FIFTY years ago, in the little city of Auburn, a lumber business was established by Dudley Bates. A few years later it became Bates & Son. When old man Dudley died in 1900 the business was continued by his son, Roger. Through square dealing and sound merchandising the company steadily grew into a very sizable enterprise, until the little lumber yard that was started with $3,000 capital had a rating of $100,000.
Keep These Points in Mind If You Use ELECTRIC SUPPLY for Your Radio
SWITCHING on a radio from the electric current supply has always been the ambition of radio owners and now radio engineers are ready to satisfy that demand. More careful consideration should be given to the selection of electric sets and battery eliminators than any other type of apparatus, however.
An Answer to the Widely Discussed Question, Does Education Gained in a College Really Pay?
Both Sides of the Question
U. S. Has Most Physicians
KENNETH WILCOX PAYNE
STILL pounding the pavements, job hunting,” said Freddy Vail when I met him recently. “I’ve been at it since June. "Oh, I can get plenty of jobs—at $20 a week! But even at that price they tell me I’ll be an expense to the company for a year or so, while they’re educating me.
The Answer Is: Not Yet—Twenty-five Deaths in Ocean Flights in Year, Scores of Mortalities on Land Prove Conquest of Air Remains to be Achieved
GEORGE LEE DOWD
COLONEL LINDBERGH, Commander Byrd and other popular heroes of aviation have recently been quoted as complaining of the difficulties of convincing the public that flying is safe. Giving those gentlemen all due credit for technical skill and splendid accomplishments, there is a growing conviction that the public should not be convinced the air today is safe.
When Mount Vesuvius recently renewed activity after several years' quiescence, a plucky airplane photographer, at considerable risk, flew above and took this photograph of smoke, ashes and lava issuing from one of the active inner cones that are surrounded by the volcano's crater
This greatest searchlight beacon-for the Boston - New York - WashingtonNew Orleans air mail route-is of 1,385,000,000 candlepower. In its light, the photograph of Jefferson's home at the right was made
Straight into solid rock bores this marvelous new tunneling machine, in vented by Oliver 0. App, of New York City, which makes blasting unnecessary. Compressed air drives eighteen powerful hammers in its head500 fifty-ton blows a minutes The inventor is shown watching his machine at work on the construction of New York's latest subway
These grapes are part of the reward that the devastating flood of last May brought to Carl Graeber, of Lawrence, Kans., shown with them. He had planted vines on a barren sandbar he owned, where nothing else would grow. The waters caused by the flood spread fertile earth on the bar and here is the result
Astronomers, with Amazing Instruments, Make New Map of Our Vast Star Cluster and Explore Others Beyond
EDGAR C. WHEELER
ASTRONOMERS of the Lick Observatory on Mount Hamilton, California, have just completed new measurements of the universe of stars in which we live. Through huge telescopes they have reached to scattered outposts on the borderlands of the Milky Way.
COMFORT and ease of navigation are assured Mrs. Richard M. Cadwalader, of Philadelphia, owner of a $2,000,000 294-foot yacht, by the largest gyroscope ever built for yacht service, announced in the July POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. According to the makers, its whirling wheel —weighing twenty-five tons — will keep the vessel steadily upright in the roughest of seas, while other craft roll and toss.
With his crude little radio set he helped save a regiment from disaster—A story of a signal man’s skill and valor under fire
SHELL came whining over from the enemy's line. Burden ducked. The action had become as instinctive as that of a civilian dodging an auto. His ears knew, whenever they heard a shell, whether it was headed for him or would strike at a safe distance.
New scientific methods “fingerprint” bullets and firearms—What Sacco’s pistol told me
CALVIN H. GODDARD
IN A county in western New York a man was found guilty of a double murder on the opinion of a firearms “expert” that the bullets removed from the bodies had issued from the defendant’s revolver. The case aroused the interest of Charles E. Waite, a lifelong criminal investigator, then attached to the office of the State Attorney General.
Eminent Scientist Looks to Chemistry to Create Living Organisms—First Steps Already Taken
SIR OLIVER LODGE
NOT many years ago the idea that men might ever succeed in duplicating the substance of living creatures was regarded as entirely fanciful and impossible. Yet today many of the organic compounds found in living organisms, such as urea, starch, sugar and numerous others, actually have been manufactured by chemists in the laboratory.
How your car is put through ingenious tests in a 1245-acre laboratory to insure service on any road, in any climate, in any season
FAY LEONE FAUROTE
ON A 1245-acre tract forty miles northwest of Detroit I witnessed, the other day, a mechanical contest as gruelling, and in some respects, as thrilling as any of the recent spectacular flights over the Atlantic and Pacific. It was a long-distance contest among the motor cars of the world, for supremacy in speed, durability, power, comfort and safety.
Is It Valid? Is It Marketable? These and Other Vital Factors for Success Explained
AS THIS is written, the U. S. Patent Office has just issued patent number 1,639,642. In the last year the office received 110,030 applications for patents, or about 366 for every working day. In the same year 346,540 letters regarding patents were received and answered.
Hive dwellers exchange strange messages and warnings; new studies reveal a civilization that rivals our own !
MYRON M. STEARNS
STAND beside a bee-tree, or hive. Around the entrance dozens of yellow-brown honeybees buzz back and forth on the various errands of their marvelous civilization. Move slowly, and they pay no attention to your presence. They alight on the landing board of the hive, carry in their load of nectar or pollen and go out for another trip.
How cities are solving the problem caused by 22 million automobiles— A $13,000,000 elevated street for New York—Millions for widening Chicago highways—Novel plans for regulation in typical communities
EARL CHAPIN MAY
MORE motor cars, more roads and then more motor cars. That is the traffic merry-go-round on which experts and plain individuals are riding faster every hour. Since 1902 or thereabouts our gasoline-driven street and highway vehicles have increased from practically nothing to 22,330,000 motor cars and trucks.
Little Stories of Fokker, Colvin, Lawrance, Bellanca and Hall, and Their Contributions to Aeronautics
H. A. BRUNO
HIGH above a New Jersey flying field a giant monoplane soared gracefully, its three motors roaring. In the cockpit sat a rather stubby man with ruddy face and genial smile—alone at the controls, and seemingly oblivious of a group of high Army and Navy officials who rode in the cabin as passenger-observers.
Men Fight Nature and Even Wage War on Each Other to Lay Network of Pipe Lines
ROBERT E. MARTIN
MY ADVICE,” said the judge, “would be to kill the man the first time you see him. This court would not punish you, for he has publicly threatened your life, and anything you might do to him will be construed by this court as self-defense.”
YOUR mind works better when it is “poisoned.” That is the conclusion Dr. H. M. Johnson, of the Simmons Foundation for the Study of Sleep, has just drawn from remarkable tests conducted at the Mellon Institute in Pittsburgh, Pa. His studies, with twenty-one Pittsburgh University students as subjects, demonstrated that fatigue is a sort of poison that first stimulates the brain, then lulls the body to sleep.
How Heat, Light and Water Play Tricks to Fool the Eye
H. C. NORTH
PHANTOM land, that beckoned Lindbergh on as he winged his solitary course across the Atlantic, added another amazing vision to the long list of strange mirages on record. Aviators and laymen heard the flyer tell, at a recent banquet commemorating his pioneer New York-Paris hop, how, 200 miles off the coast of Ireland, the sight of hills and beautiful trees visible through the clouds rewarded his straining eyes.
Rock Blasted to Powder and Baked in Volcanic Heat to Make Cement
TAWNY, sweating Egyptians, tugging and hauling until great knots stood out on their foreheads, spent scores of years in building each of the gigantic pyramids. Through the magic power of Portland cement, American concrete builders of the twentieth century could with ease erect thirty-five stone mounds each the size of the famous Cheops, largest of the pyramids, in a single year.
Important steps in the progress of science in varied fields of invention and research which are of special interest because of their bearing on everyday life are chronicled from month to monch in these pages. THE use of windmills to generate electricity for farms remote from main electric supply lines has been proved practical in recent tests by the Oxford University Institute of Agricultural Engineering.
FUTURE streets of great cities like New York and London may be paved with steel plates. The idea recently has been proposed by engineers to save periodic repair, which, as cities grow larger and busier, becomes more costly and troublesome.
HERE are notable health advances of the month: After years of experiment, Dr. Charles W. Duval, of Tulane University, claims to have exposed the germ of measles and promises serums to prevent and cure this oftentimes fatal disease. In Germany, Dr. Carl Rabl announced a new method of straightening crooked bones of babies by softening and bending them.
WHILE studying ant hills recently near Baltimore, Prof. E. A. Andrews of Johns Hopkins University discovered that ants sometimes move their babies from the colder to the warmer sides of the ant hills. Thrusting thermometers into the sides of the ant houses, he found that the inside was warmer than the outside air; and, since the sun was the only heating plant, the southern sides of the hills were warmer than the northern.
AMAZING phonograph records that will enable us not only to hear but to see entire plays and operas in the home, are a promised development of the new Baird television process described in the September POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. This development, recently forecast by Sir Edward Manville, Chairman of the Baird
AMERICA may have been discovered by primitive Europeans thousands of years before even the Norsemen came. That fascinating possibility presents itself as the result of examination of a mysterious bronze ax found at Brant-ford, Ontario, by Dr. M. R. Harrington of the Museum of the American Indian, New York City.
WHEN someone expressed surprise to Lieutenant Bernt Balchen that while he was piloting the giant monoplane Amer ica through hours of storm over Paris, looking for a place to land, he could not see the Eiffel Tower, the Norwegian flyer replied :
AT THE Donald Woodward farms, near LeRoy, N. Y., unprecedented crops are said to have resulted from an “electrical plow, ” invented by Hamilton L. Roe, of Pittsburgh, which not only destroys weeds and insect pests but enriches the soil by fixing nitrogen in the ground.
VACUUM tubes, developed primarily for radio, are now finding a new use —synchronizing, or keeping in step, widely separated power generators. At present many isolated power plants throughout the country are consolidating their resources in great central organizations, thus effecting economies in operation and permitting the service of large territory from a single system.
CHEMISTS are rapidly answering the old and often violently argued question of how much good we get from various kinds of foods. Their latest project is to determine the bodybuilding properties of any given food by color tests—that is, by the color produced in the presence of certain chemicals.
The Story of the Automobile Age Told in a Stirring Novel of Youth, Romance and Mechanical Ingenuity
EDMUND M. LITTELL
THE feud between Gil Herrick and big Jim Wenden was a contest for speed and supremacy combined with bitter rivalry for the hand of a beautiful girl, Gail Caswell. It started back in 1895 when Gil, a young mechanic, arriving in the village of Wendenville, Mich.,
FLEETS of airplanes taking-off and alighting on the roofs of office buildings and other small spaces may be possible with two inventions of C. Francis Jenkins of Washington, D. C. The take-off device is a launching runway, not unlike the “dips” in amusement parks, while the mechanism which makes possible the landing of airplanes in small areas is a “brake” occasioned by reversing the propeller.
TO AID in charting the navigable channels of New York Bay and the Hudson and East Rivers, an office dictaphone has recently been pressed into service. As expert sounders sing out the readings of the depths shown by their “leads,” an operator switches them on to the dictaphone and their reports become a permanent wax record, like that of a talking machine, from which maps of amazing accuracy are prepared.
WOMEN need fear no dire consequences from bobbing their hair. They now have the assurance from physicians of the American Medical Association that slashing their locks “probably has no permanent effect. It probably does not make the hair coarse, or make it grow less vigorously or more vigorously, either for a short time or permanently.”
ONLY when rain is falling do freight trains puff from Mount Jewett to Smethport, Pa., over a twenty-mile railroad that runs through dense woods. Some time ago it was found that the locomotive sparks caused frequent forest fires; and a notice in the passenger schedule said, “These trains will operate only on rainy days.”
NOW firemen, proverbially called upon in any kind of emergency, can become divers at will and can go to the rescue of drowning persons. That the standard gas mask used by fire fighters in smoke-filled structures makes a first-class diving helmet was recently demonstrated by Capt. C. H. Virdin of the Los Angeles fire department.
Fighting a Gorilla in a Tunnel, Man Finds Him Left-Handed
THE gorilla, unlike his supposed relative, man, is naturally left-handed. When the gorilla attacks, he uses his right hand as an auxiliary to his two feet in running, advancing with his left hand outstretched. So we are told by Col. H. F. Fenn, just returned to London with gorilla specimens obtained in the Kivu district of the Belgian Congo, Africa.
IN THE last five years more than 5,000 people in England and Wales have died of so-called sleeping sickness, says the British Minister of Health. About thirty percent of all cases die; the rest result in disorders ranging from mental ailments to complete paralysis.
CAPABLE of withstanding the rigors of New York winters, a new variety of greenish-yellow, seedless grape is announced by Dr. A. B. Stout of the New York Botanical Garden. It was bred by this institution, in cooperation with the State Experiment Station, located at Geneva, New York.
GYRATING spots of colored light ornament the front of an automobile to which is attached a new “windmillflasher.” It may designate college colors, or red, white and blue for patriotic occasions; more practically, it may indicate bus routes or distinguish physicians’ cars, ambulances, police and fire apparatus and mail trucks for traffic right-of-way.
Metal Mirrors of Flappers in Ancient Greece Unearthed
YOUNG women of three thousand years ago enjoyed admiring themselves in hand mirrors no less than modern “flappers” do. That is indicated by recent discoveries at Media, in Greece, by the Swedish Archaeological Expedition. Digging into tombs of the Mycenaean period—nearly a thousand years before the days of the ancient Greek philosophers —the archaeologists came upon several hand mirrors, one with an ivory handle.
SO DELICATE are the “mechanical ears” perfected by scientists to detect sound waves in the air, that a gun fired on the east coast of England was “heard” at Birmingham University, more than 135 miles away. The sound was not heard by human ears, but was detected by the recording instruments.
NATURAL motion picture effects are claimed for a new camera whose movable back, connected to the lens by a flexible bellows, is shifted about by a system of cams and levers while the pictures are being taken. The photographs are said to appear more realistic than ordinary “movies”; they show relative movement between the near and far planes of the picture, such as you see when you move your head sideways, adding to the stereoscopic effect of depth.
IF YOU live in an apartment, some of your neighbors will appreciate the remarkable midget cone speaker, pictured below, used late at night on your radio set. Although its tone quality is said to be admirable, it gives a subdued radio program that will not annoy would-be sleepers.
THIS clever game, operated with hand levers, simulates a contest between two football teams in a large, glass-in-closed cabinet. Two persons play the game, each controlling the actions of his team. When one man presses his lever, all the players on his side kick, while the guards protecting the goals shift defensively.
WHEN F. M. Durkee, of Brookline, Mass., found that an illness had unfitted him temporarily for pushing a lawn mower, he built a unique electric mower. A vacuum cleaner furnished the handle, and the wheels came from a toy cart. Brass disks edged with razor blades for cutters were driven by bicycle hub sprockets under the power of a small electric motor.
CONSTRUCTION win soon begin, it is reported, on a vast project to supply nearly the whole of Germany with gas for all household and factory use from a single great generating station located in the coal fields near the steel-making center of Essen.
A NEW way of treating colds by applying electric heat to the inflamed interior of the nose was recently advocated by Dr. H. Bordier, of Lyons, France. Metal plates are applied at each side of the nose and the electric current is sent between them so that the inner membranes of the nose, not the skin, receive most of the heat that is produced. Dr. Bordier reports numerous remarkable successes from a few minutes of such treatment.
PERHAPS man evolved, not from monkeys—but from rocks or literal “dust”! That the “spark of life,” long thought to distinguish living creatures from inanimate objects, may be only a myth is the suggestion of Dr. J. C. Drummond, University of London.
CUTTING a human being’s bones is the latest use discovered for a small compressed air hammer and chisel formerly used for delicate riveting and engraving on stone. Each of its 3800 blows a minute is only a light tap; their combined effectiveness, however, gives the surgeon a valuable tool for rapid cutting during an operation.
CHEAP motor fuel from coal, a possibility only recently recognized here and abroad, is said to be produced by a new British invention. In this process, discovered largely through the researches of a London woman, coal is distilled to produce a crude oil that can be refined into a gasoline substitute.
FROM the Battle Creek Sanitarium in Michigan comes the statement of Dr. W. N. Boldyreff, physiologist, that fear, more than the pitching of a vessel, causes seasickness. Fear disturbs the digestive juices, with resulting turmoil. The power of suggestion in overcoming fright, he declares, is a better remedy than all the drugs you can carry.
HAVE you ever stopped your car at a street corner and wished there were some way of mailing a letter without getting out? “For Motorists Only” is a new mail box that is being tried at Oakland, Calif., in response to a suggestion from postal headquarters at Washington.
PLANS are under way to dam the Owyhee River, in Oregon, with a 360-foot wall across the canyon. With the exception of the Pacoima Dam near Los Angeles, now building, this will be the highest in the world. At present the 351-foot Arrowrock Dam in Idaho holds the mark.
EVEN microbes can aid in the production of copper. Not long ago the Geological Survey was mystified by the discovery of small spongy masses of pure copper in a bog near Cooke, Montana. Considerable copper ore exists near by; investigation revealed that some of this ore, dissolved to reappear in the bog, had been precipitated as pure metal by the tiny organisms.
NOW a phonograph can “read aloud” to you—a full length novel, if you wish. Or it can give you an entire Congressional debate. An English radio concern announces that Capt. Round, one of its engineers, has developed a process to record a whole novel on six double-faced, twelve-inch phonograph records.
A POCKETKNIFE and a piece of glass sufficed Mowritz Peterson, of Portland, Ore., to carve an all-wood model of the frigate Constitution. Even the thirty-seven sails are of wood, shaved down to a thickness of an eighth of an inch. The task took a year.
SAGGING fence wires are quickly made taut with the aid of a new wire stretching tool. Its powerful jaws grip and pull together the offending line; a chain holds the tool set while a splice is made. Any sort of wire, plain, barbed, or woven, is easily handled; without teeth, the bulldog jaws cannot injure it.
Time Clock Held on Sound; Speed, 1,100 Feet a Second
FOR the first time, physicists have succeeded in measuring accurately the speed of sound waves in liquids and, incidentally, have discovered surprising new facts about sounds that are far beyond the range of human ears. By an electrical apparatus called a “sonic interferometer,” Dr. John C. Hubbard and Alfred L. Loomis, in the latter’s laboratory at Tuxedo Park, N. Y., have measured the action of waves which vibrate from 200,000 to 400,000 times a second and are from one eighth to five sixteenths of an inch long in liquid.
OCEAN currents far below the waves are studied with a new device described by P. Idrac before the French Academy of Sciences. Their direction and speed are automatically charted upon a photographic film fixed to a revolving drum.
FUTURE aspirants for Channel-swimming honors may benefit by these novel “foot fins,” said to make progress through the water easier and faster. They are fastened to the shoes as shown in the illustration. When the swimmer draws up hiS legs in the first movement of the swimming stroke, the odd fins close and offer little resistance in passing through the water; but as he kicks to propel himself they open and double the effectiveness of the stroke.
THERE'S no need to lick envelopes when you have this handy new tool that does the job for you. It contains a reservoir of water, filled by removal of a rubber plug. Through an easily regulated valve, exactly the right amount of moisture is said to reach a grooved metal roller that applies it to the envelopes.
HANGING leather straps form a novel railroad crossing warning to motorists where they have recently been installed at Vermilion, O., recalling the rope signals that tell railroad men that they are approaching a low bridge. A thousand feet each side of the point where the tracks cross the motor road, the new markers dangle to flick each passing car and call its driver’s attention to the need for reduced speed.
NOW the possibility of extracting gold from sea water has been investigated by Dr. Fritz Haber, German chemist of world reputation. Even more remote than hitherto believed is the chance of doing it on a successful commercial scale, he concludes.
The Flameless Fire of Rust Causes Losses of Billions
NEW metal alloys, protective coatings of special metals, and base metals of extraordinary purity are chemists’ latest weapons in the battle against rust. Electroplated coatings of cadmium or zinc—or, where fine appearance is demanded, nickel or chromium—will protect metal cables and household silverware alike, according to R. M. Burns of the American Bell Telephone Laboratories.
For golfers who just can’t learn to keep the correct posture, or stance, a simple device has been provided that will force them to take the proper attitude until it becomes a habit. R. C. Crocker, of Toledo, O., conceived the idea of a rigid iron hoop, supported by three pronged legs, inside of which the ambitious player stands.
Brigadier General J. W. Lamont, retired, of Great Britain, has invented for safe target practice a "flash spotter," a rifle that shoots, instead of bullets, a ray of electric light hitting the object just where the bullets would, since it is directed by the gun barrel.
When a car is filled with fruit in the Imperial Valley of California, a new precooling service reduces the temperature of car and contents from 100 or more degrees to 4Oin a few hours. The old way of simple icing takes days. Iced air is forced into the car, circulated and drawn out for rechilling, all by a blower installed in a motor truck
Bicycle pedals and an extra sprocket turned with the hands operate the propeller of the boat in which Fred Kurth, ite inventor, is shown in Central Park, New York City. A tiny steering wheel operates the unusual craft's rudder
Two end sections of a French camper-inventor's boat fold down. Standing on end it is a bookcase or wardrobe trunk. Lying flat, it is a fair bed. For portage, wheels are attached, oars serving as handles. Afloat, it can mount a sail. About all you can’t do with the craft is put it in your vest pocket
A machine, worked with a pedal, which shocks grain, binds it and drops it in neat rows, according to its inventors, is exhibited by them at the right. They are F. W. Schultz, a farmer, and J. G. Holifer, a mechanic, both of Portland, Oregon
A motor car that looks as if it had been turned on its side and then stepped on is used in the Olive View Sanitarium, California, for all sorts of service in which it is necessary to traverse narrow walks and corridors. It was “squeezed” by shortening the drive shaft and cutting off sections of the axles so that the auto now is only two and a half feet wide.
A spectacle frame whose fashionable large bows do not obscure vision to right or left has just been invented by Dr. Ernest E. Emons, of Akron, O. These bows are attached to the tops instead of middles of the lens rims, giving added advantage of eye-glasses
Twenty miles an hour is the rate at which a new machine, mounted on a motorcycle side car chassis, paints road marks. Two metal disks gage the mark and keep it even. J. G. Collins and J. Arseneaux, of Houston, Texas, invented the high-speed painter
A fifty-cent load of sawdust and $2.50 worth of fuel make gas in the plant shown here for a month's cooking and heating in a Yakima, Wash., automobile camp of twenty houses. Sawdust and rubbish, baked in the brick oven for an hour, produces the gas
A SMALL community between Los Angeles and Long Beach, Calif., recently conducted an experiment to speed up through automobile traffic. A mile of highway was widened to sixty feet and divided into three traffic lanes. In letters seven feet high and numerals fourteen feet high speed regulations were painted on the road.
IT IS easy enough to learn how to handle a car on dry roads. Any competent instructor can teach you. But handling a car when the roads are wet and slippery brings you face to face with a whole new set of problems. The worst of these is that of skidding.
TOTALIZATORS that record all bets, determine the odds and apportion the winnings have been put in use at the Australian and New Zealand tracks, where horse racing and speculating on the results is legal, as it is in some states in America. The totalizators, one of which is demonstrated in the photograph below, are mechanical calculating machines, whose service is somewhat like that of the pari-mutuel machines in use in Canada, Kentucky.
EIGHTY billion kilowatt hours of electricity will be the total used in the United States during 1927, according to Department of the Interior estimates based on the present output and on figures for last year. This tremendous total of electric energy, properly applied, would be sufficient to hoist a fair-sized mountain (one cubic mile of granite or basalt) a mile into the air !
COAL bills may be saved by a device which makes practicable the use of sawdust as fuel, according to the producer, a Portland, Ore., hardware concern. The sawdust is poured into the tall metal can, the outlet of which is against the opening into the fire box, as shown at the right.
ROBINSON CRUSOE was more to be envied than pitied, according to Dr. Waldo L. Schmitt, of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. In a recent survey of Juan Fernandez Island, on which Alexander Selkirk, the reputed original of Robinson, lived over four years, he found the island one of the most fruitful spots in South America, and said: “Every imaginable plant seems to grow there.
If the Sun Should Blow Up We’d Live Only 138 Hours
SHOULD the sun blow up, some day, you would have exactly 138 hours to live. By the end of that time the burning gases would reach the earth and all life would be annihilated, according to C. T. Elvey of the Northwestern University. A study of the stars, at the Yerkes Observatory, led him to this conclusion. Stars do explode, he points out; the last such celestial catastrophe occurred when Nova Acquilae was seen to blow up in a flash of light last August. There is no reason, he says, why the sun should not do the same at some future date.
AS WINTER’S chill draws nearer, would you swap your comfortable home for a dwelling on an iceberg? That is what John B. Simpson, British scientist, has just done. With a dog and a phonograph for company, he recently left England with the intention of making his home for three months on an ice floe.
MUSICAL effects hitherto impossible with the piano are obtained by a remarkable new keyboard recently demonstrated to musicians at San Francisco. With this innovation, you can run your finger up or down the scale striking in rapid succession every black and white note on the keyboard—producing what musicians call a chromatic glissando, or full-scale glide.
INVENTING new railroad safety devices is the spare-time occupation of the Rev. Father Joseph Szuchy, Catholic priest of Perth Amboy, N. J., who is shown in the photograph in his shop with one of his productions. His latest invention has just been purchased by a New Jersey railroad; dozens of others have come from his workshop, where he has perfected them with the good of mankind and not money gain his chief incentive.
LARGEST boat ever to ply the Great Lakes, the 683-foot Carl D. Bradley recently unloaded at Buffington Harbor, Ind., what is said to be the biggest cargo ever carried by a vessel of her class. With, her own automatic electrical machinery, the million-dollar vessel discharged a 15,000-ton load of limestone at the rate of a ton a second!
TEST your knowledge with these new questions, chosen from hundreds readers have sent in. Correct answers are on page 145. 1. How do we know that great lakes once existed in the North American deserts? 2. What is the largest lake in the world? 3. Where is there underground ice all summer?
THE wave of popular enthusiasm for aviation, only recently awakened, has engulfed the makers of airplanes. Cincinnati factories report twice as many orders for planes as they have any chance of filling in the near future, and in many other localities the situation is the same.
DURING last summer, 262 ensigns of the Annapolis graduating class of 1927 flew a total of 30,302 miles in perfect safety, according to reports just made public by the Navy Department. The flights were unmarred by forced landings or accidents of any sort.
IN A Junkers all-metal monoplane, two German pilots, Johann Risticz and Cornelius Edzard, recently established a world’s record for endurance flight. Staying in the air for fifty-two hours and eleven minutes, the two airmen beat the mark of fifty-one hours set not long ago by Clarence D. Chamberlin and Bert Acosta in a test of the Bellanca plane that later carried Chamberlin from New York to Germany.
ELECTRIC wires that can’t cause dangerous sparks if they break will reduce the hazard of explosions on Britain's new super-airship, which will carry one hundred passengers and a crew of fifty men. For electric lights, newly invented wires of insulated aluminum are inclosed in a metal sheath which if the inner wire, which carries the current, breaks, will confine the sparks.
JUST as red lanterns warn motorists of dangerous obstructions, danger signals will be used to mark radio towers, flagpoles and other menaces that might bring an airman to grief. The Army Air Corps, the Bureau of Aeronautics, and the Department of Commerce have just approved a standard safety program, in which all high towers will carry flashing red lights by night.
WHEN his parachute failed to open, Jean Van Leare recently fell headlong nearly four miles in France. Only three hundred feet from the ground, by some unexplained miracle, the parachute snapped open and landed Van Leare gently in a tree. Foresters found him and revived him.
Mid-Ocean Plane Stations—Aviator Delivers Packages by Parachute—Flyers in Radio Chat
NEW methods of launching planes from warships, say American naval experts, place us five years ahead of any other nation in the matter of equipping fighting ships with aircraft. Four foreign nations, according to recent reports, have formally offered to exchange some of their own secrets of warship design for the jealously guarded plans of the U. S. Navy’s new revolving catapult, a plane-launching device.
MUCH lower than air mail rates for packages are the scheduled charges for the new air express service inaugurated by an express company. Between New York and San Francisco, the rate is $2.60 a pound, with a maximum package weight of 200 pounds.
RADIO conversation between two airplanes has been successfully accomplished in Army Air Corps tests at Chicago, the War Department announces. Other achievements included radio orders from the ground to flying aircraft, promptly acknowledged and executed, and a telephone call via radio from a plane to a guest in a Chicago hotel.
GREAT success has attended operation of twelve contract air mail routes that span this country, according to figures just made public by Postmaster General New. Together, they have recently carried more than 50,000 pounds of mail a month.
AMERICA’S foremost airplane collection—and, in fact, the only one of its kind in this country—is that developed by the Smithsonian Institution at the National Museum, recently described in detail by Paul E. Garber of the museum. Exhibits of man’s first attempts to fly, such as the imitation bird of Archytas made more than two thousand years ago; the wing-flapping machine of Leonardo Da Vinci, early European artist and philosopher; one of Lilienthal’s first gliders, and the Wright brothers’ first successful plane, are interspersed with the latest triumphs of aeronautical engineering.
ALL the helium that a new plant at Dexter, Kansas, can turn out has been contracted for by the Federal Government. At Fort Worth, Texas, another plant for some time has been extracting the safe, noninflammable gas for dirigibles from natural gas.
FLYING upside down for ten minutes and fifty-eight seconds, a German aviator named Fisler recently established a record at the Zurich, Switzerland, flying field. Official witnesses checked the amazing performance. Fisler landed soon after, apparently free from dizziness.
LIKE the steering wheel of a J ship is the control wheel that starts and stops power greater than that of 80,000 horses pulling together. Through this valve flows the steam for one of the gigantic 60,000-kilowatt turbines at the East River Station of the New York Edison Company.
TO PROTECT trains against landslides during the mountain flood season, electric fences are to be tried out in northern California. Wherever a slide appears likely, a wire fence is to be erected and connected in an electric circuit with the block signal system.
UNUSUAL power is claimed for a new gasoline locomotive recently exhibited at Cleveland, O. It is said to pull thirty empty freight cars, or twelve loaded ones, eighteen miles in an hour, using only two gallons of gasoline in this time. Several of the twenty-ton, six-cylinder engines are now in use in one railroad's New York yards, and two larger ones are ordered and under construction.
ARTIFICIAL respiration, often used to revive human victims of drowning, asphyxiation or electric shock, has just saved the life of a goldfish! When Mrs. Robert Bieling, of Schenectady, N. Y., returned to her home one evening not long ago, she found one of her goldfish lying on the floor, apparently dead.
FIVE hundred pounds of sea bass recently gave Captain John T. McDonald, president of the National Tarpon Association, the fight of his life. He claims it is the largest game fish ever taken with hook and line. The record catch occurred when Capt. McDonald was fishing off the coast of Mississippi, and the fish, which is pictured below, hauled him miles across the Gulf of Mexico before it was finally landed in his boat.
NOW any would-be child aviator can have his own “plane”—a toy wagon with wings and tail, that “taxis” over the ground, propeller whirling. Like a real airplane, it is steered with the feet. Pulling the handle back and forth drives the vehicle by a ratchet gear and sprocket chain connected to the single back wheel.
WHEN astronomers built the largest telescope in the world, at the Mount Wilson Observatory in California, they made it bigger than necessary. According to Prof. G. W. Ritchey, who designed the reflector with its hundred-foot dome and its hundred-inch mirror, new discoveries show that a forty-foot dome would have been enough.
ALMOST human is an amazing -“mechanical man” that plays chess, the invention of Leonardo Torres y Quevodo, of Madrid, Spain. The lifelike machine can even detect an adversary’s cheating, and if this occurs, stops running entirely, as if disgusted at finding his opponent is no gentleman.
DUSTY industries,” those which involve treatment of various substances in powdered form in quantities—such, for instance, as the grinding and pulverizing of minerals and the making of such pulverized minerals into commodities—are said to be made over by a new system of air purifying that removes the objectionable particles before they damage the workers’ health or escape into the outside air to trouble nearby residents.
FROM a flat parcel of convenient size for packing or storing unfolds this ingenious and comfortable new collapsible chair. Its “legs” are tubular metal rods that swing outward and down to provide a firm base; the seat tilts backward to a restful angle.
MAN uses only one two-hundredth of the earth’s total yearly food supply, according to a recent estimate by Dr. John M. Arthur, of the Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research. All other animal life, big and small, taken together consumes only six times this amount, leaving a huge surplus that makes the possibility of world famine seem remote.
PLANT repellents” of snakes are A a myth, says the Biological Survey. No North American plants drive away serpents by virtue of odor or other cause. The belief that a rattlesnake will not cross a horsehair rope is also scouted.
IN SIBERIA’S frigid climate people buy milk solidified and, for convenience, let it freeze around a stick that serves as a handle to carry it. “Don’t break the milk,” parents of Irkutsk admonish children; but broken milk is easier to pick up than spilt milk.
FOR a hundred and fifty billion years the sun will continue to supply us with heat and light, according to Charles Nordmann, French astronomer. He bases his calculations on latest discoveries of the atom’s construction. This refutes the old idea that the sun would burn out in ten million years’ time at the most.
A PAINT gun on a pole is the latest arrangement to apply a protective covering at high speed to freight cars, ships, high walls or ceilings that are hard to reach with ordinary equipment. By compressed air, controlled through a handle at the base of the pole, the paint is sprayed on in a jiffy, as shown in the illustration at the left, with the greatest economy of time.
CATS live in a gray world. So do dogs, and raccoons. All are color blind, says Prof. F. M. Gregg, of Nebraska Wesleyan University, who tried to teach them to come for meals by colored signals. He succeeded; but he found that when gray signals of equal strength were substituted, the animals behaved in the same way.
NOW 70,000 amateur photographers in America are making their own movies, according to a recent estimate. How the homemade films rival the popularity of the old family albums of photographs is shown by the fact that fifteen hundred amateurs are enrolled in a New York City cinema league that publishes a magazine. Twelve thousand read it.
Dr. E. F. W. Alexanderson, television pioneer, shows a model of a device to receive scenes sent by radio and project them on a screen by means of seven beams of light. Instead of mirrors, as in previous models of his system, this machine would direct the light rays with a prism
To learn more about ocean currents, this machine, developed at the University of California, is attached to a ship’s intake pipe, far below the surface. Water temperature affects it through the glass and the degrees are recorded automatically on a chart.
crane in the world, recently completed in Italy to aid in building the new docks at Eari, moves 350-ton blocks from its own pontoon to their places on the shore. Great economies have been accomplished by this method of building on the land from the water
of a family of fifty new locomotives ordered by the Canadian National Railways, which are called the greatest engines in the world. It weighs 326 tons, is ninety-four feet six inches long, has 250 pounds steam pressure to the square inch and develops more than thirty-two hundred horsepower
In the London Zoo's reptile house recently this eight-foot East Indian lizard, called "dragon," was operated on fora mouth infection. Here he is seen gagged by a rule thrust into his mouth, lest he bite the doctor
In the latest Berlin Winter Garden thriller a bicycle rider, Catalini, pedals at high speed around the rim of a revolving turntable. The table, operated by an electric motor, tilts in various directions while the audience watches breathless
The nicest job in the world for a girl is that of Miss Catherine Carabine, who sorts and tests candy for the U. S. Department of Commerce in a national survey of the confectionery industry~ Here the nation's professional "sweet tooth" is seen hard at work on samples which have just come to her desk in Washington.
The Schermuly life-saving rocket, with which British merchant ships have been equipped, is here being tested by Members of Parliament, one of whom, A. G. Ammon, is about to fire it. The rocket, discharged from a big pistol, carries a rope to a drowning man or to a ship in peril.
The U. S. Cutter Modoc, on patrol duty, has little fear of icebergs, and in this picture seems to be ramming or rubbing noses with one. Actually, the prow is a safe distance behind the berg. This deceptive photograph was taken recently from one of the Modoc's gigs.
The largest piece of mobile artillery in the world is the 14-inch gun, mounted on a railroad truck, that is part of the Los Angeles harbor defense. Below are seen the projectiles which it can hurl thirty miles. In recent tests this military “loudspeaker” fired at targets that were located more than fifteen miles out at sea
Hurdling one motor car with another is the stunt with which M. Mercui, Belgian dare-devil, entertains thrill-seeking throngs. In the jump photographed, made in a run off a short ramp, the driver rose more than six feet and the length of his leap was more than sixty-five feet.
What Will My Plane Cost Me?—Why Can’t Flyers Land in Fog?—Why Don’t Tail Skids Drag in Taking Off?—These and Many Other Queries Answered
WHY do most airplanes have “tail skids,” instead of wheels, at the back—and why don't these drag and cause trouble? In landing, the tail skid acts both as a shock absorber and a brake. It takes up some of the jolt and helps drag the craft to a quick stop.
Fine Points in Eliminating Hum—New Resistance Unit
HALF-HEARTED attempts at shielding a radio receiver usually get the amateur radio constructor into trouble. Shielding, to be effective, must be carried out in a very thorough fashion. This means that each individual stage of radio-frequency amplification should be surrounded with an unbroken metal wall.
SOMETIMES a high-grade B-battery eliminator gets blamed for a bad hum when the eliminator is not at fault. Almost any type of B-eliminator will produce a bad hum if it is not properly grounded. In most cases the necessary grounding is effected when you connect the minus B wire from the radio receiver to the B-eliminator, but some receivers are wired in such a way that the filament circuit of the receiver is not connected to the ground wire of the set.
FREQUENTLY poor tone quality in a radio receiver is due to a defective detector tube or a good tube working under the wrong conditions. The value of the grid leak is important. If the resistance is too high the tube will distort on any loud signal, although it will be somewhat more sensitive on weak signals.
RESISTANCE, electrically speaking, is that property of an electric conductor which retards or decreases the flow of electric current. In many parts of a radio circuit resistance is detrimental and results in broad tuning, but there are many places in the radio receiver and its accessories where resistance is absolutely necessary.
Things You Must Know to Operate a Set with This Feature or to Build Your Own
Watch These Seven Points :
SINGLE dial tuning control is a feature of all the new radio receivers this season. Practically every model has it. So if you buy a complete receiver or build one you will want to follow the prevailing style and have a single dial to control all the tuned stages.
PUZZLES that are distinctive and of actual value, because they not only provide entertainment but exercise and train the mind to think straight and fast, are presented here each month by Sam Loyd, the world’s most famous puzzle maker. Test your capabilities with these problems.
Sleeping, Cooking and Dining Equipment and Even Stairs Fit into Walls and Ceiling
JOHN R. McMAHON
I AM one of those self-made architects,” said Ed Martin to an old-time friend he happened to meet, “and I planned our house. It suits me pretty well, but every little while Sue drops a remark that self-made and alibi are a pair of twins.” “What does your wife criticize?”
Gus Aids Napping Autoist Who Crashed and Tells How to Ward Off Drowsiness
BILL,” said Gus Wilson to the youngster who did odd jobs I around the Model Garage, “Joe and I have to go down to the bank this morning. If anybody wants any repair work done tell ’em we’ll be back in an hour. “Come on, Joe, let’s go,” the veteran auto mechanic called to his partner as he climbed into his car and stepped on the starter pedal.
Piston Groove Cleaner; Tail-Light Guard; Accurate Painting Device; Other New Ideas
GOOD compression in a motor car engine cylinder depends on the fit of the rings in the cylinder and on the fit of the rings in the grooves of the piston. Many amateur auto mechanics fail on a ring-fitting job because they fail to realize the importance of piston ring fit in the cylinder grooves and the need for a clean groove that will permit the ring to operate without binding.
INDICATOR lights fitted on your dash will tell you whether your tail and stop lights are properly burning. The wiring diagram of Fig. 2 shows how to fit and wire the indicator lights. You can use ordinary dash lights of the type sold for automobile use, or you can get a pair of the jeweled indicator lights sold for radio use.
C. A. Tubby, of Elizabeth, N. J., wins this month’s prize of $10 with his suggestion of a motor car painting device (Fig. 3). POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY awards $10 each month, in addition to regular space rates, for the best idea for motorists.
A SIMPLE aid for striping a car can be constructed from a block of wood, a wood screw and a clothespin. Fig. 3 shows the device in use. The pin is screwed to the block of wood. By turning the pin and moving the brush in the fork of the pin the location of the stripe with reference to the bead on the panel can be adjusted.
BY FITTING a curtain around the back of the front seat of the open touring car—with the method illustrated in Fig. 4—you can make the driver as comfortable as he would be in a runabout without at the same time closing in the whole car with the complete set of curtains.
THE small farm tractor that drives through cleated rear wheels has one bad habit. When an attempt is made to pull a load so heavy that it is near the limit of the pulling power, there is a tendency for the tractor to rear on its hind wheels and if the driver doesn't re move his foot from the throttle quick enough, the tractor may roll over backwards with serious results.
MANY useful things of decorative value may be made at home of the more common metals such A few good tools, a as copper and brass. bench, and a little time to work out ideas for yourself—these are all you need. I well remember one afternoon when a quiet man came into the classroom and introduced himself as Houdini.
Simplified Construction Suited to the Limited Experience and Equipment of the Average Amateur
CHARLES A. KING
ALTHOUGH it has all the earmarks of fine cabinetmaking and would command a high price in any radio store, the console radio cabinet illustrated can be built in the average home workshop without difficulty. That is because the construction has been simplified to suit the limited experience and equipment of the amateur mechanic.
WELL designed and carefully made tilt-top tables may be bought unpainted at relatively low prices in large furniture and department stores, as well as from mail order firms that make a specialty of selling furniture for home decoration.
How to Build a Unit Using a 210 Tube—Supplies All B-Current—No Changes Needed in Set Wiring
ALFRED P. LANE
IN POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY for September detailed instructions were given for construction of B-battery eliminators, one of standard type and the other a de luxe model. Both are capable of operating the largest receivers equipped with the type 171 power amplifier tube in the last stage of audio amplification.
How to Save Your Strength and Avoid Accidents When Lifting and Moving Awkward Castings Tools and Fixtures
EVERY mechanic is familiar with the difficulties of handling heavy, awkward work in small shops where manual methods are in use and even in some of the larger shops on machines that are located away from the cranes. It is surprising the number of instances when machinists and their helpers have to do heavy lifting.
How to Build Scenery for Amateur Theatricals—Beginning a New Series
NOT so long ago the stage carpenter in an amateur theatrical group was more like a rumor than a fact. At the final curtain, when everybody connected with the show, from the director-in-chief down to the prize-winning ticket seller, stood bowing in the spotlight and received the plaudits of an eager audience, Jerry was not among them.
A Simple Way to Replace an Ordinary Mantel with One of Colonial Design at Surprisingly Small Cost
FOR ages the fireplace has been the most enduring memorial of home life—a haven of comfort and cheer. In our day the main purpose of the f replace is an aesthetic one, and if it is not beautiful it has little reason for existence. It is not enough that its proportions simply be practical; they should be artistic and make the fireplace the most attractive feature of the room.
A DOWELING jig that will enable the novice to bore perfectly true holes to receive dowels on flat work such as table tops and cedar chests, may be made in half an hour. Cut two 6-in. pieces of ¾-in. strap iron. Through each drill an accurately centered ⅜-in. hole 2½ in. from one end, and a 5/16-in. hole an equal distance from the other end.
How to Install a Labor-Saving Furnace Control System in Your Home
CHARLES B. CARLON
In an article in the October issue (page 77), Mr. Carlon told how to install a small, inexpensive blower that would enable you to burn cheap grades of coal satisfactorily in your house heating plant. In the present article he explains various types of thermostatic control systems and gives much information of value on up-to-date, labor-saving methods for regulating heat.
WHAT is there to be said about driving wood screws?” the beginner in woodwork is apt to ask. But the old mechanic and t h o s e who have studied the results of recent laboratory tests on the holding qualities of screws, know that a good deal can be said.
Steps to Take in Doing Walls and Borders — Helpful Hints
IN HANGING paper on the walls of a room, begin in a corner. Work from the light towards the dark side of the room so that the lap joints will throw no shadows. A line should be plumbed on the wall to the right of the corner at a distance of ½ in. less than the trimmed width of the paper.
YOUR furniture is subject to all sorts of accidents. Some of these are very easily concealed; others are likely to challenge your knowledge and skill a good deal more than the scuffs and surface blemishes mentioned last month in my article, “ Patching Damaged Furniture. ”
OXALIC acid forms colorless crystals which may be obtained at almost any drug store or chemical supply house. From twelve to fourteen parts of the crystallized acid are soluble in one hundred parts of cold water and only from three tenths to four tenths parts in hot water.
TOO often the paste mixed by the amateur paper hanger is full of lumps or “ kittens.” I have known men to spend a half hour whipping the kittens out of a pail of paste. With an egg beater the same work could have been done much better in less than two minutes.
TO MAKE some salmon-trolling spoons of my own design, I required a bending die. This I made by grinding a piece of key steel of convenient length to the desired shape at each end and then pouring lead over it to make a separate die for each end of the spoon, as illustrated.
BY ADDING half a tumbler of molasses to half a bucket of paste, the amateur decorator can avoid some of the difficulties which are apt to arise in hanging paper on the ceiling. This mixture is a tacky coating that adheres more readily than a plain paste.
WITH eight or ten packagecarrying handles, a handy roller tie rack can be made as shown. One can whisk any tie from the rack without disturbing the others. The looped wire ends of the handles are bent a quarter turn and fastened into a light frame with large tacks.
AVERY simple swinging arm for an adjustable shop or bench light is illustrated. I made it to hang over my engine lathe, and it worked so well that I am equipping my entire shop with similar arms. It is possible to swing the light in a wide arc about the work and also to adjust the light at different heights by pushing the wire firmly in the V-shaped cut in the end of the outer arm. The whole affair may be made in a very short time from scrap lumber, the dimensions of which are not particularly important. The broad piece fastened to the shelf or ceiling can be % in. thick and 4 in. wide and the arms % by 1 in. Two of these arms over the workbench allow the light to be adjusted just where you want it to avoid shadows; also, two of the arms over the drafting table are convenient for night work.—
FROM a discarded radio jack, it is possible to make an efficient spring switch for ringing a bell or buzzer at a distant point when a door or window is opened. The standard base is removed from the jack and in its place one that is straight and flat is attached, as illustrated. A steel I ball taken from an old ball bearing is set in such a way as to project through a hole in the base of the jack when the door is in an open position. When the door is closed, the ball is forced in, breaking the contact. As the jack is small and compact, only a shallow mortise is necessary. If reasonable care is taken in installing and painting the device, it will almost defy detection.—
ONE of the most useful materials for the handy man to have in his home workshop is wallboard. I find many uses for both hard-finished fiber wallboard and the thick sugar-cane type of board. Either can be used for drawer bottoms, picture frame backs and as panels for doors, sides of cupboards, wardrobes and chests.
How to Save Your Time and Insure Accuracy in Setting Up Special Work-Three Typical Jobs
HECTOR J. CHAMBERLAND
A SIDE from the ordinary uses of the surface grinder with which toolmakers and machinists are familiar, this adaptable machine may be called into service for operations outside its regular line of work. An example is illustrated in Fig: 1—the sharpening of a formed cutter for knurling tools.
SPRING wire or magnet wire on reels always has a tendency to come off and get in the way. Whether the reel is kept on the bench or in a drawer or, as sometimes happens, is simply set down on the floor, the wire is apt to become gradually unwound, and soon it is a tangle.
DO NOT slight an oil hole just because it cannot be reached easily with the oil can spout. Insert a thin piece of wire in the oil hole and pour oil on the wire. High speed steel drills get dull very quickly on slow speeds and feeds; they should be run at all times up to their rated speed and feed.
WHEN it is necessary to rechase the thread of countersunk-head screws, or point or cut them off, the holder illustrated is a good one to use. The body is machine steel and a small strip of hard steel is peened or staked in to drive the screw.
I DON'T see what's gone wrong with the motor on this lathe,” said Clyde as he threw in the switch and gave the belt a pull. “I have to yank this belt to get the thing started; if I don't, the motor growls like a dog.” “How long has it been acting that way?”
SMALL steel or brass valves, which have to be filed before regrinding, are sometimes difficult to hold. An excellent homemade holder for them is illustrated. This is made out of an old Ford transmission band lug. One side is tapped for a ¼-in. bolt, which is bent over to give a thumb grip.
A GOOD way to save gas when an acetylene torch is to be used for beating small parts to be hardened, is to make a double holder like the one illustrated. This is made of sheet steel pieces welded together with a handle at the hack. The central dividing piece is bent double and lias the ends turned up.
A BLACKSMITH had to harden a number of steel rods a uniform distance at each end. Before doing this, he pierced some holes in the sides of an old can and four holes near the top, and suspended the can as shown in the tank, which was filled with water to give the correct depth within the can.
IN THE construction of a number of boat models, I have always faced the problem of how to hold the unfinished hull while working upon it. At last I hit upon the two ideas illustrated. The first is used when the outside of the hull is being shaped.
AMATEUR chemists, or boys who are lucky enough to have toy chemical sets with which to experiment, will appreciate the value of a test tube rack like that illustrated. It has the usual stand and pegs for the test tubes and, in addition, a clamping device which allows a tube to be held over either a candle flame or a small alcohol lamp.
USEFUL as well as instructive is the school shop project illustrated below—a center reamer. This tool should be a part of every mechanic’s kit. Making one provides practice in the use of lathe tools and in the art of tempering steel. The tools required are: Hack saw, 6-in. steel rule, outside calipers, tool holder, center gage and file, forge, tongs, and, of course, a lathe.
THE hood illustrated below fills a long-felt need in the kitchen not provided with a built-in ventilator over the gas range. The odors of cooking foods, steam of boiling kettles, and fumes of the oven are carried away. Top, front and back were fashioned of a rectangular piece of medium weight galvanized iron, 20 by 63 in., bent into the three sections.
A GOOD WAY to use the overhead space in any unfinished basement or cellar is to nail a few strips of ordinary building lath up against the floor joists. One lath is generally long enough to span three joists. Two such laths placed close together near the basement wall will make a rack for large pans and Continued on page 126 fruit kettles not often used in the kitchen.
THIS window ventilator is constructed of light galvanized iron stiffened along the upper edge with wire. Notches are cut at the ends to slip over round-head screws placed in the windowstop molding. The window can be lowered practically all the way without removing the ventilator.
WINDOW and porch screens should be marked carefully to identify them as they are taken down to be stored for the winter. One of the best ways is to use small nails with numbered heads, which can be obtained for a few cents at any well stocked hardware store.
CURTAIN poles may be polychromed by giving them two coats of flat wall paint, the second of which has been thickened with a little plaster of Paris. Before it has a chance to dry, tap it with a stencil brush or any other stiff brush to give the surface a rough texture.
“ I CAN'T see why it should overheat,” you will sometimes hear a car owner say. Neither can anyone else—at least, not literally. But if we begin to dig into the matter, we may find the cause of the trouble. The hose illustrated, for example, appeared all right outwardly, but the lining had become softened and rotted.
THIS “comicull” doll is an attractive little toy for the nursery. It can be made very easily and requires for materials only a clothespin, an upholsterer's tack with a large head, about ten inches of very thick white cord, two large beads, and two Fuller balls such as are sold for use in repairing faucets.
REMARKABLE success of new German processes for converting sewage and similar wastes into gas for household use were described recently before the Royal Sanitary Institute at Hastings, England. They could as well be employed in producing gas for industrial purposes.