How to light your home scientifically. Did you know that color, like music, has the power to stimulate or depress you, to make you gay or sad, to disturb or refresh you? In an extraordinary article in next month’s POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY, a lighting expert reveals astonishing facts about light and color and their important effects on your health, comfort, and happiness.
THERE is but one malady more terrible than Nerve Exhaustion, and that is its kin, Insanity. Only those who have passed through a siege of Nerve Exhaustion can understand the true meaning of this statement. It is HELL; no other word can express it.
PROBABLY no piece of radio equipment has its vital parts more completely hidden than a storage battery. In looks, there is no appreciable difference between a 10and a five-dollar battery. The difference is in the plates, and there is but a small hole through which to examine them.
SUPPOSE our earth, instead of being governed by the sun, were a planet of a giant exploding star that, in occasional eruptions, threw out 20 times as much heat as the sun. What would happen to us? I have drawn here an imaginative picture of how our world might appear under such conditions.
ATHLETIC contests and other forms of sport are being literally crowded off the earth. Last year 303,430 people attended the World’s Series. Football stadiums holding 100,000 spectators are being built in various parts of the country.
WHILE touring New England recently I came upon a tumbledown barn, its roof hollow and broken, siding ragged, and its mighty beams awry and crumbling. Neighbors testified that it had never seen paint. Just beyond was a barn a hundred years older that still stood square and unbroken.
formations of the ocean basin is what is known as Telegraph Plateau, a great ridge that extends in almost continuous line from Newfoundland to the British Isles. The discovery of this ocean eminence was of great importance in aiding the establishment of transatlantic cable communication; from which fact it derives its name.
IN DISCUSSING the high-altitude rocket, there is not much question as to the long ranges possible, if a high velocity of the expelled gases is had with a rocket consisting chiefly of propellant material. There is, however, much criticism of the idea of the rocket propelling itself at a height where there is practically a perfect vacuum, it being maintained that there will be “nothing for the explosions, or expelled gases, to push against.”
PROBABLY you know the traveling carnival. A tented city of colored canvas booths, blatant music, bawling voices, and jostling crowds. Calliopes and mechanical bands blaring out their noisy tunes. Flaring lights illuminating the stands of refreshment venders, and a myriad of sideshows.
How We Designed a Duplex Bungalow that Pays for Itself
A. May Holaday
A YEAR or so ago, John and I, like many another couple, were finding the housing problem about the most difficult one with which we had to wrestle. We were tucked away in three rooms and bath in a large apartment house. The rent was high, and other inconveniences—particularly the lack of room, freedom, and' comforts — from which John suffered, made the conditions under which we lived decidedly unpleasant.
MORE and more the world is coming to realize to what a startling and almost incredible degree the application of scientific knowledge has changed the aspect of productive industries. Back of our modern engineering and mechanical marvels, our automobiles, skyscrapers, airplanes, and bridges, stands the scientist, working in his laboratory to supply the materials of new and improved quality without which the triumphs of the engineer would be impossible.
A Review of Recent Discoveries and What They Hold for You
Gun Ejects Airplane
A New Helicopter
Science Finds a Way
Radio Storm Warnings
CARBON dioxide, or carbonic-acid gas, may be described as the “smoke” of the body fires. We exhale it from our lungs as “waste” after the oxygen we have previously absorbed has been utilized in the “burning” process that replenishes the tissues.
THE term “filthy lucre” has been banned from the English language as far as a certain Los Angeles hotel is concerned, by the installation of a coin-washing machine in which all money received by the hostelry is cleansed before being returned to the guests in the form of change.
UNUSUALLY compact and easy to operate is a new type of still-picture projector that uses miniature views on strips of film similar to motion-picture film, instead of the usual cumbersome glass plates. Each film strip contains from 50 to 500 pictures.
USE of the cheekbone as a conductor to the auditory nerve, coupled with the amplification of speech, is reported to be the secret of a telephone for the deaf that has been put to test use by the Saskatchewan Government Department of Telephones.
FOR breaking up clods of earth and smoothing the newly dug garden surface, a new garden hand tool, known as a tiller, has been invented. It should be used with a hammering and spreading action. The pointed front of the tiller can be used for making a furrow for seeding.
AN INGENIOUS table intended for garden use or for card games in the house, folds into a space about a foot long and three inches wide. The collapsible canvas top of the table folds on the principle of an umbrella, by the sliding of a ring carrying umbrella-like ribs.
AN EASTERN manufacturer of catboats uses a concrete form on which to assemble them, thus cutting his finishing time in half and assuring complete uniformity. Slots in the concrete are provided for the cross pieces, to which are nailed the centerboard, sides, and bottom boards of the boat.
THE first electric locomotive to use an oil engine of the Diesel type to drive a generator supplying electric power for the driving wheels has been completed by the General Electric Company and the Ingersoll Rand Company. It is designed for switching service and consumes from 20 to 26 cents worth of fuel an hour.
A MACHINE that not 'only cuts and binds grain, but deposits the bundles in shocks, has been developed for use in grain fields. The shocker is attached to the binder in place of the customary bundle carrier. From the binder the grain is taken by means of an elevator to a basket consisting of two separate cone-shaped parts supported at the apex.
WHILE drilling a well to obtain a supply of drinking water, a resident on the outskirts of Salt Lake City, Utah, struck instead a well of natural gas. So he connected a 300-gallon tank with the gas flow and now uses it for heating, lighting, and cooking.
AN AUTOMATIC teller that receives paper money deposits and issues receipts for them is a new device designed to encourage saving among industrial employees. Bills of one-, two-, five-, or ten-dollar denominations are put into thenproper slot.
FOR use by swimmers who wear glasses, and to permit a diver to see under water and still keep the water from his eyes, ears, and nose, an elastic rubber bathing - cap with goggles and coverings for the nose and ears has been invented by A. G. Johnson, of Washington, D. C.
A NOVEL model of a helicopter airplane, which the inventor claims will carry four times the weight of present types with one quarter of the power, has been patterned on some of the mechanical principles used by birds in flight. The upper and lower wings slope forward until they meet in a horizontal edge that cleaves the air.
THE driveways and walks of San Antonio, Texas, are literally lined with tin cans, but not so that one may notice; for the cans are embodied in the electric-light posts. Park Commissioner Ray Lambert originated the ingenious method of utilizing much of the city’s waste tin-can output by using them for reinforcing ornamental concrete posts, as shown in the illustration.
ONE of the queerest orchestras in the world plays music up in the sky. The players are members of a flock of pigeons, carrying various kinds of light air whistles attached to their tails by fine wires. The originators of this unusual idea are the Chinese.
TWO of the largest lobsters ever caught were taken recently from their deepsea haunts and placed on exhibition in the New York Museum of Natural History. The largest specimen weighed 34 pounds, was nearly three feet long, and was estimated to be 50 years old.
THE remains of the great tower of Ur of the Chaldees in lower Mesopotamia recently has been unearthed, giving a clear idea of what this ziggurat and its sister monument, the Tower of Babel, looked like when they were built. The Ur remains are more than 4000 years old.
A NEW German fire-engine combining a hose cart and a small hook and ladder has only three wheels, one in front and two at the rear. A gasoline motor supplies the motive power. There is seating space for three men. The apparatus was turned out by the Krupp works.
A MINIATURE working model of a motorized hook and ladder, filed entirely by hand out of brass, recently was constructed by a fire captain in the Jersey City, N. J., fire department. It was modeled after the first piece of motor equipment installed in the department.
WHAT is said to be the smallest store in New York City, if not in the world, recently was opened for business by a locksmith, machinist, and electrician. The width of the shop is 24 inches. It is so small that customers cannot enter, and business is transacted through the window in the front door.
AT A scientific exposition in Paris recently was demonstrated a method for cutting steel under water with a torch. To the usual oxyacetylene torch is added a supplementary system of compressed air. This blows the water away from the mouth of the torch sufficiently to permit the oxyacetylene gas and its electric arc to function as usual.
THROUGH the invention of a new through a great number of instruments to electric stethophone, the human listeners several feet away from the subheartbeat now may be “broadcast” ject. The new machine amplifies the sound of the heartbeat three times.
THE spectrum, once used only by astronomers, now is beginning to play an important part in American industry. In the development of a method of spectral analysis of metals—a method perfected by the U. S. Bureau of Standards—an increasing number of industries are finding a valuable new aid in detecting impurities in metal products.
ONE of the latest devices to expedite the movement of crowds in transportation is an automatic coin-changing machine introduced by a New York City rapid transit company. Without the aid of an attendant, it is said to change dimes, quarters, and half dollars into nickels more rapidly than any human changemaker could do it.
GREATER speed and convenience in nailing roofing is provided by a device that automatically places nails up to 1½ inches long in position to be driven in. The machine consists of an iron frame holding a nail box from which the nails are fed down an inclined carrier.
To DETERMINE the most effective way of lighting the twin vehicular tunnels now being built under the Hudson River, engineers of the Westinghouse Lamp Company recently constructed a miniature model of a tunnel section, complete to the tiny automobiles representing vehicular traffic.
A CATCH with two tiny metal fingers secreted at the top of the trousers watch pocket has been devised to guard timepieces from slipping out and dropping to the floor when the trousers are hung upside down. A neatly concealed spring base plate is inserted on the inner side of the watch pocket.
A BRONZE reflecting telescope permanently mounted for home use and possessing beauty of design that harmonizes perfectly with a garden or lawn setting, now is available for persons who have made or would like to make the study of the stars their hobby.
THE increased use of gasoline motorcars for passenger service has created a need for turntables at many points where there are no shops or facilities for turning cars. To meet this need a special turntable has been devised that needs no pit under ordinary conditions, and that may be moved easily whenever desired.
CONSTRUCTION of America's greatest suspension bridge—The Bear Mountain bridge across the Hudson—has progressed to a point where workmen actually have walked from shore to shore across two temporary suspension bridges. This great project will be the first bridge across the river between Poughkeepsie and New York City.
THE most powerful electric magnet in the world, used in connection with wireless research, has been installed in the laboratories of the University of Strasbourg, in Alsace. It was constructed upon the calculations of M. Weiss. When the magnet is in operation, the strongest man would be unable to pass a steel butcher knife through the air between its two poles.
BASED on a principle similar to that employed in the telephone, a new device for making the printed word audible has been invented in Germany. The secret is said to lie in modifying printer’s ink to make it conductive of electricity in varying degrees.
TO PREVENT brick houses from “cracking” and to give buildings added solidity, a new system of reinforcing has been introduced. This consists of laying a wire between every second layer of bricks. As each layer is completed, wire is stretched along the top, and on this is spread the mortar for the next row.
A MACHINE for copying letters and other documents without subjecting them to the scrutiny of outsiders has been developed to give instantaneous photographic records of any letter-size papers, identifying them so as to make them admissible as legal evidence.
A HAND-OPERATED road-tamping and -finishing machine, said to finish concrete roads as satisfactorily as motordriven machines, has been developed for use by contractors. The machine moves on two tracks that constitute the form for the concrete.
THE largest belt in the world was made recently for a concern in New Jersey. The belt is 1550 feet long, 36 inches wide, weighs seven tons, and cost $1000 a ton. It took 12 workmen more than three hours to wind it on a reel more than nine feet in diameter.
A NEW automatic door check is so designed that one push on an open door fastens it and a second push in the same direction releases it. At the base of the door is fastened a hook connected with a spring plunger or bolt, which extends slightly in front of the hook.
Radical New Calendar Advocated to Simplify Calculations
ON JANUARY 1, 1928, it is possible that the world may begin to live by an entirely new calendar, a calendar in which a year will consist of 13 equal months of four weeks each, and in which the same date of every month always will fall on the same day of the week.
FRESNO, Calif., has augmented the usual railway grade-crossing sign by the installation of an electric warning post in the center of the street. A pendulum hung from a frame at the top of the post, swings continuously, calling attention to motorists of the presence of railway tracks.
To PREVENT loss of tools or other personal belongings from cars left for repairs, a Brooklyn, N. Y., service station has provided a series of large metal boxes, or lockers, into which articles left in the machine are placed. The owner is given the key and an identification check.
OUR modern dustless concrete auto roads may be said to have originated in a dusty limestone highway of England. Just 100 years ago, Joseph Aspdin, a mason of Leeds, England, discovered that if the dust of limestone roads was mixed with clay and burned at a high temperature, the resulting mass when ground would produce a material that hardened when mixed with water.
A SIX-CYLINDER motorcycle consisting of two separate three-cylinder engines, one on each side of the frame, is the unusual invention of a British motorcycle enthusiast. The engines are four cycle and together are rated at 16 horsepower.
A SIMPLE water-vapor device con necting the radiator and intake man i fold is designed to prevent carbon for mation in automobile cylinders and to dissolve old carbon deposits. It consists of a connection to the water discharge pipe near the radiator, an auto matic valve installed in the gasoline in take manifold, above the butterfly valve, and a length of small copper tubing join ing the two fittings.
CHICAGO motorists, at least, now enjoy the prospect of being able to buy used cars with a reliable certificate of full value for their money. This has been made possible by the establishment of a huge new testing laboratory in Chicago, under control of the Automobile Trade Association, comprising the used-car dealers of Chicago in its membership.
To ATTAIN the utmost in novelty motoring and incidentally a bird’seye view of the scenery, a Los Angeles man put his car on stilts by raising the body several feet above the chassis and extending the operating levers the necessary distance.
OPERATED by one man, a new combined grader and Fordson tractor now coming into use on hundreds of roads throughout the country, is said to cut the cost of roadmaking and maintenance enormously. No teams or extra drivers are required, and the machine works rapidly on the roughest surfaces.
A SIDE from its scientific and commercial, significance — demonstrating as it did the marvelous capabilities of the modern airplane, and possibly speeding the arrival of the time when passengers and freight will be carried through the air as readily as they now are transported by railway, ship, and motor-car —the recent feat of Lieut.
FOR scientific experiment in the design and construction of airplanes, and for the study of wind pressure, and velocity in relation to the lift and resistance of airplane wings, a wind tunnel recently has been added to the mechanical equipment of the aerodynamics department of New York University.
Sturdy Triple-Engine Planes to Fly across Kongo Jungles
AIRPLANES are about to fly over the jungles in the Belgian Kongo, Africa, cutting a 45-day land journey to a two-day jaunt through the air. For three years the Belgian government has been conducting tests to perfect the new type of plane shown above, capable of making the rigorous 1200-mile journey that virtually lies along the equator.
A LONG-DISTANCE aerial camera of the type with which Lieut. John A. Macready, test pilot, and A. W. Stevens, aerial photographer, recently took pictures of Dayton, Ohio, from a height of nearly six miles, will be part of the equipment of an expedition scheduled to go 3000 miles up the Amazon River.
A NEW peril of long-distance flight was revealed in a recent statement by Maj. Frederick L. Martin, who was commander of the round-the-world flight of United States Army planes, and whose machine crashed against a mountain peak in the Aleutian Islands.
UNCLE SAM’S army fliers recently gave New-Yorkers a thrill when they blotted out the lower end of Manhattan by dropping a smoke screen over that part of the city from airplanes equipped with special chemical apparatus. The aerial demonstration was conducted under the direction of the Chemical Warfare Service and the Army Air Service to gage the possibility of screening America’s largest city from the attacks of an enemy.
AN ENTERPRISING farmer at Tucson, Ariz., put into use an unusual silo that might be duplicated by other farmers. He excavated a trench about 20 feet wide and deep and 300 feet long. The silage was packed to the earth’s surface and covered with two feet of clay—a method that is said to keep the silage in as good condition as with the most elaborate modern silos.
NEW YORK CITY’S newest firefighting equipment consists of a 100foot extension ladder that folds up on top of the motor-truck that carries it. Mechanism at the base makes it possible to turn this huge ladder in any desired position and to extend it upward to a height of several stories of a building with extraordinary rapidity.
AN INGENIOUS electrical method for making plowing easier has been invented in England. A large part of the work done in plowing is “wasted” as friction between the moldboard and the soil. The idea is to use the soil moisture to lubricate the moldboard.
SO HUGE are the new smokestacks installed on the transpacific liner, City of Los Angeles, that a motor-truck can drive through one of them with plenty of room to spare. These huge funnels are part of $1,000,000 worth of new equipment for the famous steamer that plies between Los Angeles Harbor and Honolulu.
THE latest idea in barbecuing is a roadside fireplace and grate erected by a Cincinnati man along the Lincoln Highway, where he supplies motor tourists with fresh hot sandwiches or roasts right off the fire. The meat is placed before the fire on a steel spit that is rotated by a small electric motor connected with it by a belt and pulley.
WHEN a power company in Manchester, N. H., recently desired to put up a new repair shop, there stood in the way a house, one half of which occupied part of the proposed building-site. The other half of the residence stood on an adjoining lot. When certain conditions made it impossible to move the entire house, the contractors decided to cut the dwelling in half and remove the half that occupied the building-site.
THE world’s largest electrical advertising sign now flashes out the merits of a brand of ginger ale from a building in Times Square, New York City. The sign extends for an entire city block and is 58 feet tall, almost equal to the height of a six-story building.
ONE of the latest attractions at Vancouver, B. C., is a child’s playhouse that is a perfect model of a real “grown-up” house, including real electric lights, furniture, kitchen and dining-room equipment, porch, lawn, shrubbery, and all the rest.
AN UNUSUAL collapsible diningroom that folds up to the size of a bookcase and that can be moved from place to place on casters, recently was patented by an architect of Washington, D. C. When folded, it resembles in appearance an old-fashioned folding bedstead.
THE first lamp made entirely of cord recently was exhibited in a New York hotel. This unique lighting fixture took a year of labor by a Spanish sailor, Juan Rios Rivera. It was said to have been made for a beautiful girl Rivera fell in love with after he had rescued her from death by drowning.
A HUGE generator shaft of solid steel weighing 40,000 pounds and measuring 27 inches in diameter recently was cut through five times by a torch in the remarkable speed of from 10 to 17 minutes for each cutting. Owing to the intense heat encountered in such heavy cutting and the consequent punishment to the operator in attempting to manipulate a torch continuously for the length of time required to complete a cut, an ingenious device was rigged to carry the torch at the required uniform speed up and over the shaft as the cutting progressed.
A MACHINE for cleaning soiled tennis balls consists of an airtight cylindrical box in two sections. The balls are placed in position in the holder, a soap solution is applied to each ball, the cover is attached, and while a handle rotates the balls, water is run through connections at the base, forming a lather.
IN ORDER to mine rich coal beds in Belgium that were practically inaccessible by marsh land lying over them, engineers devised a means of sinking the shafts in columns of ice. Two such shafts already have been sunk approximately 2500 feet at a cost of more than $1000 a foot.
DID you ever stop to think how much success in your business or profession depends on a working knowledge of simple scientific facts? In the shop, the factory, or the office, have you observed that the man who always is ready with the correct answer when a question is put to him is the man who is in line for advancement?
AN IMPROVED 48-inch level of aluminum is made in three 16-inch sections that dovetail together and are securely fastened by thumb-screws. When taken apart, the sections fit into compartments in a leather case. The entire outfit weighs only four pounds.
Chemistry in the Twentieth Century. An account of the achievement and the present state of knowledge in chemical science, prepared under the guidance of a committee representing the scientific societies of England, and edited by Dr. E. F. Armstrong, F.R.S. Illustrated.
To REPLACE the cumbersome and sometimes hazardous scaffolding, tackle blocks, and rigging ropes used in construction work, a French manufacturing concern has perfected a device known as a “skyscraper”—a small platform on which a workman can hoist himself to any height required by his particular job.
SEEDS of Chinese fir-trees, which are particularly suited for the manufacture of wood pulp, are being tried out in the United States by the Forest Service in the hope of adding to the nation’s pulp resources.
MOST automobile owners know that a new car should be run carefully and cautiously at least for the first 500 miles. But did you know that an overhauled engine should be run with equal care after it comes from the shop? This is because an engine, after an overhauling that includes the fitting of old and new parts together, is in much the same condition, so far as friction is concerned, as when the new parts were assembled originally at the factory.
WILL the perfect loudspeaker be produced this year? Ever since the advent of broadcasting it has been realized that the “speaker” controls the future of the science. In the United States, England, and France every available effort is being concentrated upon the development of this instrument.
SCIENTISTS have come at last to the realization that the best way to eliminate the evil effects of static is first to learn its habits, where it comes from, and the hours it keeps. With an intelligent knowledge of these facts more progress can be made toward its elimination than by any of the haphazard methods at present employed.
ON JULY first the new transcontinental air mail service was inaugurated. Radio is playing a remarkable part in the safety of the aircraft employed in this service. All the landing fields are linked with a radio system that approximates in effectiveness the block system of signaling on railroads.
SOME interesting figures have just been compiled regarding broadcasting stations. These show that 79.3 per cent of the stations licensed in this country are operating on less than 500 watts, an amount of power generally considered inadequate.
REMARKABLE progress apparently is being made by Marconi and his assistants with the “directed beam” system of radio communication on wave lengths of one to 15 meters. The latest reports indicate that successful telephone communication between England and Argentina has been achieved.
RADIO probably never will supplant the existing systems of railroad signaling and control entirely. It will, however, make possible direct communication at all times with moving trains. This is of far-reaching importance. Its value when storms disrupt the telegraph lines cannot be overestimated.
How Broadcasters Send Realistic Drama over the Air
W. T. Meenam
IF YOU ever have listened to drama over the radio, have you wondered how effects of rain, thunder, wind, and similar noises are created before the microphone in the studio of the broadcasting station, to add vivid reality to the spoken play?
Part 1—The First Detector and Two-Stage Amplifier Units
Radio Editor of Popular Science Monthly THE super-heterodyne is recognized generally as being the most sensitive and the most selective of all radio receiving sets. For that reason the dream of almost every real radio fan is to own one sooner or later.
ALTHOUGH you cannot eliminate static, you can, without much trouble, cut down the amount of static that crackles in the head phones or loudspeaker of your receiving set. The surest way to do so is to use an indoor aerial — either a loop, or a single wire stretched in the attic, along a hallway or around a picture molding.
THE meteorologist’s laboratory is the atmosphere itself. Unlike workers in many other fields of science, it is not easy for the meteorologist personally to work in more than a small portion of his laboratory. His efforts usually are confined to that portion of the atmosphere that lies next to the ground.
To promote the production of scientific machinery for industry, the British National Physical Laboratory at Teddington, Middlesex, is conducting experiments on a large scale in every branch of physical science. These pictures show some of the most interesting tests
An Expert's Forecast of Improvements in the Next 25 Years
Leslie V. Spencer
WHERE is the automobile going? What sort of motor vehicles will the drivers of the future operate? At the rate of development maintained during the last 25 years, the motorist of 1950 will laugh heartily at our finest gasoline creations of today, just as we cast an amused eye upon the horseless carriages of 1900, with their funny dashboards, their chuggy engines underneath, and their short wheel base.
STALLING of motor horns is one of the annoying troubles of autoists and it always occurs, of course, in the thickest traffic. Frequently it is due to the fact that the brushes do not make very good contact—a difficulty that can be eliminated very easily by the method shown in Fig. 1.
Shop Superintendent, New York University; Consulting Expert on Tools, Popular Science Institute of Standards WHY don’t you use a file, Jim?” "File? What do you mean? am sharpening this plane iron.” “Oh! I thought you were trying to dig a groove into that stone you have there,” said Old Prentiss in a voice and with a smile that savored strongly of sarcasm.
HOW to make an attractive shade is a problem to be solved whenever a table lamp is to be constructed in the home workshop. Shades generally are made by covering a wire frame with silk or imitation parchment. Far more unique and even less expensive are shades made as illustrated from wooden chopping-bowls.
I HAVE just finished the construction of an “antique” china closet from pieces of lumber taken from an old reed organ. Old reed organs may be obtained cheaply from music dealers, yet they contain beautiful lumber, usually solid walnut or solid oak.
WHEN the garage door swung open and Jackson’s car rolled into the alley, the paint glistened in the sunlight. Any one who did not know the car would have said it had just come from the paint shop. Those who knew Jackson and his car, however, were aware that the machine was three years old and never had been repainted.
IN DESIGNING machinery for the home workshop two points must be borne in mind. One is that the machine should be as strong as its manufactured brother; the other is that easily obtainable stock should be used as far as possible, to avoid the cost of having patterns made for castings.
THERE’S a young fellow over there,” said the foreman, “who gets my goat. Every time I give him a new job, he spends 10 or 15 minutes looking at it before he does a tap of work.” The superintendent smiled, as he inquired, “How does he do his work after he does get started?”
Machine-Shop Foreman ALL bearing surfaces on high grade machinery must be scraped. We have only to consider the enormous number of machines turned out to realize how vast is the area of metal surfaces scraped each year in machineshops. For this reason the art of scraping metals is an important branch of the machinist’s trade; and it is an art that cannot be learned merely by following set rules.
WHEN working on long material at the vise, it is often a considerable aid to use a support made as shown. This is machined from a piece of flat stock of the desired length, one end being turned down to any suitable diameter and fitted with a sliding fork or rest.
Simple Jig Prevents Breakage in Drilling Plate Glass
IN DRILLING plate glass for attaching windshield wipers, special inside spotlights, and similar purposes, the simply made drill jig illustrated has proved successful in preventing breakage. It consists of 2 blocks of wood, 2 small pieces of strap iron, 4 wood screws and 2 clamp screws.
TO HOLD a T-square against the lefthand edge of the drawing-board at all times is the object of the device illustrated. This is especially intended for use on a large drawing-board not equipped with an ordinary parallel rule attachment. A bent plate somewhat shorter than the length of the T-square head is fastened securely to the head.
A GREAT many of us know how aggravating it is to have a job blocked and clamped on the planer bed only to have the blocking slip on the first stroke. A good way to prevent this is to make a pin with a large head, provide the clamping bar with a hole through which the pin will pass, and use standard washers between the clamping bar and the pin head to act as spacers.
FOR setting over a lathe tailstock for cutting tapers, the simple telltale illustrated is a useful accessory. A piece of machine steel 5/8 by 1 in. and about 5 in. long is slotted as shown to take a finger made of 1/8-in. thick sheet steel pivoted on a 1/8-in. pin.
Tailstock Holder for Light Drilling on Bench Lathe
ON THOSE frequent occasions when it is desired to drill a center or a small hole in work chucked in a bench lathe, the usual practice is to remove the part and do the drilling on a drill press. One way to avoid taking out the work is to use a hand drill holder that is inserted between the work and the tailstock center.
Diagonal Pins Hold Tools in Socket of Unusual Design
A TOOL socket that differs from the conventional type can be made inexpensively as illustrated. It consists of a threaded holder and nut with a closed end. Two diagonal holes are fitted, as indicated, with pins that are forced against the shank nut is tightened.
To DETERMINE accurately if the live spindle of a lathe is true with its ways, I chuck and turn a piece of metal of convenient diameter for a distance of 6 or 8 in. If the diameters at both ends of the cut are equal, then the spindle is true in a horizontal plane.
WASHERS of any desired size may be cut rapidly from rubber, fiber, felt, or any material other than metal with a tool made as shown. Between the cutting edges is a recess that contains a ring for ejecting the washers as they are cut. A ring of the same diameter is placed outside the tool on top and connected with the inner ring by means of two studs.
A CHEAP and yet accurate jig for drilling holes in round stock can be made as illustrated. A square block, provided with a V-groove, is fastened to the upright by means of a T-slot. The upright is grooved to allow the bushing bracket to be adjusted up or down.
WHEN planing thin strips of wood on the jointer, the danger of accident may be reduced by providing a handle or holder made as shown. It is placed over the strip to be planed, the end of which is caught against the cleat. The latter may project ⅛ or ¼ in. below the lower surface of the holder, as desired.
ANY one who has been splashed with oil thrown by the spindle of a woodturning lathe will appreciate the method of protection indicated in the accompanying illustration. The bearing cap is made about 1 in. longer than the lower half of the bearing.
THE simple drill jig illustrated is a useful fixture because it can be adjusted to suit the location of various holes that have to be drilled in straight flat work and shafts, as well as pin holes in studs and similar work. A rotating head is pivoted to a block that can be clamped along with the work in the drill-press vise.
A TOOL for the mechanic who has a great deal of surface filing to do can be made by bending two pieces of ½-in. plate to form a file holder as shown. The plates are held apart by a separator and two wooden handles are riveted to them. The central clamping bolt is screwed up tight to hold the file between the jaws.
REMOVING a heavy chuck from a large lathe is a task that is lightened greatly by the use of the special lift illustrated. When the design of the lathe per mits, this may be fastened directly to the back of the bed, or it may be carried down to the floor and braced from the lathe bed.
WHEN no regular keycutting machine is available, keyways may be cut quickly in the shaper with the tool illustrated. The holder, forged to shape as shown, has a ¼-in. reamed hole that takes the tool bar. In the end of the bar is a toolbit, held with a setscrew.
THE countersunk screw is one fastener for which ordinarily no method of locking is provided. In some cases, it is true, the head is chiseled, riveted, or prick punched, but these methods cannot be depended upon always to hold against vibration and other strains.
A SMALL aquarium lends a touch of color and interest to a sun porch, living-room or dining-room that well repays the cost and labor of building one. Not only has it a decorative quality that is difficult to duplicate by other means, but it provides a fascinating study for the children.
Blueprints for Beginners to Be New Workshop Feature
“I CAN’T build any furniture,” recently remarked a friend to the Home Workshop Editor of POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. “I haven’t the time nor the tools nor the knowledge. Manual training wasn’t taught in the school I attended, and I never learned to do anything but ordinary little woodworking jobs around the house.
Keeping Photographic Developer at Correct Working Temperature
AMATEUR photographers who have their darkroom in the cellar often find the problem of keeping their developer in the neighborhood of 70 degrees a difficult one. Cellar temperatures range from 50 to 55 degrees in winter weather to 60 to 65 degrees in the summer.
How to Install Automatic Light in a Clothes Closet
DARK clothes closets usually can be equipped with electric light at small cost. The best installation includes an automatic door switch, which turns on the light when the door is opened and turns it off when the door is closed. If the closet is on the second floor of a two-story house, the wires usually may be run in the attic.
How to Make a General Utility Scraper for Woodwork
A GOOD scraper is an indispensable tool in the home workshop. It is useful for smoothing hardwood floors preparatory to sanding and finishing, even though a weighted, wheel-mounted scraper or motor-driven sanding machine has been used first.
Outside Service Door Improves a “California Cooler”
A. May Holaday
IT IS difficult to estimate the number of steps saved every week by the use of a small service door set into the “cooler,” as the ventilated cupboard so common in California is called, or, indeed, any kitchen cupboard that is built against an outside wall.
MY HOME workshop is the major factor in helping to keep my home shipshape. It is the accumulation of years of doing odd jobs and making things for myself. When anything needs doing around the house, I do it myself. If I need some tool, I buy it with the money that will be saved, and when I have the job finished, I have the tool left as profit.
SOMETIMES a kitchen sink is placed in a corner in such a way that no drainboard can be provided without changing the plumbing. This was the case in my own home. I overcame the difficulty by constructing a slightly slanting drainboard as shown, 12 in. wide and 4 ft. long, with one end cut away so that no part of the sink would be covered.
OCCASIONALLY it is necessary to repair damaged or cracked concrete work. This is difficult to do successfully unless the following suggestions are observed: Use the same proportions of sand, gravel, and cement as were used in the original mixture, so that the new work will expand and contract the same as the old concrete.
THIS toy motorbus, which is made mainly of wood, can be built with little difficulty and practically no expense. It has no motor to complicate the construction. The child pushes it around from behind, steering it as he pleases by turning the spare tire, which is ingeniously connected with the front axle.
ACCURATE scales are expensive to buy and quite difficult to make by the ordinary method. A delicate balance is essential, nevertheless, as soon as really careful chemical work is to be done in the home workshop. The question is, how to make a dependable scale cheaply and without taking a great deal of time.
HAVING a number of old table leaves, we sawed off the little knobs, poured wax in the depressions and used the pieces to build book shelves as shown. They were enameled black and decorated with bright flowers. These were painted on the black surface in such a way that tiny buds concealed the wax depressions where the knobs on the edge had been removed.
A MOTORIST brought his car into the shop not long ago and complained about the noise made by the valve lifters. He asked that the engine be gone over. One very bad valve lifter with a flat roller was removed, the bearings were taken up, and other work done.
Homemade Metal Tray Aids in Sorting Screws Quickly
IN LOOKING for odd size screws or other small parts in a miscellaneous assortment, much time often is lost in returning the collection to its container, and frequently shavings and dust are swept from the bench top into the container along with the screws.
Improved Combination Racks Aid in Playing Chinese Game
S. W. Blanchard
HAVING experimented with several different types of accessories for the now popular Chinese game, I evolved a design of rack that not only holds the concealed tiles, but also the exposed portion of the hand, as well as the counters. These combination racks make unnecessary any other equipment and are preferable to those built into the edge of a special game table because they are portable.
BY USING radio jacks I have been able to connect instantly as many as four pairs of telephone head sets with my radio receiver. The method is shown in the accompanying diagram. Num bers 1 and 2 are double - circuit jacks, of which there can be as many more as desired.
Tricks that Aid in Shaping Brass and Copper Tubing
COPPER tubing can be shaped in various ways if one knows how to do it. Brass tubing—that is, drawn-brass tubing—can be handled in the same way, to some extent, but it will not stand as much stretching and bending as copper. Before starting, anneal the tube thoroughly by heating it red hot and quenching in cold water.
Unique Variometer with Flat Coils Allows Close Tuning
TWO thin boards serve as forms for the coils of the simple variometer illustrated, which can be made at practically no expense and yet gives exceptionally sharp tuning. A small block is glued across the rotary board, and the stationary board is fastened by means of another block to the baseboard of the receiving set behind the panel.
MOVING to an apartment recently, I found I could not erect an outside aerial for my radio receiving set. I used, instead, an indoor aerial composed of two lengths of No. 22 hard brass wire, each 50 ft. long. The wire was wound into a spring ½ in. in diameter and strung from opposite corners of the room, as shown, being fastened to the molding with fiber hooks and insulators.
FOR a flat-top desk or a library table, the combination rack illustrated has the advantage that it holds not only books, but also magazines, note-paper and current correspondence. The original was made of walnut to match other furniture, but any wood may be used.
IT IS difficult to hold hand cameras, especially those of small size, perfectly steady while a comparatively slow snapshot is being taken. By adding the handle illustrated, however, the photographer can get a good grip on the camera with one hand only.
Built-In Ironing-Board Has Strength and Simplicity
THE folding ironing-board and cupboard illustrated is of very solid and simple construction. No braces are required to support the end of the board and therefore there is nothing in the way on the under side. The method of building the cupboard, which may be installed in an old as well as in a new house, is made clear in the accompanying drawing.
ROUGH wooden edges sometimes can be finished cheaply and effectively with metal conduit molding, obtainable from electrical supply dealers. I used it recently when building a box for the back of a delivery auto.—O. A.
Farm Lighting Plant Furnishes Current for Radio Set
H. Leslie Curtis
THERE is an interesting field of experiment open to those rural dwellers who possess the happy combination of a radio set and a farm electric plant. Under certain conditions the two may be combined in such a way as to eliminate the A-battery nuisance.
Improved Movable Mailbox Designed by Letter-Carrier
A NEBRASKA letter-carrier designed the movable mailbox illustrated so that when a rut forms in the road alongside the box, the stand can be moved a few feet away. Ordinarily after every rain the letter-carrier must drive his car in the same track day after day until the rut is so deep that his car eventually strikes the mailbox, or he has to keep so far away from the box that he cannot reach it conveniently.
LIFTING eggs from boiling water is not difficult if wire tongs are at hand. Each end of a 28-in. piece of wire is bent to form a loop about 1 in. in diameter. The wire is then bent in the middle, two turns being made about a small stick to form a spring.
AN ODD and convenient little indicator for reminding card-players of the suit that is trumps is shown in the accompanying illustration. A touch of a pencil will move the arm to indicate the proper trump. “No trump” is indicated by placing the arm in a vertical position.
DULL knives usually result when all are thrown together in a pantry knife-box. They are a source of annoyance to the hurried housewife and to the patient or impatient husband who tries to keep them in working condition. Better than a box is the double deck wall rack illustrated.
1. Because when you go uphill you are lifting your weight against the force of gravity. This takes power. When you go down, the force of gravity is with you. 2. They are substances present in very small amounts in many foods and that seem to be necessary to health.
What is your radio problem?—Broadcasting is passing rapidly from the realm of the enthusiast to that of the public service utility, such as the telephone. Yet, unlike the telephone, radio has not yet been standardized to the point where you can use any receiver at any time, or any place, and expect to hear messages satisfactorily.