particular problem. Lights at the top are likely to cause mterference. Floodlights at the bottom do not reveal the tips with sufficient clearness.
AMAZING screens formed by streaming particles of electrified water are being used in the Northwest to keep young trout and salmon out of irrigation ditches. When schools of these fish stray into the ditches, loss results to the fishing industry, so experts of the Federal Bureau of Fisheries have been investigating to find the best method of turning them back at the mouth of a ditch.
USING two furnaces for the stomach, twin bellows for the lungs, a little pumping engine for the heart, and other mechanical devices for various organs of the body, British schoolboys, studying anatomy, constructed a mechanical man to illustrate the functions of these organs by machinery.
NITRATES essential in producing explosives in war time and valuable as a fertilizer in peace have been discovered in Southwest Africa, it is reported. Practically the whole supply in the past has come from the famous nitrate mines of Chile, in South America.
IN APRIL, 1930, the great German dirigible Graf Zeppelin will point its nose toward the Arctic, according to Dr. Fridtjof Nansen, famous Scandinavian explorer, who will command the expedition. The airship will be used by the AeroArctic Society in exploring unmapped territory northeast of Alaska.
ALLL modern cats, from tabbies to Angoras, are believed by Paul C. Miller, associate curator of paleontology at the University of Chicago, to have descended from a prehistoric feline whose bones he found recently in Nebraska. For thirteen summers he searched for the big cat of antiquity he believed had roamed over the western plains 10,000,000 years ago.
THE three chemicals which play leading roles in keeping us alive, blood specialists have decided, are hemoglobin, chlorophyll, and a phosphorus compound, still virtually unknown. This trio gives the blood stream its power. Hemoglobin, the red blood chemical, supplies iron to the vital current.
THE so-called Bronze Age is generally believed to have been the stage in human culture intermediate between the Stone and Iron Ages, and to have lasted approximately from 2,000 B.C. until 1,800 B.C. Many archeologists of note, however, doubt that there ever was a distinctive bronze era, but contend that the three ages more or less overlapped, basing this belief on the fact that bronze implements have been found in ancient burial places side by side with iron and, sometimes, even stone ones.
A WHOLE deer disappeared down the throat of a huge python in the Malay States recently, according to the report of hunters who watched the record-breaking meal and then killed the serpent as it lay in a sluggish state while digesting the animal.
THREE thousand feet above the sea in the Italian Alps, workmen in the famous Carrara quarries drilled and cut for five years to carve from a mountain what is believed to be the world’s largest monolith of marble. This white stone block, nearly ten feet square and sixty feet long, has been presented to Mussolini for erection as a monument in Rome.
A MILE of London streets exploded recently. With a series of roars like four huge bombs being, set off, one after the other, an underground gas main burst in the west central section of the British capital. The rushing clouds of inflammable gas ignited and, in an instant, tongues of vivid flame were shooting sixty feet into the air—higher than some near-by buildings.
IF A yellow sheet of crumbly paper found recently in the secret drawer of an old desk at Bergano, Italy, turns out to be what musicians hope it is, every aspiring young violinist soon will play upon a coveted "Strad." An antiquarian, examining the piece of furniture, accidentally came upon a letter written by Antonio Stradivari, the master violin maker of Cremona, to a priest, setting forth in detail the methods of wood-treating and varnishing he used more than 200 years ago in the production of his matchless instruments.
TO LEAVE all matters concerning future generations to Nature is an error, in the belief of Ralph E. Danforth, of Chesterfield, Mass., an authority on eugenics, who holds the aim of eugenics is to improve the human race and make its individuals worthy of being loved.
WITH ninety "tongues" singing out orders at the same time, an "electric boatswain’s mate," recently installed on large British warships, spreads the command over all parts of a vessel within a few seconds. Directions for the crew are spoken into a microphone and transmitted through the ninety loudspeakers placed at different positions on the ship.
TRAVELING from the Malay Peninsula to Massachusetts, vibrations of a recent earthquake passed through the center of the globe, according to seismographic records at Harvard University. Verification of the phenomenon comes from similar records at Georgetown University, Washington, D. C.
ASTRANGE marine bacillus which causes blindness and death to fish recently killed more than 400 specimens at the Aquarium, in New York City, before the epidemic could be stamped out. Angel fish from Key West waters are believed to have brought the deathdealing malady with them.
A THREE-STORY laboratory, to be devoted wholly to the study of problems in connection with talking movies, is being constructed by the Bell Telephone Laboratories in New York City. Facilities for the complete production of sound films for experimental purposes will form part of the equipment.
PRESS down the lever of a new cigarette box and out comes a cigarette already lighted! The movement of the lever releases a single cigarette, allowing it to drop upon holders, and at the same time ignites a lighter, similar in action to an ordinary pocket lighter.
TO SAVE steps and protect packages left when no one is home are the purposes of a device designed to be installed in the kitchen wall. It is a compartment with two doors, one outside the house, the other within the kitchen. When groceries, bottles of milk, or parcels are deposited in the receiver, closing of the outside door locks it automatically, the maker explains, thus protecting the articles from theft.
HERE are ten questions selected from hundreds asked by our readers. See how many you can answer. Correct answers are on page 143. 1. What is the difference between chemistry and physics? 2. What is a vacuum? 3. How does a thermometer tell temperature?
THE function of a car's cooling system is the transfer of excess motor heat to air flowing through the radiator. Assuming that the cooling system keeps the motor at proper running temperature in the hottest weather, it is neither necessary nor desirable to put anything in the radiator except pure water.
SOMETHING new in the way of safety appliances to reduce railway accidents has been devised by G. S. Oliver, an Englishman, in the form of a mechanical device to prevent train collisions at crossings. Using two toy engines on tracks that crossed, Oliver recently demonstrated his theory that levers attached to heavy rolling weights placed at intervals along the rails would stop locomotives from colliding.
GERMS have outlived the dinosaurs. While the huge monsters of the past have vanished from the animal world, microscopic bacteria have continued to live with but slight changes for millions of years, Prof. T. Brailsford Robertson, of the Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, recently reported.
TO PREVENT a window from rattling and to hold it securely so it cannot be raised further from the outside when opened a few inches for ventilation, an ingenious window lock has been invented by Joseph Neiser, of London, Ohio. His latch consists of a right angle rod which fastens into a slot in the side of the upper sash.
WITHOUT a knowledge of radio or code signal, anyone now can send out distress signals from a ship or airplane, it is announced. The signal gives the position of the craft and its call letters in the international radio code, all automatically.
SNEEZING plants that spray their seeds into the air with each "kachoo” are described by Herbert H. Whetzel, professor of plant pathology at Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. They are various types of destructive fungi. Their cup-shaped seed holders are filled with tiny pods, each containing eight seeds.
ONE thing biologists want to see is a three-eyed fish. Dr. E. W. Gudger, of the American Museum of Natural History, New York City, has a photograph of a haddock with three eyes, but the original specimen never came under scientific observation.
How to Build a Simple and Attractive Baffle Board That Will Give Natural Reproduction of Radio Voice and Music
ALFRED P. LANE
I'M GETTING plumb discouraged," complained a radio dealer to me the other day. "There's some funny angles to this radio business, and the question of tone quality sure heads the list." "What's so funny about tone quality?" I asked him. "Well," he explained, "it’s like this.
Electrical Pick-up Simplified—The Secret of Good Tone Quality—Special Receivers for Special Needs
THE conventional method of hooking the electric phonograph pick-up to the radio receiver is to substitute a special plug for the tube in the detector socket. This method gives good results but is somewhat inconvenient because of the necessity of removing the tube each time you wish to shift from radio reproduction to phonograph record reproduction.
MODERN methods of electrical recording give us phonograph records that contain in the wavy grooves a remarkably true record of the actual music or speech. However, the electrical pickup is no miracle worker. All it can do is to convert the mechanical motion of the needle into equivalent electrical impulses, and the tone quality of the music issuing from your loudspeaker will depend on how accurately you amplify these impulses to loudspeaker volume.
THE component parts of a receiving set are made of materials chosen because of their ability to carry electric current or to resist its flow. Thus connecting wires are of copper, and condenser plates of brass or aluminum, because these have little resistance to the flow of current, whereas bakelite, hard rubber, fiber board, wood, and glass are used to stop current flow.
WHILE the radio demands of most people are supplied by the conventional radio receiver, there are many cases where a special receiver can be designed that will give more satisfactory results. For example, take the case of a partly deaf person located reasonably near a number of broadcasting stations.
You Can Be Your Own Designer, Follow a Blueprint, or Assemble a Kit Set—Which? Here Is the Answer
YOU can tackle the problem of building yourself a radio receiver in any one of three different ways. If you understand what each component in the radio circuit actually accomplishes, you can design your own receiver. This means working out a circuit that will meet your particular requirement, choosing apparatus based on the electrical characteristics of the parts available, and then proceeding with the construction and wiring of the receiver according to your own ideas.
A BATTLE against the atmosphere is being carried on by Great Britain through its Department of Scientific and Industrial Research. At Watford, north of London, experts in the Building Research laboratories of the government are seeking better building materials to fight the crumbling effect of England's foggy weather.
A FERTILE plateau, larger than the state of Maryland, was discovered recently on the border between Brazil and Dutch Guiana by a Brazilian army officer, General Candido Rondon, while making a survey of that unexplored region. After penetrating into the jungles north of the Amazon, he reports he emerged upon "a vast plain of rich pasturage." Its extent, he believes, is at least 15,000 square miles. General Rondon was one of the men who accompanied Theodore Roosevelt down the River of Doubt.
TURNING back time perhaps a billion years, when the earth’s earliest inhabitants, the protozoa, or unicellular animals, absorbed food through their microscopic bodies, Dr. Karl Stejskal, a Viennese physician, recently demonstrated that the pores of the human skin will act as mouths, and that man may be fed through any part of his body.
WHALES are in danger of extinction, according to Dr. A. Brazier Howell, zoologist at Johns Hopkins University. Modern power boats and improved equipment, he points out, have increased the catch until nearly 30,000 of the oil-producing mammals are now killed each year, whereas, during the entire forty years when Yankee whaling was at its peak, not more than 100,000 whales were killed.
HOISTED like a fish at the end of a long line, a six-ton block of slate recently was removed from the bottom of an 800-foot quarry in Pennsylvania. Subsequently the slate was cut up into small pieces for roofing. Workmen with thin, broad wedges split out the layers.
AS EVERY woodsman knows, vegetation will not grow under walnut trees. A chemical poison exuded by the walnut tree is responsible, Everett F. Davis, of the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, has discovered. He succeeded in isolating this substance, which he has named "juglone."
RADIO researchers are looking for answers to numerous questions, among them ones such as: Is there any difference between transmission of radio waves in the direction of the earth's rotation and the other way about? Some recent Marconi experiments indicate that there is.
THE inclusion of tear gas in poisonous fumigation used to kill microbes and rodents on vessels is suggested by the U. S. Public Health Service. A slight amount of this gas, the Service points out, will serve as a warning to persons who may be in the holds and thus prevent fatalities.
PIANISTS can play better if they suspend sandbag weights from their wrists during practice periods. This is the belief of Huston Ray, a musician of Los Angeles, Calif., who has devised a unique aid to piano students in the form of six-pound leather bags weighted with sand.
TAKING the guesswork out of cutting pie and cake, a new device assures restaurant patrons that they will receive pieces of equal size, says its maker. The pie or cake to be cut is held firmly upon a turntable by adjustable fingers. After an index lever governing the number of cuts has been set, a knife slipped into the blade guide slices out the pieces, a lever moving the turntable ahead after each movement of the knife.
IS YOUR hair turning prematurely gray? Then it’s a pretty safe guess that one of your parents had hair of a color different from yours. At least, that is the conclusion reached by zoologists of the University of Pittsburgh after a series of tests they conducted to ascertain why the hair of some persons turns gray or white sooner than that of others.
ART paintings that display moving, animated figures, to the accompaniment of a grinding noise of machinery, are the invention of Alexander Archipenko, Ukrainian artist. His new form of art, which he styles "Archipentura," was exhibited recently in New York.
WITH all the advance made by science, medical practice still deals largely in magic, in the opinion of Prof. Lynn Thorndike, noted historian of Columbia University. “A confidence game is practiced on the patient, who must be cheered and distracted,” he says. Sending a man to Florida or out to play golf is on a par with the ancient practices of the medicine men, but both inspire confidence that the patient is going to get well, Thorndike declares.
PERSONS who have difficulty in figuring out the intricacies of a timetable will be interested in an automatic device which is a unique feature of the Piccadilly Underground Station, recently opened in London. A complete timetable is always before the eyes of passengers waiting for subway trains.
THE fiction of Victor Hugo and Eugene Sue. in which thrilling and mysterious doings in the maze of sewers and tunnels underneath Paris are described, has been rivaled by fact. The Bank of France, after three years of work by nearly 1,500 men, has completed construction of a subterranean hiding place for the $1,000,000,000 gold reserve of France which, for imagination of design and ingenuity of construction, surpasses anything conceived by those famous romancers.
A COLLAPSIBLE bicycle which can be ridden to a station, folded up, and taken on a train in a small suitcase has been brought out by a French bicycle maker. He expects it to be popular among city dwellers who have no space in their apartments to store a full-sized machine, but would like to ride a bicycle to work or to and from the station when traveling.
NEWSPAPERS, magazines, and a book, recently made from cornstalks, represent the latest step in utilizing waste products of the farm. In the pressroom of a newspaper plant at Danville, III., cornstalk paper was tested for the first time in actual competition with wood-pulp paper and the results are said to have proved satisfactory. Further tests are being made, to determine whether large-scale production of the cornstalkpulp paper will prove economical.
ALL of us, no matter how blessed with this world’s goods, soon will have less money. The new currency to be put in circulation this year will measure six and five sixteenths by two and eleven sixteenths inches. Our present bills measure seven and three eighths by three and one eighth inches.
ALKING a sufficient number of miles within the city limits of Baltimore, Md., to have circled the globe seven times and have 4,000 miles left over for good measure is the remarkable record of a mail carrier who has just decided that his feet need a rest and has retired from the postal service.
WEARING out three bicycles in twenty years, Charles A. Stoops, former Chief of Police at Easton, Md., has pedaled 175,000 miles, more than most motorists would drive a car in the same length of time. Statistics show that the average automobile owner drives approximately 8,000 miles a year.
A NEW safety railway crossing gate, shaped like a violin bow, is designed to prevent motorists crashing through onto the track, as occasionally happens with ordinary wooden gates. The “string” of the bow is composed of two tightly stretched steel cables supported by a frame of spring steel forming the curved bow.
IF YOUR nerves jump at the staccato noise of the riveters at work on a new steel building, you can appreciate something of the job of Edward Fay, of New York City, who listens to that music almost every day. He has been a riveter for fifty years. Fay, who is sixty-five years old, claims the distinction of being the oldest riveter still on the job.
THE world’s tiniest torch—a light so small that it will illuminate the interior of a single living cell under a microscope—is proving an aid to laboratory investigation at the University of Pittsburgh. The instrument consists of two pencil-shaped pieces of quartz put together like pincers with the points, which were drawn down finer than those of needles, coming together.
GERMAN scientists have adapted the gas mask of World War fame to use in the battle against flower pollens that cause hay fever and which are believed responsible for asthma. The new mask filters the pollen out of the air just as the war mask did poisonous gas.
HOW a man-made spider’s web appears to a man-made bird is revealed in a remarkable photograph taken recently from an airplane flying above the Marble Gorge of the Grand Canyon of the Colorado, in the northwestern part of Arizona. It shows the steel span of the new highway bridge being completed across the Gorge below Lee's Ferry.
IF EVER you have occasion to include a secret message in a letter be sure to write the entire missive with a well-filled fountain pen and not with an ordinary pen which has to be dipped into ink. A British handwriting expert discovered the other day that part of a letter consisted of a secret message by studying the manner in which the writer had replenished his pen.
BANANA trees may yield fibers to take the place of jute in the manufacture of gunny sacks used to carry produce all over the world, if hopes of Brazilian textile men are realized. An invention for utilizing the tree fibers for this purpose was described recently at Rio de Janeiro.
A $60,000 pillar of smoke darkened the sky at Zyba, Kansas, following a recent railroad wreck in which twentyseven tank cars, filled with gasoline, jumped the track, piled in a tangle, and burst into flames. All of the valuable cargo, on its way north from the oil fields of Oklahoma, was destroyed by the fire.
LOWER California is steadily rising from the sea, according to a report of the National Geographic Society. The area of the fingerlike peninsula, surveys have shown, is increasing, while the Gulf of California, separating it from the mainland of Mexico, is losing width and depth.
IN THE year 2729, some astronomer will be able to ascertain whether two giant suns, which were seen rolling around each other in space a few weeks ago, actually existed in 1929, when they were observed for the first time, or whether they passed out of the universe centuries before.
War Birds Flit from. Floating Nest Built Like Dovecote
ONE of the great floating nests for war birds is the British airplane carrier Furious, which is equipped with many devices to increase the efficiency of machines flying at sea. The "roof" of the vessel forms the broad expanse for the oceanic flying field.
"EYELESS" salamanders, born in deep caves, develop eyes when reared in the light, according to G. K. Noble and Sarah H. Pope, of the American Museum of Natural History. The organs of vision, apparently lost, are merely dormant, they found.
YOU can stand upright within an immense searchlight recently completed in England for use at the famous Croydon Airport. It is seven feet six inches in diameter and, mounted on its platform, stands fourteen feet high. The operator of the huge night guide for passenger air liners sits upon a seat above the platform and directs the beam of light by means of cranks and gears.
THE ages of parents at the time of a baby’s birth have no bearing upon the normality or lack of it in the individual, nor does it make any difference whether one is oldest or youngest in a large family, Dr. Madge Thurlow Macklin, of the University of Western Ontario Medical School, recently reported as the result of extensive observation of 111 pairs of twins.
LESS than two dozen shrimp are needed to make you a satisfying salad, but the whale, largest animal alive, which curiously enough dotes on these little creatures, eats millions of them alive for his daily luncheon. A group of scientists just returned to England from an expedition to the Antarctic, now the greatest whaling ground, reported that the huge sea beasts there live almost exclusively on a variety of very small shrimp, which they swallow alive by millions.
SKATING in bathing suits on a glaze of chemical ice that the sun cannot melt is the latest sport in the moving picture colony at Hollywood, Calif. Surrounded by palms and other tropical foliage, the skaters glide and circle in the joyous pastime of colder climates.
A DOUBLE-WALLED flowerpot, the inner part porous and the outer waterproof, with the two united at the top by a flat rim, was described recently by Dr. J. Dean Wilson, of the Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, who said that extensive experiments proved its usefulness in automatically irrigating plants growing in it.
LIKE turtles drawing in their heads and closing their shells, automatic sprinklers installed recently in the sheep meadow at Central Park, New York City, disappear into the ground and pull tight coverings over themselves to give the meadow a smooth surface when the water is shut off.
OVER the airways that lead out of Chicago like the spokes of a wheel, mail, passenger, and express planes fly 565,406 miles a month. Fourteen companies, according to the American Air Transport Association, operate lines out of this one city.
A TINY camera, which takes sixteen pictures of the inside of the stomach on films with a total area less than that of a postage stamp, was swallowed recently by a convict at Sing Sing Prison, New York, in a demonstration before a meeting of medical men.
STAINED glass windows which beautified medieval cathedrals, though exquisite in coloring and design, were not meant primarily for decorations, but rather were intended to serve the purpose of pictured story books at a time when illustration was confined principally to illuminated initials in manuscripts.
A NOVEL watering can designed for half a dozen uses is now on the market. A spout at one side equips it to fill automobile radiators. A two-byeight-inch perforated mouth on the other side is a sprinkler for gardens and lawns. It helps in washing automobiles, too, the maker says, as it furnishes a steady, gentle shower without splashing.
TEACHING postmen how to walk may sound paradoxical, but teaching them to walk hygienically is a positive boon to them and to the public they serve, according to a Chicago foot specialist, Dr. J. C. Rintelen, who recently gave lessons to sixty letter carriers in Norfolk. Va.
BY PROVIDING play between the handle and mounting, a rubber joint increases the ease with which a new stamp can be used. It allows the handle to be held at different angles without marring the impression. In the ordinary rubber stamp, with rigid handle, care must be exercised to keep the stamp horizontal or its impression will be blurred or incomplete.
PEAT fuel will be prepared for the markets of Ottawa and Montreal, Canada, in a government plant at Alfred, Ont., which is practically automatic. It will operate twenty-two hours a day and turn out 20,000 tons of peat “bricks” during the winter season of 100 days.
TWENTY-SEVEN persons died of snake bite in the United States in 1928, according to R. H. Hutchinson and R. E. Stadelman, of the Antivenin Institute of America. Five hundred and seventy persons were victims of different varieties of poisonous serpents.
A Home Builder Finds Improved Insulation Soon Pays for Itself in Comfort and Lower Fuel Bills
WILLIAM DEWEY FOSTER
WITHOUT comfort, no matter how economically it may be built or operated, a home becomes a mere shelter from the elements. In recent years, American builders have been striving more and more to make houses livable and healthy. And in accomplishing this they have found insulation to be one of their principal aids in barring out cold in winter and heat in summer.
Rugs can’t slide or pull under vacuum cleaners when the latest antiskid buttons anchor them in place. Half of a fastener is attached to the floor at each corner. The other half, sewed to the rug, is quickly snapped into it.
Clamped to faucets with Y-shaped arms, this new washer cleans your dishes with water swirled around by an electric pump. By placing the washer on a rolling stand you can wheel your dishes to and fro. In addition to breaking up food particles to pass down the drain pipe, the washer’s electric motor will run a cream-whipper, an egg-beater, or a small drill used on household jobs. A rotating brush also will remove cooked food adhering to pots and pans.
You’ll shed no tears when you chop or slice onions with this glass-inclosed plunger. Put the vegetable on a wooden base, cover it, give the protruding handle a few strokes, and presto! the job is done “without a tear in an onion.”
Here’s a new improvement on an old household tool! An adjustable blade, held tight by a set screw, may be easily moved from place to place on this can opener to help you in cutting the covers of any tin containers.
Mechanical Novelties in Wide Variety Offer Greater Convenience and Economy in the Home
Safety Lock for Gas Cocks
Insurance against accidentally opening the cocks of a gas range is provided by the simple lock-tight metal strip which P. Albanese, of Passaic, N. J., the inventor, is exhibiting. His device can be used on gas stoves with any number of burners.
Mechanical Novelties in Wide Variety Offer Greater Convenience and Economy in the Home
Bovel "Cooking Cabinet"
Here’s a genuine "cooking cabinet" for summer as well as winter use. Inch-thick insulation prevents its heat from warming the kitchen. When its cover is shut a small simmer burner will keep food warm for hours. An "elevator" saves stooping to lift a roast, as shown above.
Mechanical Novelties in Wide Variety Offer Greater Convenience and Economy in the Home
Wall Recess Guards Hot Iron
Protected from dust and rust, your electric iron is tucked away in this built-in wall closet, which also serves as a rest for the iron when in use. Asbestos lining and a ventilated door allow safe storage of iron while hot.
Mechanical Novelties in Wide Variety Offer Greater Convenience and Economy in the Home
Handy New Broom and Mop Holder
Brooms, mops, and household tools with handles can be conveniently kept in wall brackets like the one at the right. Curved nonskid holders grip the handles by spring tension as they are pushed into place. A lift removes the article when needed.
Mechanical Novelties in Wide Variety Offer Greater Convenience and Economy in the Home
Miniature Washboard for Dainties
For girls who prefer to launder their own fragile silk stockings and flimsy lingerie this little metal washboard is just the thing. Its curved handle fits the back of the Land that grips it, when placed in a basin, and its corrugations are declared to be harmless to delicate fabrics.
WITH the exception of dressing tables, most small, individual pieces of modernistic furniture seem to have been designed mainly for masculine use and enjoyment. In the accompanying illustrations, however, is shown a piece of furniture in the modern taste designed exclusively for the use of the lady of the house.
A. J. Stuhler, Who Likes to Make Things at Home, Pursues His Hobby with an Assortment of 1,238 Individual Tools and Machines
THAT kind of home workshop most of us have pictured only in our daydreaming A. J. Stuhler, of Monticello, Iowa, actually owns. Contained in two rooms, the shop includes 1,238 individual tools and machines. Each machine has an individual motor, and there are fourteen ¼-H.P., one 1/3-H.P., and one ½-H.P. motors.
MAKING small boxes is one of the most interesting and fascinating types of work that can be done on a wood-turning lathe, for the possibilities in the choice of size and design are almost without limit. The cover of the powder box, Fig. 1, is turned from a piece of wood at least 1 in. more in diameter than the finished dimensions call for.
You Will Be Surprised How Easy It Is to Make and Emboss Artistic Looking Receptacles for Ashes, Cards, or Pens
SMALL card, ash, and pen trays (Fig. 2) are easy for the beginner in decorative metal working to make. They form useful and acceptable gifts and, when well shaped and neatly finished, can be sold at a profit if a local market can be found for them.
B. T. STEBER, of Utica, N. Y., in a letter to POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY, criticizes the conduct of the U. S. Patent Office. He charges that instead of serving as an incentive to invention, for which it was intended, the Patent Office stifles initiative by dilatory methods.
And You Were Speeding Forty Miles an Hour, What Would You Do? Gus Explains the First Rules for Safe Driving
WE’D better step on it, Gus; the wife’ll have the eats waiting by now," Joe Clark urged as he locked the door of the Model Garage and hastily climbed in beside his partner. "Huh!" snorted Gus Wilson. "You don’t have to tell a hungry old bachelor to hurry when there’s home-cooked fodder in sight!”
How to Gain Room for Storing Clothes Simply by Adding Shelves, Coat Rails, Hooks, Hangers, and Various Fixtures
L. M. ROEHL
YOU can put more of the closet space in your home to practical use by building in additional shelves, coat rails, and compartments and by adding hooks, rods, and hangers. Figure 1 shows a simple and practical way to place shelves at the back or end of a closet.
Fix It Yourself with These Handy Hints for Motorists
How to Keep Your Windshield Wiper Wor king, Build a Nest for Tools, Grind Valves an Easy Way, or Rig a Siphon
THE average windshield wiper goes bad long before it is worn out. Constant contact with the surface of the glass puts a kink in the rubber edge so that it will not bend back and forth to clean the glass as it should. Fig 1, below, shows how to avoid this deterioration.
THE coach type of auto body usually has the front seats so they can tip forward to give access to the rear seats. Hinges support these seats at the front and feet are provided at the rear so that there is a space between the bottom of the seat and floor of the car.
AN ORDINARY plumber’s force cup, such as is used for clearing clogged drain pipes, can be fashioned into a useful valve-grinding tool. The lower part of the rubber cup is cut off so that the diameter of the remaining portion is smaller than the diameter of the head of the valve.
R. L. Ogden, of Edgewater, Colo., wins this month’s $10 prize for his suggestion of a valve-grinding tool, as shown in Fig. 3. Each month POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY awards $10, in addition to regular space rates, for the best idea sent in for motorists.
INSTEAD of sucking rubber hose to start gasoline siphoning out of a tank, construct the neat siphon shown in Fig. 4. Bend a piece of brass or copper tubing into a U shape. To one end attach a rubber bulb like photographers use. To the other attach a piece of hose.
FIGURE 5 shows a convenient and simple running-board tire holder that can be made from a block of wood, some strap iron, and five bolts. As shown, the arrangement is for a rim fitted with four lugs, but it will work with other numbers of lugs, if necessary.
An Expert’s Method of Preparing Prints for Framing—How to Emboss the Mounts
How to Mount Photos
WALTER E. BURTON
HENRY, I wish you would take this photograph of Mary Ellen down town and have it framed," Mrs. Webster said to her husband as he started for the office. "I'll get a frame and put the picture in it myself. That will be cheaper," Henry replied. "Where's the yardstick?"
Designed for Home Workshop Use, ItIs of Heavy-DutyType Yet Easy to Build
Materials for Bench
What Lumber to Order
Sizes of Finished Pieces
E. E. ERICSON
EVERY amateur woodworker and every man who does much household repair work needs a fairly large, rigid workbench. Wherever there is room available—in the basement, garage, or large attic— the bench illustrated will make its appeal to the worker because of its strength, durability, and simplicity of design and construction.
Often Prevents the Serious Distortion of Work Held in Lathes or Other Machines, According to HENRY SIMON, Expert on Better Shop Methods
IF THERE are a dozen ways of distorting work held against the faceplate or machine table, there are at least as many of doing the same thing with the chuck. Every mechanic is familiar with the difficulties of holding a thin ring without causing it to go out of round, but it is not so generally realized how thick a ring or tubular part may be and yet be distorted by the pressure of chuck jaws under certain conditions.
ALTHOUGH houses built today usually have a built-in drain in the basement or laundry, older houses frequently lack this convenience, and the laundress has to drain the washing machine into pails, which must be lifted to the laundry tubs or carried to a drain.
Controlling a Bathroom Light— And Hints for Home Owners
EASILY accessible to both little folks and adults is the bathroom light switch illustrated in Fig. 2. It is made by attaching a tape to the end of the chain of a chain type socket. The tape is run through a screw eye at the top (Continued on page 131)
Is an Easy Trick with Which to Mystify Your Friends if You Know What Preparations to Make
GEORGE S. GREENE
IN THE flag and the egg trick, which is a most effective one for the amateur magician, a silk flag is stuffed into the cupped hands, yet when the hands are opened nothing is seen but an egg. To prepare for the trick, chip a hole the size of a quarter in the side of an egg with a knife and allow the contents to flow out.
TO GET reversed motion with an amateur movie camera, merely hold it upside down while taking the particular scene which you want to film backwards. When the roll is returned to you, separate the reversed scene and splice it in, turning it end for end so that it will run right side up in the projection machine.
IF YOU use the landing gear described iii this article with a model built according to the plans in the March issue for the world's record seaplane of Tudor Morris, you will find yourself in a good position to win prizes in any model airplane contest.
OUR blueprints can be obtained for 25 cents a sheet. In some cases there are two or three sheets to one subject. The blueprints are complete in themselves, but if you wish the corresponding back issue of the magazine in which the project was described in detail, it can be bad for 25 cents additional so long as copies are available.
HARDWOOD dowels may be used in different ways. For some purposes, like reinforcing a glued joint, there is no adequate substitute; but for other purposes there are metal pins and screws that are more efficient than the wood dowel. These may be bought in many ordinary hardware stores or ordered from the catalogue of a large hardware dealer.
AS THE owner of one of the popular electric workshops with a capacity for turning wood about 9 in. in diameter, I was confronted with the problem of turning a piece to a diameter of 10½ in. I found that I could easily turn this piece or, indeed, one as large as 11 in.
THAT readers in far corners of the world are building POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY airplane models is indicated by many letters which have been received, among them the following from J. P. Smith, of Christchurch, New Zealand: “Some of your readers, when making model airplanes such as the Bremen, may have experienced difficulty in bending bamboo in the exact place required by means of an ordinary candle flame.
If You Have Built Our Mississippi Steamboat, You Can Place It on Pedestals or in a Scenic Case
E. ARMITAGE McCANN,
MANY of the ship model builders who have been following our Mississippi steamboat articles now have their models of the Buckeye State completely finished. There remains but the problem of mounting and placing it—a problem of interest to all who make ship models.
MOST of us at some time or another have picked up bargains in "all wool" men’s suits or other garments at absurdly low prices. Later we have sometimes realized that the money had been thrown away through our inability to distinguish between the common textile fibers.
IN THE first of my series of articles on repairing antique furniture, which began in the December, 1927, issue, I gave a formula for making varnish remover. Since that time I have done some experimenting and wish to give readers the benefit of the results in the form of a recipe which modifies the previous one and reduces the cost considerably.
SIMPLEST of all POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY ship models to make is the rakish little Baltimore clipper illustrated above. The hull is in. long and the entire model, including the base, is only 8 in., yet it makes a striking ornament on any desk, table, or mantelshelf.
MANY handy men and amateur painters and decorators are asking just how much of the painting and decorating about the house and workshop can be done with spray guns of the hand pump, foot pump, or small-motor-operated types. They wish to know also what methods are required and if really first-class finishing can be done with this new tool.
PAINT, putty, furnace cement, and similar materials cannot be kept in open cans without hardening on the surface or deteriorating. To preserve them from one job to another, I protect them from the air with a layer of paraffin wax. In the case of ordinary paint, I place the can or bucket on a piece of newspaper, mark around it with pencil, and cut out a circle of paper, which is then placed on top of the paint to keep the hot paraffin from running into the paint.
IN THIS new game of prospector’s luck, the player puts the ball on the upper platform, spins the pan with one finger at a moderate speed, and pushes the ball into the chute. If the ball falls into the space marked “gold,” it is a “strike,” and the player retires from the game a winner.
IN MAKING titles with amateur or 16 mm. moving picture film, use 2 ft. of film for every four words if the title exceeds eight words. For a title of less than eight words, use 2 ft. of film for every three words. It is not good practice to use less than 2 ft. for any title.
WHEN the amateur mechanic wishes to make small castings of brass, aluminum, and various alloys, he can make a crucible from an old dry cell battery carbon. Take out the carbon, secure it firmly, and drill as large a hole as practical — ordinarily ½ or ⅝ in.
A PUNCHING bag to amuse the children can be made by inclosing an old inner tube in a sack. The tube should be doubled in such a way that the valve is folded in toward the center of the punching bag. An old pair of gloves should be used to protect the children’s hands from ABRASIONS.
BY FOLDING a single sheet of paper as shown, you can make a bird which will flap its wings when its tail is pulled. Different wings, bodies, heads, and tails can be pasted on the elementary form. Butterflies can be made similarly, and it is also possible to construct animals with ears that flap.
WHEN winding clothesline or other heavy cord into a ball, all kinking can be avoided if the ball is changed at intervals from the right to the left hand and vice versa. Wind with one hand until the cord begins to twist; then transfer the ball to the other hand without turning it around or changing the direction of winding.
1. Broadly speaking, chemistry deals with what things are made of, while physics deals with the properties or qualities things possess without regard to chemical composition. But there are many scientific problems which involve both chemistry and physics, so there is no sharp dividing line between the two sciences.