“WTHAT'S one man's meat is another man's poison,” remarked Harry Lyon, when he returned home from the monthly meeting of the Men’s Club. “I just learned tonight that the Ethridges have sold their home on the Esplanade and are moving to a much more modest rented house on Second Avenue.
THE man who is buying a radio today has wonderful opportunities before him—and some pitfalls as well. Never were there so many fine radio outfits on the market, and never were so many sets found below par by the Popular Science Institute of Standards’ tests.
I SEE all prettied your last up issue in was the middle. First it was fiction, then an editorial page blossomed forth, and now it's a rotogravure section. What next? Old Archimedes duded up with silk topper and spats? “Why not stick to plain, unvarnished science?
Cross-Channel Flight of the Autogiro, Latest in Aircraft, May Bring a Safer Era in Aviation—Its Young Inventor Tells How It Works and What It Does
LIKE a leaf drifting gently to the ground, a flying windmill dropped out of the sky, the other day, and onto the aviation field at Le Bourget, near Paris. Aviators and mechanics, the usual crowd at the busy airport, watched it descend—a strange craft with the body of an airplane and four great windmill-like vanes slowly spinning above it in lieu of wings.
Surprising Things the Great Inventor Finds in His Flood of Mail Every Day
WILLIAM H. MEADOWCROFT
IF YOU were to ask any group of Americans who have won distinction in the field of electricity where they obtained their first knowledge of the subject, more than half of them probably will name the same book. It is The ABC of Electricity, written in 1888 by William H. Meadowcroft.
"BLUE gas” as motor fuel has passed its first real test in the great Germany-to-America Graf Zeppelin, for the moment the world's largest airship. When Dr. Hugo Eckener's latest creation rose on its trial trip over Munich, Germany, preparatory to a trans-Atlantic flight to America, its engines were burning gasoline.
While the Tropical Fury Blew Paths of Death and Ruin, the “Hams” Stood by to Warn and Send Aid
GEORGE LEE DOWD,
THE whole world was horrified recently at the destruction wrought by the West Indian hurricane that swept a path of death and ruin through Porto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guadaloupe and several smaller islands, and our own Florida. Scores of ships were wrecked, castles of the rich and cabins of the poor alike demolished, and hundreds of defenceless people drowned in floods that laid waste farms and orchards as the terrific tempest rolled northward.
How the World's Greatest Cable Ship Joins the Continents with Miles of Unbroken Wire
THE largest and fastest cable-laying ship in the world, the Dominia, recently completed the main link— between Bay Roberts, Newfoundland, and the Azores—of the latest transAtlantic cable, which will transmit eight messages at once between the United States, Europe, and Africa.
Amazing Automatons Invented to Operate Mighty Machinery, Speak at Meetings, Make Lightning Calculations, and Rid the World of Drudgery
ROBERT E. MARTIN
AUTOMATONS, as such, are not new. The inventor Arch-ytos, in 400 B.C., devised the first, a flying dove. A mechanical man that played cards, exhibited in London in 1875, was surpassed only a few months ago by a mechanical chess player, which stopped of its own accord if the human opponent cheated.
Stirring Adventures of Famous Flyers Who Have Met the Unexpected,Face to , in the Clouds
“HE KNOWS his way around these parts in any weather,” ran the cheery comment of his friends when Mazel M. Merrill, the head of the Curtiss Flying Service, was reported lost on a trip from Buffalo to New York. Pilots who had made their first feeble flutterings under his smiling guidance, students who had listened to his pithy lectures, and aviators who had flown with him for years agreed that “lie could scent trouble before it came.”
IF YOU look in the New York telephone directory under “K,” you will find: “Kobbe, William H., sulphur.” Behind that final word lies one of the romance stories of industrial science. To most of us, sulphur suggests only evil odors or memories of sulphur-andmolasses spring tonic in childhood.
FROM all over the world, recently, scientists journeyed to Ithaca, N. Y., to plan new ways and weapons with which to fight man’s unconquered enemy, the insects. The meeting was the Fourth International Congress of Entomology. It formed the strategic council directing the world's army fighting in a war that can have no armistice.
Roast Grubs, Fried Ants, Snakes, Skunks, and Monkeys—Even the Earth s Soil—Are Relished in Far Places
VOLCANIC earth for food is the latest addition to a world’s menu already distinguished for its variety. From the slopes of Mount Asama, a Japanese volcano, come reports of a curious edible soil, capable of sustaining life indefinitely.
ON DECEMBER 17, 1903, Wilbur and Orville Wright, bicycle mechanics of Dayton, Ohio, launched a frail contraption of canvas and wood from a North Carolina sand dune and gave the world the airplane. It is almost unbelievable, yet after twentyfive years the real story of the Wright brothers has never been told.
BRAKES squeal. Four motor cars grind to a stop in front of a man waving a checkered flag. Haggard drivers slump forward over their wheels. It is the end of the race, a 30,000-mile epic of men and machines at Hammonton, N. J. And none too soon. The track is going to pieces!
SOME fishermen of Norway, steaming with their trawl nets through the rough seas twenty miles off shore from the town of TromsÖ, salvaged recently a last souvenir of the great adventurer, Roald Amundsen. It was a pontoon from the hydroairplane in which he had flown northward to the rescue of the wrecked and marooned crew of the Italia, airship of General Nobile's polar expedition.
Rocket “Boosters” May Start Big Planes—Extra Wing and Oil Motor Mark Advances in Aircraft
ROCKETS as taking-off aids for heavy planes are forecast by recent successful experiments with this novel type of propulsion in Germany, observers say. A big air liner requires twice as much power to get off the ground as to cruise once it is in the air, according to experts; and rockets to supplement the propellers’ traction might boost the plane quickly to flying speed, permitting a short run instead of a long one before taking wing.
THROUGH his invention of an “extra wing” that can be attached to an airplane without altering its design, H. D. Fowler, chief engineer of a New Brunswick, N. J., company, claims that planes may carry double their normal load in passengers or freight without sacrifice of cruising speed.
MASS production of oil-burning motors for airplanes may follow recent successful tests of a new 200-horsepower Diesel type engine developed by the Packard Motor Company. In a demonstration at Detroit, Mich., it drove a commercial monoplane successfully.
WHEN nine huge Army bombers flew from Langley Field, Va., to Mines Field, Los Angeles, not long ago— the largest fleet of its kind ever to cross YOU look up to see a flock of Army planes, in flying formation. With astonishing control and precision they speed, wing to wing.
HOW to forecast flying weather is being taught in an advanced course in meteorology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. Dr. Carl-Gustav Rossby, a Swedish meteorologist, has charge of the class. Dr. Rossby was formerly chairman of the committee on aeronautical meteorology of the Daniel Guggenheim Fund for the Promotion of Aeronautics.
TWO international air lines, preparations for which were announced last month in POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY, are now in operation. Mexico and the L’nited States are linked at last by a new route from Mexico City to Neuvo Laredo, on the border, connecting through a Laredo-San Antonio, Texas, spur with all the air lines of the United States.
THE latest way to represent the curved earth on a flat piece of paper aids flyers to navigate. It is a new type of map, devised by Bradley Jones and R. K. Stout of the Instrument and Navigation Unit, U. S. Air Corps, primarily for use with the radio beacon.
IN A hurry to get somewhere—anywhere in the United States? Just pick up the ’phone, and call an air taxi. That is the program of the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company, which is preparing to establish air taxi service in twenty-five cities throughout the United States. It is said to be the first concerted attempt to establish an air taxi organization nation-wide in scope.
TODAY—thanks to the latest devices of architecture—when you plan a home of your own, you can see that house of your dreams before you build it, standing complete, with all its trimmings and adornments. Long before the foundations are laid or the first spadeful of earth has even been turned, you can inspect it on the very street and lot you have selected for its site.
WHAT good are cathode rays? That was the question hardheaded critics proposed when Dr. W. D. Coolidge, of the General Electric Research Laboratories, announced that chemicals underwent strange changes, and minerals glowed with fluorescence, when exposed to rays from his powerful new cathode ray tubes.
HEAD bones of a huge prehistoric monster just unearthed by Roy Chapman Andrews at the southern edge of the Gobi Desert indicate, he says, that the original animal was as long as the height of the world ’s tallest building, the 792-foot Wool worth Building in New York.
PERFUMES and pickles lie within the field of tomorrow’s chemist, who may make startling improvements in both, according to experts of the American Chemical Society. Rich and poor women alike may soon enjoy the fragrance of the rarest perfumes, in the opinion of Col. M. T. Bogart, head of the organic chemistry laboratory at Columbia University.
TODAY a pound of nitrogen gas— about four barrelfuls—is worth approximately thirty-two cents, while an equal weight of gold, a bar about the size of a spectacle case, commands a price of $250. Yet nitrogen may replace gold as the standard of a nation’s wealth in the near future, H. R. Bates, vice president of the International Agricultural Corporation of Atlanta, Ga., recently told the American Chemical Society.
WITH the solution of a problem that has baffled experts for half a century, miners are to capture gold hidden in blue ores of the Black Hills, Nevada, district. Hitherto the most rigorous treatment with heat and chemicals has only locked the gold more securely in its ore by the formation of refractory compounds; but now the Rare and Precious Metals Experiment Station of the Bureau of Mines at Reno, Nev., announces that it has successfully extracted the gold by a new process that includes a short, low-temperature roast, a wash with lime, and then the usual treatment with cyanide.
MORE destructive super-sound waves, vibrating at the unprecedented rate of two and a half million times a second, recently have been produced in the laboratory of Alfred L. Loomis at Tuxedo Park, N. Y. Like the inaudible, ultra-rapid waves of one third this frequency which he previously generated, they kill small animals and plants placed in a vessel of water subjected to them.
AT LEAST one more scourge of man seems conquered, another promises to be, and medical men the world over are fighting other dread diseases. Prompt use of a newly-developed serum for infantile paralysis stamped out a threatened epidemic last summer.
Dynamite explosions and streaking flames are photographed by this huge camera, weighing a ton, recently developed by I rofessors R. P. Fraser and W. A. Bone, of the Imperial College of Science, London. The shutter is snapped by electricity, making a one-ten-thousandth-of-a-second exposure, controlled by the switch seen above in the experimenter’s hand.
A single slip in drilling an eight-inch hole through the optical axis of this 2,500-pound, seventy-inch telescope reflector, the largest ever made in America, would have ruined a year’s labor. The glass disk was cast for Ohio Wesleyan University by A. N. Finn, of the U. S. Bureau of Standards, at Washington, D. C. He is seen at the right of the picture above, supervising the drilling.
Disturbing street noises in London, England, are to be caught and catalogued by sensitive amplifying and recording instruments. Microphones placed in the streets will pick up the sound vibrations. Amplified by the apparatus at the right, these will be recorded on the master phonograph record seen at the left of the picture above.
How much weight do you have to drop on a microbe’s back to kill it? Dr. F. Holweck, French X-ray expert, answers the question with this machine, which shoots X-ray bolts at bacteria cultures. He finds it takes a millionth part of blow struck by a speck of dust falling a hundredth of an inch!
The picture at the left shows Prof. Loye Miller, head of the Biology Department of the University of California, with the fossil of a bird believed to have lived five million years ago. It was found recently at Calabasas, Calif., near Los Angeles.
“NOW,” said the magician to an involuntary investigator, enticed to the stage by a ruse that left him wondering how —’ it happened—“Now, with your own eyes, you saw the young lady walk into the cabinet; and ‘presto,’ she has disappeared.
MORE thrilling experiences from the life of John Kenlon, New York City’s veteran fire chief. "The best way to fight fire is to prevent it,” he says, “and the next best way is to starve it to death.” In this fascinating article he tells of modem scientific methods and devices which smother flames before they get a start, and prevent conflagrations.
NEARLY a thousand square miles of land, now under ocean water, will be turned into cultivated fields upon the completion of a twenty-eightmile-long dike, now being thrust across the mouth of the Zuyder Zee, in Holland. When the great dam is finished in 1934, a railroad and a highway, connecting the east of Holland with the west, will run along its top.
Useful Kinks for the Radio Fan Choosing the Best Antenna
Tests Reveal Trick Aerial Devices Are Not Worth the Price—Mending a Loudspeaker—A Homemade Tube Shield
CONSIDERABLE confusion exists as to the relative effectiveness of various types of outdoor antennas. You probably have read the statement that a hundred-foot outdoor antenna is about right. That is correct only when reception conditions are such as to require that length.
THE radio fan who likes to build things for himself will find that the small size of milk shaker sold in many stores can be made into an effective tube shield. The fitting of such a shield is shown in Fig. 1. The cover is fastened under the tube socket. Be carefid that the socket terminals are not short-circuited. You can, of course, drill holes through the cover of the shaker for the wires to the socket terminals, and also a hole on the shaker itself for a grid connection if the tube is of the shielded grid type.
THE most common trouble with a loudspeaker is a burned-out coil. This happens to be a defect which can be remedied without difficulty by anyone who likes to tinker and enjoys constructing radio apparatus. Figure 2 shows a simple way to rewind such a coil at home.
THE use of resistances to secure C-voltages for radio and audio amplifier tubes in electric sets may seem mysterious. Actually, though, the principles involved are fairly simple. All voltage is relative. A wire may register six volts positive with respect to one wire, and be negative with respect to another.
If You Are Looking for New Thrills, This Article Will Help You to Start Delving into Radio’s Latest Marvel
A SOLEMN faced young man in his ’teens gazed gravely at a shiny red motorcycle. The time had come for a momentous decision. Should the fascinating speed machine be sacrificed on the altar of science? Were the experiments he was making in the budding science of wireless worth the sacrifice?
IN THE November number of POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY there appeared a detailed description of the construction of a simple one-tube radio receiver designed particularly for beginners. Several novel features were embodied in the set. It tuned the short waves as well as the broadcast band, and additions could be made to it later on.
THE vogue for home painting and decorating offers many opportunities for making smart Christmas gifts at a cost far less than their actual worth and market value. Because of their individuality, such gifts are far more appreciated than ones that are bought.
NO MATTER what style furniture you have in your home, you can safely introduce a few accessories or small pieces in the popular modernistic mode. It is true that they are costly to buy, like everything else that is considered smart and fashionable, but you do not need to go to the stores for them; you can make them yourself.
All You Have to Make Is the Case—The Works, Brass Ornaments, and Glass Panels Can Be Bought Ready-Made
CHARLES A. KING
HOW many home workers have wished to make a banjo clock case but hesitated because of the difficulty in obtaining suitable movements and ornamental brass work! That is no longer an obstacle, for the clock illustrated, although especially designed for readers of POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY, will fit one of the standard sets of brasses sold for use by amateur craftsmen.
NO TOYS are equal to those made by Daddy. And here are some that are quite simple for him to make. They are toy tractors and trucks, strongly built of wood and as large as the expensive ones sold in the stores. They “work” too! The fire engine squirts a good stream of water from the hose; the sprinkling truck sprinkles water just like a big one; the dump truck has a hoist that tips up the body; and the tractor, being quite large and heavy, makes a noise like an engine exhaust as it rolls along on the cleats of its bull wheels.
A Simple New Way to Prepare Your Own Yuletide Greetings
F. CLARKE HUGHES
HANDMADE Christmas cards carry with them a touch of individuality and attractiveness not to be found in any machinemade cards. You have only to design and make your own cards to be certain they will be prized and preserved by all who receive them.
Heroic Divers Brave Perils of the Deep to Test Newest Devices for Submarine Rescue
WHEN three Navy divers, headed by Lieut. C. B. Momsen, crawled from beneath the rim of a diving bell 155 feet below the surface of Chesapeake Bay not long ago, they staked their lives courageously on the success of a new submarine rescue device which had been tried out for the first time in open water only a few weeks before.
THE latest addition to the equipment of Uncle Sam's experimental mechanized army, described in a recent issue of POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY, is this new antiaircraft gun which can be rushed from place to place by the speedy truck upon which it is mounted.
HOW many times have you come to a bumping stop with a flat tire, wishing you could jack up the wheel merely by pressing a button on the dashboard? A new French invention makes this possible, according to the Automotive Division of the U. S. Department of Commerce.
THE world's belt tightened two miles in the last century! This is the conclusion of Professor Bruno Meyermann, of the astronomical observatory of the University of Goettingen, Germany. He says the distance around the equator has shrunk, since 1828, at least one and a half miles and perhaps as much as two and a third miles, as indicated by a slight increase in the speed of the earth’s rotation.
HURTLIN G over the water at ninetv-three miles an hour, George Wood, brother of Gar Wood, famous motor boat racer, recently piloted his new speed boat Miss America VII to a world's speed record. This was his average speed for his six-lap dash over the one-nauticalmile course on the Detroit River. Two $10,000 engines, of twelve cylinders each, which make up the power plant of the craft, shattered the air with a deafening roar as Wood (left) and his mechanic, Orlin Johnson, crossed the finish line.
THE popular idea that stunt flying will cure deafness is all wrong, according to Lieut. Col. Levy M. Hathaway, I light Surgeon, Office of the Chief of the Air Corps, Washington, D. C. Defective hearing is common among aviators, he says, and instead of curing deafness, flying tends to bring it on.
STUDENTS in 15,000 schools in America see “movies” as part of their educational work. The Bureau of Education, Department of Interior, Washington, D. C., reports that many cities are equipping all new schools with portable projectors as well as larger ones in the main auditorium.
BECAUSE lameness prevented Carl Eliason of Sayner,Wis., from keeping up wdth fellow hunters, trappers of the northern trails soon may substitute motorized sleds for sledge dogs and snowshoes. Eliason has invented a snow speeder which he says will do seventy-five miles an hour, and go anywhere a man on snowshoes can travel.
SWEET lemons may take their place beside oranges and plums as a table delicacy. A new variety, as large as grapefruit and sweet enough to eat without sugar, has been developed by growers in Porto Rico, it is reported. Another unusual quality of the fruit is said to be a remarkably sweet, penetrating odor.
A SUBSTITUTE for extension ladders and life nets for rescue work at fires is found in an ingenious new life-saving and hose tower invented by James A. Anania, of Harrison, N. J. Carried on a fire truck and raised by the truck motor, it consists of two telescoping parallel steel poles, each in five sections, and rising, when extended, to a height of 220 feet.
SPECIAL railroad cars of novel design had to be built to transport the world’s two largest electric transformers from the Pittsfield, Mass., plant of the General Electric Company, where they had been constructed, to West Orange, N. J. Flat cars with depressed centers solved the difficult problem of safely transporting the huge coils, one of which weighs 151,550 pounds.
“THE next bout of the evening will be-” Above the din of shouting fight fans crowding the arena of the new Dreamland Pavilion in San Francisco, Calif., the announcer bellows the names of contesting pugilists. Immediately, out of a large square hole in the floor at the center of the pavilion, appears a platform, rising like an elevator.
ANOTHER brood of cicada, or “seventeen-year locust,” will appear in 1936, according to J. A. Hyslop, of the Department of Agriculture pest survey. It will be brood number X, which last appeared in 1919, when it spread through the central and eastern states as far south as Georgia.
SEVENTY million pounds of old newspapers went to the Orient and became firecrackers, among other things, last year. A five-million-pound shipment of discarded newspapers goes from Los Angeles each month to manufacturers in the Orient.
BEETLES have become “official tasters” for men, along with the white rat and the guinea pig. Workers at the Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station, St. Paul, have begun using them in testing the effects of various foods. The short life-cycle of the insects and their rapid increase in numbers add to their value in such experiments, it is said.
COPPER, long the standard material for electric wires, is being replaced by aluminum in many new high-voltage lines, in spite of the fact that copper is a slightly better conductor of electricity. Aluminum wires can be greatly increased in strength by the addition of a steel core, enabling them to be strung more tightly.
THE idea for a device which will permit mail planes to swoop down over small towns along their routes and pick up sacks of mail without stopping was embodied in a small model of an invention made by Dr. L. S. Adams, of Seattle, Wash., and pictured in the October POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.
AN “UNDERWATER airplane” is the way Aldo Curioni, of Larchmont, N. Y., the inventor of a curious “HydroFlyer” boat, describes an unusual finned keel he has devised to propel and direct the craft. When not in motion the boat's flat bottom, or plane surface, will rest on the surface of the water.
PLANES with a top speed of 140 miles an hour, and a cruising speed of 130 miles, will speed up the air mail, according to plans completed by air mail operators with Post Office Department approval. Air mail now travels at about a hundred-mile-an-hour speed.
HOW much weight can you carry— safely? Not more than forty percent of your body’s weight, continuously—or as much as fifty percent, now and then— is the conclusion of British investigators, as reported by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. A couple of pails of water, weighing, say, forty pounds, is just about the safe limit for a man weighing only 100 pounds himself, although the load may be increased by a half if it is compact and easily handled.
A THOUSAND tons of coal an hour poured out of the hold of the E. M. Young, a Great Lakes coal carrier, recently, when a new type of unloading machine set a record by emptying 8,000 tons from the hold in less than eight hours. The work, if done by manual labor, would have kept a gang of men busy for from seven to ten days.
TWIN giants of the sea, each thirty feet longer than the Leviathan, are being constructed in Germany. The liners, to be named the Europa and the Bremen, will measure nine hundred and thirtyeight feet in length, surpassing the longest ship now afloat, the British Majestic, by twenty-three feet.
A CURIOUS example of waste is the paper cut from sheets of postage stamps when their perforations are punched. Uncle Sam is seeking to sell these tiny disks of paper, wdiich have been accumulating at the tremendous rate of four tons a month.
AN INGENIOUS traveling X-ray machine, which goes to patients who are unable to come to it and which operates from the motor of an automobile, has been devised by Dr. Chester B. Moses, a member of the staff of the Deaconess Hospital, Buffalo, N. Y.
IT WOULD take the combined effort of half a million men to equal the daily work done by the two turbines on the Virginia, the electric vessel recently launched at Newport News, Va. The turbines deliver 17,688 horsepower, which is about equivalent to the work of 185,724 men. But, as the working day for men is eight hours and the turbines labor twenty-four, to arrive at a true comparison we must triple the number of men, making it 557,172.
A NEW attempt to capture the restless power of ocean waves is seen in the working model of an ingenious scheme devised by George E. Faucher, a Los Angeles inventor. He plans a 1,000-foot “wave turbine pier” which he says will supply sufficient electricity for the needs of an entire city.
CAN nearly twice the present amount of water be diverted from Niagara without marring its scenic beauty? To answer this question for Canadian and American engineers, as well as for its own experts, the Niagara Falls Power Company has just completed the remarkable working model shown in the accompanying photographs.
TO TEST your knowledge of the world you live in, see how many of these twelve questions you can answer. Correct answers are on page 148. 1. How did icy Greenland get its name of “green”? 2. Where did wild elephants once live in the United States? 3. What government prohibits alcohol and tobacco? 4. Where is a city water supply pumped for more than 300 miles through pipes? 5. Where are railroad bridges built of bamboo?
TWO transcontinental motor speedways to span the United States from coast to coast would link East and West by automobile, in a remarkable plan that has attracted interest among engineers. According to the scheme as outlined by R. A. Carpenter, chief engineer, West Chicago Park Commissioners, a 3,350mile Northern Transcontinental Highway would connect Boston, Mass., and Portland, Ore., while a parallel 2,800-mile Southern Transcontinental Highway would join Savannah, Ga., with Los Angeles, Calif. Each would be 250 feet wide, and would be divided into four lanes—two outer drives sixty feet wide each for light traffic, and two mside drives fifty-six feet wide for buses and trucks.
ELEVATORS are stopped exactly at the floor level with vacuum tubes like the ones in your radio set, in the latest control system perfected by the General Electric Company. Several tubes are mounted on each elevator car. When an elevator approaches a floor, the operator throws his lever to “off” position, but the car does not stop immediately.
THOUGH experience has taught that redhot iron and steel cannot be attracted by even the most powerful electromagnets, a young electrician of a Newport, Ky., steel mill attempted the impossible—and succeeded! Now his five-foot magnet lifts tons of red-hot iron and steel ingots every day.
MOLTEN iron, transported ten miles from the Hamilton Coke and Iron Co., Hamilton, Ohio, to the American Rolling Mill Co., Middletown, Ohio, is seen here being poured into a ladle from the remarkable car in which it traveled. Employing the principle of a thermos bottle, this car is able to keep metal in a molten state for as long as forty-eight hours, as told in the October issue of POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.
SUN spots, 93,000,000 miles away, affect the discovery of oil and minerals in America. This is the conclusion of Prof. George H. Peters, astronomical photographer at the Naval Observatory, Washington, D. C., who has made daily photographs of the spots for years.
ROAD signs, in the universal language of pictures, are being introduced in Europe as an aid to international motoring, according to Pyke Johnson, American representative at the recent International Road Congress in Paris. Several European countries'have adopted a code of pictures to replace words on signs at curves, bridges, and crossings.
MANY an American printer might falter at the gigantic task nearly half completed by a Shanghai printing establishment, which has been working for three years to make a complete set of type so that 10,000 Chinese characters— most of China's alphabet—can be printed.
ARE we growing larger or smaller physically? Were men 3,000 years ago taller or shorter than the average man of today? To answer these questions, 200 skeletons taken from ancient Babylonian ruins on the island of Kish, in the Persian Gulf, will be measured.
MODERN improvements in automobile design and construction more than offset the tendency toward more rapid wear caused by higher engine speeds. The oil filter is one of the most important. The air cleaner is another. With the oil filtered and dirt kept out of the incoming charge of gasoline and air, the oil in the crank case would retain its lubricating qualities almost forever if it were not for one remaining source of contamination.
BIRDS that protect their own wounds with a plaster of down plucked from feathers are reported by a French naturalist. He says he has shot woodcocks and partridges that had unhealed previous wounds. In every case, the wound had been dressed with the down.
A HOSPITAL the shape of an orange, in which the patients, it is said, will live under a constant air pressure of thirty pounds, has been constructed in Cleveland, Ohio. The million-dollar steel ball is air-tight, and the pressure within will be maintained by powerful air compressors.
WHEN the Ameer of Afghanistan goes hunting, almost everybody in his kingdom knows about it. His preparations assume the proportions of an army on the march. The Palace Guard turns out in force, armed as if to repel an invasion. The ministers and subordinate officials of the Ameer’s court ride to the hunt with their monarch, and direct the affairs of the cavalcade.
NO WAR will be waged in the United States between “cannibal mosquitoes” imported from France and our own flesh-biting variety—that is, not unless officials of the Department of Agriculture change their minds. The department recently refused to grant a permit to bring into this country any of the predatory French species which were expected to.
THE tree you set up at Christmas time and decorate with all sorts of ornaments takes from six to ten years to grow, according to the American Tree Association. Norway, red, and white spruce and balsam fir make the best “Christmas” trees.
SUBWAYS may be added to the present mail-carrying network of airplanes, trains, steamships, and motors, according to the U. S. Post Office Department. Plans are being considered for dispatching sacks of mail over New York City's underground rapid transit system.
TWO hundred and nineteen pilots were arrested for breaking traffic rules of the skyways during the last year. Their offenses included taking-off or landing at airports in the wrong manner, low flying over congested areas, stunt flying with pay passengers, dropping heavy objects, carrying explosives, flying without a license, carelessness, and flying an overloaded machine.
NEW rose, “Lady Canada,” recently exhibited in New York City, has just received a registered trademark from the Commissioner of Patents at Ottawa. According to its grower, it is the first flower ever patented in Canada, and probably in the world.
PEANUT vines are being added to the rations of farm animals. According to Dr. D. B. Jones, in charge of the protein investigation laboratory, U. S. Department of Agriculture, properly-cured peanut vines rival alfalfa and clover in feeding value.
A MAN can run faster than the speed at which the newest “flivver” monoplane comes to ground, according to its Asheville, North Carolina, builders. The unusually slow landing speed of twenty miles an hour, it is claimed, makes the machine unusually safe for beginners to use in practice.
WHEN an Elyria. Ohio, motorist finishes filling his radiator, he lifts the hood of his machine and pours water in the crank case in place of oil to lubricate the motor. He says he has driven 137,000 miles since 1923 using only this unusual lubricant.
TWO hundred pounds of “hamburger,” sixty loaves of bread, ten pounds of peanut butter, and forty-eight cans of salmon are being used in a rat round-up that recently netted more than seventy thousand rodents in various industrial plants situated on the banks of the Cuyahoga River in Cleveland, Ohio.
YOu drive in, stop your car facing an elevator, and electricity does the rest, parking the machine on one of the upper floors of an automatic skyscraper garage being built near the Grand Central Station in New York City. An “electric parker” invented by Milton A. Kent, of New York City, is the heart of the novel plan.
EACH year some fifteen milliontons of shipping will be lifted more than forty-nine feet as it passes between the thick concrete walls of the largest canal locks in Europe, now being completed near Hanover, Germany. The new locks, said to be exceeded in size only by those in the Panama Canal, connect the old Mittelland Canal with the Hanover-Elbe Canal.
FLYING weather bureaus have been established in France to aid the Meteorological Bureau in their predictions. Three airplanes make regular observation trips aloft each day. One reports conditions over Paris, another watches the vicinity of Lyon, and a third ascends from Saint-Raphael, on the Riviera.
THOSE who send cables in code will have to limit the words to five letters instead of ten, if the proposal considered by representatives of telegraph and cable lines on five continents, recently, is carried out. Code words in the past have been accepted under the condition that they could be pronounced in English, German, Spanish, French, Dutch, Italian, Portuguese, or Latin.
A lonely island, inhabited only by dogs, has been reported off the coast of Africa by French sailors, who believe the animals have descended from pets shipwrecked or abandoned there. The island, called Juan de Neva, lies in unfrequented waters between the African coast and Madagascar.
A Lilliputian library is the hobby of James D. Henderson, of Brookline, Mass., who has collected tiny volumes from all over the world. Among the little books, which he reads with the aid of a magnifying glass, is a complete edition of Shakespeare printed on pages little larger than postage stamps.
Radio will play an important part in a 240,000-mile missionary trip into isolated districts of Australia, led by the Rev. G. M. Scott, an Australian clergyman, whose party carries wireless sending and receiving equipment. Wherever he finds settlers requiring immediate help, the missionary will send a radio message to headquarters of the Australian Mission, and assistance will be sent by airplane.
Only women are admitted to a new electromechanic institute at Paris—France’s first exclusively feminine school of engineering. Its graduates will be as well qualified for high technical positions as male applicants, for its equipment is said to be as complete as that of any school in the world.
One ordinary loudspeaker isn’t enough for O. Mampe, of Palisade, N. J., owner of what he claims to be the most elaborate private radio apparatus in the country. This confirmed radio fan has fitted a large baffle board to several dynamic cone-type speakers, so that he can get any volume from a whisper to a thunderous roar.
An imitation seashore, under a great dome of glass and steel, is planned in Germany to provide winter bathing under summer conditions. In the center of the imitation ocean, a large sand hill will be surmounted by a restaurant where bathers may dine, wearing beach pajamas and imagining they are spending a holiday at Deauville or the Lido.
Automobile lamps constructed so that their light would be visible from all angles, is an improvement suggested to the Society of Automotive Engineers as a means of reducing the hazards of night driving. While the cowl lights on some makes of cars can be seen from the side, the lamps on most automobiles are visible only when seen head-on, especially when dimmed or in bad weather.
His colleagues may have their golf or shooting or whatnot for recreation, but when Captain Sidney Streatfield, Member of Parliament, wants to enjoy himself, he goes for a deep-sea dive. The British legislator has been a confirmed diver in his leisure time for the last twelve years, and has gone down as far as five fathoms.
By pumping rarefied air into the brain, Dr. Max Ludin, director of the X-ray department of a hospital at Basel, Switzerland, has been able to discover the exact location of tumorous growths through X-ray photographs. These pictures of the brain, after the air has been pumped in, show the healthy cells as white stains and the diseased ones as almost black.
The blue in the sky is being measured by an ingenious color chart prepared by a German physicist and color expert, Professor Wilhelm Ostwald. It contains all the sky colors, from the bluest known to almost colorless gray. By comparing the colors of the chart with that of the sky, and picking out the shade that most nearly matches, the amount of blue in the sky can be determined, says Professor Ostwald.
The latest convert to the metric system is China, whose Nationalist Government recently replaced the old measurement standards with the system used in practically all countries except England and the United States.
Both radio loudspeakers and radio amplifiers for phonographs are tested for tone by comparison with a master speaker unit over their entire musical range, in the experimental laboratory of a Chicago radio manufacturing concern. One of the expert testers, Martin T. Olsen, is said to have tested more than half a million speakers, averaging 250 every day for almost eight years.
A model of a tri-motored monoplane, almost as long as the builder, won for Tony Verlatti, an eleven-year-old San Francisco boy, first prize for the most interesting model shown at a recent tournament in that city. The builder named his white monoplane the City of San Francisco.
Only four known specimens exist of what is believed to be the first coin ever minted—a Greek gold drachma which experts think was struck off about 700 B.C. One of these, in the collection of J. P. Morgan, New York banker, is conservatively valued at $3,500.
A huge electric sign, ninety feet long and six feet high, circled in the sky 2,000 feet above Broadway, in New York, recently, testing out a new form of advertising— the airplane signboard. Flaring red letters, taking up the entire lower wing surface of a giant bombing biplane, alternately flashed the name of an advertiser and his address.
The reason few actors have paralysis is because they give their emotions exercise! This is the conclusion of Dr. Julius Heller, of Germany, after an investigation of the causes of death of more than 1,400 actors. Only one and a half percent of the group studied died of paralysis.
SIDEWALKS seem to hang above your head, people appear to walk with their feet in the air, and clouds and buildings change places when you put on the strange “upside-down glasses” with which students at Clark University, Worcester, Mass., are being tested.
THERE’S plenty of music in the air when programs come from a huge cone loudspeaker which takes up almost the entire ceiling of a room in the home of a radio enthusiast in Oak Park, Ill. It serves a purpose both useful and ornamental. From its center is suspended an overhead lighting fixture. It is said to reproduce radio programs perfectly.
A“NORSE-AMERICAN” series of stamps, commemorating the arrival in America of first immigrants from Norway in 1695, is the latest of many depicting the history of America, according to the Post Office Department. Twelve previously issued begin with the Columbian Series of 1893, illustrating the discovery of America, and include the Victory stamp of 1919, celebrating the ending of the World War, 1920’s Pilgrim Tercentenary issue, the Huguenot-Walloon series of 1924, and the LexingtonConcord issue of 1925.
UNDERGROUND subways or passageways for pedestrians at dangerous street intersections in Highland Park, Mich., have proved so successful that plans for additional tunnels are under way. School children using two subways already provided are able to cross busy streets in safety.
THE world’s largest magnet, a 120-ton monster that weighs more than many a locomotive, has recently been completed at the Bellevue laboratory of the French National Research Bureau. Resting on massive pillars, it will aid in important researches in light, electricity, and radioactivity.
AN UNUSUAL donation received by the Lapland Geographical Society is a recent anonymous gift of red paint— $1,500 worth. The nameless donor specified that it was to be used to paint farm houses along the Torne River valley, in northern Sweden, so that the color-dotted landscape may set an example to dreary Finland homesteads across the border.
CLANGING dashes down the street behind galloping horses are over for the old-fashioned fire engines, but one has found a job on an aviation field in St. Louis. It has solved the problem of cleaning dirt and grease from airplane motors that are to be overhauled.
ECHOES from the sea bottom are enabling the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey to map the ocean floor along the Atlantic seaboard more accurately and speedily than ever before, through the use of an improved “fathometer,” or sonic depth finder, developed by Dr. Herbert G. Dorsey.
WHEN “Lindy” was three years old, a 200-watt electric light bulb was screwed into a socket in the window of a Grove City, Pa., store. It has been on the job ever since, giving continuous light for twenty-three years. Another similar lamp, installed at the same time, burned out only recently.
TWENTY-SEVEN standard automobiles contributed parts to a miniature homemade car in which the builder, Charles R. Gifford, of Tampa, Fla., intends to tour the United States. The midget machine, pictured below, is less than three feet high and weighs 1,200 pounds.
A BIRD'S-EYE view of the highest mountain in Europe, the famous Mount Blanc, is now provided travelers through the inauguration of a French sightseeing air line circling the peak. The aerial buses are two-passenger cabin planes that fly at an altitude of 14,000 feet, mounting from an air field near the railroad leading to Chamonix, France, from which most of the ascents on foot have been begun.
THAT the earth’s interior, like its oceans, has tidal movements is the theory advanced by Prof. Benjamin Boss, of the Carnegie Institution, to account for the known fact that the earth is slowing down and its days growing longer at the rate of about one second every 100,000 years.
LIKE animals and human beings, leaves have lungs or they would suffocate. The “stomata,” as the breathing cells are called, absorb nutriment from the sunlight, the rain, and the air. How these cells work is revealed remarkably by a recent English moving picture film called “Secrets of Nature,” which presents highly magnified pictures of the leaf’s breathing organs.
SOON you may be wearing clothes made of kendyr. That is the name of a fiber plant, discovered recently growing in large quantities in Asia, and found to produce textile yarn of high quality. A cloth made half of kendyr and half of cotton, tests show, is attractive and durable.
MERELY by pressing a button, almost any imaginable sound can be produced on this machine, according to its inventor, A. W. Nichols, of New York City. He is seen assembling the complicated mechanism designed to make movies more realistic.
IN THE far Athabaska country of western Canada, famous in stories of the Royal Northwest Mounted Police, tar sands are being mined to make roads of a new kind in the Jasper National Park, Alberta. Over gravel roads, the bituminous sands are spread to a depth of about two inches and form a layer similar to asphalt.
WHALERS who go down to the sea in ships are taking science with them. The vessels, putting out from the South Shetland Islands into the Antarctic Ocean, are being equipped with wireless to direct the operations of the small boats that leave the mother, or “factory" ship, in search of quarry.
DETECTIVE work by chemists recently trailed the copper used in ancient Mesopotamian weapons to the mines where it was obtained. Archeologists wanted to know where the men of Sumer, oldest of Mesopotamian kingdoms, got their copper. Inscriptions on bricks failing to tell them, they sought help from the metallurgical chemists.
ROCKY hills or marshes filled with underbrush are boulevards to this ingenious new machine for erecting telephone poles. It can go anywhere a man can walk. Perched on the brink of a precipitous incline, it swiftly bores a seven-foot hole in the earth; then a derrick at its business end swings a fortyfive-foot pole bodily into position and drops it upright.
HALF a million miles on shipboard, and seasick every voyage, has been the strange experience of James Barger, a sixfoot, two-hundred-pound sailor who has been in the U. S. Navy for twenty years. He has circled the globe three times.
A RIVAL of the seventeen-year locust is the giant Sequoia tree of the Pacific slope, which sometimes retains its seeds for sixteen years before dropping them from the cone. These trees are in no hurry. They are called the oldest living thing on earth.
A ROAD stretching from Gibraltar to within 600 miles of Yokohama could be made with the new highways under construction in the United States during 1928. The Government reports that the total mileage of these new roads came to 10,753, costing the states and nation $264,000,000.
THE unusual photograph below is a head-on view of one of the twenty new-type locomotives recently put into operation on the Boston and Maine Railroad. Two unique features are the placing of the bell above the pilot instead of overhead, and the feedwater heater which forms a cowl in front.
A VOLCANO is a mountain committing suicide. This unique definition is suggested by the National Geographic Society, which says the mountains of the South Pacific are destroying themselves with volcanic activity. The virtues of a volcano outweigh its vices, it is pointed out.
CARRYING more than its own weight, a tiny, rubber-band-propelled model airplane, built by Arthur Horn, of Brookline, Mass., sped down a wooden runway and rose gracefully into the air for a ten-second flight at a recent meet in Boston.
SOME of the largest timbers ever exported from the forests of the Pacific Northwest were recently piled upon the wharf at Seattle, Wash., for shipment to China. The size of these giant timbers can be appreciated by comparing them, in the picture below, with the two girls of average size, photographed at the base of the mountain of wood.
THE sad plight of the giraffe with the sore throat seems to have been equalled by the saber-toothed tiger with a toothache. More than a thousand jaws of this mighty hunter of prehistoric days are being examined at the Los Angeles, Calif., Museum, where they were collected from the tar pits at Rancho la Brea, known as “The Death-Trap of the Ages.”
FOR the first time, a photograph in composite has been produced to show the comparative sizes of a human being and the extinct New Zealand moa— largest bird ever known to have lived. These birds, abundant in New Zealand 400 years ago, vanished, it is thought, because of their cannibalistic trait of eating their own eggs during a shortage of their natural food.
THE toppling dome of the famous St. Paul’s Cathedral, in London, will be held together by a huge chain of stainless steel which has been constructed especially for the purpose in a Sheffield, England, steel works. The cathedral, built more than two centuries ago by Sir Christopher Wren, was condemned in 1925 as a “dangerous structure” when the dome was found to be gradually tipping toward the southwest.
BUILDING stone that absorbs sounds has been found in Florida. The rock is somewhat porous, filled with tiny cavities which soak up sound waves that come to it when used in walls and ceilings of rooms. Tests by the late Professor Sabine, of Harvard University, showed that extreme noisiness in a room is caused by the reflection of sound back and forth by walls and ceilings.
AT THE Illinois State Museum, Springfield, a curious stone column is being erected. It is formed of blocks from the various strata of the earth ’s surface, arranged in the order in which they were deposited ages ago. The base is of Altyn limestone from Glacier National Park, stone estimated to be more than 200,000,000 years old.
Timothy, a Timid Soul, Thought His Couldn't, Until Gus Told Him a Few Easy Ways to Make It Winter-Proof
Speedy Travel by Air Express
A CHILL wind whistled an accompaniment to the squeal of the brakes on Gus Wilson’s machine, as the veteran auto mechanic stopped his car in front of the Model Garage and tooted his horn. The doors swung open and a mingled odor of burning kindling wood and hot steam pipes greeted his nostrils as he drove in.
A Convenient Place for the Road Map—How to Stop Tire Rim Creaks—Other Ingenious Ideas You May Find Useful
NOWADAYS nearly every car is built with the top so low that every time you go over a severe bump, your hat brushes against the ceiling. This results in soiled spots, unless special precautions are taken. The simplest of these is show n in Fig. 1.
ONE of the most baffling ignition troubles is a poor ground on the timer housing, caused by the 1oosening of the bearing between the breaker cam shaft and the housing. A varying resistance thus is introduced into the path of the current.
WHEN the lugs wear so much that they no longer can be clamped solidly against the rim, a disagreeable creaking noise is produced. You can remedy the trouble by oversize lugs or by fitting a piece of sheet tin over each lug, as shown in Fig. 5, at the left.
AUTO owners’ and drivers’ licenses often become misplaced, and then you are out of luck when a traffic cop demands that you produce them. However, if there are pull curtains at the window-s of your closed car, you have an excellent place to keep them.
P. D. Villwock, of Edwardsport, Ind., wins this month’s $10 prize for his suggestion of a curtain road map (Fig. 4). Each month POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY awards $10, in addition to regular space rates, for the best idea sent in for motorists.
ORDINARILY, when you want to consult a road map, you have to unfold a large and hard-to-handle sheet of paper. A convenient way to carry the map is to fit a roller curtain just above your windshield so that it can be pulled down, as shown in Fig. 4. Glue or otherwise fasten the map to this curtain.
THERE are many times, in auto repair work, when electricity can be made to save a lot of work. For instance, if a steel ball that operates as a check valve in the oil line is in such a position that it will not roll out by gravity, you may have to turn the part upside down to let it roll out.
YOUR Mississippi steamboat model should have its main deck laid by this time, if you followed the suggestions given in the last issue. Those who missed that article, which was the first in our new ship model series, can easily make up for lost time, if they wish to build this unusually decorative, romantic, and original little boat, by sending for POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY Blueprints Nos. 94, 95 and 96 (see page 102).
Says the Man with a Lathe—So Here Are Six Designs Suitable for Gifts
WILLIAM W. KLENKE
PORTABLE motorized home workshop outfits are now available that give the amateur woodworker the use of a lathe and other machines. These have aroused new enthusiasm for the old-time and most fascinating art of wood-turning. With the help of articles on the use of a lathe such as are published from time to time in POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY and with the aid of a textbook or two, anyone can easily master wood-turning at home and then make beautiful, useful articles from scrap or waste material.
Clamps for Speedy Work How to Make Clamps for Speedy Work
How to Make and Use Them for Fastening Parts to Lathe Faceplates and to Machine-Tool Tables
RGELY, no doubt, because of the many “highbrow” production problems which constantly call for attention, some of the everyday shop tasks, such as holding and clamping work on machines, are not receiving the care that they deserve.
Tin Can Toys — Doll’s House —Santa Claus Novelties — Archery Game — Other Projects
Gifts to Make
BY UTILIZING a variety of old tin cans, any handy man can make durable Christmas toys at next to no expense. An example of what can be accomplished is shown in Fig. 1. This is a tin can toy town built by Jack M. Deckard, of Massillon, Ohio. Bean, soup, and tomato cans form the twentv-five houses, which, however, have real glass in the windows and are individually lighted.
SHAPED like an elephant, the attractive little cigarette holder illustrated forms an ornamental addition to any smoking table. It can be constructed very easily from stock ⅝ or ¾ in. thick and two pieces from a cigar box, or other thin wood.
ON MANY storm doors the catch does not engage the latch strike plate if, because of a high wind or for other reasons, the door is not shut hard by its spring. The result is that the door remains open part of the time. A method of getting around this difficulty is to drill and file another opening in the outstanding section of the strike plate, as illustrated.
A DURABLE putty for nail holes and cracks in hardwood which is to be varnished can be made by mixing a little dry white lead powder with high-grade linseed oil and whiting putty and adding a very small amount of japan drier to make a stiff paste.
UNIVERSAL chuck jaws are frequently ground on the inside while they are expanded into a ring, which serves to keep them rigid. This method is about the simplest, yet it violates all principles of accurate work. In order for the jaws to hold work accurately, they must be ground in the same position as if they were in use.
DRILLINGS can be prevented from falling inside a manifold if a magnetized drill is used for making whatever holes are necessary. Any drill can be magnetized in the following manner: Make a spool of brass or fiber tubing 3 in. long, with an opening through the core to allow the drill to fit loosely.
A SMALL figure of Santa Claus stands beneath our Christmas tree and, by pulling a cord, rings a tiny bell in the boughs above him. His motions are spirited and lifelike. What inspires the little old fellow's activity is a continuation of the string, which runs unnoticed along the floor tothereal bellringer, who pulls it at will.
Neat, Inconspicuous Fire Screen Built at Small Cost
THIS effective fire screen will appeal to those who prefer simplicity to ornateness. In fact, one doesn’t realize there is a screen in front of the fire at all. yet it completely covers the fireplace opening. The construction requires only an hour or two, and the original screen cost the writer exactly fifty-eight cents for materials.
THE workman who spends the most time studying his drawings generally turns out the best work in the shortest time. It’s no use! Some old-timers still insist on taking half an hour or more to file an arbor to size, when it could be ground in five minutes.
BENDING operations can be done with a bench vise when only small lots are required and the expense of making dies is not warranted, or in small jobbing shops where better facilities are not available. Auxiliary vise jaws are made for bending the piece and are substituted for the regular vise jaws.
CHEMICALLY, soaps are the sodium, potassium, or ammonium salts of the animal or vegetable fats. In the process of manufacture glycerin is given off, and the salt of the fatty acid is the soap. The hard soaps are made by adding a solution of lye (sodium hydroxide) to the melted fat.
ONE of the most common mistakes of amateurs in painting a wall, ceiling, or floor is to start any old place and work in all directions. Soon they find the area coated so large that they cannot keep all edges wet, and when they attempt to bring fresh paint up to half dry edges they do not get good joints.
What is the quickest and easiest way to replace sash cord?
FEW defects around the house cause greater annoyance than a broken window cord. Yet, like many other things that go wrong, it may be easily remedied without calling in the aid of a mechanic, if you approach the task with confidence and have some degree of ability to use your hands.
HUMPTY DUMPTY, like some other noted personages, has had a comeback and is more popular than ever. He makes an especially good toy when mounted as illustrated so that he can be made to perform clog dances. We first must have a good outline of his comely form.
TO MAKE the airplane bird feeder illustrated, a few nails and boards, a hammer, and a saw are about the only materials and tools needed. The feeding shelter is 11 in. wide and 23 in. long, and is 11 in. high at the open end and 6 in. at the closed end.
WHEN the storm door is brought out in the fall after the screen door has been stored away, fortunate is the man who does not discover that the hinge screws are missing, or the screw holes are too large, or some extra work of fastening and fitting has to be done. But this annual annoyance can be avoided.
FEW home workers realize the advantages of corrugated fasteners for making strong joints. The fasteners are simply applied, effective, and economical. They may be obtained in most hardware stores and many ten-cent stores and are listed by large mail order houses.
AFTER our baby had taken a dangerous fall from a high chair, we decided that the strap that reaches from the center of the tray to a position in the seat between the baby’s legs was insufficient. It had its usefulness, but was not enough in itself to safeguard an especially strong, active infant.
BY DROPPING a Christmas package tied with tinsel ribbon across the tracks of a toy electrical railroad, my boy caused a short circuit. The sparks set fire to the tissue wrapping around the box, and the flames quickly fired a sheet spread under the Christmas tree.
A TEA server is a real asset for the busyhousewife during the afternoon tête à tête. To construct one requires little skill or expense for materials, especially if whitewood, redwood, white pine, cypress, or other easily worked woods are used.
IF YOU wish to make window ventilators for your home and happen to live near a dealer in salvaged auto parts, you can obtain broken windshields for the purpose at little cost. Any pieces of broken glass, if large enough, will do. In fact, by inserting one or more grooved divisions in the frame, it is possible to utilize relatively small pieces.
CASEMENT window sash that are hung so as to swing inwards very often give trouble by admitting wind and rain at the bottom. To remedy this, I have made a practice of applying flexible weather strips as shown, has proved tive in every case in which it was used.
A GOOD method to protect the binding of books is to apply a coat of white shellac. Use a small, soft brush, and coat the covers evenly. The shellac does not harm the binding or obscure the title and other lettering. Dust and dirt may be wiped from the treated binding with a slightly damp cloth.
IF AUTOMOBILE brake drums are scored badly, it is folly to expect them to stay in adjustment. The drum should be removed and reground or replaced with a new one. Difficulty in adjusting brakes may be caused by grease and dirt, which sometimes will get into the brake lining and rot it.