WITH this issue POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY appears in a new dress. New features, a greater diversity of material, and the first of a notable new series of cover designs all contribute to make it “the most interesting magazine in the world.” No other magazine is quite like it.
At 34 GEORGE SCOTT IS Planning To Be Financially Independent at 54
A New Service for Readers of POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY
Booklets Like These Helped George Scott
GEORGE SCOTT is now 34 years old, married, the father of three little girls, and holds an executive position with a large public utility organization. Let Scott tell in his own words how he is looking ahead and planning ahead financially: “As I was married soon after leaving college my outlay for living expenses was quite rapidly on the upgrade for several years.
FROM the standpoint of economy and efficiency, most men appreciate the importance of buying good tools. But safety is a factor that is seldom considered, and yet it is of vital importance to every user of tools. And using a monkey wrench as a hammer, a screw driver as a lever, or a hammer as a mallet in chiseling may result in accidents to the user —and is sure to ruin the tool.
The Magic Story of Diamonds, and How Men Stampede for the Fabulous Wealth Hidden in Glistening Pebbles
EDGAR C. WHEELER
DIAMONDS! On the parched soil of a lonely western Transvaal farm in South Africa a few months ago a motley throng of fifteen thousand souls stood in restless line that stretched for two miles across the veldt. Eagerly they waited, eyes fixed on a small signal flag that hung from the top of a bamboo pole —waited for the signal which would send them in a mad rush for sparkling gems, like street urchins scrambling for pennies.
A Thrilling Novel of Brain and Brawn at Grips with a Wilderness of the Northland
KISKA JOE was wondering whether he should murder his four prisoners or not. The half-breed was undecided, although the morality of such a course did not occur to him at all. He could consider the grisly question with as few qualms of conscience as troubled him while engaged in his usual occupation of seal poaching.
A Gripping Short Story of an Unusual Man Who Rose to a Strange Emergency
For an hour he sat listlessly watching the compass, until the hypnotic effect of the light, and the slow movement of the card, cast a sort of spell over him. There was nothing he could do with the wheel now, for the yacht was merely drifting. A swell slid up from astern.
With Gigantic New Skyscrapers Towering Quarter of a Mile High, Edison and Others Warn Us Against Threatening Chaos
Robert E. Martin
WHEN Thomas A. Edison speaks, everybody listens. So it was that when the famous inventor a few weeks ago sounded the warning that "disaster must overtake us" unless overcrowded American cities call a halt to the building of mighty skyscrapers, he startled city dwellers and aroused a storm of controversy throughout the nation.
“I Liked Speed!”—In Those Three Words the Great Pioneer Epitomizes His Romantic Career — The First of a Remarkable Series of Articles
Frank Parker Stockbridge
THIS is not a story of dreams come true. Glenn Curtiss, as a boy, never dreamed of flying! Yet flying, designing and building airplanes, lifting flying from a mere scientific marvel to a practical, commercial means of transportation, was a natural evolution from the tastes and occupations of his boyhood and young manhood.
Outstanding Achievements in Various Fields That Are Making Life Easier for All of Us
Physics and Chemistry
Anthropology and Archaeology
ONE of our readers has written to us asking us to select the most important recent achievement in science. Rather a large order, that! We might answer by saying that the biggest thing science has done of late has been to sweep away barriers limiting human knowledge and achievement.
How a Hot, Stuffy House Destroys Your Health and Efficiency, and How to Ventilate It Properly
WHEN the president of one of the largest textile manufacturing plants in New England walked into his office one morning about a year ago, there was, to quote the file clerk, "blood in his eye." "Tell Mr. Everson I want him to come here at once!" he directed his secretary.
A Score of Usable Hints to Add to Your Home's Comfort and Convenience
Is it easy to add a second bathroom to an old house?
What are some of the rearrangements possible to find space for another bathroom?
Is plumbing practice today scientific and standardized?
Can the home builder rely on city plumbing codes to specify best practice?
But isn't there any standardized code to fall back upon for guidance, in case of conflicting or inadequate laws?
Are You Planning to Build?
Are there light and heavy cast-iron pipes of the same size?
Does the soil stack or upright pipe act as vent for the entire system?
Is it necessary to have a trap and fresh air inlet at the exit of the main house drain?
What about the small fixture traps?
Returning to ventilation, should the main roof vent be capped for snow protection?
Is it desirable to have a grease trap for the kitchen sink?
How much water is needed for a flush toilet?
Is a dry or chemical closet sanitary?
What are the best materials for fixture receptacles?
What is meant by open plumbing?
Why do nickel traps, faucets and other fixture details turn green?
Is brass pipe used throughout in plumbing?
What are the conditions that demand larger pipe?
Does brass pipe vary in composition and should it be adapted to water quality?
Does it take more labor to install brass than iron pipe?
JOHN R. McMAHON
IF THE Egyptians or Chinese invented plumbing, it has remained for America to make bathrooms as common and popular as automobiles. Tubless foreigners gape at our sanitary wealth, and we gape back at their community washhouses and tin or rubber substitutes for porcelain luxury.
Clay, Concrete, Steel, Even Puffed Rice Used by Builders in Novel Experiments
WOULD you live in a house of steel? Perhaps your children's children will, and like it, too. In the not-so-distant future, America's millions may be housed in synthetic homes, built in a day, not by ones or twos, but by hundreds; not by hand, but by machinery.
A Story of Flaming Metal, Strong Men, and a Smiling Boy with a Heart of Steel
EDMUND M. LITTELL
STEEL making is a job for men, not boys, and no one knew it and acted upon that belief more whole-heartedly than big Pat Donnell, the huge man who ruled the open hearth furnaces of Argo Steel. Messengers? He had tried them. They were always getting into mischief; cutting up didoes when they should have been hustling; fooling in a place where a moment's carelessness might mean death.
Strange machines that preceded telephones, submarines, and their contributions to today's marvels
AUBREY D. McFADYEN
PERHAPS no task an inventor can set for himself is more difficult than an attempt to model a mechanical device after a part of the human body or a living animal. And yet preliminary efforts toward great inventions have almost always attempted to simulate animate objects in appearance or in action.
How Science Converts Scrap into Wallboard, Chairs, Silk Neckties, and Countless Other Things for Our Use
ORVILLE H. KNEEN
TODAY, despite all metallic competitors, the wood used annually by the United States alone, if nailed together, would make an Atlantic City boardwalk reaching from the earth to the moon! In lumberman's language, that would total fifty-three billion board feet (square feet one inch thick).
Amazing Projector to Paint Distant Scenes on Screen
ALDEN P. ARMAGNAC
SITTING in an easy chair at home some day soon, you may watch with your own eyes an exploring party break its way through a jungle thousands of miles away—or witness a revolution in some remote republic —or glimpse the face of a friend in London or Paris! For these marvels of television—which is "seeing at a distance" —seem at last on the point of realization.
A complete outfit can be had for from $61 up, but upkeep must be considered—Why good equipment is cheapest in end
To Help You Choose
Alfred P. Lane
"HOW much can I buy a radio set for? What will a complete outfit cost me? What's the difference between an expensive radio set and a cheap one? How much does it cost to run a radio receiver?" Questions like these are received by POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY in a constant stream.
Damper Caps Are Effective Remedies—Other Useful Ideas
Use Care in Sawing Panels
The Correct Charging Rate
A B C’s of Radio
Connect the Radio Set First
“What Size Wire Shall I Use?”
THE more tubes there are in a radio set, the greater the chance for trouble due to various kinds of howls and squeals. Most irritating of these is the moaning howl caused when air vibrations from the loudspeaker strike back at the tubes in the radio set.
Your Pet Aversions Explained by Recent Discoveries
THAT one man’s meat is another man’s poison is more than a proverb. It’s an age-old mystery to which medical science is only just finding the key. This mystery involves the eerie world of idiosyncrasies, in which persons grow violently ill at the passing of a horse, or, as in the case of the late Lord Roberts, become intensely disturbed at the presence of a cat.
Curious People, Birds, Fish and Animals Seen by An Amazing Boy
IF I had my life to live over again from the age of thirteen onward, I think I'd rather be in the boots of young David Putnam than those of any other boy in the world. David isn't the son of a millionaire, and he hasn't any unique talents. He is just about like any other awkward, happy, healthy, growing boy in his 'teens.
Rubber Plated Articles, Colored Steel, Cure for Insomnia, Paper from Cornstalks, and Other Marvels Promised
Rubber Plated Goods Now Being Made
Sees Gasoline Pink but Plentiful
Our Longer-Lived Dollars
New Wonders of Invisible Light
Woman Finds Way to Color Steel
Modern Franklin to Use Rocket
Huge Beacon to Top Mount Etna
Strange Medical Uses for Dyes
Sees “Sun Engines” Bottling Heat
Ocean a Vast Pasture Land
Bald Mice and Men
BEFORE long you may be wearing rubber plated overshoes and your car may be shod with rubber plated tires! From Akron, O., comes the announcement that experts are predicting revolutionary changes in the rubber industry through the application of a newly developed process of manufacture which resembles in principle the electroplating of metals.
CLOUDS of suffocating smoke that hamper the work of firemen can now be sucked out of a burning building by a brand-new type of fire apparatus, the invention of C. W. Ringer, of the Minneapolis fire department. Mounted on a standard fire truck, a fan blower especially adapted to the purpose draws out the smoke through a metal tube and discharges it in the open air. With the building at least partly cleared of fumes, the firemen’s work is made easier.
EASIER on the ears and the finger tips is a typewriter fitted with one of the new shock absorbers that soften its bang and rattle. No felt or rubber is used. Instead, two strips of spring steel, supporting the machine so that it cannot communicate its vibration to the desk top, deaden the drumming that usually results.
SET with a diminutive mirror instead of a precious stone, a new finger ring combines ornament with utility. On its tiny convex surface it reflects the entire face of the wearer. The mirror is made of glass, silvered and then coated on the back with a waterproof paint.
SYNTHETIC milk, possessing all the nutritive qualities of the genuine article, is a new triumph of chemists reported from Denmark. Vegetable fats replace the butter fat of cow’s milk, and vitamins are added to complete the similarity. The product, which is in no sense a mere substitute but a complete duplicate, its makers say is about to be manufactured on a commercial scale.
LOCK your door, slide this oddshaped device into your keyhole when you retire for the night, and insertion of another key from the outside is effectively barred, says its maker. The triangle-shaped catch on the barrel grasps the inside plate and cannot be released other than by the special key—used for unlocking only, as the device locks automatically.
CHANGES in the sun’s face, previously perceptible only on photographs, may now by studied visually with a new instrument called a spectrohelioscope, invented by Dr. George Ellery Hale of the Mt. Wilson observatory, California. Using this instrument, Dr. Hale has been able to watch the behavior of the whirls of hydrogen around sun spots.
ELEVATED highways may carry the traffic of the future, if Chicago’s new double-decked avenue, the first in that city and one of the first in the country, proves the success expected. Recently completed and thrown open to traffic, Wacker Drive now carries streams of motor vehicles on two levels for more than a mile along the bank of the Chicago River, in one of the busiest sections of the city.
IT’S as easy to put a fresh tip in this new cap for billiard cues as to insert a new lipstick in its holder. The usual cue tip consists of a fragile piece of leather glued to the end of the cue; in the new invention, the tip is held securely by a threaded metal sleeve that screws on to the cue.
WILL airships of the future be driven by light, high-speed Diesel engines, thus doing away with the danger of explosions and fires from the motors? Dr. Imanuel Lauster, managing director of the Diesel Company at Augsburg, Germany, visiting America, says his company is now developing a motor for dirigibles.
OVER the tracks from London to Birkenhead, a British express train thundered the other day at ninety-two miles an hour to make a new speed record. Behind the powerful engine, 250 tons of steel made up the special train that pounded the rails. England is generally conceded to be well in the lead in railroad speeds, and this journey sets a new high mark for others to try to beat.
NOW the little red schoolhouse goes chugging about the country, rolling on four wheels and propelled by a motor. Housewives in Westchester County, N. Y., are receiving instruction in cookery and housekeeping from a staff of teachers who travel with the “educational bus.”
PUSHCARTS are brought up to date and made into motor carts by a new attachment recently devised in Germany—an electric motor that permits the carrier to be loaded or dumped as a hand truck, then to be whisked speedily from place to place in the modern manner.
HOUSE WIVES will rejoice in cheaper linens, if two machines for obtaining the fine flax fiber, recently demonstrated in Boston, Mass., prove commercially practicable. The present way of getting the fiber is to soak the flax straw for days in slow-running water, then dry it, and then beat it to remove the woody core.
ONE tiny box holds all the articles above, needed for manicuring. The reverse side of the cover serves as buffer. Within are found orange stick, emery board and nail file; while two pencil-shaped containers that slide unexpectedly from the ends of the holder carry nail polish and whitener.
NAIL brush and soap go together, but it took a Frenchman to think of combining them in one handy article. Ready for a quick brightening up after a dusty day's work, the brush is set in the middle of a bar of soap. The other side of the cake is of ordinary appearance.
A FEW weeks ago the largest vertical lift bridge in the world was opened to traffic. Engineers who built it flung four mighty spans across Newark Bay to connect Bayonne and Elizabeth, N. J. Each span is 200 feet long, and rises like an elevator to a height of more than half its length to permit vessels to pass beneath it.
"PEE WEE,” a pygmy horse owned by John C. Lucadema of Newark, N. J., weighs an even hundred pounds and is only twenty-seven inches high, though already he has attained the mature age of five years. Our horses’ ancestors, which lived thousands of years ago, were only three feet high, and “Pee Wee,” therefore, gives us a good conception of what they must have looked like.
COLOR as a factor in rest cures has demonstrated its importance in a London hospital. Under the guidance of color experts, white walls and red coverlets have been replaced with delicate green, yellow and mauve ones. As a result, it is said, the temper of the patients is better, they sleep well, and leave the hospital an average of three days sooner than under the old conditions.
YOU'LL have a fairly accurate answer to this query after testing yourself with the twelve questions below, selected from hundreds sent in by our readers. For the correct answers, turn to page 160. 1. What state leads in the development of water power?
NONCHALANTLY swinging in a rope seat from a giant kite, Francis Perkins, above, thrilled a crowd of onlookers in a unique kite-flying exhibition at a recent Massachusetts fair. A heavy cable attached to the kite supported the boy, whose father, Samuel Perkins, designed the kite.
PRESERVED in glacial ice for 300,000 years, the tree from which the piece of spruce below was cut was exposed again to the open air by the recent recession of the great North American ice cap in Glacier Bay, Alaska, and was found by a Canadian government party.
THOUGH St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome is still the largest cathedral in the world, contrary to general belief it can no longer claim the greatest dome in the world. That distinction belongs to a hotel at West Baden, Indiana, pictured above, which surpasses by twelve feet the noble dome on St. Peter’s.
CAN a person’s sociable qualities be determined by laboratory tests? Prof. J. B. Morgan of Northwestern University declares that they can, and he has devised tests by which, he says, parents can decide how to train children. In the picture above, the subject is being tested for susceptibility to sound. She is placed in a quiet room and her ears are covered with an audiometer while she looks into a crystal to induce daydreaming. Her reactions to sound are then noted.
THE hazardous occupation of the diver, encumbered with a heavy suit that limits freedom of movement, is made extremely more so in the Thames River, England. Here the water is at all times so muddy that the diver has to work with bare hands, feeling every inch of his way because of inability to see an inch ahead of him through the thick glass plates in his helmet.
THE front and rear wheel bearings of a modern automobile are so perfectly designed and constructed that the motorist is apt to forget them completely. For five or ten thousand miles the car will go without any sign of trouble even if they are never so much as greased.
BELIEVE it or not, in a certain building in Washington, D. C., belonging to the Treasury Department, the Government is running a corn whiskey still, and here are two Government employees operating it! Nothing, however, comes out of the still now except pure, harmless water.
HOW a bronze statue is made is strikingly shown in the accompanying set of photographs, taken at various steps in the construction of the Spanish War Memorial statue by Joseph P. Pollia,unveiled recently at Santiago,Cuba. From a small working model, the sculptor first makes a full size “armature,”
MACHINES can be automatically stopped after a given number of shaft revolutions by a novel stop counter just invented. Near the end of the required number of rotations, which may be from 1 to 9750, a warning bell rings, and at the exact number the counter throws an electric switch that stops the machine.
EQUIPPED for anything from lifesaving to quelling a riot, emergency squads recruited from the doughtiest of New York City’s police are ready at an instant’s notice to dash to any part of the city to preserve law and order. High powered motor cars rush these patrols to their destination.
HOLD the ordinary fused bifocal eyeglass lens up to the light and at the point where the image reverses you will see a narrow fringe of color. This color fringe, which has always annoyed bifocal wearers, is now said to be entirely done away with in a remarkable new type of bifocal lens.
SO COMPACT that it can be put inside a freight car and set to work unloading it, the hustling little crane below has a powerful magnet at its business end. It picks up loose metal parts from the car floor and loads them in bags and boxes. In the illustration, the crane is seen backing away from the railroad siding with the last load after it had set a record by unloading an entire car full of loose castings in forty-five minutes.
WITH a car like this, there’s no danger of getting stuck in the mud. Just a touch of a lever and this army touring car becomes a tractor, with a caterpillar tread that will take it over any obstruction. The change is made by its own engine power, and is said to require less than a minute. Recently shown at Camberley, England, the new car is intended for military use. It travels over roads at high speed, and plows cross-country like an army tank.
A NEW variation of the little threewheeled vehicle for children is shaped like an animal, whose eyes roll and jaws open and close—even the tail wags. Another car has an animated doll whose feet appear to operate the pedals. The inventor of these two realistic toys is Frederick Herschman, of New York City.
SLAM this new phonograph record, below, on the floor—kick it, or, if you like, double it over and step on it— and it won’t break. Now put it on a talking machine, and the sharpest ear might fail to distinguish its music from that of an ordinary disk.
MICROSCOPIC holes in the cap of this handy desk accessory release just enough of the water it contains to seal the flap of an envelope over which it is rubbed. The holes are so small, it is said, that no water can leak even when the device is held upside down, until a stamp or envelope pressed against it withdraws moisture by capillary attraction.
BOLTS from the sky that threaten to turn huge oil tanks into roaring pillars of flame may in future be harmlessly deflected by a new method tested in the laboratories of the General Electric Company. A metal pole erected near a tank, it is said, protects from lightning an area of a circumference equal to four times the height of the pole.
WARLIKE in its armored construction and scouting appurtenances, this remarkable motorcycle side car, which has just made its appearance in Berlin, is the last word in equipment for field campaigns against bandits. Within the bullet-proof side car is a complete radio receiving set, to receive latest bulletins and instructions from police headquarters.
EVERY part of the majestic redwood tree of California has been put to use except the bark, which has hitherto represented the only waste when one of these forest giants has been felled. Now scientists propose, instead of throwing the bark away, to make silk from it, if experiments by the California Redwood Association prove successful.
NO HARM can come to your fountain pen in this ingenious desk set. The socket that receives the idle pen terminates at its base in a ball that moves freely within a cup attached to the stand. At one point on the rim of the cup, a slot permits pen socket and pen to drop flat, so that the entire set can be tucked away in a shallow drawer overnight.
TWENTY-ONE feet long when rigged for water travel, the substantially built, two-passenger craft above is “light as a feather,” says its inventor, and can be folded up and carried on the back like a knapsack. To prove its seaworthiness, Herman Glattfelder, the young inventor, made a successful trip the other day from Governor’s Island, N. Y., across Upper New York Bay to the Battery, at the foot of Manhattan Island. He is shown carrying the boat on his back before the demonstration.
TO STOP thefts from mail bags, a new lock has been invented by a Canadian convict, in whose name a patent will be taken out. The device is said to make ropes, bars or straps unnecessary, lessening considerably the weight of each bag. Norman (“Red”) Ryan, notorious Toronto bandit now serving a life term for bank robbery, is the inventor.
LEVULOSE, called the finest of all sugars, is prophesied from artichokes at two cents a pound within five years, as a result of further experiments by the U. S. Bureau of Standards. Crystallization of the levulose from a water solution marks the turning point of the Bureau’s experiments, for in all previous work treatment with alcohol was necessary.
REMOVE the ornamental top of the latest umbrella, and out pops a fountain pen! Thus have inventors found a use for the hitherto waste space in an umbrella handle. Women will appreciate the convenience, for vanity cases and bags are often too small to carry pens.
STRAW was the only material used by a German clockmaker in the construction of a unique clock six feet high. Pendulum, twelve clockwork wheels, and case are all fashioned from this material. The novel timepiece has a twenty-four hour movement and represents two years’ work by Karl Reichert, one of the skilled artisans of the clock-making town of Goslar, in the Hartz Mountains.
SKEWERS or pins of copper run through a roast result in quicker and more even cooking and juicier meat, according to the home economics department of the University of California. Copper is an excellent conductor of heat, and these skewers carry the heat directly to the inside of the meat, cooking it through in a third less time.
GERMANIN, a coal tar product, is a newly reported cure for malaria, developed by experimenters in the laboratories of the Bayer-Lever-Kusen Chemical Works, Germany. Canaries were used as test patients, and a final test of the medicine was made by an expedition to Central America, which reported complete success in curing malaria.
SPEED is emphasized in the trim lines of this remarkable new three-wheeled racer, which steers with the two front wheels while the single rear one trails. The streamline body encloses a motor capable, according to the Paris makers, of hurling the bulletlike car along a country road at eighty-five miles an hour.
HOW tight should the covering on an airplane’s wings be? A new instrument, perfected at the U. S. Bureau of Standards, tests the tautness of the fabric stretched over the wings, and also measures the tension of the cloth that holds a dirigible’s precious helium.
CONCEALED in the handle of this slim penknife, your house key is always at hand when you need it. The removable tip of the knife carries a key “blank” to be filed to fit your door. Replaced, the novel latchkey joins with the rest of the case to make a conventional penknife that attaches conveniently to your watch chain, to be tucked away in your vest pocket for ready use in either of its services.
SIGNALLING from a closed car is easy with one of the new sliding glass panels installed in your left-hand door. In winter months or during a summer rain, when all the windows are shut up tight, you don’t have to crank one down to let the car behind you know which way you’re going to turn, or to tell the filling station man how many gallons of gas you want.
DEADLY shrapnel is turned over into peacetime use at a Hornsey, England, factory, where nearly three hundred tons of shrapnel, removed from shells, are being melted down and converted into toys. Cast in molds, as in the illustration, the metal is fashioned into miniature animals and other figures.
TROLLEY cars may soon be fitted with pneumatic tires and glide along silently and joltlessly, if an amazing car wheel now being tested proves practicable. It is the invention of S. C. Hatfield, of Baltimore, Md. Instead of encircling the rim, as on an auto wheel, the tire is at the center, next to the hub, as shown above, so that the tire itself never comes in contact with the track.
Strange Machines, Hurricanes, Even Fires, Manufactured at Bureau of Standards, to Test Every Article You Buy or Use
M. K. WISEHART
IN A corner of one of the hundred laboratories which are part of the Bureau of Standards in Washington, D. C., there is a contrivance which I think would strike you as curious. It looks more or less like an elevator—but an elevator all dressed up with no place to go! There is no shaft for it to operate in.
POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY presents a new Stomachion contest this month. The subject for contestants this time is "sports," and $100 in cash prizes will be awarded to those readers who submit the best original designs made from the fourteen pieces of the Archimedes puzzle game.
New Crime Detector Betrays Heartbeats and Skin Changes
HEARTBEATS magnified a hundred thousand times, and cold sweat betrayed by a flickering beam of light, are part of an electric "third degree" that is the latest aid in fixing guilt upon the author of a crime. When the members of the New York Electrical Society assembled the other night at a meeting in New York City, there was a feeling of tenseness among them.
Sand, rock and water shape new landscapes, sometimes overnight!— Your eating habits and your health— Some strange reptiles and fish— Other fascinating new books
“Romance of Geology”
“Indigestion, What It Is and How to Prevent It”
“The New Natural History”
“Effect of Dry Cleaning on Silks”
THOMAS M. JOHNSON
HERE are more thrills than a movie affords! When Mr. Mills strikes rock in his explorations among the mysteries of Earth's changing surface, romance gushes forth. He not only tells a thousand fascinating facts of geology, but he relates his own thrilling experiences and adventures in gathering them.
Some New Brain-Teasers to Test Your Resourcefulness and Suggest the Things You Should Be Able to Do Best
Faculty of Visual Analysis
Aptitude for Mental Analysis
Quickness at Following Clues
Fluency in Use of Words
Skill at Rapid Calculating
Sense of Design and Form
Test of Mathematical Ability
The Puzzling Address
The Greek Cross
“How Old Is Daddy?”
The Missing Words
The Sign of the Monad
A Poser for the Cashier
How Women Shop
ABOVE is the sign of the cross in its Greek form, composed of five equal squares. Its perfect symmetry makes it peculiarly susceptible of dissection and rearrangement into other forms. It can be converted readily into a square, two smaller crosses, a triangle, trapezoid and so on.
The Hardest Kind of Daily Usage Needn't Age It Unduly If You Will Inspect and Service It Regularly, Says Gus
What Was Wrong With Spratt’s Car?
GUS WILSON was exceedingly busy at the Model Garage. His partner, Joe Clark, had been wrestling with the “flu” for the past week, and having to do two men’s work hadn’t improved Gus’s temper. Consequently the old mechanic’s face wrinkled into a scowl when the garage door swung open to admit young Walter Sanson.
AN AUTOMOBILE valve spring is pretty stiff and requires a lot of energy to compress it. Here is a simple way to compress it and keep it in that position as long as desired without wearing out your muscles. As shown in Fig. 2, the bench vise supplies the leverage needed to compress the spring with great ease, and the small metal clip serves to keep it compressed.
This piece is very easy to build and it has the charm of early American pine
Blueprints You Will Find Easy to Understand
Complete List of Blueprints
THESE are fortunate days for the amateur woodworker. Plain and homely woods like pine and maple—those that the home mechanic can obtain and use most easily—are now held in high esteem; they have returned to favor with the simple and beautiful early American styles of furniture.
How Imagination and Cigar Boxes Became a Complete Working Model of a “Big Top”
EARL CHAPIN MAY
INTO the life of almost every normal boy comes the urge to be a clown, or trapeze performer, or ringmaster, or lion tamer. Each spring this fever rages throughout our fair land with consuming fire. Most of us, compelled by the pale commonplace of humdrum life, outgrow this fierce call of the wild, except when the circus comes to town.
How to Complete Your Model of the Historic Frigate CONSTITUTION
CAPT. E. A. McCANN
JUST as the famous old frigate Constitution lies in the Charlestown (Boston) Navy Yard awaiting reconstruction this spring, countless little models of her are lying in the miniature dockyards of those readers of POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY who have been following this series of articles.
How to Protect Your Home from The Ravages of Dry Rot
Simple Measures to Check the Fungi That Attack Woodwork with Amazing Destructiveness
NORMAN C. McLOUD
MY NEXT door neighbor was in distress over the settling of his house and the cracking of the plaster. Wide fissures had appeared in walls and ceilings throughout the dwelling, and there was every sign that the structure was coming apart before its allotted time.
Improved Segmental Grinding Wheel—Indexing Chuck for Turret Lathe—Surface Grinder—Electric Hand Saw—Other New Ideas
BASCOM'S door, with "Superintendent" painted across it, was usually open, so it happened that as he closed his little black notebook, he looked up to see his friend, Henry Davis, standing before him. “Selling lots of steel these days, Henry?” Bascom asked.
Even the Beginner Can Build This MASSIVE LIBRARY TABLE
HERBERT C. McKAY
NO MATTER how little experience you may have had in woodworking, you can undertake the construction of the table illustrated with every assurance of success. When completed it will compare favorably in appearance with expensive pieces sold in furniture stores.
OFTEN the home workman would like to make one or more blueprints of a drawing he has prepared, but is prevented from doing so by the lack of a printing frame. By a simple method, however, he can make his prints without a frame. A piece of fiber wallboard of a size a little larger than the tracing is obtained.
WHEN shoes, rubber boots or overshoes are damp inside, they may be dried thoroughly in half an hour, I have found, by means of a lighted electric bulb on an extension cord. The heat is so mild that the lamp may be inserted directly in the shoe or boot.
FOR making this ferocious-looking beetle you will need but half an English walnut shell, half a cherry pit, a bit of thin wood or cardboard, and a little wire, glue and paint. The wood or cardboard is shaped as indicated, to suit the walnut shell.
TO MAKE a pad for oiling saws and other tools that have flat surfaces, tear up strips of cloth of the proper width to go snugly into a shoe polish box, as illustrated, or use felt weather strip ping. Place the roil in the box and pour machine oil on it.
MANY homes have too few electric service outlets. In cases where the outlets are of the single receptacle or screw type (Fig. 1), they can be replaced quickly and economically with duplex convenience outlets of the type illustrated in Fig.2.
SIDING, as the boards which cover the exterior of a frame house are called, rarely rots. Through long exposure, however, it becomes very brittle, especially if the painting has been neglected. As moisture will enter in cracks in the siding and cause the paint to blister and peel, and possibly lead to serious rotting of the framework that supports the house, it is essential to make repairs promptly.
"LET’S go over to the Andrews,” I suggested to Mrs. Elliot one evening after dinner. “You know the last time they were over to get some information about painting, we had time to go over only two or three of their questions, and Mrs. Andrews seemed rather disappointed.”
WHEN I found recently that my steel square had become so rusty that even sandpaper was not of much use in cleaning it, I put a teaspoonful of a common kitchen cleanser on the surface and rubbed it with a rag moistened with kerosene. This removed the rust without much effort.
CHIMNEYS, especially those in soft coal districts, require cleaning from time to time. This is an unwelcome job for the home owner, but it can be made easier by using a bundle of automobile skid chains on the end of a rope for scraping clean the flues.
FROM articles gathered up in my garage, I built the floor sander illustrated. A quarter-horsepower electric motor was taken from a small circular saw and fastened to a plank 1½ by 12 by 36 in. A wooden roller 5 in. in diameter was fitted with a ⅛-in. pipe through the center to serve as a shaft.
YOU will have a rare chance next month to take up the fascinating hobby of ship model making. The first of a new series of articles is to appear telling how to build a picturesque Viking ship model, designed especially for those who have never made a model before.
EVEN a, kitchen table can be used as a bench for light woodwork if a combination bench block of the type illustrated is made. It serves as a sort of a vise, a bench stop, a “shoot” board for planing end grain, and a regular bench block for sawing, chiseling and various other purposes.
WHITE lead and machine oil make a good lubricant for milling or drilling copper. The man who makes the most progress in the shop is the one who knows the most short cuts. Keep your drill flooded with oil or compound whenever possible. A high speed drill should never be cooled suddenly; if it is, the chances are it will check and eventually crack.
ONE of the difficulties encountered in making small bearings is that the babbitt is likely either to stick to the shaft or to shrink upon it so hard that it is almost impossible to remove it. This can be avoided by giving the shaft a light coating of oil and graphite mixed to the consistency of cream.
SUCCESS in the machine shop is founded upon the ability to make every little detail count. In the course of many years’ experience, a number of little time-saving kinks have helped me, some of which follow. Where tangs are to be milled on end mills, drills, or other taper shank tools, a split block having a taper hole as in Fig. 1 is a useful fixture.
BY TRANSFORMING the two center cylinders of a four-cylinder gasoline engine into pumps and using the outside cylinders to furnish power, Harry Vickerman, of St. Paul, Minn., has built an efficient, compact air compressor at little cost.
A UNIQUE method of centering round stock for turning in the lathe is shown in the photographic illustration, and the accompanying drawing gives the details. The device consists of a base into which is fixed a hardened center punch and a clamping bolt for the disk.
DESIGNERS of structural steel are familiar with an item often overlooked by machine designers and shop men. The illustration, for instance, shows a long rivet supposedly holding a casting tightly between steel plates, but actually the construction is loose and weak.
AN INGENIOUS method of screwing nuts on bolts sufficiently tight to prevent their coming off in shipment is shown at the right. A small bulling wheel revolves the nuts after they have been started by hand.
THE wedge is not always appreciated as means for clamping work. It is quicker than screws and nuts. The illustration shows how a quick-acting clamp can be arranged to hold work on the miller or planer.
IN THE article “Inlaying is Easy to Do,” last month, it was recommended that limewater be used for staining inlaid pieces of mahogany. The advantage of limewater is that it stains the wood, but does not affect the inlaid bandings or inserts.
“WHAT tools do I need for setting up a small home workshop?” is a question that comes to the Editor frequently in one form or another. It has been answered in POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY many times in the past. If you are one of those who wish aid in starting a workshop or adding the most generally useful tools to those you already own, look up the article “Just What Tools Do You Need?”
THE sprinkling of spots, or “freckles,” which has been the chief drawback to the radio transmission of pictures by the so-called pen and ink method, recently has been remedied by a new process said to reproduce the original pictures far more faithfully.
INVENTED three centuries before the Christian era, the first “circus calliope” was played with water instead of steam. Italian archæologists, digging in the ruins near the Golden House of Nero, have brought to light the fact that the Roman emperor amused himself with one of these musical instruments.
A FEW weeks ago Dr. W. F. Foshag of the Smithsonian Institution was exploring a silver mine in Durango, Northern Mexico when he was startled by a series of sharp explosions that ripped great gaps in the walls of the mine tunnel. The blasts, he found, were produced by a rare mineral which explodes, like a stick of dynamite, the instant it is mined from the rock.
A Problem in Boat Making; by Raymond M. Bealer. The Manual Arts Press. A fascinating booklet describing how to build a trim and graceful twenty-fourinch model sloop, Marconi rig, in such manner that a boy twelve to fourteen years can easily do it.
ONE of the world's largest astronomical observatories, according to an announcement from Paris, is to be built on Salève Mountain, on French territory, but near Geneva, Switzerland, by an American resident of France. A number of lenses to be used are now being ground in Paris.