PLIERS are intended to be used as pliers. Many people ignore this fact and unreasonably expect them to substitute for hammers, crowbars, etc., as the occasion demands. It is because such misuse is so common that plier manufacturers are compelled to allow a “margin of safety” in making such products, and the Institute of Standards has been obliged to devise laboratory tests that will bring out the characteristics of plier manufacturing best suited to meet abuse as well as to give true service.
An amazing story of duralumin, wonder-metal of aviation, that has made our big airships possible—With two fingers you can lift a girder of it strong enough to hold six men
Lieut.-Comm. Fitzhugh Green,
NEWSPAPERS have devoted considerable space in the last few weeks to the exploits of the ZR-3, the largest dirigible to attempt a transatlantic flight. Tales of the tests and the flights of the big airship have been told and retold, but the story of the real miracle of the ZR-3, the Shenandoah, and other dirigibles is new to most folks.
How it feels to face a savage beast of Alfred Klein, who has spent in the jungle—Thrilling adventures 14 years hunting wild animals
G. B. Seybold
FOR eight hours we had followed a lion along a river bed, trying to get him in a place where we could take a good picture. It was in the heat of day—the stifling, killing heat of the African jungle. Our horses were tired, and the lion was tired. At last he went into a little clump of brush.
Policeman’s Strange Invention Runs from Milan to Rome
SPECTATORS at the speedway before the National Stadium in Rome, Italy, gasped with amazement not long ago when they saw a huge wheel, driven by motorcycle engine, careening at high speed around the track like an overgrown toy hoop. Within the wheel, apparently unconcerned at the possibility of being precipitated in the mad whirl, they saw a driver, his hands gripping an ordinary automobile steering wheel, his feet resting on ordinary motorcycle pedals.
Interesting stories of the boyhood of famous leaders and inventors— How playthings affected the careers of the Wright Brothers, John W. Davis, and Admiral Moffett—A noted manufacturer tells how to buy the right toys for your child
NOT long ago I read a story about Orville and Wilbur Wright; a sort of biography that included some interesting details about their childhood. Among other things, it told how the two little brothers in Ohio used to play with balloons after school hours.
UNUSUAL weather conditions in all parts of the world during the last few months. especially marked by a late spring and early autumn have given rise to the question whether our climate is affected by a vast 100-million-mile ring of matter observed about the sun.
How Typewriter Detectives Solve Baffling Mysteries
Every letter on your machine offers the expert a clue to your identity Remarkable stories of a new science
EVERY day science is performing feats that overshadow those of the famous detectives of fiction. Take, for example, the seemingly im possible task of identifying a man by his typewriting-runfling down a machine-made clue. No doubt you read how this was done in a recent sensational murder case in Chicago, when typewriting experts were able to testify that certain letters that tended to establish a "motive," unquestionably had been written on a typewriter that had been stolen by one of the suspects and had been recovered by the police from the bottom of a park lake.
INCREASING traffic congestion in Greater New York City, which is causing a loss estimated at more than $1,500,000 every day, recently called forth this vast plan of draining the East River and converting what now is a busy waterway into a five-mile system of automobile and motor-truck highways, subway lines, parking spaces, and city centers.
How Two Mechanics Made Tipless Lamps when Experts Failed
LOUIS E. MITCHELL and Arthur J. White, foremen in the Nela Lamp Division, Nela Park, Cleveland, Ohio, recently were given awards by the General Electric Foundation, established by Charles E. Coffin in recognition of outstanding services performed during the year.
Most of us don't—How to care skin for your in the winter
The Mistakes We Make
Charles Mallory Williams
ONE cold day last winter a man came into my office complaining of troublesome itching of his hands. “I suffer this way whenever we have a cold spell,” he told me. “At other times I am not bothered. I don’t know how to account for it.” On examining him I found the skin very dry, with a few tiny scales where he had scratched.
WANTED: $100,000,000 to assure mankind of all the heat and power that will be required until the end of time! If you were to read somewhere an advertisement worded substantially as the above, your curiosity undoubtedly would be piqued. Probably if you paused to analyze such a statement you would become suspicious of the good faith of the person who framed it.
THE fighting heart of this old Mississippi steamboat—her engine—had valuable life in it after her worn body, aged by 30 strenuous years, no longer could battle the great stream. So her owners, the Standard Oil Co., of Louisiana, put her on stilts in the water near the bank.
WHAT is claimed to be the smallest 20-gage shotgun in the country is shown here in the hands of Arthur J. MacDowell, of Philadelphia, Pa., who is the designer of this odd-shaped weapon. The gun is a double-barreled one, measuring 16½ inches over all.
A TRAPPER of northern Ontario, Canada, Joe LaFlamme, recently succeeded in what is said to be the first attempt to tame and harness a team of timber wolves. He obtained the two wolves while they were young, raised them carefully, and finally tried them out, at first securely muzzled.
MANY times ground rules prevent camera men from getting pictures of the slide to second base, or the touchdown, which is the most thrilling play of the whole game. M. S. Walker, photographer for a big New York newspaper, was disappointed a few times, then made for himself a giant camera which, he says, will snap objects 300 feet away.
CLINGING to spires and flagpoles high in the air is a job that takes more than ordinary courage at best, but Henry Wernsing, a steeplejack in Baltimore, Md., does it with only one arm. When blood poisoning set in his left arm, necessitating its amputation, he wouldn’t change his job, but went on filling his contracts.
YOUNG animals, and presumably children as well, grow more rapidly in rooms with walls painted in light, cheerful colors than they do in dark-painted apartments. Such is the conclusion of Dr. H. A. Gardner, of the research laboratory of the Paint Manufacturers’ Association, as the result of recent experiments with guinea pigs.
WHAT are said to be the world’s largest and smallest adult bovines met recently, and were photographed together. The giant is reputed to be the world’s largest steer. He is a fullblooded Texas longhorn, weighs 4200 pounds, and is six feet four inches high.
THE past and present were put into startling contrast recently at Fort Hancock, New York, when Frank Lloyd, a motion-picture producer, set out three old-fashioned Spanish, English, and Corsair cannons of the sixteenth century. When placed alongside some of the modern engines of warfare they looked like odd little toy cannon.
ITALY soon will have the tallest skyscraper in the world—more than 300 feet taller than the Woolworth Building in New York City—if a recently reported decision of Premier Mussolini is carried into effect. The huge structure will be built on plans drawn by the noted ItaloArgentine architect, Mario Palanti, who already has erected several colossal buildings in Buenos Aires.
CRICKET is a popular sport in England. Carrying a watch is a necessity. But the two don’t mix. Therefore, F. A. Green, a well known Lewisham cricket umpire, solved the difficulty and added to his popularity by having a special vest tailored with as many watch pockets as possible, as shown in the photograph.
TWO new substitutes for gasoline recently have been developed by French chemists. In one, the composition is lignite coke and water, while the other is made from animal and vegetable fats heated with chloride of magnesium or sodium. The process is said to be simple.
Scientific Lighting Creates Spectacular Color Displays
THE science of producing spectacular lighting effects attracted record crowds to two large Eastern expositions this year—the State Fair at Syracuse, N. Y., and the Agricultural Fair at Brockton, Mass. Features of each exposition were massive columns studded with jewels and adorned with festoons, colored smoke, and electrical fireworks, all painted in varying and beautiful colors by batteries of giant searchlights using nearly a quarter of a billion candlepower in each instance of this modern decoration.
A WINDOW on the south side of a building will get, in the course of a year, 45 times the amount of sunlight that a window on the north side will receive, according to exhaustive experiments recently conducted by William Kunerth, associate professor of physics at Iowa State College, Ames, la.
TO MAKE sure that the candy we eat is not injurious and that it complies with the pure food laws, hundreds of samples are tested every day in Uncle Sam’s laboratory at Washington, D. C. Mr. J. Hamilton, known as the “candy man” of the U. S. Bureau of Chemistry, is shown at the right analyzing samples from boxes of candy that have been received from the factories.
A NEWLY invented camera makes it possible to photograph the entire outer surface of a sample of pipe that has been exposed to corrosion under ground. The pipe is rotated on a cylinder that is synchronized with the camera so that the film moves automatically at the same rate.
MOLASSES is being used with remarkable results as a fertilizer for sugarcane fields on the British island of Mauritius in the Indian Ocean. Increases in yield of about nine tons an acre are recorded after molasses applications. The Colonial Department of Agriculture has made a close study of the experiments and has arrived at a tentative explanation.
A NEW type of breakwater consisting of nothing more than air bubbles recently was devised for quieting even the highest waves of the sea. It is the invention of Philip Brasher, an American. One of the units is said to have been operated successfully at El Segundo, Calif., to protect a concrete pier.
THE largest and smallest X-ray tubes recently were placed on exhibition at the National Academy of Science in Washington, D. C. The largest is the most powerful tube ever developed, with 15 times the output of ordinary tubes. The small one is known as an oil immersed dental tube and has a capacity equal to the standard dental tube.
PLOWING for miles through a milkwhite sea was the unusual experience recently of the steamship Trontolite off the coast of Peru, as reported by Capt. A. G. Cameron to the Hydrographic Office of the U. S. Navy Department. This unusual phenomenon occurred at night and, according to the Hydrographic Office, is accounted for by the presence in the water of myriads of tiny plants.
Millionth-Inch “Ghosts” Spoil Accuracy of Wonderful Machine
AFTER seven years of futile scientific investigation it was discovered recently that “ghosts” of a millionth of an inch in thickness were the cause of inaccuracies in Rowland’s ruling machine at Johns Hopkins University. This finely precisioned machine is one of the most wonderful in the world.
WHEN the Canadian province of British Columbia was subjected last summer to a continual occurrence of forest fires until over 1000 had been reported, the Parks Commissioner, James B. Harkin, devised a system of water pumps operated in relays that, more than any other agency, assisted the fire-fighters in checking the flames.
THE alarm-clock fails to go off and you wake just 20 minutes before you are due at the office. It is then that you appreciate the work of the designer who has patented a dressing-chair for men, in which there is a proper place for every article of a man’s clothing.
IN CLEANING a hairbrush, usually it is difficult to reach the bottom of the bristles without discoloring handle and back. Here is a brush the bristles of which are set on a detachable pad, which can be slipped out of the back and sterilized in boiling water, if desired.
AMONG the predatory wild animals that the Washington State Department of Agriculture is striving to destroy, or at least control, the coyote offers the most serious problem. Notwithstanding a ceaseless campaign against this wily marauder of farm poultry, small pigs, and lambs, as well as countless numbers of game birds, the coyote is increasing and extending his hunting grounds closer and closer to human settlements.
BY COMBINING both handles of an ice-tongs in one, this new tool is easilyopened or closed, and can be operated with one hand, according to the designer. It does away with the necessity of opening the tongs before preparing to lift an object.
UPHOLSTERED chairs, ready for the junkman because of their sunken seats, may be renovated by attaching a new and inexpensive spring brace introduced recently. It is put on from underneath without disturbing the upholstering, as shown in the illustration at the right, and is said to make the spring seat as plump and firm as ever it was.
THE first instance of threshing grain by electricity was on the farm of Eugene Funk near Shirley, 111., and is said to be a great success. A 40-horsepower electric motor is substituted for the usual tractor for running the separator. The motor is mounted on a truck, and power lines are run from the farm.
SMALL size, light weight, ease of folding, and general convenience are the features claimed by the makers for this collapsible baby carrier, which rolls along on three wheels or may be folded quickly and carried under the arm. The carriage is made of light, tough wood and the wheels are equipped with rubber tires so that it may be used indoors without injury to the floors of a house.
THIS six-foot section of wire cable is a sample of that to be used in constructing the huge Delaware bridge running from Philadelphia to Camden, N. J. The cable is composed of 186,666 strands of wire bound with steel clamps and measures about three feet in diameter.
A NEW instrument, known as a “ dendrograph,” makes it possible to measure the growth of a tree from day to day. It is adjusted so that it encircles the tree trunk. Expansion of the tree’s girth, as well as contraction due to cold weather, are registered on a chart.
BECAUSE of the great scarcity of coal in Germany, hot water has become a luxury. Homes and apartment houses generally have a “hot-water day” once a week for bathing purposes. In order to make this operation as economical as posuse it is claimed.
A CHAMOIS interlined back, a high neckband and a hood cape are features of a new sleeping garment designed not only for use by campers, hunters, and tourists, but for persons who prefer to sleep outdoors on sleeping porches all the year around.
CITIES of the Pacific Northwest are searching for some way to put an end to a “smoke nuisance” of an unusual kind, resulting from frequent fires in the enormous heaps of sawdust accumulated on old sawmill sites. These fires, which usually are started in spontaneous combustion, send up dense clouds of smoke.
WINDOWS can be left partly open for ventilation at night without fear of the entrance of burglars, it is claimed, by the use of a new automatic window lock consisting of a simple leverand-spring stop that binds the two window-sashes together, whatever position they may be in.
THE latest advertising scheme comes from France in the form of a sidewalk printing machine. The photograph shows two Americans taking a lesson in sidewalk advertising in the Place de la Concorde, Paris, France. The machine consists of a revolving cylinder on which large type has been set to spell out the desired words. The type is “inked” with a specially prepared paint in the desired colors. The machine then is rolled over the sidewalk, leaving an advertising sign displayed.
ONE of the newest inventions for winter comfort is a small hand warmer consisting of a hollow cylinder of fiber. A small pencil of heated charcoal is inserted through one end. The device will keep warm, it is claimed, for a period of two hours. To apply the heat to other parts of the body, a wire handle fits into the metal ends and allows the heater to be used as a roller, offering relief, it is claimed, from local aches or pains.
THE use of the Thames River in England as a town highway soon will be revived after a lapse of 100 years, according to recent reports from London. By next Easter, it is announced, a fleet of speedy and luxurious motor boats will be running on regular schedules between Hammersmith in southwest London, and Woolwich in southeast London, a distance by water of about 17 miles.
THE fouling of the bottoms of ships by barnacles may be greatly lessened as the result of recent experiments with bottom paint by the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. It was discovered that barnacles collect in large numbers only on blue and black plates, and that white, yellow, red, and green plates are practically free from them.
AMAZING cutting speed is claimed for a new chain saw invented in France for cutting trees. The cutting apparatus is in the form of a sprocket chain driven by a gasoline engine. The sprocket is mounted on a frame. A system of worm gearing forces the apparatus away from the tree being cut as the saw works its way through the wood, thus maintaining an equal tension at all times and insuring smooth operation.
NOT to be denied the joys of sleighriding, Albert Horrocks, of Wilton, Me., transformed his small automobile into the ingenious motor-driven sled pictured below. In place of the wheels he substituted four heavy runners attached to the automobile chassis through springs.
GOGGLES of gilded glass, consisting of yellow glass with a coating of gold, recently have been invented by Dr. A. H. Pfund, associate professor of physics at Johns Hopkins University, to protect the eyes of workmen who are exposed to the intense glare and heat from furnaces.
A TYPE-SETTING machine that is operated directly from the keyboard of any standard typewriter has been designed especially for use in getting out printed form letters and in the production of books. Thus a stenographer, in writing a letter, sets the type simultaneously.
TO STOP the ravages of locusts in the agricultural regions of northern Argentina, 39,000 tons of galvanized steel sheets, valued at $5,000,000, will be used as barriers. In front of the sheet-steel barriers the farmers will dig ditches in which, it is expected, the marching locusts will accumulate and be destroyed.
THIS easily made sled trailer enables a truck to transport an unusually large and heavy load over winter roads. It was built by a Minnesota lumberman who refused to allow snow-covered roads to interfere with his hauling. The truck and sled shown carry a 10-ton load of 70 20-foot logs.
A GERMAN inventor has come out with a new form of tandem bicycle that carries an extra person on a platform between the two machines. The contrivance, called a “combi-bicycle,” consists of two bicycles attached in parallel, with a platform and seat suspended between them.
A NEW type of electric power machine for road-repair work recently has been put to use in France. It is mounted on a two-wheel carriage and pushed like a wheelbarrow. An electric drill bores holes in the road to be broken up, then a forklike arrangement digs away the cement.
FOR use on farms, or wherever heavy and bulky objects, such as milkcans, are transported by hand, a new doubleduty wheelbarrow has been designed so that it can be used either as an ordinary barrow or as a small, underslung cart. The height of a wheelbarrow causes unnecessary labor in lifting heavy milkcans into it.
TWO new types of “electric match” for the motorist who smokes while he drives, are shown below. One model is detachable, with the lighting instrument on a cord that reels into a container on the car’s dashboard. The other model is permanently attached to the instrument board or any other part of the car, with an ash receiver attached below.
SCIENCE at last has succeeded in making sugar in a way similar to that in which the green leaves of plants have been yielding it for countless ages. The discovery of the process was made by Dr. E. O. O. Baly, senior professor of chemistry in the University of Liverpool, England.
AT THE right, workmen are shown removing the last remnant of a great ship that never even reached the water—the last steel beam to be cut from what remained of the battleship South Dakota, scrapped by Uncle Sam. This and a sister ship, the Indiana, now would be the latest additions to our battle fleet, if, in the course of construction, they had not been doomed, in accordance with the Washington Disarmament Conference.
ONE of the giant shells used in target practice by battleships of the U. S. Navy in their maneuvers this fall is shown in the photograph below. The shell is 14 inches in diameter and weighs several hundred pounds. The big guns can hurl this mass of metal a distance of more than 20 miles.
AN ODD foot-power automobile, driven like a bicycle, on the chainand-sprocket principle, recently has been invented by Monsieur Alois Seuter of Neuilly, France. The new machine, which he calls a “Velo” car, seats four people and has a compartment for carrying packages. The designer says he can attain a speed of about five miles an hour with good pedaling. The body is made of light woodwork. The car is steered by means of ordinary bicycle handles.
AS THE result of comparative intelligence tests with right-handed and left-handed individuals in a group of 1019 children, Dr. Kate Gorday, a psychologist of Los Angeles, Calif., recently announced she could find no confirmation of the tradition that left-handed persons are of inferior mentality.
SPECIMENS of fish that swim beneath the sands of the Sahara Desert are among the latest curiosities to be exhibited at the American Museum of Natural History, New York City. They were taken from subterranean desert water pools, and are not of rare species, as might have been expected.
IN THE village of Munsonville, N. H., nature, in one of her playful moods, formed a strikingly realistic reproduction of a giraffe by the junction of two trees that grew together. The dual trunk of one tree formed the legs of the “animal,” while the twisted trunk of a second tree, which grew about four feet away, joined the legs and stretched upward like the long neck of a giraffe.
WHAT is said to be the longest suspension footbridge in the world stretches across the Quiniault River on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington. The bridge is 994 feet long and only two feet wide. The end supports are big fir trees growing on each side of the river.
CUTTING trees in midair is the spectacular occupation of W. H. Hamilton, a logger in the forests of Washington State, who recently won the title of world’s champion tree-climber by scaling a 100-foot Douglas fir tree, cutting off the top, and returning to the ground —all in 18 minutes.
THE highest telephone in the United States is located on the summit of Pike’s Peak, in Colorado—an altitude of 14,110 feet, or nearly three miles. It is on the property of the Pike’s Peak Highway Association.
DISCOVERY of the remains of an ancient race that once inhabited the lonely Island of Nihoa in the South Seas, about 250 miles northwest of Honolulu, is reported by members of a recent exploring expedition that went there aboard the U.S.S. Tanager.
MOTORIZED skiing is a novel sport recently made possible by means of a small air propeller driven by a light motor that is strapped on the back of the skier. The invention, from Germany, is said to enable an experienced skier to travel on the level at high speed.
SHOOTING airplanes from a ship into midair by means of a gunpowder catapult is the newest achievement of the U. S. Navy. Instead of compressed air which is usually used in airplane catapults, gunpowder is employed to give the plane its start.
STREAKING through the air at 197.6 miles an hour, Lieut. George T. Cuddihy, U. S. N., recently smashed the American seaplane speed record in tests above the Delaware River. Lieutenant Cuddihy’s speedy plane is a 500-horsepower CR-3 machine that won the Pulitzer Trophy in 1920 as a land plane.
ONE of the most unusual of the new developments in airplane construction is a machine shaped like a window shutter, with 21 narrow lifting surfaces or wings sheathed with aluminum. It was designed by M. Toussaint, a French engineer, and constructed at the great flyingfield at Villacoublay.
TWO remarkable new inventions that may go a long way toward solving the problem of complete security of flying have been perfected by Captain Lepinte of the Technical Section of the French Military Aviation Service. One of these is a device by which the fuselage of a plane is automatically transformed into a parachute, if for any reason the machine gets out of control of the pilot and starts to fall.
THE airplane is the latest weapon to be employed in Texas in the war on the boll weevil, arch foe of cotton. Cotton-fields now are dusted with calcium arsenic sprayed from a plane as it sweeps by just a few feet above the tops of the plants. Similar dusting formerly was done by ground machines, but several advantages are claimed for the new and more spectacular method, chief of which is, perhaps, that the plane can start dusting immediately after rain, the most advantageous time to fight the weevil.
A NEW altitude chamber with a safetyvalve device has been constructed at the U. S. Bureau of Standards for testing airplane engines in rarefied atmosphere such as is encountered at high altitudes. An explosion occurred a year ago in the chamber previously used, resulting in the deaths of three men.
WHAT is said to be the last word in airplane luxury has just been constructed in the form of a passenger-carrying monoplane built by its designer, Osmund T. Belcher, of Los Angeles, Calif. The new ship has four inclosed cabins and weighs but 1800 pounds.
THE Prince of Wales, in naval uniform, is shown here inspecting a new giant supermarine Napier plane, designed to carry 12 passengers. This machine was constructed at the supermarine aviation works at Southampton, England. An idea of its size may be obtained by comparing it with the men seen in the photograph.
A WORLD’S record price for shotgun shells was paid recently by a French millionaire sportsman and senator, who had the shells shipped from Paris to. Scotland by airplane. Each shell cost him 20 francs, or about $1.10. On his hunting trip in Scotland, the senator carried shotguns of a special make, and when he reached his destination he found that he was unable to obtain ammunition for this type of gun.
A WORLD’S record for helicopter lifting flight recently was established at Montbéliard, France, by Etienne Oehmichen, French airman and pioneer in vertical flight, when his machine succeeded in lifting a dead weight of 200 kilograms, or about 440 pounds, to a height of one meter (about a yard).
WHAT is said to be the only airplane in the world without a tail is a novelty recently completed at the French military airdrome at Villacoublay. The unusually large rudder is placed immediately behind the wings of the airplane. Standing beside the machine is M. Jaugin, famous French airman, who claims the world’s speed record as a hydroplane pilot.
FOR transporting coal and ore from the mines of Minnesota to the Ford automobile plants in Michigan, Henry Ford has constructed .the first of a fleet of 600foot Diesel freight boats, which will ply the Great Lakes. The photograph shows the Benson Ford, the first one to be launched, when it was passing through the canal at Sault Ste.
TO BE upside down usually is considered upside down, but with a sloth, upside down is right side up. This queer animal is a native of South America. It lives in trees, hanging from the branches by means of its long, curved claws. It never leaves a tree until it has stripped it of every leaf, then it travels over the branches to another, descending as seldom as possible.
THAT a tree is never too old nor too tall to be moved was demonstrated in Los Angeles recently when a large datepalm tree, planted in 1786, was bodily removed from the ground, transferred across the city, and replanted. The reason for preserving the tree in this manner when the plot on which it stood was needed for building was the fact that it is of historical value.
A STRANGE oddity recently discovered in the pine forests of Louisiana has everybody guessing, scientists as well as laymen. It is a piece of petrified wood about two feet square and weighing 103 pounds, carved into an elaborate and intricate series of designs, including—at least to the imaginative—flowers, animals and human faces.
THE world’s oldest stone buildings are reported to have been discovered recently near the famous pyramids of Sakkara, about 15 miles south of Cairo, Egypt. They are two royal tomb chapels of the third Egyptian dynasty, about 4000 B.C. Built in a style differing in almost every respect from what is known as Egyptian architecture, the chapels are believed to have been the burial places of princesses or queens.
THE latest European novelty for carrying heavy parcels is a small detachable wheel to which is fitted a collapsible frame. The entire outfit can be carried in the pocket. For carrying large bundles homeward, it is necessary merely to attach the wheel to the end of one’s walking-stick or umbrella.
ONE of the cleverest birds in the world is the “honey guide” of Africa, which has learned to entice men to open beehives for him. The “honey guide” has a sweet tooth, as well as a liking for the larvæ of bees. But he is a small bird, and beehives are hard for him to crack.
A COMET that never may have been observed before, recently was discovered at the Bonn, Germany, observatory. It is said to be brighter than any comet that has appeared for several years, being visible through strong field glasses. It is sufficiently well developed to show a faint tail.
THE world’s largest clam-shell, weighing 20 pounds without the mollusk itself, recently was placed on exhibition at the Museum of Natural History, New York City. The giant bivalves, of which the creature that once wore this shell was one, are native to the waters of the Indian Ocean, the East Indies, and the Philippine Islands.
ONE of the exhibits that attracted much attention at the recent British Exhibition at Wembley was a reconstruction of the giant wingless moa bird, which once inhabited New Zealand, but now is extinct. This great creature, which sometimes reached a height of about 12 feet, was unable to fly.
THE longest cruise in the smallest boat” is the slogan of an aroundthe-world cruise now being undertaken by a party from Chicago, 111., in a 68-foot all-cypress sailing vessel modeled after a Norwegian ketch. The voyage, which is expected to take two years, is under the direction of Capt. A. J. Duken, an experienced explorer and navigator.
OTREET-CLEANING has now come under the eye of science. Herewith is shown a complete street-sweeping and -washing unit that may be operated by one man, the driver of the truck. This mechanical cleaner consists of a streetsweeper, gutter broom, and sprinkling device.
TO COMPLETELY stop the annoyance of hood rattling, a hood catch has been designed with a trigger handle that extends through the side of the hood and engages a loop connecting two springs that are fastened to the frame of the car inside the hood.
A MOTOR-METER illuminating device (shown at the left) that may be used also for lighting up the motor under the hood when searching for the reason of engine trouble, is easily attached at the base of the motor meter. It consists of a miniature electric lamp wired to the battery of the car.
THE proper care and adjustment of the hand brake, which some day may be the only means of preventing a serious accident, is a very important item in the upkeep of a car, yet how many auto owners pay attention to it? There are several points that may need adjustment or correction.
ONE of the queerest of automotive creations, the body of which resembles the fuselage of an airplane, recently appeared in London. The engine, mounted over the rear axle, is only 16 horsepower; but the makers claim the car can attain a speed of 85 miles an hour.
TO DECREASE the noise and increase the power of Ford motors, adjusters may be added to the valvestems. These consist of a pair of adjustable nuts that may be adjusted by the aid of two wrenches. In worn automobile valves the attachments are said to give full lift to the valves.
A REMARKABLE wreck picture was obtained recently when a photographer, taking pictures of scenery near Philadelphia, saw an automobile skid 60 feet over a rock embankment and land in the creek below. The photographer snapped the camera before the driver of the car was able to bring it to a standstill.
EXPERTS of the U. S. Bureau of Standards have just disproved another cherished belief of motorists. They have found by exhaustive experiments that a “fat” spark gives no better ignition and no more power than a “lean” one. Their suspicions of the correctness of the accepted doctrine were aroused by experiments in Germany, where engines tested with various kinds of sparks failed to show any differences in power developed.
MADE of tempered steel springs of cold-rolled steel the positive hose clamp at right can be quickly attached to water-hose connections without the use of tools. The clamp, according to its manufacturer, is provided with a pawl-and-ratchet device that makes it instantly adjustable merely by moving the pawl to the proper notch.
BELOW is pictured a new seat cover that is said to be serviceable, easily adjusted, and neat looking, and that any one can install. It is made of rice straw specially treated to render it durable. Hinges between the seat proper and the back rest and the flap in front are made of khaki cloth in order to protect the straw that is edged with two inches of binding.
WRITE down the answers to the questions below to the best of your ability; then turn to page 165 and see how nearly you come to a perfect score. 1. Why does a boomerang return? 2. What gland affects our growth? 3. What is steel? 4. Why doesn’t stout persons’ skin burst?
Broadcast network to link nation in emergency—Other useful developments and inventions
New Light on Static
Radio for the Railroads
Talk over Power Lines
ONE of the most important steps in the development of radio broadcasting is about to be announced by the Bell System. According to advance information, a vast network of interconnecting telephone lines throughout the country is to be set aside permanently for the purpose of linking broadcast stations for events of national importance.
The “Radio Lighthouse”—An Amazing New Use for Marconi Beams
AN IMPORTANT new commercial application of Marconi’s reflected beam system of shortwave communication is the use of the beams for a “radio lighthouse.” This new system, perfected by Marconi and C. S. Franklin, his assistant, is explained in the above drawings made by G. H. Davis from sketches during the first successful experiments in guiding the steamship Royal Scot past the rocky island of Inchkeith in the Firth of Forth.
How the cheaters “bootleg” tubes, fake condensers, and coils—An inside story filled with hints to protect your purchases
Beware the Trickster!
MAYBE you’ve noticed that there aren’t as many radio stores as there used to be. Do you know why? It isn’t that public interest in radio is dying. Far from it! The number of fans is increasing every day. But the gyps—’the cheaters who jumped into radio on a “fly-by-night” basis when broadcasting began and reaped a golden harvest for a couple of years selling bad parts and sets for good money—they’ve begun to quit.
Simple Remedies that Will Keep Your Set out of Trouble
M. B. Sleeper
IF YOU own a radio set, the chances are that you have some “expert” friend who very willingly offers to help you out when anything goes wrong. He tells you he has built several radio sets himself and knows all about them. And the chances are that if you have invited him to dig into your set, you have found that instead of improving it, he has left it worse off than before.
If the names of parts in your set puzzle you, you should read this article—Valuable hints for the novice
Robert E. Martin
ONE of the most difficult things to understand about radio is radio language. Many a broadcast fan, I am sure, has been frightened away from learning something more about his receiver than how to set the dials because, when he sought information, he found himself lost in a maze of technical terms.
An Unusually Compact Loudspeaker Set You Can Build Cheaply
Two Sets in One for Long and Short Waves
H. G. Silbersdorff
EVERY SO often a new circuit appears. A few odd-looking connections shown in the diagram bite into the curiosity bump that we all have, and before we know it we are lying awake nights wondering how this part can be made, or how that point can be arranged to get the shortest leads to the tube.
IF YOU use the large type of dry-cell vacuum tubes in your set, you probably have wondered often how you might make use of dry cells that you are forced to discard simply because the amperage has dropped below the minimum required to operate the tube.
An experienced architect tells you how to house your automobile most conveniently at the least cost
Points to Remember
G. Gouverneur Ashwell
A FEW years ago a private garage— that is, one maintained by an automobile owner to house the family car—was likely to be anything from a converted woodshed or chicken-coop to a remodeled barn or cottage. Now, though, that the automobile has become an essential part of the home—a sort of livingroom on wheels—we house our cars in buildings constructed exclusively for that purpose and supplied with conveniences that make the operation of a car more pleasurable and its care less of a task.
It may be faulty ignition—What to do and how to do it—An expert’s timeand labor-saving hints for your car—Vital parts of the ignition system and how to test them
What to Look for when Your Ignition System Fails
George A. Luers
I'M DISGUSTED with my car,” a friend of mine said to me the other day. “And it’s all because the spark plug of one cylinder .persists in getting fouled. Yesterday while I was out driving I had to replace the plug in that cylinder four times in 20 miles.
ONE cold winter morning, when Johnston stepped on the starter of his car, the engine hesitated momentarily, although it finally turned over and began to run. The radiator that morning was frozen, but Johnston attributed this to running the car out in the cold.
FOR the kiddies’ Christmas a most useful and entertaining present is a table and set of chairs such as are illustrated. The material costs less than five dollars, yet this toy furniture is superior to store sets that cost from 15 to 25 dollars.
THIS is a hilarious game designed as a Christmas novelty for the readers of POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. It will afford endless amusement for two or more players—the more the merrier—yet it can be made with the simplest of tools at a cost of next to nothing.
AN ICE merry-go-round will prove to be popular with any ice club or group of skaters. It may be made in two or three hours, if suitable materials are at hand. Select a stretch of ice some distance from shore where the water is only 2 or 3 ft. deep. Cut a hole through the ice and set a straight pole into the mud.
I SEEMED that everything was wrong that morning. The big boss had promised certain delivery on a rush job, and now a huge casting that was an important part of it was missing! In fact, there were two castings. One was in the machineshop, but the other was still pig iron.
Ratchet Fixture for Driving Machine Screws Tightly
F. J. W.
THE work of assembling the parts of small machines and other mechanisms in large quantities, when many small screws must be handled, can be speeded up by the use of special fixtures for driving the screws in place. Usually a simple fixture for this class of work can be made at small cost, yet it may cut in half the time required by hand methods.
Quick-Acting Jig for Drilling Holes in Round Stock
DRILLING transverse holes through round-bar stock or pipe usually necessitates setting up a V-block on the table of the drill and some form of top plate with a guide bushing. One of the simplest ways of handling such work is with a combined block and jig, as illustrated.
A FIRST class belt-driven grinding stand can be made from a discarded piston. Obtain a piston with fairly good bronze wristpin bearings and saw away a portion of the piston skirt, as shown, so that the belt will have no interference. From a piece of cold rolled steel or an old axle, turn the wheel shaft to fit the bearings and thread at each end.
Lubricating the Cutter on a Vertical Milling Machine
VERTICAL milling machines not always are equipped with an oil tank. To supply oil to the cutter in such a case, I have used the method shown with success and pass it along to others who still may be using a squirt can or brush. An ordinary soap can, fitted with a wire bail, is hung from any convenient location or projection above the cutter.
PLUMBERS, pipe-fitters, and electricians frequently are called upon to install a pipe job requiring many bends. To make them neatly, accurately, and quickly is a real test of mechanical skill, especially without a pipe-bending machine or special tools.
THE dragging of a planer tool along the work on its return stroke, especially on a large job, tends to dull the tool edge. In work of this nature I attach a small, freely acting hinge to the back of the tool with a C clamp so that one leaf extends somewhat below the cutting edge of the tool. The hinge naturally folds out of the way on the forward stroke; but on the return, after the tool has cleared the work, the leaf raises the tool.
Homemade Planimeter Measures Areas of Irregular Figures
GEORGE A. MOHL
LIKE the average engineer or draftsman, I was without a planimeter for measuring the area of irregular figures such as on indicator cards, ground layouts, and engineering drawings. “Why can’t I make one?” I asked myself. The homemade planimeter illustrated was the result.
IN TURNING balls on the ends of a number of small shafts recently, where no great accuracy was required, I used the fixture illustrated. Into 2 pieces of ¼ by 3 by 3 in. angle iron a ⅞-in. hole was drilled and reamed the exact height of the lathe centers.
Tool for Removing Insulation Made from Hacksaw Blade
S. W. B.
AN OLD machine hacksaw blade may be made into a time-saving tool for stripping insulation from wires. Cut the blade to a length of about 10 in., making the cuts at an angle of 15 or 20 degrees, as shown. Then grind off the teeth.
TO MAKE a common lathe faceplate more useful and to save the expense of a scroll chuck when there is not sufficient work to be done to warrant purchasing one, it is possible with very little expense and a small amount of labor to turn a regular faceplate into a jaw chuck.
GLASS tubes, such as gage glasses, bottles, and other glassware, can be cut in a number of different ways. The strength of glass lies chiefly in its outside coat; even to scratch this coat lowers its strength. One of the simplest methods of causing a tube to break at a defined place, therefore, is to file it where the break is desired, using a saturated solution of turpentine and camphor as a lubricant.
IN DRILLING holes through stock of small diameter, I find the method of drilling from both ends saves much time. To do this on the drill press, a short bolt press, is ground to a point and fastened to the drill-press table.
ON CONSTRUCTION jobs where frequent reference to drawings is necessary, it is awkward to handle the blueprints if they are kept rolled up, as is the usual custom. They also are torn or misplaced easily. One contractor has found the simple arrangement shown below to be of great value as a time-saver and in keeping the prints in good condition.
A HANDY drill block for the toolcrib, which makes it easy to keep account of the drills, can be made from a hardwood block. It is turned as shown receive Opposite each drill hole is placed a small nail or hook for the workman’s tool check. This drill block saves both time and drills.
DIE-MAKERS well know that drilling out the core of a die is a tedious operation. Unless the holes are drilled close together, the core will not come out easily. In drilling these small holes it is a common occurrence to have the drill run into the hole next to it, sometimes breaking the drill or leaving the hole partly drilled.
npHIS spring w i n d e r i s easily made and does not take up much room in a toolchest. It is simply a piece of flat steel with a Vshaped cut in one end and a 1-in. plug fastened as shown at right. The plug is provided with a hole through which the wire is threaded and another hole is drilled for the same purpose at an angle near the handle. The wooden handle may be borrowed from a file that is not in use.
A FIRE hose used in a manufacturing plant for washing certain material from a pit was abraded by the edge of a manhole through which it had to be passed. This wear was obviated by slipping a section of automobile tire about 18 in. long over the hose at the point where it passed over the manhole edge.
IGNITION timing and engine timing, as mentioned last month, are two distinct operations. Ignition timing refers to the proper setting of the contact-breaker arrangement (commutator or timer in the case of the Ford), while engine timing, which was discussed last month, refers to the opening and closing of the valves.
WASIIING photographic prints so that all of the" hypo" or fixing solution is rinsed away, presents a problem to many not pos sessed of a print-washer. A print-washer can be made cheaply, however, by placing a specially prepared hose on the water tap in the lavatory.
OCCASIONALLY a radio receiving set is wanted that is especially compact or one that has adjustments simple enough for a child to manipulate. As there is little latitude for crowding together the detector or amplifier sections, and these parts require few adjustments, the compactness and simplicity must be incorporated in the tuning unit.
THE home builder who has located the register for his pipeless furnace in a central hall close to the living-room door often finds the living-room to be the coldest part of the bungalow. The heat rises rapidly to the ceiling into a “pocket” higher than the door opening.
WINTER evenings provide an opportunity for making and repairing sporting equipment and doing the odd jobs the outdoor man or boy is not so apt to undertake at other times of the year. One useful piece of equipment that may be made is a tennis press.
MUCILAGE and paste are so constantly used that one quite often finds the supply has run out just when it is most needed. It is a simple matter, however, to make up a jar of adhesive from materials that are or should be in the chemical cabinet of every reader of this column.
(Continued from page 91) the paper is wet, but will be almost indistinguishable beneath the coating of plaster after it has hardened. Indeed, there will be just enough printing visible to give the grayish tone of weather-worn rocks. The more time you spend in shaping crags, peaks and other mountain formations, the more realistic the mountain will be.
MOST hot-air heating systems have at least one pipe that does not seem to draw heat to the same extent as the other pipes. Such a pipe may be improved by extending it into the hot-air bonnet so that it reaches over the center of the furnace radiator and gets a greater proportion of heat than the other pipes.
EVERY one who works with a woodturning lathe knows the time and trouble that can be saved by putting sandround piece of wood and letting the lathe do the work. The problem of how to attach the sheet of sandpaper to the Wood has been solved in my own case by the method illustrated.
FREQUENTLY leaks in toilet tanks are never noticed. Only when a water-bill of $25 or more arrives, is there a hurry-up call for the plumber. Much expense, both for water and for plumbers, can be avoided if the homeowner will learn how the “innards” of a toilet tank operate and go to the trouble of making the repairs himself.
ARTISTIC gifts made in the home workshop may be enhanced in many cases with the aid of photographic printing paper so treated that it has the appearance of shiny, fine grained marble. The paper is made by printing in the ordinary way, using as a negative a piece of thin red tissue paper.
Pullman Dining Alcove Built from Home Workshop Blueprint
USING POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY’S Blueprint No. 33 as a guide, John Mitchell, of Point Pleasant, N. J., who is only 16 years old, built the Pullman dining alcove illustrated above. He writes: Inclosed you will find a photo of a dining-alcove set made with the aid of your blueprint, which I found very clear to understand.
THIS folding table for card-playing or occasional use, may be built of clear pine, basswood or one of the more expensive cabinet woods. The top is ⅜ by 23 in. by 3 ft. with rounded corners. On the under side a frame is fastened by means of flat-head wood screws.
ALTHOUGH the screen illustrated below is simple in construction, it may be placed alongside the best commercial furniture. Mahogany, walnut or cherry may be used, as the builder desires. The stock should be finished ⅟ in. thick. First, make the six side members, each having a length of 5 ft. 6 in. and width of 1¾ in.
Spinning the Container Solves Novel Four-Ball Puzzle
C. A. O.
TO PLACE the four balls of this puzzle in the four very shallow holes is an amusing problem. The natural way is to incline the cone, so that the balls can be placed one at a time. You will soon find, however, that you cannot succeed along those lines, for placing the second ball causes the first to roll out of its recess.
TWO electric magnets, obtained from an old door-bell, and a battery furnish the power that turns the armature of this simple toy electric motor of unique design. When the circuit is closed, the magnets attract soft iron bars or rods, which are firmly fastened to two wheels taken from a toy construction set.
Cork Tips Prevent Chair Legs from Scratching Floor
K. B. M.
CORK tips on chair legs will protect varnished or waxed floors from unsightly scratches. At the same time the corks make the chair relatively noiseless. To attach the corks, bore a hole in. deep in the bottom of each chair leg. Fit into the hole either an ordinary bottle cork or a rubber stopper, allowing it to project ¼ in. or more. One set of corks will last many months and when they are worn down, it is a simple matter to replace them.
Mission-Style Rocker Is a Strong and Comfortable Chair
ONE piece of mission furniture that has maintained considerable popularity is the rocking-chair. It commends itself especially to the amateur mechanic because of its ease of construction; and, besides, it is a most comfortable chair for the smokingroom, den, library, or livingroom.
AT CHRISTMAS any novelty appropriate to the season is enjoyed by the whole family, from the little children to the grown-ups. If one has a Christmas village, and a phonograph is available, a novel light effect can be produced with very little work.
A MUSHROOM anchor for a rowboat or raft may be made from an old harrow disk. A simple way to form the shank is to heat one end of an old buggy axle or similar steel or iron rod and bend an eye for the anchor rope. The other end should be squared and fitted in the square hole in the disk.
Post Boring Machine Built Largely of Pipe Fittings By Frank N. Coakley
PERHAPS the easiest machine for the home workshop mechanic or the carpenter to make is the post borer illustrated. It is constructed from materials that are readily obtained. As the frame is made from 2 Yr or 3-in. pipe and pipe fittings, tfie expense of constructing patterns is unnecessary.
EACH of my four children has one of the Santa Claus dolls illustrated and I have made others for nearly every kiddie in the neighborhood. Four years ago I made 14 of them and, except for some scratches, they are as good today as when made, and as well loved as any dolls.
WHEN amateur woodworkers have trouble in obtaining a good wax polish, usually it is because they overlook the fact that a good waxed surface insured only by the friction caused by hard and long continued rubbing.
Building a Hammered Copper Wood Box for Your Fireplace
COVERED with hammered copper, this coal-and-wood box is at once a convenient and an attractive accessory for the fireplace. The richly colored metal catches the glow and light of the fire. The box is very easy to make, as only simple butt joints are required.
Wrapping Presents in Wallpaper Is Latest Christmas Fad
WRAPPING Christmas gifts in wallpaper is a pleasant way to utilize those old half and quarter rolls of fine wallpaper lying around in almost every attic. It is the latest diversion from the conventional holly paper and the effect closely rivals that obtained by the use of expensive parchment wrappers for presents, which of late years has been used by those persons who were able to afford it.
IN A comprehensive examination of thousands of hot-water heating installations made by the writer, it was found that hundreds of tanks were heated by means of a burner placed directly under the bottom of the tank. This, of course, is a gas-wasting method.
SPREADING liquid glue over large surfaces, as for gluing maps or large sheets of paper, it is often difficult to distribute it quickly enough to prevent part of the surface drying before all is covered. A good way to get a quick and even distribution of the glue is to punch two small holes with a tenpenny nail, one opposite the other in the top of the can.
eminent power engineers of the world to get behind the project of tapping the internal heat of the earth as an undertaking “important enough, both scientifically and economically, to justify its being made the subject of an international cooperative enterprise.”
Tinkering with Tools, by Henry H. Saylor. A handbook for the home mechanic. Illustrated. Little, Brown Company. Keeping up with Science, edited by Edwin E. Slosson, Ph.D. One hundred and forty brief essays on recent scientific discoveries.
1. For the same reason that a spinning baseball curves. The way the boomerang is twirled causes a special set of air-friction forces to be developed and to act on it. These drive it back toward the thrower. 2. The pituitary gland, a little organ no larger than a pea.