A Plan that puts the $100 Man on a Par with the Big Investor
For the $100 and the $1000 Man
Making Diversification Easy for the Small Investor
To Help You Get Ahead
How Diversification Pays Profits
OH ROY! Do stop the car here for a minute and let’s take in this view.” "Four thousand miles of scenery and you’re not fed up yet,” said Roy Dunn to his wife, Amy, as he brought the car to a halt in the middle of the Bear Mountain Bridge. “I’ll never get fed up on a sight like this,” replied Amy, as her eye swept in the magnificent panorama, first down the Hudson and then upstream.
The Institute Tests Reveal Astonishing Facts About Household Refrigerators
The Institute Finds Out
Most Refrigerators in Use Are Inefficient
Popular Science Monthly GUARANTEE
MOST people realize that they should have a refrigerator in their home. They know that if they do not keep food cold it will spoil, and that this is a waste and expense. But they do not know that they may eat food which, although it tastes all right, may have started to spoil and eating it will make them sick.
I READ the other day of two different experiments in which it was found that radio waves affect the human body. In one case Professor McLennan of the University of Toronto claimed he discovered that long radio waves raise the body temperature and so might be used to kill disease.
HERE are answered the questions everybody has been asking in recent months—How does “Lindy” always succeed; always fly where he says he will, when he says he will? It is a fascinating story of the two sides of the famous aviator
“SLIM” LINDBERGH, an unknown aviator, took off from Roosevelt Field on the morning of May 20, 1927, and landed at Paris the following night. Colonel Charles A. Lindbergh came back from Paris on the Memphis a world-famous hero. Everybody has been reading about Colonel Lindbergh ever since.
A Real Story of a Dramatic Day Amid Flaming Blasts in the Gas Works
F. N. LITTEN
BENEATH the grimy slate roof of the Twenty-third Street Works, the gas machines roared as the air blast thundered through them. The blast, driving up through the machines, fanned the red coke within to white heat, and flamed out the stack. Then, as the flame died, the run began transforming coke, steam and fire into a genie, greater than Aladdin’s lamp could summon, who, invisible, served a million homes.
Golden Gate Tube Laid in Sections In Unparalleled Engineering Exploit
H. H. DUNN
EARLY this summer Californians will celebrate the opening of the most remarkable underwater highway, in many respects, that engineers have ever attempted. It is the $4,500,000 Oakland-Alameda Estuary Tube, running nearly three fourths of a mile under old San Antonio Creek, an arm of San Francisco Bay, and replacing the Webster Street Bridge, which now links the two cities.
Television Brought Into the Home—The Newest Radio Marvel
RADIO STEREOPTICON, TOO
ALDEN P. ARMAGNAC
NOW you are to have a see-by-radio outfit of your own —a device that will enable you to view the prima donna and the musician in a distant broadcasting station just as plainly as your radio receiver permits you to hear them. Engineers are putting the finishing touches on a home television cabinet that they are preparing to make and market by the thousand!
Popular Science Investigation Reveals Startling Facts about Household Refrigeration and Your Health
Choosing An Icebox
FOOD in nine out of ten families in this country is kept in such a way as to be a menace to their health. That statement is not the cry of an alarmist. It is made only after the most exhaustive investigation into household refrigeration ever undertaken anywhere in the world; an investigation which reveals the startling fact that in most American homes food frequently becomes unwholesome and sometimes even poisonous, because of inadequate refrigeration.
Speedy Little "Kickers” Leap Madly Over Waves in Spectacular Contest
LEAPING and plunging recklessly through white-capped waves, kicking the choppy sea into spray, more than a score of the world's smallest speed boats recently engaged in one of the most spectacular contests ever seen in American waters. It was the race of tiny outboard motor boats, familiarly called “kickers,” run over a fifty-two-mile course on the lee side of Santa Catalina Island, off the coast of southern California.
Amateur Pilots Throughout the Land Explain Here the Dollars and Cents of Private Flying
What the Figures Show
H. C. DAVIS
FLYING for pleasure! Who has not dreamed of owning and running his own airplane? Each morning the papers tell you of airmen’s latest exploits. “I could do that, too,” you confide to yourself. After all, why not? Over your head passes the air mail.
Mighty “Hello" Heard a Mile in First Test of New Device for Use of Public Speakers
R. C. UPJOHN
"HELLO, ferryboat!” boomed a tremendous voice across the Hudson River the other day, from a horn atop a New York building. Ferry passengers jumped in startled surprise at the Gargantuan shout, then waved at the New York skyline whence the sound had come.
Scientists Stand Amazed as Hindu Botanist Records Emotions of Growing Things by Means of His Strange Electrical Machines
ARTHUR A. STUART
IS THE potato a little stepbrother to man? Is the cabbage our second cousin: Should we recognize vegetables as our poor but honest relations? “Yes,” calmly asserts Sir Jagadis C. Bose, a Hindu scientist of international repute, who for a quarter of a century has been doing sensational and thrilling things with plants.
Astounding Engineering Feats Put Giant Buildings Around and Atop One Another and on Pine Log Legs
ONE of the mightiest of skyscrapers—the New York Life Insurance Building nearing completion on the site of the old Madison Square Garden—stands knee-deep in the biggest hole ever dug into the vitals of Manhattan Island. Beholding it, one marvels at the engineering magic that reared this vast pyramid of steel and stone, surmounted by a tower that reaches 610 feet into the sky.
Thrilling Exploit That Won Eadie a Medal as Hero of S-4 Disaster Only a Sample of Divers’ Perilous Tasks — How Ellsberg Twice Faced Death Below
ROBERT E. MARTIN
ONE of America’s highest awards for valor, the Congressional Medal of Honor, is to go to a new hero— Chief Torpedoman Thomas Eadie, veteran deep-sea diver of the Navy. It is a tribute to the almost superhuman skill and courage of the man who, when the submarine S-4 sank off Provincetown, Mass., last December, risked and all but lost his life, first in an attempt to carry aid to the six men imprisoned in the submarine, then to rescue a fellow diver trapped in the muddy depths.
HERE IS AN Article That Will Make You Smile and Then Stop and Think. In It Mr. Fox, the Newspaper Cartoonist Whose Toonerville Trolley and Other Caricatures Amuse Thousands of Us Daily, Explains What an Understanding of the Human Interest in Mechanical Things Has Meant to Him
IF THERE is an inventors’ guild I can qualify for membership, but I couldn't be an officer because I am too busy inventing. Edison, McCormick, Marconi, Bell, Ford, and the forgotten genius who first devised a folding bed are all right in their way, but the lot of them did not invent so many things as (let the band sound flourishes and ruffles) Fontaine Fox.
Patient Spared Suffering in Chicago Doctor’s Astounding Experiment with Anesthesia — Will Profession Adopt His Method?
Your Ears Prove Your Identity
GROVER C. LANGE
IN ST. LUKE’S HOSPITAL in Chicago, a few weeks ago, a young woman facing a major operation for abdominal adhesions was hypnotized as she lay on the operating table. For almost an hour she rested in wide-eyed hypnotic sleep, while Dr. Harold G. Jones made an incision, severed the adhesions and completed the operation without the use of any drug or anesthetic.
Hair-Raising Incidents We Never Hear Of and Ingenious Machines Being Used to Protect Us
JESSE F. GELDERS
IN FOSTORIA, Ohio, a man sits before a queer machine looking like a combination telephone switchboard and miniature railway. Lights flash—the operator moves markers along diagrams of railroad tracks and pulls levers. On sectors of track above the diagrams switches open and close.
TWO airplanes in Nicaragua, one circling like a wasp to fight off attackers, the other roaring into the air with a load of wounded United States marines, wrote a new chapter of heroism and resourcefulness into the annals of aviation the other day, and showed that an airplane could serve as a messenger of mercy as well as an instrument of warfare.
MECHANICAL Chemist Serves in Place of Experts — “Magic Carpet” Helps Growth of Plants Five Hundred Percent — Airplanes Used by Reindeer “Cowboys” on Alaskan Ranges — Eclipse Scheduled to the Minute Years in Advance
Latest discoveries and inventions in varied fields of science, and newest applications of knowledge gained by research—all of peculiar interest because of their direct bearing on our daily life—are recorded from month to month in these pages.
AIRPLANES are playing still another rôle. On the reindeer ranches of Alaska and northern Canada they are serving as swift mounts for the “cowboys” who ride the range. Ralph Lomen, pioneer in the now rapidly growing Alaskan reindeer industry, reports that his head herdsman, riding a plane, recently completed in two hours work which ordinarily would require the services of seven herdsmen for a week.
DR. L. H. FLINT, of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, reports the success, in three years’ experiments, of a “magic carpet” which, when spread over the soil, increases the yield of garden crops as much as 500 percent and more. The carpet is of heavy waterproof paper. Covering all of the ground not occupied by the plant stems themselves, it increases the soil temperature, prevents loss of moisture, distributes water among the plants and smothers weeds. The increases in yield have varied from eleven percent for peas, to 516 percent for spinach.
SUFFERING bitter hardships, including cold of seventy degrees below zero, Russian explorers have discovered a great 600-mile mountain range rising from trackless wastes of Siberia. Within a few months an expedition of Tulane University, New Orleans, will plunge into unexplored jungles of Central America and Mexico, seeking ruins of ancient Maya cities which flourished 1500 years ago.
WHAT is the secret of success in life? A new answer to this old question was given recently by Dr. Fred A. Moss, of George Washington University, in a report read to a meeting of the American Psychological Association in Columbus, Ohio. According to Dr. Moss, success depends largely on a man’s ability to understand others and to get along with them.
FOR centuries mortals have searched for the fountain of eternal youth. Will it ever be found? Dr. Alexis Carrel, the great biologist of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, thinks not. “Death.” he told the recent Race Betterment Conference at Battle Creek, Mich., “is the price we have to pay for the possession of brains.”
FRESH picked fruits are living things. They breathe and give off heat, much as human bodies do. Half a dozen barrels of fresh apples will produce as much heat in the course of a day as fifty pounds of coal burned in a stove! Those surprising facts were revealed to the London Physical Society recently by Dr. Ezer Griffiths, who has been studying methods of shipping perishable fruits over long distances.
PROF. RALPH H. CHENEY, of the Biology Department of New York University, has completed a study of coffee and its effects on animals and men, and has reached this verdict: Far from being harmful, the cup of coffee, if not abused, is actually beneficial to most people.
MODERN astronomers with their telescopes survey the heavens with uncanny accuracy. The exact path of the next total eclipse of the sun to be seen in the United States has just been charted by Dr. L. J. Comrie, of the British Nautical Almanac office.
AN ITALIAN inventor’s novel solution to the farmer’s problem of supplying electric power to drive plows or tractors by electricity is to feed the current over a cable of aluminum wire supported in the air by balloons. Storage battery driven apparatus has been found too expensive to install in experiments conducted abroad.
They Don't! At Least, There Is No Direct Proof, But Here You Can Find the Answer to Your Question
GEORGE LEE DOWD
BEFORE you lies a pound of copper—a reddish, shining metal lump. To your eye, it seems solid enough. If anyone told you that pound of copper was for the most part empty space, that it was inhabited only by countless swarms of tiny buzzing particles of matter that gave it its shape and weight, you could hardly be blamed for incredulity.
Newest Tests Prove Jumper Can Somersault Thousands of Feet Safely; Anyone Can Learn How
L. G. POPE
THREE quarters of a mile straight down, hurtling head over heels through empty space! Then a jerk of a cord, and a great silk envelope opening overhead to check the dizzying plunge. That was the experience, the other day, of John Tranum, crack parachute jumper, when he stepped off the wing of an airplane circling less than a mile above Los Angeles.
CAN radio waves and dynamite reveal buried treasures of gold, oil, and copper? “Yes,” is the startling answer of mining experts in various parts of the world. A prominent Swedish geophysicist, armed with a radio device, has discovered, buried beneath a swamp, what may prove to be the richest arsenic deposit in the world.
AMBITIOUS to produce a big feature picture, Don Kennedy, young COMEDY director of Popular Players’ West Coast Studio, and Judy Burke, his script girl, joined in a gamble for high stakes. Don’s chief asset was an invention for superimposing action photographed in the studio upon scenic backgrounds filmed abroad—an invention that promised great economies.
Frenchman’s Unsinkable Ocean-Glider Will Dash from France at Seventy Knots an Hour in a Few Weeks, Declares Inventor
PARIS to New York in sixty hours! That is the mark set for himself by Adrien Remy, French inventor of a new type of speed boat, whose craft is shortly to undertake the trans-Atlantic passage. Already at a marine works on SaintOuen, near Paris, finishing touches are being applied to the full-size vessel that grew out of Remy’s first plans.
Marvels Come Not Singly but in Scores as Two Thousand Scientific Leaders in Conference Tell of Discoveries
FRANK PARKER STOCKBRIDGE
I USED to think of scientists as whiskered hermits or spectacled grouches, as most people do who don’t know them. I have just spent a week with two thousand of them at Nashville, Tennessee, at the 84th annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
TRAFFIC will pass directly through a skyscraper in a unique project now under construction in the very heart of New York City. One of the principal highways of the city, leading to a great railroad terminal, the Grand Central Station, is to pierce the thirty-two-story structure with twin tunnels.
WHEN Reese Worick, a Lexington, Ky., garage man, was attaching the derrick of his wrecking car to a disabled automobile on a country road recently, there was a loud report, and his machine was struck by what he supposed was a bolt of lightning.
AFTER an exhaustive study of the running of clocks through long periods, Dr. Robert R. Morgan, of the Naval Observatory, Washington, reaches the astonishing conclusion that they go more slowly when the moon is in the western part of the sky. The difference, however, can be detected only by the most delicate measuring instruments.
THE modern motor car engine is equipped with several devices that materially reduce the amount of carbon that ordinarily would be deposited on cylinder head and pistons. In spite of modern improvements, the motor still will carbonize rapidly if certain precautions are not observed.
TOY automobiles and trolleys are the latest devices great cities are using to teach their drivers safety. The applicant for a license to drive a motor car in Los Angeles must now demonstrate his ability to meet emergencies and his knowledge of traffic laws by maneuvering a model car on a table representing a busy highway.
TEST your knowledge with these questions, chosen from hundreds sent in by readers. Correct answers are on page 156. 1. What great capital city was built in a swamp? 2. Where is the densest forest in the world? 3. What American island is more than seven miles high?
A NEW style stile has appeared on the farms of Willard and John Deaver, at Viroqua, Wis. Utilizing the principle of the garage greasing platform, these farmers have built novel bridges over their fences, thus enabling them to drive from the road into their barnyard and to their garages without the trouble of getting out to open and close the gates.
WHEN the Platte River recently became unruly near Fremont, Neb., it was found that discarded automobile frames wired together and anchored to the shore served to catch driftwood and sediment and form a breakwater.
IT IS now possible to test automobile bearings for play or looseness without taking the parts down. A cleverly constructed gage accomplishes the work easily and quickly, as shown in the photos below, with only the cylinder head of the engine removed.
TWO mysteries about cyclones and cyclonic storms that have long defied solution have just been explained by Dr. W. J. Humphreys, meteorological physicist of the U. S. Weather Bureau, who, after study of the records of such storms covering many years, is able to show why they grow in size and intensity as they move northeastward and why the increase is greater by night.
THE first law prohibiting the running of machines that interfere with radio reception is claimed by Fairfield, Iowa. As is well known, the operation of electrical machinery in the neighborhood of a receiving set often causes interference and spoils an evening’s program ; nothing can be done about it unless the offending machine can be turned off.
A WATCH that winds itself is the amazing invention just reported by Karl Heinrich Meyer, a Swiss watchmaker, who, if his claims are true, has added one more to the imposing list of achievements of a people whose name has become almost synonymous with the word “watch.”
PROBABLY the largest of its kind in the world is the gigantic roller bearing recently completed by an Ohio firm as one of a set to be installed in a huge cement mill. It has a diameter of more than five feet, and two tons of force is required to lift it.
ONE of the most singular of modern bridge building exploits has been decided upon by engineers who will borrow one of Nature’s peculiar methods in replacing an old structure at Bound Brook, N. J., that carries interurban lines and vehicles.
A NEW aluminum alloy so much lighter than any heretofore known that it will revolutionize flying is claimed by Dr. Max Wurmbach, a Munich metallurgist, who declares that while it is lighter than any other metal known, it is stronger than iron.
RADIO engineers at a recent convention in New York City were amazed when they sat in a theater and saw photographs transmitted by radio and so enlarged that they covered a screen that filled the stage. The demonstration was by Captain Richard H. Ranger, inventor of the Ranger system of radio photo transmission and an engineer of the Radio Corporation of America.
EVEN the rates of fare have been tentatively decided upon, so certain are the builders of the British super-airship, the R-100, twice as large as any other dirigible, that they will establish transAtlantic service. Commander Charles Burney declared in a recent statement that his company, which built the R-100 for the British Government, had decided to exercise its option to buy the craft for its own operation.
Complicated Bottle Machine Makes One Million in Week
MORE than a million bottles a week each may be manufactured by two remarkable machines built in England for use in Japan! The mechanisms are staggering to the imagination in their complicated mass, yet Francis Redfern, their inventor, has had no previous experience in machine construction.
RAILWAY stations need no longer go to the trouble of stocking thousands of tickets, now that an ingenious automatic machine has been introduced that prints the traveler’s ticket as he steps to the window and names the city to which he is going.
THIS magazine is glad whenever possible to answer reader’s inquiries regarding subjects within its scope, and to supply names and addresses of manufacturers of articles described in its pages. Enclose self-addressed stamped envelope and address Information Department, POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY, 250 Fourth Avenue, New York City.
Bird Flies Across Atlantic Before It Is 3 Months Old
AN AMAZING 4200-mile trans-Atlantic flight of a bird, recently announced by the Biological Survey, shows that even Lindbergh has something to learn from feathered flyers. An Arctic tern between one and five days old was banded and released July 22, 1927, at the Red Islands, Turnevick, Labrador, by O. L. Austin, visiting the birds’ breeding grounds for the Survey.
SCAFFOLDING of steel tubes rather than wood has now been developed to eliminate fire danger, warping, and failures of structure that have caused many fatalities. The long metal tubes, fitted together with couplings and collars, as shown below in the photograph, make a framework of great strength.
FROM Europe come reports of three new inventions that, while probably not revolutionary, should certainly take prizes among the month's quaint and curious products of the inventive mind. Among patents recently granted in England is one for a walking stick with a red tail-light for persons walking on highways.
HAIR tension tests may be the next addition to the staggering list of offerings of barber and beauty shops. Since marcelling is said to make the hair brittle, we now have this highly sensitive machine whose indicators show the degree of strain the tresses can undergo.
THE popular belief that porcupines shoot their quills is a myth, according to Vernon Bailey, distinguished zoologist, of Washington, D. C. “When met with.” he says, “the porcupine tries to escape, but if crowded it bristles up, erects its quills and stands at bay. As the enemy approaches within reach fierce blows of the heavily armed tail are struck and the barbed quills are thus driven into anything within reach.”
TESTING the strength of goggle lenses by dropping a steel ball on them was an unusual experiment performed in Chicago recently when the National Committee for the Prevention of Blindness met with the National Safety Council to discuss eye hazards in industrial occupations.
A NOVEL new use for the photo-electric cell has been found in Pittsburgh, where it is employed in a newly invented device to warn engineers of industrial plants when smoke from their chimneys is exceeding the density allowed by law. A beam of light is kept constantly in the chimney and pointed at a photo-electric cell, which is so sensitive that it sends to the engine room an exact record of the density of smoke. The transmission is made by an electric current that the cell operates.
BOTH quick arrival on the scene of action and fast retreat are possible with the new motorcycle machine guns recently added to French army corps. Besides the important feature of the ease of portability of the light but deadly rifles is a special universal mounting that gives high elevation and enables the gunner to train his weapon on enemy planes as well as infantry.
COMPRESSED air excavating apparatus has been pressed into service by men working under the direction of Prof. Amedeo Maiuri, eminent Italian archeologist, in the latest effort to uncover the centuries-old ruins of Herculaneum, near Naples, Italy.
MATERIAL could be lifted to the top of a ten-story building by a giant electric shovel, the largest in the world, now being constructed by the General Electric Company. Placed in the center of a football field, it could dig out the entire field without moving from one position, and deposit the dirt from the excavation in the stands!
SHOULD experimentation with the new square shaped parachute pictured below be successful, all the Navy aircraft will soon be equipped with it, for it is said to embody many new safety features. In the recent tryouts at Lakehurst, N. J., life was not risked; dummies, the weight of a man, made the test drops.
THAT the possibilities in short wave radio—considered unimportant a few years ago but now commanding interest by leaders in the new science—are far from exhausted is again indicated by discoveries of Abraham Esau, of Jena, Germany, that have resulted in his invention of a method to increase the power of short wave broadcasting.
Pilotless Plane Loops Loop Under the Control of Radio
PILOTLESS planes have just been made successfully to loop the loop by wireless control from the ground, according to recent reports from England, where intensive research is being made in radio piloting. Other amazing maneuvers are made as easily possible with the delicate new governing system within the plane, operated by radio waves alone.
BY WRITING, in 10,052 words, the complete story of Col. Lindbergh’s history-making flight to France on one post card of ordinary size, Conrad Kemper, young German artist, declares he has achieved a world’s record for small and legible chirography.
SHRILL sirens, much more audible at three miles than the ordinary whistle and designed to lessen the numerous automobile accidents at crossings, were recently placed on the locomotives of two local passenger trains of the Southern Pacific lines in California.
A DEVICE by which a submerged submarine may signal to the surface to indicate its position and avert collisions has just been presented to the Navy Department by the Human Research Corporation, of Philadelphia. The invention of Dr. Isadore Kitsee, it has not been manufactured, but the patents are donated to the Government, which will consider it among other plans for making submarines safer, as mentioned in an article in last month’s issue of POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.
SAWDUST, which some of us may have thought pure waste, has so many uses in industry that large concerns gather, classify and sell it by wholesale. Some 30,000 tons a year are used in meat curing—hickory mainly, but also oak, mahogany and other hardwoods.
GREAT rotating cutters are the new features of a giant plow recently introduced in England and designed for doing much work in a hurry on large plantations. The two powerful digging wheels operate in opposite directions as the tractor moves along and, since each cutting wheel is equipped with three shares, the ground is thoroughly turned up in curving lines that cross each other again and again.
ARMY engineers were amazed recently by tests on Staten Island, N. Y., and Long Island, N. Y., flying fields in which one of the Army’s four observation and attack planes, Curtiss Falcon models, flew faster with pontoons than with wheels attached to its landing gear — upsetting all past experience.
HARD rubber forms the entire hull of this new toy sailing ship, which would have a particular appeal for the boy who is stirred by a love for the sea and its romance; for it is a 30-inch model of Donald B. MacMillan’s Arctic schooner the Bowdoin. Great sport, too, is offered by the navigating possibilities of this ship, for the three sails may be raised or lowered at will and regulated with the rudder for any desired kind of sailing.
SAUCES injected into fresh killed chickens just before roasting gave an entirely new flavor to the meat and provided a treat for a recent dinner of the Societe Nationale d’Acclimatization of France. The method was pronounced by cooking experts far superior to the ordinary external sauce method, since in the new process the meat itself is flavored in every fiber.
COMMUTERS who are tired of going to the station for their tickets will be interested in this German innovation by which the tickets come to the commuters. In order to facilitate the selling of weekly tramcar passes, this traveling ticket booth has been put in operation by the Leipzig tramway and has proved a great success by reason of its greater range of distribution.
EVIDENCES of a tremendous migration of Asiatic peoples to southern Africa and Madagascar more than 2000 years ago have been discovered by Dr. Ralph Linton, assistant curator of Oceanic and Malayan ethnology at the Field Museum of Natural History, just returned from more than two years’ research in Madagascar as head of the Captain Marshall Field Expedition.
THE United States leads the world in utilization of water power and in the capacity of its plants using this power it equals nearly the whole of Europe, according to a remarkable world census of water power just issued by the United States Geological Survey.
HUNDREDS of boys—and girls too— of all ages competed in the recent city-wide competition in New York for model airplanes with rubber bands as their sole motive power. Not all the planes were of conventional design. In some the children had developed their own ideas, different from any of real aeronautical engineers, showing several construction plans that may some day be adopted for full size planes.
SOON you may enter your favorite restaurant, drop an order in a slot— and have your meal delivered up through the table! The novel device, which bids fair to make our service waiterless, tip-less and trayless, was recently exhibited as seen at the right, at an exposition in New York; and according to reports it will soon be used by several restaurants.
A NEW process for removing spots from furs does not destroy the luster or sheen of fur or leather trimmed garments, according to an announcement from the Bureau of Standards. Working with expert cleaners, Government chemists have discovered that a little paraffin added to the naphtha preparations ordinarily used in cleaning establishments protects the garments against injury.
"CHEMICAL snow,” once only a novelty, is finding increasing use in the field of refrigeration, and is now manufactured by the ton. It lasts longer than ice, and when it is all gone, evaporated into air, not even a wet spot is left to show where the snow was.
Aero Engineers Aid Farmer By Improving His Windmills
AERONAUTICS, after adapting the windmill to its own purposes, is returning it to the farmer greatly improved as a result of the intensive research made by the aircraft industry in the field of aerodynamics. Changes in the number of blades and the pitch of the propellers used to drive electric generators on airplanes at the Army laboratories at Dayton, Ohio, have resulted in the adaptation of a new type of wheel for ordinary windmills that increases the speed of revolution from six to ten times that of the old-fashioned wheels.
THE biggest job of hand sawing ever heard of in this age of power machinery is being undertaken by Captain Jacob Wilson, sailor-sawyer of Sawyer, Wis., who spent last summer demolishing a breakwater in Green Bay, Wis., in order to saw it up for firewood.
MORE than eleven million dollars worth of minerals was produced in North Carolina during 1926, exceeding the previous year's production by $400,000, according to figures of State Geologist H. J. Bryson and the United States Geological Survey.
THIS English farmer violates accepted tradition each day—he brings the stable to the cows! But A. J. Hosier, of Wexcombe, Wiltshire, England, has his reason. He has found that living entirely in the open in good weather is healthier for the cows and, moreover, results in better milk.
Chain Drive Roller Skate Goes to “Patentees’ Court”
DURING a recent annual international exhibition of inventions in England a “court” was formed at the Institute of Patentees to deal with the gigantic task of selecting the devices most worthy of display from the mass of odd and ingenious products of inventors’ fertile minds.
EXCAVATIONS in Mesopotamia made recently at the grave of a king of Ur revealed that other bodies than that of the ruler were buried in the one grave. In the fourth millennium before Christ it is apparent that the state took a woman’s life if her husband died, at least in the case of the monarchs, for in the grave, besides the king’s gaming board and dice, were the bodies of his wives.
NEW among riding toys for small children is a kiddy car of unique design built to represent a monoplane, seen in the illustration below. A rocking motion which gives the young aviator a sort of aeronautical swoop as he rides down the sidewalk is one of the special features and is brought about by an off-center wheel fitted below the “fuselage” which causes the toy to move up and down when in motion.
THE American merchant marine may save over $100,000,000 as a result of the researches of Dr. J. Paul Visscher of Western Reserve University, who has ascertained that it is possible to discourage barnacles from attaching themselves to the bottoms of ships by painting the undersea surfaces with a particular shade of light paint.
A NEW device that automatically stops trains when they pass a warning signal has been installed in Germany on the Berlin-Dresden line. The invention consists of a magnet affixed to the track at a point just past the signal tower, and an electric control mounted on the locomotive which it operates.
GREATER deadliness to parasitic insects and kindred pests and less danger to human beings are claimed for two new spraying chemicals by Dr. Simon Marcovitch of the Tennessee Agricultural Experiment Station at Nashville. Sodium fluoride and sodium fluosilicate are the two new chemicals suggested as substitutes for the usual arsenic.
INSULATION is cleanly and quickly removed from wire ends, making them ready for soldering or terminal connections, by merely inserting the pieces in this improved stripping machine and pressing the pedal. A productive speed ordinarily requiring eight persons is easily attained by this ingenious device, which does away with the tedious and time-wasting methods to which manufacturers formerly resorted.
HERE is a talking machine that sends the strains of a popular melody thirty blocks with perfect ease and delivery! It is the champion in its line— the world's largest, strongest, and most distinctive phonograph. Built on the roof of the Victor Talking Machine Company factory in Camden, N. J., it stands thirty-one and a half feet high, and is twenty feet eight inches wide and sixteen feet deep.
STUNT flying may be breath-taking but it certainly is not reckless deviltry, according to Gerhard Fieseler, German war veteran, who is the second airman to perform a forward loop. The first to perform this hazardous feat was Lieut. J. H. Doolittle, U. S. Army pilot.
A MAIL parachute that does not open until it is within a few hundred yards of the ground is the invention of Arnold Waldau, Swedish flying expert. When thrown overboard it drops folded for a considerable distance without offering much resistance to the wind, then a spring makes it start to unfold.
PEDESTRIAN collisions and street crossing accidents due to the umbrella’s obstructing vision would become less frequent if this German porthole idea were followed universally. A clear view is obtained through a mica window.
MORE concrete roads, with fewer railways, are needed, because they are cheaper to construct, cheaper to maintain, and cost nothing for service, the National Roads and Motorists Association of New South Wales, Australia, has just told the government.
A NEW and painless method of vaccination is being used in Europe with great success. The vaccine is taken in pills, chocolate covered. Prof. A. Besredka, of the Pasteur Institute in Paris, has developed this means of immunization, and declares it is much more rapid in its effect than the older system.
NEW YORK CITY'S great smoke screen from factories, locomotives, and steamships cuts out forty-two percent of the morning sunlight that should bring warmth on winter days, say experts of the United States Public Health Service. At noon the loss is reduced to eighteen percent.
THAT “two heads are better than one” at thinking out a problem is the conclusion drawn from experiments conducted among students at Columbia University by Prof. Goodwin B. Watson, who sought to test the familiar saying. Four nine-letter words were selected, “educators,” “neurotics,” “secondary” and “universal.”
THE latest power of the X-ray to be discovered is its property of making certain substances glow in the dark. Dr. Frances G. Wick, of Vassar College, reveals that the substances glow if first treated with the X-ray and then warmed. One such substance is ordinary gypsum mixed with manganese.
THIS unique yacht, the Fan Kwai, is run throughout by a novel system of electrical control. Thirty-six motors, involving more than four miles of wire, enable Col. H. H. Rogers, its owner, to operate all driving, living, and recreational devices by pressing buttons or throwing switches.
SOON it will be possible for continental motorists to dash at forty miles an hour or more from the French channel ports or the Riviera across country to the Baltic without fear of arrest—unless they slacken speed! A gigantic system of auto speedways, already planned and mapped, will link France, Germany, Switzerland and Italy in a few years’ time, if present plans proposed by an international conference of automobile clubs and backed by governmental authorities are fulfilled.
A LENS attachment for cameras that makes possible the photographing and reproducing of natural color motion pictures without special films or special developing solutions is the invention of Harold N. Cox, of Pittsburgh. A cylindrical attachment is used on the lens front of any standard camera, and a similar device on the projector reproduces the colored movies.
RUBBER paving lasts longer under heavy traffic, reduces noise and prevents skidding, concludes the report of Col. T. H. Chapman, English engineer, on an experimental rubber pavement laid in London a year and a half ago. In that time it has carried 16,000 vehicles a day without appreciable deterioration.
A NEW process for making artificial stone was described recently to the Institute of Quarrying in England by Mrs. Ann Greaves, the only woman member. She declares she can produce this stone at a third the cost of real stone. It has the added advantage of being workable with hammer and chisel.
Plant in Boxes at Once, Plan and Fertilize Your Beds and You'll Be Ready for Spring
ARE you planning a garden this summer? Now is the time to commence making plans and even to start the early plants indoors, if you want a splendid melon patch or aster bed to exhibit to admiring friends. Your first operations will be to prepare the inside plant boxes, for there is still frost in the ground and the prospect of a few more chilly nights.
How to Increase Selectivity by Good Antenna and Ground— Biasing Radio-Frequency Tubes—What a Wave Trap Will Do
TUNING-IN the radio station you want is a lot like picking the apple that appeals to you from a dish on the table. But how are you going to pick out one particular apple if the dish happens to be filled with apple sauce? And that, in many cases, is precisely the situation that confronts you when you attempt to tune-in a particular broadcasting station from among a number of others.
Prolonging Life of Tubes by Correct Voltage—Testing Condensers
WHILE a firmly soldered joint is ideal in electric wiring, there are cases in radio where soldering is not so convenient. For example, you may wish to connect wires to an instrument that is equipped with binding posts instead of lugs. The simplest way is to wind the bared ends of the wires around the binding posts and screw down the nuts, but it is very difficult to do a good, solid job that way.
HOW long should a vacuum tube last? One thousand hours, nominally. Actually, the life of a vacuum tube depends on how it is used. Turning the rheostats too far, so that the tubes burn too brightly, may cause them to give out after only a few hours of service.
THE importance of using the correct A, B and C voltages on a vacuum tube can hardly be emphasized too much. The A-voltage is the voltage applied to the filament of the tube. It may be direct current in the case of storage battery type tubes or alternating current in the case of the new A C tubes.
A VERY common method of testing connections to see if they are tight and to test wires for broken points is to use a test circuit consisting of an ordinary drop cord with a fifteen-watt lamp in the socket. One of the two wires of the drop cord is cut.
How the Old Everett Home Lost That Pinched Look by a Sweeping Change in Its Roof Lines
JOHN R. McMAHON
"FINEST suburb in America, boys!” proudly announced a substantial citizen among a group assembled on the sidewalk to view a local celebration. “It would be if it wasn’t for one thing,” agreed a tall neighbor with a deep voice who was standing near by.
How to Save the $20.66 You Waste Yearly on Useless Auto Repairs and Poor Workmanship
MYRON M. STEARNS
A SHORT time ago the following letter came to the editor of POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY: “Dear Sir: “What is the matter with our garage men? “Last week I took my car to a garage, and left word what I thought the trouble might be. When I went to get it they told me the trouble had evidently been what I had intimated, and that they had fixed it.
MODERN automobiles are built so close to the ground that it is no longer easy to crawl underneath them to do any necessary repair work. Of course, it is easy enough to jack up either the front or rear wheels to make it easier to work under the car, but there always is the possibility that the jack mechanism will break or that the car will roll off the jack in response to a sudden pull with a wrench or other tool applied to some part of the chassis.
A NOVEL switch arrangement that can be used for two purposes is shown in Fig. 2. The switch is mounted on a small block placed just in front of the gear shift lever. In the drawing the size of the switch has been exaggerated to show the construction more clearly.
THE usual method of connecting up a trouble light is to plug it into the dash-light socket in place of the dash-light bulb, but with so many of the new cars fitted with panels that are indirectly lighted, this method is no longer practical. Of course, you can fit a metal spring clip to each of the two wires from the trouble light, but it is a nuisance to locate the proper points in the wiring each time you want to use the light.
WHEN the axle breaks on many types of cars it is impossible to tow them because the broken axle works out of the housing. If the break is close to the differential gear, the axle will support the wheel so that it will run true enough to tow the car if the device pictured in Fig. 4 is used.
Convert Your Back Yard into a Child’s Paradise with Simply Made Equipment
H. V. PATTERSON
ANY boy or girl, I am sure, would like to come and play in this yard. But wouldn’t it be better still to make a playground like it? There is nothing impossible about that, for any father or brother can build these simple toys and apparatus at small cost and with little work on his part.
Step-by-Step Instructions for Building an Exceptionally Beautiful Model of the Pilgrims’ Ship—The Work Is Relatively Easy and the Materials Cost Little
E. ARMITAGE McCANN
WHILE there have been and still are several vessels called “Mayflower,” we think of only one ship when the Mayflower is mentioned—that which bore the Pilgrim Fathers to Plymouth in 1620. Detailed instructions will be given in this and succeeding articles to help you build a model of this famous ship.
For Use with the New Popular Science Electric Set—Amplifies and Supplies Current
ALFRED P. LANE
HERE is the low power amplifier and current supply unit to complete the electric radio receiver described in the February issue of POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. We call this a low power unit because it is capable of only half the volume with good quality obtainable from the high power unit described in the March number.
Keep Vertical and Horizontal Turret Lathes Set Up to Save on Short Runs
ALBERT A. DOWD
"HERE'S a good job for you to start off with,” said Jones, the foreman, as he handed the new workman a blueprint of the flywheel shown in Fig. 1. “You can use that 20-in. lathe by the window. Twenty-five of the flywheels are piled up alongside of the lathe, and there are twenty-five more coming from the foundry tomorrow, fifty pieces in all.
WHEN motor-driven machines are installed in a home workshop, as is so often the case nowadays, the problem of mounting the motor is of considerable importance. The secret of a satisfactory motor installation — one in which the motor will run quietly—is a good, solid foundation.
THE tool illustrated was designed to form radii on the wheel of a surface grinder. It is 6 in. long over all and 4 in. high. It can be set for any concave or convex radius up to ½ in. by thousandths. It is so made that the neutral point is at the .500 in. reading on the head, which was made from a standard micrometer.
MOST shop storemen or stockroom employees have a 4-ft. rule fastened to the bench for measuring off the length of rods and other stock as required. To insure more accurate measurements, a piece of flat tool steel is bent at one end, sharpened to a chisel edge, and fastened near the end of the bench with four screws.
IN OUR shop we have found that the best way to remove ink and grease from the hands is to rub them with the floor compound used to keep dust down when sweeping. A pan of it is kept in the sink for this purpose. We rub on a little soap first to start a lather, and then use the compound.
FINISHING irregularly shaped pieces of metal is a somewhat tiresome job if done by hand. The illustration below shows a device for finishing and polishing work that is quite easy to construct and satisfactory in operation. It is used in connection with an ordinary speed lathe.
GRINDING in the lathe, although not advisable, is sometimes necessary. The illustration shows a practical and convenient way of keeping the emery from the ways. A common window shade is cut the necessary width. After removing the small dogs that act as checks for raising and lowering the shade, the roller is fitted in a convenient holder, which is clamped to the lathe, and the shade is fastened to the tool post under the grinder.
Replacing a Broken Window Pane—How to Cut Glass—Glaziers' Points and Putty
E. E. ERICSON
THE breaking of window glass is a frequent mishap, particularly in any home where there are small children. Fortunately, it is a comparatively easy process to replace a window pane. Any home owner who is at all handy can not only save a large part of the cost of such work but also avoid the discomfort of having to wait for the job to be done by a glazier.
Initialing to Prevent Loss—Simple Ways to Restore Broken Blades—Upkeep Hints
HOW long does a jackknife last? Statistics show the average knife carried by man abides with him only ten months. It is my purpose to suggest easy remedies for the general run of knife troubles. By adopting them you can make your own jackknife stand by you longer than the average.
Broken Ribs—Cracked Planks—Loose Bolts— Covering and Patching
J. V. HAZZARD
EVERY now and then one runs across a canoe built years ago for serious backwoods service rather than pleasure. Rounder in cross section, sharper of stem and narrower of beam than present-day craft, these old canoes travel faster and easier. They are true thoroughbreds of canoedom, the nearest approach in form and construction to the Indian's birch bark, and the enthusiast views them with a thrill.
How to Preserve the Original Wood—Worn Drawers—Clamps—Blind Nailing
R. C. STANLEY
BEFORE taking up the repair of old furniture, it might be well to explain what constitutes an original antique. It is, in a general way, anything at least 100 years old and ninety percent original. Our Government recognizes as antique, and allows to enter the country free of duty, anything shipped from abroad that can be proved, to the satisfaction of the customs officials, to be more than 100 years old.
WHEN it is not convenient to use regular shelf supports, screw eyes often will serve in their place. Small shelves can be rested on the screw eyes just as on regular shelf supports, but large shelves can be held by driving short screws up through the screw eyes into the wood as shown.
ANYONE who can saw wood and drive nails with fair accuracy will find it a simple matter to construct the four useful little pieces of furniture illustrated on this and the following pages—a magazine holder, a night or bedside table, a smoking stand and a corner shelf or rack.
ANY ONE of the blueprints listed below can be obtained for 25 cents. The blueprints are complete in themselves, but if you wish the corresponding back issue of the magazine in which the project was described in detail, it can be had for 25 cents additional so long as copies are available.
EVEN if you have had no experience in sign painting, you can make presentable block letter signs or cut neat stencils with the aid of a sheet metal or cardboard template made as illustrated. The letters are made five squares high; the extra square on the template is to give a place to hold it down while drawing around it and also to provide a long edge for ruling the diagonals of “N” and similar letters.
HOLES in plaster walls from one to six inches in diameter as well as all wide cracks can easily be patched by any handy man. Cut out all loose pieces right down to the lath and undercut the edges all around. When the patch is to be large, it is easier to make the material remain in place if galvanized nails are driven into the wood studs or laths.
WANTING several hot beds without the expense of buying stock sash for them, I made the necessary sash myself at little cost. The glass I cut from broken window panes, the pieces being 6½ in. wide and from 1 to 3 ft. long. I made the sash bars by nailing three common laths together side by side, keeping the upper edge of the center lath ½ in. higher than the two outer ones.
WALL paper cleaners can be used for freshening up slightly soiled window shades. It is possible to clean linen shades of good quality by stretching them tightly on a curtain stretcher frame or tacking them on the floor and scrubbing them with warm soapsuds.
FIREPLACE bricks can be cleaned of soot and dirt, even if in very bad condition, by brushing them vigorously with a broom and applying a mixture of 1 pt. strong household ammonia and 2 lbs. of powdered pumice stone in a gallon of soft soap. Apply this with a brush and let it stand for an hour before scrubbing it into the surface.
HYDROCHLORIC acid—or muriatic acid, as it is also called—is one of the primary chemicals used both in industry and the trades. Hydrochloric acid is a gas and is easily absorbed by water. The ordinary concentrated acid is yellow in color; when chemically pure it is water white.
WELL fitting screws will bind unless the threads are perfectly clean. When a screw thread is blocked up with small particles or hard grease, I use a scraper of my own manufacture. It consists of two arms cut from No. 10 gage sheet metal and riveted together with a caliper joint, as shown.
MAKING a toolmaker’s jack is a useful and instructive project for the school shop. It involves the use of a number of tools and requires considerable care in machining; it also offers an opportunity for workmanlike finishing. The jack is made of soft steel.
FEW problems give a more accurate measurement of a home worker's skill than the fitting of a pair of hinges. In doing this the only mark or cut that is “good enough” is that which is as near absolute accuracy as the worker can make it. The exact length of the hinge AA should be marked from the hinge itself with a knife point.
IN THE workshop a pulley for light work or for a temporary model is sometimes needed. It can be made from tin lids taken from syrup cans, or smaller lids of the same style. Two lids placed together form one grooved pulley. A washer is placed on each side and holes are drilled through so that the parts can be fastened with stove bolts.
IN SHIP model work, finding that the little ladders were difficult to make, I devised a holder to aid in assembling the parts. It is made of maple by 2 by 4 in. One end is cut off at an angle of about 35 degrees, and with a fine back saw slots are cut ⅜ in. deep and about 3/16 in. apart on this edge.
EVERY mechanic who owns an engine lathe and attempts anything but the most elementary work appreciates the need for a tool-post grinder. Such a grinder is often a necessity when making odd-sized reamers, forming tools, milling cutters and other special tools, as well as mandrels, drill-chuck arbors and the like.
A BIRTHDAY party was recently held at the Rockefeller Institute in New York City to celebrate the sixteenth anniversary of the famous bit of chicken heart tissue which has been kept alive since early in 1912. Each day the heart is bathed in a special preparation known as “Ringer's solution” for forty-five seconds.
SAFETY traffic posts with built-in floodlights protect pedestrians from traffic near trolley loading platforms at 130 different places in Baltimore, Md. The lights on three sides are ordinary amber, flashing caution signals. On the fourth side, toward the safety zone, a shaded white floodlight reveals pedestrians standing on the platform where the trolley cars stop.