"GOOD news, Laura," announced Dwight Miller, coming home from the office early Wednesday, the night before Thanksgiving. “My salary will be increased to $5,000 the first of the year. That makes the fifth year in succession that I have started the New Year with a boost in pay.
POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY guarantees every article of merchandise advertised in its columns. Readers who buv products advertised in POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY may expect them to give absolute satisfaction under normal and proper use. Tools, Radio Apparatus, Oil Burners and Refrigerators advertised in POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY have been tested or investigated by the Popular Science Institute of Standards and each advertisement carries the insignia indicating approval.
Features of Heating with Oil That Have Made So Many Home Owners Turn to This Ideal Modern Fuel
COLLINS P. BLISS
“AND that’s what decided me on oil heat.” My friend had just finished describing an evening at a neighbor's home when the uncertain fall temperature had taken a characteristically sudden drop. His host's method of restoring comfort had been to pull a switch and start the oil heating apparatus going.
I SEE your announcement of the forthcoming great series of articles on the Wright brothers,‘Fathers of Flight.’ No doubt the author, Mr. McMahon—whose articles on housebuilding in your magazine I read diligently—will boost Orville and Wilbur clear up to the top floor of immortal fame for their services to civilization.
At Last—The Inside Story of Wilbur and Orville Wright, The Real Fathers of Flight
JUST twenty-five years ago the first frail airplane was launched— and, until now, the complete, intimate story of its creators never has been told. It was Mr. McMahon’s privilege to hear this story from Orville Wright himself, and to see private diaries, letters, and telegrams telling of the two brothers’ dramatic struggles to fly. Here it is repeated to you—the most thrilling narrative of its kind ever published.
JOHN R. McMAHON
THE sky is alive with winged craft. They dart through clouds and slide across the open blue. At night, unseen, they murmur their progress along starry pathways. They wend to distant cities. They cross the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, the continents of Asia and Africa, the North Pole and—soon—the South Pole.
Greatest Telescope, to Enlarge the Universe Eight Times, and Marvelous “Sky-Theater” Promise Untold Thrills in Astronomy
EDWIN W. TEALE
ON A California mountain top, a few years hence, there will take place one of the great adventures of all time. A man will look into the night sky and his gaze will penetrate beyond the most distant stars within the range of ordinary telescopes, past the lonely “island universes” revealed by the giant 100-inch Hooker instrument at Mt. Wilson Observatory, beyond the last confines of man's knowledge of the heavens, at least four times farther than any man has ever seen before!
WITHIN a few weeks Major H. O. D. Segrave, of Great Britain, former champion in the lists for international speed supremacy, will fire his great golden car at a target on the sands of Daytona Beach, Florida, in a do-or-die effort to regain the motor car speed record for himself and his country.
THIS is a story of modern alchemists—of bold experimenters who have dared to imprison stupendous forces. Wielding 5,000,000 volts of electricity, they seek to blast the building blocks of the universe and fulfill the long-sought dream of “transmuting the elements.” A thrilling adventure that will end—no one knows where!
CONSTRUCTION soon will begin on what will be the world's largest and tallest building—the Chicago Tower and Apparel Manufacturers’ Mart. Seventy-five stories high and covering two city blocks, it will house in addition to offices and stores, a 440-room hotel, a 1,024-car garage, two clubs, a hospital, swimming pools, gymnasiums, and even a small golf course.
Armored Ships Win Thrilling Battles with Polar Ice
Flirting Daily with Death, They Smash through Frozen Barriers to Vanquish the Earth's Farthest Strongholds
ROBERT E. MARTIN
SOMEWHERE in the South Pacific, Commander Richard E. Byrd and his party of fifty-five adventurous men have finished the first lap of their two-year Antarctic expedition aboard the ice-breaking whaler C. A. Larsen, largest ship of its kind in the world.
Leaders in Many Fields of Applied Science Tell of the Year's Most Valuable Contributions to Progress
IN AIRPLANE design, perhaps the most striking advance has been in the cruising speed of commercial planes, particularly of the transport type. Cruising speeds of 110 miles an hour were considered satisfactory two years ago. Now the operators demand 130 miles an hour.
Surprising Tests Show Why More than Half the World Now Need “Specs” — Interesting New Facts About Your Eyes
E. E. FREE
EVERYBODY in the world is threatened with spectacles. The percentage of people whose eyes are already glassed-in increases daily. Nearly half of a group of typical school children tested a few weeks ago by the United States Public Health Service were found to need glasses.
The Enthralling Story of Dr. Hugo Eckener, Master of the Giant Graf Zeppelin, the First Air Merchantman
ARTHUR A. STUART
SAFELY stored in its home hangar at Friedrichshafen, Germany, the Graf Zeppelin, largest aircraft in existence and the world’s first commercial dirigible, rested after her record-breaking eastward Atlantic crossing from America.
REMEMBER the days when it was a popular pastime to see how many automobiles you could call by name as you met them on the road? Well, aviation today has arrived at that same thrilling stage of public interest. So, on these pages, we are picturing most of the leading makes of airplanes now operating in America.
SINCE May, 1926, the planes of one of America’s largest air transport concerns have flown more than 3,000,000 miles without injury to a passenger or loss of an ounce of mail or express. Aviation owes its wonderful records of service not to any particular invention, but to hundreds of valuable ideas like those described on these pages.
The latest improvement over the clumsy “football” headgear once worn by pilots is this light, close-fitting helmet of soft leather designed by the U. S. Army Signal Corps. Attached earphones and a telephone mouthpiece strapped to the chest enable pilot to hear messages undisturbed by the engine’s roar.
Years ago experts shook their heads when J. C. H. Ellehammer, famous inventor known as “ the Edison of Denmark,” designed this first radial air-cooled aviation motor. Yet recently, when he exhibited his early model and posed for the above photo, he revealed that it is strikingly similar to its famous present-day descendant, the Wright “Whirlwind,” which drove Lindbergh, Byrd, and Chamberlin across the Atlantic.
Leon Theremin, young Russian professor whose “ether music” device was described not long ago in POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY, is seen here with his latest invention — a magnetic altimeter which, he says, tells a flyer his exact height above the earth in thickest fog.
When planes of the Byrd Antarctic Expedition begin their explorations over the South Polar ice cap, this new bubble sextant invented by Commander Byrd will enable the pilots to establish their location quickly and accurately. Ralph L. Shropshire, assistant navigator of the expedition, is shown testing the device.
So rapidly are air-mail lines increasing that post office clerks have to keep a map of the routes before them while sorting the mails. This picture, taken in the Chicago post office, shows the clerks handling a flood of air-mail letters, guided by a Wall map of the various lines.
Sensations experienced by an airman climbing into rarefied atmosphere are duplicated on the ground with a new experimental apparatus (left) devised in Germany. In a steel tank the man being tested is subjected to decreasing air pressure and supply of oxygen.
Gliders and Autogiros to Go on the Market—The Army’s New Bomber—Advances in Flying Science
SOON you will be able to purchase your own “training” glider or motorless flying" machine, if you desire. In Michigan, according to a preliminary announcement, a newlyformed corporation plans to establish what is probably America’s first glider factory.
NEW bombing planes which the Army plans to launch during the coming year will be able to drop their deadly missiles from an altitude of more than three miles. The new high “ceiling” will place these craft farther from the effective range of “archies,” or antiaircraft guns, according to Air Corps officials.
LIGHT autogiro planes are soon to be marketed, according to Juan de la Cierva, inventor of this novel “windmill” type of craft. In initial tests at Hamble Airdrome, England, a two-seater model developed eighty horsepower. The new model is similar to the larger autogiro in which De la Cierva recently made a successful 1,500-mile tour of continental Europe, as described last month in POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.
ILL man’s physique and personality change if aviation becomes as common as motoring? Grave flying ills may become general, in the opinion of Lieut. Col. Levy M. Hathaway, Chief Flight Surgeon, U. S. Army Air Corps. At least two serious ailments peculiar to aviators have already been noted by Col. Hathaway, based on his observations of Air Corps personnel.
LIVES of passengers on the British military super-dirigible, the R-I01, now under construction at Cardington, England, will be protected by this huge maneuvering valve which will automatically regulate the gas pressure within the bag.
FUTURE ocean-going planes, carrying 100 or more passengers, may employ water-cooled engines, according to L. M. Woolson, Packard Motor Company aeronautic engineer. “Such planes,” he recently told the Society of Automotive Engineers, “will demand enormously powerful engines, and it is inconceivable that the great parasitic resistance of many externally-mounted air-cooled power plants can be permitted.
SLIDING planes into the water from ship decks, so that they can take off under their own power, is made possible through the invention of a German engineer named Hammann. In this plan, which aims to rival the present method of launching planes directly with catapults, a slanting platform extends from the ship’s deck to the water's edge.
ELECTRIC cables buried underground would guide airplanes across treacherous mountain ranges and into airports, in a new system devised by a French inventor named Loth. Delicate instruments in the plane's control cabin, Loth says, could enable the pilot to follow an earth cable 8,000 feet beneath him.
ARTIFICIALLY warming the open II. air over a landing field is the latest weapon against fog. In experiments areas up to 200 yards in diameter have been cleared in this way, Lieut. Albert E. Hegenberger, U. S. Air Corps, recently told the aviation section of the National Safety Council.
THE fog got Capt. C. B. D. Collyer, champion globe-circler, and his passenger, Harry Tucker, the other day. Their famous Lockheed plane Yankee Doodle, holder of two cross-continent records, crashed in a fog upon an Arizona crag, killing both.
Detectives of Science Solve Mysteries Buried for Centuries Lost Races Live Again!
MORE thrilling than fiction arc the adventures of the Sherlock Holmes’s of archeology, whose latest exploits are recounted here. It is the story of faint trails that lead to strange Mayan cities buried in the jungle; of treasure, ages old, dug from the sands of the desert; of handwriting clues to vanished men.
THE patient, careful sifting of some sediment encountered in the course of quarrying at Folsom, New Mexico, recently led Barnum Brown, paleontologist of the American Museum of Natural History, to the startling conclusion that America was inhabited by human beings from 15,000 to 20,000 years ago!
ANOTHER absorbing article revealing deep secrets of legerdemain never before told to the public. An expert takes you back-stage and shows how, by applying simple mechanical principles, magicians escape from coffins, water tanks, and bags, and perform all manner of mysteries.
GEORGE S. GREENE
IN MY previous article I told of some of the mechanical devices which enable a magician to fool his audience and of the men who spend their time and ingenuity in creating new apparatus for performers to use. I explained how many of the tricks are accomplished by applying simple laws of science.
FLAMING letters of scarlet sixty feet high flash the word “RICHFIELD” from a hill overlooking Portland, Oregon. Completed a few weeks ago, they form what is said to be the largest electric sign in the world. A threestory house could nestle comfortably under the crossbar of the ”H”.
Brief Bits of Fact and Interesting Comment; a New Feature Portraying the Drama of Progress
WHAT’S the good of science? Every now and then such a query comes from somebody who sees in it only a cold intellectual subject remote from life. And the answer is like an endless chain—it starts anywhere and keeps on going forever. Consider, for example, as I did, the bits of news that flow over a single desk in the office of POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY in just one week.
DID you know that an air bubble in a window pane, wet lime, or piled newspapers, may mysteriously set your house afire? If not, you’ll be interested in this story of strange spontaneous conflagrations and of the surprising ways in which they start.
AFTER years of ingenious labor, William M. Clark, a retired business man of South Orange, N. J., recently completed a unique collection of miniature models of most of the familiar mechanisms used in domestic life and industry today.
IN A laboratory at Rochester, N. Y., Burgess Smith, formerly in charge of the anticounterfeiting measures of the U. S. Bureau of Engraving and Printing, has been working for the last ten years to baffle check criminals that now exact an annual tribute of about $100,000,000 through check forgery and alteration.
STEAMING along the Clyde River, Scotland, at eleven and a half knots—thirteen land miles an hour—a great steamship, which one man could pilot across the ocean, recently passed its trial tests. Electric controls maneuver the 469foot oil tanker Brunswick, largest of its type in the world, now plying between America and Europe.
NEW equipment for the telephone, shown at an international invention exhibition, held recently in London, England, included a tiny hourglass for checking the time of a long-distance call, and a device for stretching paper over the mouthpiece of a telephone to prevent germs from entering.
OVERNIGHT, three miles of a river in Colorado recently disappeared. One Friday night the White River, with its headwater at Trapper’s Lake, east of Meeker, was flowing as usual. Saturday morning, part of the stream had vanished, leaving thousands of dead trout on the dry river bed.
THE first rubber snake ever found in Yellowstone Park was recently discovered by a party of visitors guided along one of the nature trails by a ranger who is also a naturalist. A member of the family to which the boa and the python of the tropics belong, the rubber snake is a northern species and classed as a constrictor.
A VARIANT of the old adage that “dog eats dog,” to the effect that rat devours rat, is being put into practice at Leningrad, Russia. To combat a veritable rat epidemic in the city, where it is estimated an army of 2,000,000 of the rodents are menacing public health and destroying approximately $2,500,000 worth of property annually, a system of self-extermination among the creatures is now in progress.
INSTEAD of chewing the end of a pencil when stumped by a problem in mathematics, the owner of a newly devised writing tool simply pulls on the end, and the pencil becomes a slide rule. The pencil is refillable, the upper end carrying extra leads.
GOLF can be played in the house by means of a new toy which records the strength of drives and putts in yards, and shows the position of each player on a miniature golf course after every stroke. A “300-yard drive” can be made in a space no larger than is required to swing a golf club, the inventor says.
A REMARKABLE record of bloodgiving has been uncovered by the French Academy of Medicine. In three years, a thirty-year-old Frenchman, named Raymond Briez, gave 117 pints for transfusions and recently he submitted to his 264th operation for the purpose.
A ONE-MAN fire department, all on a single two-ton truck, has been built by Francis E. Ingals, of Guilford, Conn. It carries 1,000 feet of large hose in the body and 200 feet of smaller hose wound on a reel on the roof, as well as an assortment of nozzles and connections of various kinds.
A DOOR hinge that requires no screws has been invented by Charles A. Genaux, of New York City, to save time and trouble in hanging doors. Slanting holes are drilled into the edge of the door and into the hinge side of the door frame, slanting up in the door and down in the frame. Into these holes are inserted metal rods attached diagonally to the hinge, as shown at the right. All that is required to remove the door with such a hinge is a slight lift, which disengages the rods from the holes.
FIVE American cities have a population of 1,000,000 or more, according to latest 1928 Census Bureau estimates. These five leading cities and their estimated populations are: New York, 6,917,500; Chicago, 3,157,400; Philadelphia, 2,064,200; Detroit, 1,378,000; and Cleveland, 1,010,300.
CARPET tacks are used for railroad spikes in an unusual model railway that occupies most of the front yard of an employee of the Southern Pacific living in Brookings, Ore. A town, a farming district, and a modern highway appear in miniature along the ninety-five feet of two-and-a-quarter-inch gage track over which two electric locomotives haul little trains which include tank cars, flat cars, gondolas loaded with lumber, refrigerator and box cars, stock cars, and cabooses.
A TOOTH polisher, vest pocket size, is one of the ingenious devices shown at a recent exhibition of inventions held in London, England, at which nearly a hundred women inventors displayed models of new ideas. The polisher is operated by means of a plunger, which is pressed by the thumb as illustrated in the photograph.
PYORRHEA was rampant among the Indians in New Mexico as long ago as 1,500 B.c., according to archeologists who have found very ancient skulls in the course of recent explorations in that state. The early red man, the discoveries showed, also suffered from cavities and abscesses.
IN THREE years telephone calls between the nineteen most important cities of Europe have tripled. A record of such calls shows that three people use the phone today where one used it in 1925. This rapid growth of service in European centers of population is viewed as an aid to communication between continents. The increase in good connections in European countries advances the value of the trans-Atlantic lines that connect Great Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, and Sweden with the United States, Canada, and Cuba.
IF YOU are interested in total eclipses of the sun, you might do well to plan to be in Manila, P. I., on May 9, 1929, when that phenomenon will occur there. The Hamburg, Germany, Observatory already has made preparations to send a party, and it is expected that several groups from other parts of Europe and also from the United States will follow. According to Father Miguel Selga, S. J., director of the Philippine Weather Bureau and the Manila Observatory, two factors will warrant the time and expense involved in observing the eclipse—first, the probability of clear weather, and second, the duration of the eclipse over accessible and convenient points.
LARGELY through the use of scientific methods, Los Angeles fishermen made a $13,000,000 catch last year. Most of the haul, taken from the waters off southern California, consisted of sardines and tuna. Some of the vessels were equipped with Diesel engines and refrigeration, and could cruise for hundreds of miles without putting into port.
TWO million pounds of cement were shot through five-inch hose seventyfive feet into the air recently when work began on the foundations for the Merchandise Mart in Chicago, designed to be the world ’s largest business building. The dry cement was transported in a steel vessel to a point in the Chicago river opposite the site of construction.
FROM towering pylons of masonry that would bear the entire weight of the steamship Leviathan without crumbling, the world’s greatest arch bridge, with a central span 1,650 feet long, is being built across Sydney Harbor, Australia. The photograph below shows the main pylon, on the city side of the harbor.
A MODEL train, built to scale and operated by an electric motor housed in the tiny engine, is carried around in a cigarette case by the English enthusiast who constructed it. It was built by J. Langridge, of the Wimbledon and District Model Railway Club, and shown at a recent model engineering exhibition.
A MILE below the earth’s surface, miners working in the copper mines of the Lake Superior region are supplied with abundant fan-driven fresh air through canvas tubing from the mine openings. A recent survey showed that from 40,000 to 100,000 cubic feet of air per minute was circulating through the lower levels of the shaft.
TEST your knowledge with these questions, chosen from hundreds asked by readers. Correct answers are on page 158. 1. How high are the clouds? 2. What is the difference between a hurricane, a cyclone, and a tornado? 3. What causes frost? 4. What causes a red sky at sunset?
WHEN you lift the lighter of an unusual smoking set recently placed upon the market, a music box concealed in its base plays a tune. The set, consisting of a lighter, a container for cigarettes, and an ash tray, forms a compact accessory for the smoker which, says its inventor, will provide entertainment each time a cigarette is lighted.
HOLDING a stopwatch on the wind is the most difficult job of the U. S. Weather Bureau, according to its chief. Prof. Charles F. Marvin. An improved anemometer, or wind-measuring instrument, consisting of four wind-driven cups mounted on revolving cross arms, has proved an advance over previous instruments of the kind, which lagged in winds up to ten miles an hour, and then progressively recorded speeds above the actual rate for winds beyond fifteen or twenty miles an hour.
IN ANY automobile engine except the sleeve valve type, the valves are operated by pushrods moved up and down by the cams on the cam shaft. These valves must open and close at precisely the right time if the motor is to deliver full power. There must be some play or looseness in the mechanism to allow for the expansion and contraction of the parts caused by the heating and cooling of the engine.
A FINGER of light miles long penetrates the darkness from a new million-candlepower beacon light designed to guide night flyers along the airways. It is called the largest portable beacon ever built. Its diameter is five feet and its total weight almost a ton.
MEN with rifles and tigers with claws fought virtually an even battle in India last year, according to statistics of the number of tigers killed by hunters and the number of persons killed by tigers, recently issued by the Indian government.
ALL the colored rays of sunlight and not merely the invisible ultra-violet, or “health” rays, are needed to-make your body grow. That is the conclusion of Dr. Charles Sheard, of the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn., who tried raising two broods of chickens, one in light from which colored window panes removed the red and yellow rays only, and the other in light with the green and blue rays removed.
HOMES at cost for 625 families will be provided when a mammoth, blocksquare group of modern apartment houses sponsored by Marshall Field, is completed in Chicago. A model of the project, recently exhibited there, shows the ten units, which will make up the project, with air spaces between each for light and ventilation.
HOW big do hailstones grow? To answer this frequently-asked question, the U. S. Weather Bureau has listed some of the historic hailstorms of the past. In 1847, hailstones that measured fourteen inches in circumference are said to have fallen in New South Wales.
SLIP off the cap of this little black instrument that resembles a fountain pen, and you have a powerful pocket microscope ready for action. A sliding button on the barrel focuses a surprisingly strong lens, and a tiny mirror in the base supplies illumination from any near-by lamp or window.
PLANTS, as well as people, get tanned from exposure to ultra-violet rays! Thus reports Dr. E. M. Delf, secretary for a committee of English botanists who are carrying on experiments with plants to' determine just how they are affected by the invisible rays that sunburn the exposed necks and arms of human bathers at the seashore.
ARMY tanks that dash over the ground at a speed only slightly below that made by Charlie Paddock when he set the world’s record for the hundredyard dash have been successfully tested at Fort Leonard Wood, near Baltimore, Md. On level ground, the new tanks rumble along at a twenty-mile-an-hour clip.
WHEN citizens of Munich, Germany, want to see how cold it is, they can poke their heads out of doors and look at what is said to be the world’s largest thermometer on the tower of a museum in that city. The huge instrument, which can be seen for miles, occupies nearly the whole side of the tower.
UPSETTING the old belief that exercise after meals is harmful, three physicians who have made a series of tests at Guy’s Hospital, in London, England, report that moderate exercise taken immediately after eating does not retard, and may even aid, digestion.
A SINGLE blast in a Welsh limestone quarry recently displaced stone weighing 40,000 tons from a cliff 100 feet high. It is said to have been the largest limestone quarry blast ever set off in the British Isles. Three and a half tons of high explosives were used in the charge.
LONGER freight trains will climb the winding Rocky Mountain tracks when huge freight locomotives of the newest oil-burning type, constructed in the shops of the Southern Pacific Railroad, in Sacramento, Calif., are put into operation.
SIXTY - THOUSAND - POUND pump that lubricates its bearings with water has been installed at an irrigation well near Etiwanda, in southern California. The giant pump lifts water 640 feet, in a single boost, from the bottom of a 450-foot well to the top of a hill where irrigation ditches carry it away.
HOW T.N.T., made for destructive war purposes, ended by becoming an aid to industry and agriculture, is told in a recent report of the Explosives Division of the Bureau of Mines. The war ended with 126,000,000 pounds of high explosives on hand in the United States.
THE long monopoly on diamonds which the South African fields have enjoyed is being threatened by the increasing output of the Belgian Congo mines. From a total output of 15,000 carats, in 1913, the production of the Kasai district, the principal Belgian Congo field, has risen to more than 1,000,000 carats.
A NOVEL means for holding sandpaper, emery, or other abrading material for handwork is provided by this newly devised block. On both sides of the block are slots into which the ends of the polishing material are inserted. Special clamps are then pressed in as shown in the photograph, holding the material firmly in place.
CARNEGIE INSTITUTION, Washington, D. C., is to conduct a worldwide search for radium. In the whole world there has been mined less than four ounces of this valuable substance. Most of it has been found in Colorado, although some has been discovered in Russia and some in Turkestan.
MINING silver from the silver screen is the latest source of wealth in Hollywood. From the miles of film that run through the fixing bath in the developing rooms, the hypo takes infinitesimal particles of the silver that forms part of the sensitive outer coating of the film.
A POLICEMAN'S night stick that provides a bludgeon at one end and a flashlight at the other has been devised to aid officers when they patrol the dark alleys. The stick is made of steel tubing with threads in the end of the grip, into which a flash lamp is screwed.
THE future fuel will be water instead of coal, according to Dr. Walter von Hohenau, a Brazilian physicist, who says he has discovered a means of liberating the hydrogen from water. His process, he explains, is the result of years of research. By applying very high frequency vibrations to water, he says he has been able to break it up into its constituent elements of hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen, he contends, will be used in place of coal gas as a fuel and will make the mining of coal unnecessary. When Dr. von Hohenau presented his plan at a recent world fuel conference, held in London, the objection was raised by a member of the conference that the energy required to set up the vibrations, even if they were capable of liberating the hydrogen, would offset the energy gained by its use.
COWS and coconuts will become rivals if tests of a new chemical process for making a milk substitute from the fluid in coconuts proves commercially valuable. The meat of the coconut is being used in many ways, but few uses have been discovered for the “milk” within the shell.
A SIMPLE guide for judging wind speeds has been worked out by the Forest Section of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. In forest fires, the number of men needed on the fighting line is often in direct proportion to the strength of the wind that is blowing.
THE proverbial duck’s back is gone one better by the mail box invented by L. A. Stelhouse, of Baltimore, Md., which sheds most of the rain from its top and directs what little enters by way of the letter slot out through an opening, so the moisture never reaches the letters deposited within.
FOR the first time in history, the flashing progress of a natural lightning bolt on its way to the ground has been recorded in a close-up photograph. The feat was accomplished recently near Lake Wallenpaupack, Pa., by a marvelously high-speed camera, otherwise known as an automatic cathode ray oscillograph.
SOME television experts believe that while apparatus like spinning disks and synchronized motors are necessary today, television transmitting and receiving sets of tomorrow will have no moving parts. Working along this line, Philo T.
WOOD has holes in it, and paint catches in them. If it can find plenty of good-sized holes or pores in the wood to enter, the paint will stick. Otherwise it will drop off in flakes. There is no inherent stick-to-it-iveness about paint. That is the conclusion of the Forest Products Laboratory, U. S. Forest Service, after careful tests to find out why paint fails.
DURING a recent celebration, Thomas J. Rubino, of Paterson, N. J., sent up a toy balloon with a note attached asking the finder to communicate with him. He received a letter from a man in Albuquerque. N. M., 1,750 miles away, saying the balloon had been found on his roof.
PAPER that won’t wear out is being sought by the United States Bureau of Standards in Washington, D. C. As a first step in this direction, experts of the Bureau are testing the different products that are now on the market. These will be put through accelerated aging experiments in the laboratory by the use of artificial heat and light.
A TUBE of steel, driven 7,800 feet into the earth, is now bringing oil to the surface from what is believed to be the deepest producing well in the world, in the Signal Hill oil field in southern California. Experts believe that the success of this new well will lead to the reopening of fields that have been drained by shallow drilling.
How to Add Audio Amplification to the Two-Tube Outfit Described Last Month, and Get Loudspeaker Reproduction
ALFRED P. LANE
THE four-tube, full electric radio receiver detailed on these pages is the two-tube outfit described last month in POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY, with the addition of two stages of audio amplification to get loudspeaker operation on most stations.
Noise Trouble with New A.C. Type Speakers Easily Remedied — Better Volume Control with A-Eliminator
DYNAMIC cone speakers require a supply of direct current to energize the powerful electromagnet which seems to be an indispensable part of these instruments. Three different methods are employed to obtain the necessary current. The simplest is to make the winding suitable for use on six volts and connect it to the storage battery that supplies the filament current to the receiver.
WHEN the alternating current tubes, types 226 and 227, were placed on the market, they were rated for one and one half and two and one half volts, respectively. These voltages, of course, had been determined with scientific precision by the laboratory engineers who developed the tubes.
THE A-current supplied to a vacuum tube, either of the battery type or the newer alternating current type, is used to heat either the filament or the electron-emitting cathode. Compared with the battery tube, the alternating current tube obtains its A-current at less expense than does the battery tube.
A PECULIAR situation has developed with regard to the use of modern types of A-eliminators. You may install one of these pieces of apparatus to run the receiver formerly operated with a storage A-battery. The outfit will prove satisfactory except in one way.
How You Can Build and Operate an Amateur Experimental Apparatus Hooked to Your Radio Receiver
THE accurate construction of one of the most important parts of a television receiver, the scanning disk, was described in the December issue of POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. The three vital parts of the television receiver are the scanning disk, the neon tube, and the motor that rotates the disk.
NINETY-SIX airmen in America have saved themselves from certain death by leaping from disabled planes and trusting to their parachutes. In foreign countries, nineteen flyers have done the same, says a recent announcement of the U. 'S. War Department.
MORE than two hundred million dollars were added to the price of gasoline in the form of “gas” tax last year. The tax, totaling $258,966,851 for the whole country, was levied in all of the states except two, New York and Massachusetts. The tax ranged from two to five cents a gallon.
RECENT completion of three huge concrete dome-shaped buttresses marked one of the final steps in the construction of the $10,000,000 Coolidge Dam on the Gila River, east of Phoenix, Arizona. These domes, said to be the largest in the world, are designed to give the dam a maximum strength with economy of material.
A GRINDSTONE for a giant to turn is the one recently exhibited at a machine tool and engineering exposition in England. The huge abrasive wheel, said to be the largest ever constructed, will do the grinding of tools in an English machine shop.
TELEGRAMS from the local weather bureau recently guided engineers in building a bridge across the Rio Grande at Brownsville, Texas. Information about conditions upstream during a threatened flood enabled the bridge builders to plan each day’s work and to strengthen the falsework piling supporting the main structure in time to save the work which was already completed.
ALIGHT that slides in a groove about three sides of a mirror is one of the latest aids to shaving. Instead of dodging from side to side to get different portions of his face in the light, a shaver using the new mirror simply shifts the light up or down or to one side or the other as he progresses with his shaving.
WHEN you buy a new car, you may take your pick from 765 types of automobiles manufactured in the United States. Recent statistics reveal that many distinct models of cars are being made in this country. Instead of becoming more standardized, the styles in automobiles this year have a greater range than ever before.
EXPERIMENTING with methods of eliminating the long lines of customers at the stamp windows, officials of the main post office in New York recently installed several coin-in-the-slot stamp vending machines in the lobby. The machines sell stamps at their face value, with the insertion of the correct change and the turn of a crank.
IF YOU own a telephone, there are 25,000,000 people with whom you can talk. A sudden increase in the number of possible connections came recently with the advent of trans-Atlantic telephone service. This number will be further increased soon by opening of Canadian transcontinental lines and by lines to South America.
THE often difficult task of shaping delicate curves in wood, as in making curved legs for tables and chairs, has been simplified by the invention of this new draw plane. Resembling a spokeshave, it has an adjustable blade which the worker can set to cut the curve he desires. With a little practice, the inventor says, any amateur woodworker can use the new tool to replace the several tools ordinarily required for such work.
WHEN you button your shirt, comb your hair, or sign your name with a fountain pen, you give little thought to skim milk. Yet, says Dr. G. E. Holm, head chemist of the Bureau of Dairy Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture, skim milk played an important part in producing the buttons, comb, and fountain pen.
AN APPLE pie with a 600-pound . lower crust and containing 100 bushels of apples was cooked recently at Albion, N. Y. Two tractors were required to haul this one-ton culinary masterpiece along small rails into a specially-built oven. When the halfinch-thick crust was reeled on a long steel rod and carried to the huge pie tin, four men strained under its weight.
MOVIES will play an important part in the medical education of the future, according to scientists who attended the twenty-ninth annual meeting of the American Roentgen Society, held recently in Kansas City, Mo. A feature of the meeting was the projection of a moving picture of living tissues, showing just what happens to the cells of the body and to cancer cells when radium is applied.
ONE of the strangest of tug of war contests was staged at an industrial plant near Los Angeles, Calif., the other day, when six professional strong men pitted their strength against the powerful magnet of an electric crane. The men were in two teams of three men each.
INSTEAD of backing and twisting to get into a parking space, the driver of a car equipped with the latest parking device merely has to head into a vacant place, pull a lever, and the rear of the machine rises and swings around to the curb. It requires little more parking room than the length of the car, according to the inventors.
A NEW motor fuel, described as a chemical combination of alcohol and water, is said to have given remarkable results in Switzerland, where it was invented recently. Costing one third as much as gasoline, it is reported to give twenty percent more efficiency in motors and to assure complete combustion, leaving no residue in the cylinder.
THE recent acquirement of additional lines in Kansas and Texas is said to have made the Santa Fe the world’s longest railroad, slightly exceeding its nearest mileage rival, the Southern Pacific System, which has 13,165 miles of track. Other long lines in the United States include the Pennsylvania Radroad, 10,527 miles, and the Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul Railway, 11,193 miles.
A SIMPLE yet ingenious new device designed to prevent corrosion of automobile storage battery terminals consists of a small oil reservoir made of lead, with a cuplike projection at one side, into which a felt washer fits. The terminal clamp holds both the washer and the oil receptacle firmly in place.
WHEN did you last change the oil in your crank case? Unless you are an unusual motorist, you will have to guess the answer. But with a new device, which resembles a toy speedometer and attaches to the dashboard with a rubber suction cup, the inventor says you can tell exactly when your motor needs a fresh supply of oil.
FOR the first time thousand-mile automobile trip is possible in Brazil, according to G. M. de Menezes, representative from that country at the recent meeting of the Highway Education Board in Washington. A new highway connecting Rio de Janeiro with Sao Paulo makes such a trip possible for motorists.
SHOOTING smoke rings thousands of feet into the air from twenty or thirty hundred-foot steel cones scattered over southern Florida and the Bahama Islands, is the unusual method of preventing West Indian hurricanes suggested by Prof. William S. Franklin, physicist of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
AN INGENIOUS tool that takes up little room in an automobile mechanic’s kit, but solves the difficulty of holding up the valve spring of a motor, when cleaning around it or removing the valve, has been put on the market by a French inventor. The device consists of a pair of reverse pliers with a series of teeth on the upper handle.
HOW cameras may decide close contests for the world’s airplane altitude record was demonstrated recently over Dayton, Ohio. Two Army airmen took off from McCook Field and soared to a height believed to have been 40,200 feet. At their highest point, one of the men snapped a picture of the city of Dayton far below.
IF YOU are nervous, read a murder story before going to bed! The value of this paradoxical advice seems to have been shown by a series of tests conducted recently in the University of Chicago psychological laboratories. By means of charts of pulse and respiration, and similar scientific data, it was shown that after reading a “thriller” for an hour or more, the average person tested had a quieter pulse, slower respiration, and greater self-control than before he began reading.
AN AUTOMOBILE baggage car, recently added to a fast train running between San Francisco and Del Monte, Calif., enables passengers to check their machines during the trip and to drive away in them at the journey’s
DRIVER’S spectacles designed with the upper halves of the glasses colored green are the latest idea for protecting the eyes from the glare of approaching headlights at night. When you meet dazzling headlights, simply drop your head slightly and look through the green, explains the sixty-year-old California motorist who invented the specs.
IF A new resuscitation method, recently tried in animal experiments in the laboratory of Dr. Ludwig Schmidt-Kehl, of the University of Würzburg, Germany, proves as successful in the case of human beings as it has in that of cats, there will be fewer victims of carbon monoxide asphyxiation in closed garages in the future.
A KITCHEN paring knife has resulted in saving a San Francisco ferryboat company $12,800 a year! It suggested the feasibility of making boat propellers from stainless steel. An engineer of the company noticed that a stainless steel knife in his kitchen even after years of constant use, did not become corroded by acids or by water.
THE first trans-Atlantic flyers were the birds. A British ornithologist, T. A. Coward, has made a collection of the records of their feats of over-sea flying, which show the remarkable stamina of the feathered voyagers and their uncanny ability at navigation.
A MAN can walk through deep water and across streams if he wears a strange suit recently tried out with success by firemen in Germany. A life preserverlike buoy about the waist keeps the wearer afloat and weighted shoes keep him in an upright position.
A “RADIO PIANO,” designed to eliminate the twang of vibrating wires in radio reception by transmitting only the pure tone when the keys are struck before the broadcasting microphone, has been designed by an inventor in Toulouse, France.
THE “Dippy Boat,” a queer round metal craft propelled by invisible oars, was tried out recently by its inventor, Julius Goldman, in Los Angeles, Calif. A large circular pontoon, filled with air, supports as many as eight people. The craft is propelled forward or backward, and also steered by means of the handles being operated by the passengers in the photograph. These handles are connected with oars which move under the body of the tanklike pleasure craft. A bumper extends around the outside of the boat.
DISCOVERY of the secret of life— the crowning achievement of science —seems just around the corner, Prof. F. G. Donnan, London chemist, recently told the British Association for the Advancement of Science. Describing the work of Dr. A. V. Hill, noted British biologist, he announced that this expert is on the verge of discovering, if he has not already found, a principle “of astounding importance to science”—a series of facts that may enable science dimly to understand the difference between life and death, and hence the very meaning of life itself.
WHEN you reach home in this runabout, you can fold it up, take it into the house with you, and park it for the night in a closet! It is a folding “footmobile” recently introduced in England, where wide use of it is predicted. The foot-propelling mechanism has three gears, and the bicycle wheels, running with a minimum of friction, are said to carry the light car at speeds of twenty and thirty miles an hour, without great effort by the driver.
RUNNING wild at more than a mile-a-minute clip! Out of the driver’s control, with its steering gear useless, this racing car plunged toward the iron fence that borders the track at Mineola, N. Y. Spectators scuttled for their lives as it slammed into the barrier and reared its nose skyward, only an intrepid photographer remaining to snap this remarkable picture.
ONE of the strangest contracts on record was made recently in South Dakota, when A. R. Plummer, of Belle Fourche, signed up to kill 5,000,000 prairie dogs in two years. He contracted to eradicate a prairie dog “town” which is so extensive that it occupies parts of two counties.
THE world’s record for proficiency in foreign languages is said to be held by a retired mathematics professor in Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany. He knows 200 tongues. He claims to be able to read and write all of these languages, ranging from Sanskrit through Egyptian hieroglyphics and Chinese picture writings to modern tongues, and he is constantly adding to his list.
HOW far can the human eye see over the surface of the earth? Engineers on the French Mediterranean coast are reported to have sighted lights atop the mountains of Corsica, a distance of 168 miles from the coast of France. In the United States, twelve-inch mirrors on Mount Shasta, in California, were recently seen from Mount Helena, one hundred and ninety-two miles away.
SO TERRIFIED were New Guinea pygmies by the apparition of an American airplane out of the sky that it took members of an aerial expedition exploring the country hours to convince them that no harm would come to them. “They bolted for cover in all directions when we dropped from the clouds in our airplane,” Dr. W. W. Brandes, of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, who headed the party, reported when it recently returned to civilization. It had covered 11,000 miles of wild country.
ANTIQUE clocks may be ancient, but those in the collection at New York University, New York City, must not run behind the time; So Professor D. W. Hering, in charge of the James Arthur collection, has a job on his hands. He is here pictured making the rounds of the hundreds of ancient time-recorders to regulate them.
AN “UPSIDE-DOWN skyscraper,“ descending eighty stories into the earth, is suggested in Tokyo, Japan. The building would be sunk 1,100 feet deep. The design calls for a huge circular well braced with steel framework. The offices would be lighted continually with electric lights, and ventilating shafts would provide the necessary fresh air.
HOUSE numbers that can be seen in the dark are required on all homes in Stockholm, Sweden, by a recent municipal ruling. In the winter, darkness falls early, sometimes by two o’clock in the afternoon, and the difficulty of finding addresses in unfamiliar districts aroused the city officials to action.
A BATTERED wing-tip float, pulled from the icy waters of the Arctic Ocean by some Norwegian fishermen recently, gave the first concrete evidence of the fate which befell Roald Amundsen and his four French companions who took off in search of the Italia survivors last June.
ELECTRICITY is fighting man’s battle against insects and rodents in an increasing number of ways. In Switzerland, it has been used to save a field of tomatoes from grubs which formerly ruined fifty percent of the crop. Brilliant electric lights, with reflectors directed toward the soil, were placed at intervals in the field.
LONG white fingers of light crossed and recrossed in the darkness at the recent Army Ordnance demonstration of new war material, held at Washington, D. C., as they combed the sky for nightflying aircraft as part of imaginary battle operations.
THE secret of what takes place in the heart of a rose, as it unfolds from the bud, is revealed for the first time in an amazing moving picture film recently made by a Berkeley, Calif., photographer of botanical subjects, Arthur C. Pillsbury. He employed an X-ray tube of low voltage, which casts the shadow of delicate objects upon the film, without destroying them.
A NEW use for rum-running vessels— that of testing the efficiency of fire boats—was demonstrated recently in the East River at New York City. One of these captured outlaws, the Halcyon, was set on fire in the river. As the blazing vessel drifted past one of the spans that bridge the water between Manhattan and Brooklyn, the crack fire boat of the New York Fire Department, the John Purroy Mitchel, its propellers churning the water as it slowly moved into position, went into action.
COMBINING the comforts of an automobile with the economy of a motorcycle, a novel two-wheeled machine has appeared in England. It was designed by A. V. Roe, famous airplane builder and the first man to make a flight in a British plane on British soil, early in 1908.
How to Plan Your Layout to Make the Most of the Space — Laying Track—Curves and Grades—Portable Outfits—Muffling Noise
FREDERICK D. RYDER
IN THE operation of a model railway, there comes a time when you tire of watching the train go round and round a plain circular or oval track. And then, quite logically, you decide to expand it into a more comprehensive system. As a result you buy yourself some more track, a few switches, and such other accessories as happen to appeal to you.
Methods, Materials, and Tools for Decorating New and Old Walls and Ceilings
F. N. VANDERWALKER
KALSOMINE may be the most suitable finish for the walls and ceilings of your home, or perhaps for the ceilings alone. “But how can I decide that?” you ask. Well, take the case of a new house. Usually the owner wants to occupy it at the earliest possible time.
TO BE durable and look well, homemade hinges, handles, and key plates should be made of reasonably thick metal—the larger the piece, the thicker the metal. From Nos. 14 to 12 standard B. & S. gage sheet metal should be used for most of this work, but small hinges may be made of No. 16 gage.
The Trick of Making an Open Hearth Supply Cheery Warmth without Smoke Is No More of a Mystery than in Olden Days
BASIL EWING WEBB
YOU’VE often heard it said that fireplace construction is a “lost art.” In this article Mr. Webb reveals that it is more of an exact science than ever before. And he gives simple rules and measurements that will turn your dream of a cosy fireside into more than puffs of grimy soot.
TWO articles in this issue drive home the same point. One tells of Hugo Eckener, master mariner of the sky. The other begins a series about Wilbur and Orville Wright. Eckener was a mature man, with a reputation as an economist and a writer, when he interviewed Count Zeppelin and became interested in the possibilities of airships.
Gus, Turning the Model Garage into a Laboratory, Works Out Easy Formula for Radiator Solutions
SOME people,” grumbled Gus Wilson, “sure do waste a lot of time finding out what they want to know.” The veteran auto mechanic disgustedly shoved the telephone away from him. Joe Clark, his partner, who had called him into the office of the Model Garage to answer the phone, grinned sympathetically.
If the Fan Belt Breaks, or You Need Tire Chains in a Hurry, Here's the Remedy—And Some Other Handy Kinks
NEGLECT to carry a trouble light in the tool kit of the car may cause no end of annoyance on the road at night in the event of some minor difficulty. However, often it is possible to obtain all the light necessary for a small repair on the ignition systei?
WHILE chains of the ordinary type usually will give you traction in snow or mud, it is a dirty Fig. 1. Emergency tire chains made by threading rope through hose and tying on. job to apply them. And when most of the route is clear, with only a short section of road in bad shape, chains will come in for a lot of unnecessary wear besides chafing the tires.
THE note produced by one type of auto horn depends on the voltage applied to it. If your horn is of this type you can make it sound three different notes by the use of resistances and buttons wired as shown in Fig. 4 at the right.
August Grosze, of Collinsville, 111., wins this month’s $10 prize for his suggestion of a novel bushing press (Fig. 2.) Each month POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY awards $10, in addition to regular space rates, for the best idea sent in for motorists.
ONE bolt, one nut, and two washers will permit you to press king-pin bushings, or any similarly assembled bushing, into place just about as well as it can be done in an arbor press. And there is no risk of deforming the edge of the bushing, as there would be if you pounded it into place.
IF YOUR auto motor is equipped with a plain, flat fan belt made of either fabric or leather, it is possible to repair it well enough to get to the nearest service station. You will have to loosen the belt-tightening adjustment to obtain the necessary slack so that you can overlap the ends, and fasten them together with safety pins, as shown in Fig. 3.
How to Build a Rigid but Easily Moved Machine Support with a Belt Tightener and a Dust Chute
W. CLYDE LAMMEY
THE saw table support illustrated is designed to overcome some of the ills attendant upon the operation of a bench saw driven by a separate motor. Where such an outfit— now to be found in many home workshops—is mounted on a heavy plank or the like, it is difficult to move the assembly about the shop, to prevent the belt from slipping, and, if the table has the tilting feature, to place the saw so that long stock will clear the bench when cutting angles.
You Can Begin Now to Construct the Latest Type of Ship Model, Even if You Missed Our Preceding Articles About the Buckeye State
E. ARMITAGE McCANN
IN TWO previous articles we described how to make the hull and many of the fittings of the stern-wheeled Buckeye State, a passenger and freight Mississippi steamboat of 1878. Those who missed these issues, yet wish to build this picturesque and now most popular type of model, need not hesitate.
Hints on Setting Up Awkward, Unbalanced Pieces to Prevent Distortion and Vibration
EVEN skillful machinists experience difficulty at times in two classes of lathe work—that which requires high accuracy, and large, heavy jobs which may exceed the capacity of the lathe. In many cases the trouble is due to distortion caused in the spindle and faceplate by strains imposed inclamping and through the weight of the work itself.
IN MY experience of sixteen years as a toolmaker and four years at tool designing, I have never seen a better tool-bit holder than that illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2. I made one for myself and find it saves time to be able to pick up at once the exact tool bit needed instead of having to search for it.
PENDING the arrival—some weeks off —of a regular broach for use in a broaching machine, it was necessary recently in a large shop to finish a number of blanks which had been roughed out, ready for broaching. Several attempts at hand broaching resulted only in breaking broaches.
IF THE boss gives your neighbor the best work, look up a good reason before you begin to criticize him. To safeguard the end of a piercing punch for tempering, it is advisable to make it with a male center. If you have to change the cutting edge of a good drill for a brass job, regrind it before you turn it in.
And a Big Snow Fort, Too, if You Use a Wooden Form to Help You Press the Blocks into Shape
J. V. HAZZARD
WITH Commander Byrd, and Scout Siple facing strange adventures in the Antarctic, it is safe to assume that a bumper crop of “snow houses” will be built this winter by American boys after what they imagine to be the latest styles of Eskimo architecture.
How to Build One of the Simplest Yet Most Characteristic Types of Modern Furniture
THE modernistic cabinet illustrated was designed by W. H. Varnum, Associate Professor of Applied Arts at the University of Wisconsin, according to certain principles formulated by the late Professor Hambidge and described in his book Dynamic Symmetry.
HAVING many small paint jobs to do about the shop and also desiring to repaint my old car, I looked about for a good paint sprayer. Homemade sprayer The cheap ones controlled by trigger. did not come up to my idea of good mechanical design, and the more expensive did fit my purse.
OUR blueprints can be obtained for 25 cents a sheet. In some cases there are two or three sheets to one subject. The blueprints are complete in themselves, but if you wish the corresponding back issue of the magazine in which the project was described in detail, it can be had for 25 cents additional so long as copies are available.
How to Restore the Glow to Dull Looking Antiques—Removing Spots and Rings
R. C. STANLEY
AFTER a piece of furniture has been oiled and waved, as sugested in the article on refinishing tiques in the November issue, the grain of the wood, especially in dark wood, may appear white. This is nothing to be discouraged over; it proves that the grain has been well filled with the wax, as should be the case.
A YEAR or more ago I had one of the best oil burners installed in my home. After some use I realized that the boiler, like most home boilers, could not absorb all the heat which the oil gave off in burning. A large part of the hot gases went rapidly up the stack.
THE spring winding tool illustrated can be quickly and cheaply made and will give complete satisfaction. It consists of two pieces of machine or tool steel of about the width of standard lathe tools and of a height to suit the tool post. The upper and lower sections have a V groove, from 1/16 to ⅛ in.
FLAT forming tools of varying thicknesses may be held in the tool holder illustrated with equal security. It is simply two square pieces of steel with a pilot-ended set screw in one of them, and a shoulder planed for the tool in the other. It would usually be used on the larger lathes for forming heavy work, and, of course, should be made as rugged as the tool post will allow.
DR RILL plates and similar machine fixtures often accumulate hard spots of caked grease that cannot be removed with a brush. One machinist made it a practice to keep a piece of tin handy for scraping the surfaces clean, finishing off with a brush, but the tin would be mislaid sooner or later.
WHEN absolute accuracy is not essential, the method of marking off holes illustrated in the accompanying photo will be found quick and convenient. The work shown is a collar, which is to be marked for five “tommy” holes. After chalking the bench plate well, I described a circle slightly larger than the collar, divided it into five parts, and marked five radial lines. All I had to do then was to lay each collar within the circle and pencil mark the five positions, after which I center punched the pieces ready for DRILLING.
STRONG glued joints can be obtained by treating with caustic soda certain species of wood which otherwise frequently produce weak or inferior joints, according to experiments made by the Forest Products Laboratory of the United States Forest Service.
Paste this Home Workshop Reference Sheet, including the head above, in your scrapbook in the section marked windows. (Jan., 1929, POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.) What are the steps in replacing a broken window pane! NOTHING of equal size can more effectively give an air of general dilapidation to a room or to the exterior of a house than a broken pane of glass.
THE problem of drying the family washing during rainy days and in winter, when everything wet freezes the minute it is put on the line, often causes the housewife much annoyance. Particularly is her problem a difficult one when there are several small children for whom daily washing must be done.
AFTER an automatic gas range lighter has been in use for a while, it sometimes will cause almost unbearable fumes and make the bottoms of pots and pans sooty. Soon it becomes difficult to maintain a flame in the little pilot light. All of these troubles are due to the formation of carbon in the combustion chamber.
OF THE conventional plans published for pedestals, jardinière stands, and similar turned pieces, very few are available for use in the average home shop because the columns are glued up in six or eight pieces. Many amateurs do not have the patience or equipment to make the necessary long hexagonal or octagonal joints.
MANY products of home industry would last longer and be more worthy of their makers’ pride if a few corner braces were fitted at strategic points in their anatomy. The accompanying illustration, which shows a few types of the common braces found in almost every large hardware store, should suggest their value to the home worker, and the obvious ease with which they may be installed should encourage their use.
HAVING constant use for a city street and house number map in a city health department, one of the office secretaries suggested that the map be mounted on cloth and placed on a curtain roller, which was attached to blocks clamped to the back edge of the desk.
STEAMED mash aids obtaining eggs, from during the winter. A simple heater for the mash may be made from a large pail and a disk of sheet metal slightly larger than the bottom of the pail. In the disk are punched a number of holes for steam. An inch or so of water is placed in the pail and the disk fitted above it.
1. The formless, foggy clouds known as “stratus” may float as high above sea level as 3,000 feet. Cumulus clouds, that look like masses of cotton wool, average from 4,500 to 0,000 feet high. Cirrus clouds, those isolated feathery white clouds, average 27,000 feet above the earth.