Most Wonderfully Illustrated Magazine in the World
SCIENCE and thought are inseparable twins. Each new discovery, each new invention, has the magic power of thought behind it. But an even more wonderful and more potent force is forethought. Forethought drives science forward to new achievements.
Brief Bits of Timely Comment on the Sciences of the Hour
PROF. A. M. LOW, the “Edison of England,” whose wonderful invention for photographing noise has been used successfully in the London underground railways. He is shown above watching the motor races at Brooklands, Eng., where the exhaust noises of the competing cars were measured by his device: “European scientists are on the eve of announcing one of the greatest discoveries of the age—flexible glass.
Science Teaches Motorists How to Protect Themselves Against a Danger in Fuel that Is More Deadly than Dynamite
What Is Static?
Why Gasoline Explodes
Where Peril Lurks in a Tiny Spark
Static Responsible for Many Fires
Raymond J. Brown
THROUGH the deaths of three motorists, all occurring within a week recently in widely separated parts of the country, attention of automotive engineers has been focused upon an odd but deadly peril in the gasoline tanks of automobiles. It is the danger of explosion and fire from the ignition of gasoline fumes by static electricity.
Marvelous New Camera Watches a Hammer Smash a Vacuum Bulb
The Scientific Detective
SIMULTANEOUSLY from the United States and England has come announcement of the invention of two revolutionary types of “slow motion” moving-picture cameras, capable respectively of making 3200 and 5000 exposures a second. This permits the photographing in elaborate detail of actions the unaided eye cannot discern.
SHIPS of the sea have built empires, altered the destinies of nations, and exerted a profound influence on history through uncounted centuries. With the dawn of the twentieth century, ships of the air have come as a new challenger of time and space, and their influence upon the trend of world events is today one of the most potent factors in world progress and development.
THE motor-driven chain hoist shown below will lift a ton at a five-ounce pull from the operator, whereas previous hoists have required a 90-pound pull. The motor is controlled by a switch in the handle held by the operator. Turning on the current lifts the load.
A MACHINE that makes possible a dry cleaning service without the expense of skilled labor and the employment of complicated machinery has been designed for use by tailoring shops, dry-goods houses, hotels, and cleaning shops. The large brush shown in the center of the table revolves rapidly, loosening the dust from the fabric, while a strong draft draws the dust into a centrifugal type dust collector.
Time Saved, Colds Avoided by This Built-In Mailbox
AN INGENIOUS accessory for the home is a newly invented, built-in mailbox. The box is so arranged that a letter, dropped into the slot on the outside, can be removed through a small door within the house. This will eliminate the necessity of going out of doors when the postman leaves the mail, averting the possibility of contracting colds in inclement weather.
CAMPERS in districts where streams may be polluted will be relieved to learn that the Army Medical School at Washington, D. C., has evolved a handy method of purifying suspected water. One or two drops of tincture of iodine will vanquish all the germs in a quart of unsafe water within from 20 to 30 minutes, according to this authority.
A NEW type of wall and ceiling socket for electric fixtures facilitates the removal, for cleaning, replacing, or interchanging, of those fixtures that we now term "permanent." The socket consists of two parts, one fastened firmly to the wall or ceiling and the other to the fixture.
MADE of enameled steel, a new pressure kettle that seals itself when the pressure within rises has been added to the list of new labor-saving utensils. A stack of pans is held in a rack that fits in the kettle. The cover fits tightly and is provided with a pressure gage and a safety valve.
HOME cooking comforts are provided the camper or motor tourist by the folding camp stove shown above. It burns gasoline, permitting the use of fuel extracted from the tank of the motor car. A windshield, warming shelf, detachable pressed steel legs, and a two-burner iron grate are features of the stove, which may be folded to 4½ by 10½ by 19 inches for carrying.
A SMALL pocket microscope, only four inches long and weighing but 15 ounces, recently perfected, is capable of magnifying an object 225 times its actualsize. The instrument consists of a cylindrical base and stand into which two other cylinders telescope.
PERSONS who mow their own lawns usually are compelled to use grass shears to supplement the work of their mowers in trimming the growth at the sides of buildings and fences or around trees or flower beds. Now a Michigan manufacturer has perfected an ingenious small mower, no larger than a rake, that will cut grass any place where a rake might be thrust.
GRAY backgrounds often are desirable in photographing small objects in the studio, but almost invariably the photographer resorts to the white background to obviate the many difficulties otherwise encountered. If the object is placed on a clear glass with the gray card underneath, he often gets reflections across the plate.
THIS handy wall telephone holder, carries a little coin container to remind neighbors that telephone service costs money. A conveniently arranged pad may be used for notes or a ready reference directory of numbers.
MODERN invention rarely has been put to a more dramatic use than it was a few weeks ago, when a devastating fire, which had killed 13 men and had consumed more than $20,000 worth of oil a day for three days, was extinguished by a giant candle snuffer devised for the emergency by an oilwell foreman.
A FEW weeks ago the New York newspapers, in reporting a trial in which a noted criminal lawyer appeared as counsel for the defense, commented on the remarkable feats of memory which he performed many times during the closing days of the trial.
UNUSUALLY useful for the modern mother is this combination canvas bathtub and dressing table for the baby. It is designed to fit within the ordinary bathtub, and is supported by the sides of the tub. Not only is it sanitary for the baby because of a continuous flow of clean water, but it provides comfort for both mother and child.
A PORTABLE radio set which, it is claimed, uses no ground and no aerial, is here shown. It is said to have picked up broadcasting stations 100 miles distant. A secret type of circuit using one amplifying tube, is the explanation given for the remarkable performance.
ONE of the recent inventions is an automatic sheet-music turner, adapted to all sizes of pages. The sheets are engaged by clips of fine wire, and are turned when pressure is exerted on a pedal. WHO are the world’s ten greatest scientists? From the whole field of science and from all the pages of history, which ten men stand out clearly above the thousands who have done great things, and why?
A NOVEL hanging platform that enables a person to wash the outside of upper-story windows in comfort and safety has been invented by James C. Brewster of Fort Madison, la. The device consists of a stand and cage formed of iron bars, with hooks or hangers that extend across the windowsill and engage the portion of the windowsill within the room.
TO PRODUCE changes in color in the illumination of advertising signs, an Indianapolis inventor has devised the electric lantern shown here. Hitherto, color changes in illuminated signs were effected by the employment of many electric lamps of various colors.
AN AERIAL bicycle, called the “cycleplane,” driven only by footpower applied by the pilot to an arrangement of pedals, recently achieved a short flight near Dayton, Ohio. It is said to be the first man-propelled flying device ever to lift itself from the ground.
SIX fuses in the space commonly occupied by one is a recently devised convenience for the householder who forgets to keep a supply on hand. When one of the six fuses in the socket indicated by finger is blown out, a turn of the cap attached to it allows the current to pass through a new fuse.
THIS diminutive “camera filling station,” built and displayed recently by C. L. Olds, of Lincoln, Neb., is made entirely of film spools except for four small nails holding together the roof signposts. Eight Christmas tree lights illuminated it in varied colors.
A SIMPLE but ingenious phonograph record repeater, weighing less than one ounce, is a recent invention that makes home dancing without an orchestra more convenient and more enjoyable. It is said to be so simple that a child can attach it without difficulty or damage to the record or to the machine.
BUSINESS papers may be fastened together permanently or temporarily for working purposes by means of this improved fastener. The machine is adjusted simply by turning a little device with the forefinger; when one side of this device is turned up, the staple is pushed through the papers and clinched.
USING a mixture of 50 per cent sawdust with chalk and -chemicals and subjecting it to extremely heavy pressure, a Norwegian inventor claims to have perfected an artificial wood possessing the toughness of real lumber. The new substance is said to have the hardness of oak.
EVERY human being is a parasite. Whether we like it or not, we must live upon the labor of others. These others are the plants. Plants supply all the food in the world. They can support themselves by absorbing non-living substances like water, salts from the soil, and gases from the air.
SPACIOUSNESS and comfort, both day and night, are provided in an ingenious new design for sleeping cars proposed by M. C Krarup, consulting engineer. The illustration above shows two compartments of the car arranged for daytime use. The seat nearer the window is pivoted, allowing a range of positions.
This Coin-in-the-Slot Radio Is Parisian Innovation
THE penny-in-the-slot machines with ear tubes that had their habitat in depots, amusement parks, and hotel lobbies have, for the most part, disappeared. With them have vanished the songs they emitted in squeaky jumbles of sound. But the idea they embodied lives today in this French radio machine, which is invading wherever Parisian crowds are.
WINDOWS with double-hung sashes, that not only can be raised and lowered in the usual manner, but also swing completely around on horizontal pivots, have been designed recently to facilitate cleaning. When tilted at right angles to A METHOD whereby shingles of cedar and similar wood that have crimped in drying because of excessive moisture may be restored, has been announced by the United States Forestry Service.
THE “HOW My Car Serves Me” prize contest, announced in the September issue of POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY, has met with immediate response from our readers who own automobiles. Many of them have sent in letters and photographs describing novel uses to which they have put their cars.
BABIES of flat and tenement dwellers, whose tiny lungs have been forced to breathe stale and overheated air, are offered relief by the recent English invention pictured above. A large metal crate is attached to the outside of the window by two stout iron poles.
DROPLIGHTS that swing from the ceiling by flexible wires have always been difficult to adjust to heights and angles such that they throw a maximum amount of light on the proper spot. Any one who has used them in the study, the office, the workshop or the garage has probably been forced to change the height by knotting the cord and to swing the lamp from place to place by tying it with strings attached to walls, joists, desk legs and other places.
THE ingenious little tool shown here is called a “lightningchange magazine screwdriver.” It has three sizes of blades, contained inside the handle and numbered 1, 2, and 3, according to size. There are three corresponding numbers on the handle, and the blade desired is obtained for use by turning a cap, rotating the handle until the number corresponding to the number of the blade is up, then tipping the handle until the blade drops into place.
THIS work garment has all the appearance of the ordinary one-piece overall suit, but in reality it is a two-piece suit so fashioned as to be absolutely dustproof. The suit consists of a jacket and trousers. The jacket has a waistband under which are tabs which button to the trousers.
AN ENGLISH inventor has devised a method of utilizing projected light to determine the depth of water through which a vessel is passing. The device is said to supply an accurate and satisfactory substitute for the time-worn operation of “heaving the lead” to make soundings in shallow water.
AN ORDINARY chicken incubator has been used with striking success to test milk in cheesemaking by J. L. Sammis, of the Wisconsin College of Agriculture, shown above with his testing apparatus. Milk samples are placed in test tubes in the incubator and subjected to heat of a temperature favorable to the development of bacteria.
PERILS have been of flying lessened by night, by a or new in clouds gyroscopic indicating instrument recently perfected by the United States Army Air Service at McCook Field, Ohio. It consists of two gyroscopes with axes at right angles to each other, and a glass tube resembling the bulb of a carpenter’s level.
TO FACILITATE the work of changing electric lamps for the cornice lights of its building, the Seattle Times, of Seattle, Wash., has installed a small railroad on its roof. The Times found that the many cornice lamps illuminating the building were difficult to replace, sometimes requiring 10 hours of labor.
OMNIBUSES with seats that rest on pneumatic shock absorbers promise to solve one of today’s greatest passenger transportation problems in rural and suburban districts. Country roads are not always in first class condition, and to protect the passengers from painful bumps and shakings it is necessary to use pneumatic tires on the wheels of a vehicle.
YOU, who have thought of corncobs only * as holders provided by Nature from which you might nibble the sweet kernels, should be interested in the recent discovery by Professor Darling, of Milliken University, Decatur, 111., of a process by which 60 per cent of the cob can be manufactured into a substitute for wood.
A COMBINATION soldering iron, blowtorch, and branding iron, which is self-heating, of light weight, and little more than a foot in length over all, has been developed by an Illinois manufacturer. Gasoline is used as fuel, and is carried from the large cylinder by cotton wicking to the flame tube through which it is fed by a patented needle valve and vaporized.
TELEGRAPHIC transmission of written script—1453 words in six minutes—was accomplished recently by a new French invention. The handwriting was sent from Lyons to Malmaison, near Paris. Ordinary transmission of such a message by telegraph would have required 25 minutes.
A BRACKET that permits an ordinary pocket flashlight to be utilized as a searchlight by a bicyclist has been invented by Clarence E. Graves, of Hammond, Ind. It is a strip of sheet metal fitting the circumference of the flash lamp, to which it is secured by a bolt and thumb nut.
FLOWER lovers who are city dwellers will warm to “Betsy Bobbit.” The young lady is an attractive adjustable shelf, which makes it possible to have a flower pot on even the narrowest windowsill. The device is of metal, sturdily built, and capable of supporting a pot weighing 20 pounds.
NERVE splicing, said to be the most delicate of surgical operations, is one of the latest achievements of curative science. Nerves from animals may be used to restore health and activity to human muscles and other body parts suffering from nerve loss or disease.
AN ENGINEDRIVEN double - cylinder pump, mounted on automobile wheels, so that it may be moved from place to place by automobile, motorcycle, or motor truck, or drawn by hand, has been perfected by a Pennsylvania manufacturer. The device is said to adapt itself to a variety of uses.
INVENTING a 10-pound flying machine and then flying with it was the daring exploit performed recently by a German inventor, Dr. I. Seehaase, who is shown here with his folded diminutive gravityoutwitter over his shoulder. The other picture shows the same device being handled in a high wind by attendants in preparation for a flight.
Famous Polar Explorer Taking Radio into the Bleak Arctic
Why Not another Ice Age?
Radio Expert of the Expedition
Captain Donald B. MacMillan
When the following special article was received in the office of this magazine, the explorer already had embarked on his eighth expedition into the Arctic to determine, among other things, whether another Ice Age is beginning. Captain MacMillan is preeminently fitted to discuss this fascinating question. He has missed only two of the last 15 years in the Arctic.
HIGH efficiency, extreme mobility and versatility, and low maintenance cost are said to be features of the improved heavy duty, revolving type railroad ditcher shovel shown below. It is possible to mount this machine on railroad trucks of standard or special gage, traction or continuous tread trucks.
MORE than 4000 sufferers from rheumatism are said to have enjoyed an 80 per cent amelioration of symptoms under the bacteria injection treatment given 5000 patients during the last four years at the clinic of the New York University Medical College.
LITTLE models of industrial plants, revealing in easily grasped detail the construction and operation of factories, mines, furnaces, etc., are on exhibition in the Division of Mineral Technology, in the United States National Museum at Washington, D. C.
NO LONGER is there any reason why four-year-old Buddy should go forth to the store with a dime, some pennies, and a milk bottle and come back sobbing in a few minutes, penniless and milkless, except for what is splashed on him. Unless he falls down, the bottle carrier here shown will safeguard against childish carelessness.
A WIRELESS sending and receiving set has been added to the equipment of the service truck operated by a Los Angeles transportation company. This truck is stationed halfway between Los Angeles and San Diego, Calif., keeping in touch with the home station, so that almost instantly it can be advised of a company truck in need of repairs along the road between the two cities.
SMALL children can be cured of the finger-sucking habit if an arrangement of bands and dangling metal links is clamped around the end of the thumb or finger, says the inventor of this device. When the child attempts to put the finger, with band and chain attached, into its mouth, the metal parts come in contact with the tongue and the roof of the mouth.
MANIKINS that play real golf on the parlor floor, under the control and direction of players, feature a new indoor golf game that includes tees, greens, bunkers, and even the water hazards of the outdoor game. The game is played with a club resembling a driver, which has the figure of a miniature golfer in place of the usual wooden head.
EVERY one who plays bridge knows what an annoying article the score pad is. Sometimes you can’t find it when you’re ready to play. When you have found it and have started the game, the pad is likely to evidence an exasperating habit of traveling around the table, getting mixed up with the cards, or falling to the floor.
A MINIATURE locomotive constructed of Ford parts is attracting attention at Culver City, Calif., where it is being displayed by De Witt Brady. The connecting rods are the only parts used in the motor car that serve the same purpose in the locomotive.
THE monobus, a hybrid of trolley car and autobus, has been suggested as the possible solution of transportation problems in suburban districts. By its use the cost of installation and expense of maintenance could be reduced, it is claimed, to the limits demanded by infrequent trolley service in thinly settled communities.
MODERN jewelers who have produced a “dime size” watch movement, small enough to be mounted on a finger-ring, point to the achievement as an example of the progress made in the watchmaker’s art, but our illustration shows that small movements are nothing new.
LIES, even those harmless lies that lubricate so many of Life’s situations, promise to become hazardous luxuries if the “retinoscope,” a lie-trap devised by Dr. W. D. Bates, noted New York City ophthalmologist, is vindicated by experience and comes into wider use.
ONE of the most unusual sun-dials in existence is that at Columbia University, New York City, presented recently by the class of 1885. A 15-ton granite sphere casts a shadow upon the base so that the east and west edges of the shadow exactly pass through two marked points at high noon on any day of the year.
NO ONE would dream of plunging into deep water without first learning how to swim. Yet almost every day I see men attempting to play billiards—one of the most complicated and scientific games ever devised—with no knowledge of its fundamental principles beyond the fact that it consists of knocking three ivory balls around a felt-covered rectangular table with a tapering stick called a cue.
THIS is Tiny Mite, the smallest fullgrown horse in the world, 26 inches tall and weighing 51 pounds. His diminutive proportions are the more remarkable because he does not come of any diminutive breed of equines. He has as his sire and dam respectively, Baron B. and Lady Raffles, full-sized thoroughbreds and former race horses.
A NEW wheel design for motor trucks permits the use of solid or pneumatic tires without changing the wheel. On the wheel in the center may be placed either the solid tire and wide rim shown at the left or the pneumatic tire and rim shown at the right.
DIRTY tennis balls, which grime the hands and white sport clothes, now can be banished inexpensively, it is claimed. But it is the condition and not the ball that really is banished. Stains of grass or clay are said to be effectually removed by the recently patented brushing machine here shown.
MANY thousand years ago this formidable looking creature roamed the plains of Texas. Perhaps it was the original Texas steer. This striking animal is Palaescincus, the “armored dinosaur,” a restoration of whose skeleton has just been placed in the American Museum of Natural History, New York City.
ABOVE is Mrs. Lyle Funk, of Shirley, I11., holding her prize white Leghorn hen, Lady Anne, said to be the champion egg producer of the world. Lady Anne is 10 years old, and in the nine years that elapsed since she learned to lay has produced more than 1300 eggs, with a total weight of about 175 pounds.
A SAFE-CRACKER’S ingenious lamp attached to the palm of a glove recently was seized by Detective Captain Sam Street, of San Antonio, Tex. In the palm of the glove is a pocket, in which is placed a small electric battery. Flat wires lead the current through the switch at the base of the index finger to a bulb at the base of the third finger.
THIS 35-pound power plant for inboard installation in canoes marks the achievement of the long desired portable motor boat, permitting one man to take long, solitary canoe voyages through such districts as the Canadian lake country, which require frequent portaging.
PERFORATIONS to prevent the altering of checks, long used by business houses, are made available for personal checks by this new, pocket-size perforator. The perforator is of silver plates, between which the check is placed and punched.
THE mounting of a lifting crane on a storage battery electric truck was accomplished successfully for the first time recently by the New York Edison Company. Since being placed on the truck, one of five tons, the crane has shown a lifting capacity at least 40 per cent greater than that at which it was rated by the manufacturer.
A NOVEL outdoor broiler that stands erect beside the fire has been invented for campers and picnickers. It is supported at the back by a sharp-pointed wire leg that is pushed into the sand or dirt. The invention really is a wire inclosed in a cooking pan.
EVERY mechanic who knows how vital a tool a hacksaw can be will find this recently patented frame interesting. It is designed to undergo severe usage without springing. In designing the handle, the inventor remembered the mechanic’s comfort and shaped it to his hand.
FOUNTAIN-PEN filling stations in office buildings, schools, and libraries are interesting possibilities of tomorrow. The “station” pictured here has been operated successfully for months at the University of Chicago. A penny dropped in the slot releases enough ink to fill an ordinary fountain pen.
The Inspiring Story of Pasteur, Great French Conqueror of Disease, Whose Centenary the World Celebrates
Pasteur Develops Rabies Vaccine
R. E. Martin
THIS year the whole world is celebrating the centenary of Louis Pasteur, the great scientist, who, in point of alleviating suffering, has been called “the supreme benefactor of the human race.” France, the country of his birth, set aside six months in which to honor his memory by a series of fêtes and exhibits, one of which delegates from every country attended.
How 18-Year-Old Postal Employee Ingeniously Doubled His Output
Greenhorn Mystifies Experienced Men
H. H. Billany
NO BRANCH of the government service is more ready—I might say more anxious—to reward employees who evidence originality and ingenuity in the performance of their duties than the Post Office Department. Particularly is this so with regard to employees who Suggest or develop improvements in mailcarrying equipment or in the machinery of the shops where the mail equipment is manufactured.
READ Mr. Billany’s inspiring story above. An ingenious idea won recognition from the postal authorities for young Lombardi. Perhaps you have had some similar experience. Possibly some simple device you have invented has helped you in your work, has won promotion for you.
A TOOL with an unusually wide range of usefulness is the combination pliers, monkey-wrench and pipe wrench illustrated here. It is quickly adjusted to fit various sized pipes, bolts, nuts, caps, nipples, and similar parts. It has a capacity for parts up to one inch square and 1⅛ inches round.
BATHERS who claim to be able to swim like ducks now can make good their, boast by equipping themselves, not with webbed feet, but with webbed hands. The webbed rubber gloves shown below do the trick. Swimmers who have tried them say that they make the process of moving through the water almost as easy as walking.
TWO novel circuit arrangements are the features of the latest type of radio set, designed exclusively for the reception of broadcasted programs. Two rheostats, one of the high resistance type and the other of the low resistance type, are used with each tube socket.
DANCE records of yesteryear that clutter your cabinet need not be thrown away if you are a radio enthusiast. They make excellent radio panels, being of excellent insulating material and easily drilled. The illustration shows two sets thus fashioned from discarded records.
AN INGENIOUS method of testing the comparative merits of radio loudspeakers or head phones by means of a phonograph has lately been devised by Benjamin F. Miessner, a radio engineer of Newark, N. J. The phonograph music is transformed into electric currents by a special type of microphone actuated by the reproducing needle.
WHEN operating the new dry cell tube that consumes .06 amperes, it is necessary to use a larger resistance than the regular rheostat in order properly to cut down the voltage of the three dry cells used in series to provide the proper operating current.
RADIO enthusiasts seem to be wherever there is air and a place to stand or sit. This picture shows how radio followed Michael Bourke, steeplejack carpenter, to dizzy heights in order that his noonday meal might be spiced with melody.
THE vast property holdings of Henry Ford, scattered throughout the world, are to be unified by radio. A large broadcasting station, strong enough to communicate across the Atlantic, is being constructed at the River Rouge Ford plant. This latest step results from the successful operation during the past eighteen months of radio and wireless communication between Ford plants throughout the United States and Ford headquarters in Dearborn and Detroit.
Third Article: Tuned Radio Frequency and Neutrodyne
Simplifying “Tuned Radio"
Variometer Will Help
Difference Lies in Grid Circuit
An Important Point
This is the last of a series of three articles in which Jack Binns, our radio editor, reduces apparently intricate radio circuits to first principles SOMETHING about the name, “Tuned Radio Amplification,” gives it an air of mystery. To the average fan the name conjures up visions of controls and adjustments that only the expert can master.
THE largest single blocks of cut stone quarried in modern times, 36 in number, were erected recently as the columns of the new South Office Building at Harrisburg, Pa. Each of these blocks was five feet in diameter and 33 feet long, and each weighed, in the finished state, approximately 40 tons.
A THREE-WHEELED electric truck that is readily handled in confined spaces and can be turned about in the space on which it stands, has been developed by a Chicago firm. The truck is driven by the front wheel, inside of which the motor is mounted.
THE remarkable machine shown here, recently installed in the National Lamp Works of the General Electric Company at Cleveland, Ohio, performs all the operations of blowing incandescent lamps, having a capacity of 50,000 bulbs a day. The machine has as many as 14,000 parts.
Uncle Sam’s Tests with Standard Burners and Ovens Show How to Save Money and Enormous Quantities of Heat
Study Your Stove
The Blue Flame Is Important
Other Types of Cookers
Many Uses for Old Corks
WOULD you, husbands of America, like to save from 25 to 50 per cent on your household gas bills? Would you, wives of America, like to help in the saving and at the same time see that the meals you cook, or whose cooking you direct, are prepared scientifically and efficiently?
WAS there ever a small boy who did not dream of happiness in the wilderness, surrounded by perils, but downing with each bang of his trusty rifle another leaping, roaring lion? Ben V. Lily, champion hunter of the United States Biological Survey, was such a boy.
POSSIBLY you are aware that the human jaw is very strong. You have seen circus performers swinging from trapezes or raising enormous weights by the grip of the teeth. But do you know that the muscles of your own jaw, developed merely by the necessary work you perform in chewing your food, possess power enough to lift from the ground a man as large as Jack Dempsey?
Costly Repair Bills, Even Accident or Death, May Be Penalties of Neglect
Just Where and How to Grease and Oil Your Auto
F. A. Platte
RECENTLY I found a neighbor stalled by the roadside. His machine was in the ditch. His clothes were covered with mud. He was white and shaking. “The steering gear broke and I was nearly killed,” he said. “Only the soft mud of the bank saved me.”
A SLIDING gear automobile transmission of a radically new type has the advantage of eliminating most of the gears and bearings that make up the present complicated transmission mechanisms. Power from the motor is communicated to a spur gear near the differential through a long shaft equipped with a universal connection.
YOU may know that the generator on your car supplies electricity for the ignition, starting and lighting systems; but do you know how it is connected with the rest of the circuit? The generator itself is shunt wound, that is, a part of the electricity produced is shunted through the coils that provide the magnetized field through which the wires of the armature cut.
HOW many times would an automobile headlight providing a generous side ray have spared an accident along country roads at night? Such a lamp has been invented. It throws a wide flood of illumination to the side of the car. Two of the lamps on an open or closed car can be moved at the will of the driver to throw their rays in any direction.
THIS newly devised tire pump, said to deliver more air with fewer strokes than any other hand pump on the market, has been perfected by a Kansas manufacturer. The unique construction of the plunger and barrel is said to eliminate waste compression, to insure all the air from the barrel going into the tire at each stroke, and to make it impossible to pump oil into the tire.
THE Flewellingset described last month represents the highest development of the simpler radio circuits using a single vacuum tube. This month I am describing the construction of a more elaborate receiver, which uses two vacuum tubes and a crystal detector, and in tests has given exceptional results for a two-tube set.
NO MATTER how little money he has to spend, the man who is mechanically minded and has a genuine enthusiasm for automobiles never need be without a smoothly running and good looking car. What can be done in remodeling a broken down car is strikingly illustrated at the right.
WHEN polishing with an emery cloth, the holder shown in Fig. 1 is more satisfactory than a flat file. The cloth is cut the right width and the ends are folded and slipped into the diagonal slots. The abrasive is then tightened by screwing the windnut.
AMATEUR woodworkers who have had little experience or cannot spend much time in their home workshops, often do not care to attempt making mortise and tenon joints, or even plain doweled joints. These workers will find useful the type of table construction shown in the accompanying illustrations.
Magnet Changes Telephone into Sensitive Loudspeaker
George A. Luers
BY ADDING a powerful permanent magnet to an ordinary homemade loudspeaker, it can be made sufficiently sensitive to operate even with a crystal set, provided the receiver is quite close to a broadcasting station. The same loudspeaker, with a vacuum tube set or a combination crystal and vacuum tube receiver, gives exceptional results.
THOROUGHLY tested for a long period by the writer, the lathe toolpost illustrated has demonstrated unmistakably that it has several advantages over the conventional type of toolpost found on the majority of lathes. It has stood up under heavy cuts very much better than the single screw type of toolpost.
IN LARGE machine shops it is frequently necessary to cast lead vise jaws to fit vises of a number of different makes and sizes. This work is greatly simplified by using the adjustable mold illustrated. A convenient size for the bottom mold is 4¾ by 8 in. over all and for the top mold 3 3/4 by 8 in., the cast iron being 5/8 in. thick.
THE offset construction of this knurling tool allows the knurl to work right up against the shoulder. This is an advantage when the work is such that the yokelike arms of the common type of knurl holder are in the way. The steel shank is machined as shown and fitted with a retaining finger.
FOR the mechanic who has to lay out cams, the tool illustrated is a time saver. It was designed by Mr. William Hanson, a toolroom foreman, and is constantly proving its value in actual use. The tool can be held in the toolpost of a lathe and the cam disk held between its centers, or it can be placed on the cutter throw bar and the cam disk held in its place on the machine.
IN MILLING down a steel block recently, I found the ⅝ by 6 in. side cutter I was using—the only one available—chattered very much in taking heavy cuts. By working the cutter sideways against the work, as at A, I was able to proceed much faster and overcome the chattering entirely.
THE universal I-beam garage crane illustrated can be built at minimum expense in any garage repair shop. It is fabricated mainly of standard steel or iron shapes, and most of the work consists merely of drilling and bolting the parts together.
A HANDY method for a foundry to determine what quantity of steel or brass to pour to complete any number of castings is to stamp the weight of the casting on the pattern. Where this is not practical, the same result can be obtained by figuring that a steel casting weighs 16 times as much as its pattern in white pine, and a brass casting 18 times.
WHILE all machinists are more or less familiar with the use of Babbitt metal, there are, nevertheless, many tricks that make the work easier. Babbitt metal is ordinarily a combination of three or more of the following metals: tin, lead, bismuth, antimony, and copper.
A SIMPLE fixture that takes the guess out of dressing grinding wheels to accurate radii will be described by Henry S. Laraby in the November Better Shop Methods Department. Joe V. Romig will have one of his characteristic “Old Bill” stories on how a typical old-time machinist taught him to speed up his work.
WHAT a workbench is to a shop, a kitchen table cabinet is to a kitchen. If properly designed and well made, it is a constant saver of the housewife’s steps, time, and labor. This kitchen work table—fully detailed in POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY’S Blueprint No. 27— can be built at a moderate cost for materials by any home worker who is handy with woodworking tools, and will give service equal to, if not more satisfactory than the average expensive table cabinet sold in department or furniture stores.
Are You Taking Advantage of Our Workshop Blueprints?
MANY of our readers are spending pleasant and profitable hours of their spare time in making articles described in the Home Workshop Department and detailed in our series of blueprints. A letter from one of them, Charles L. Hausel, of Marcus Hook, Pa., is as follows: Inclosed find photograph of the electric washing machine I constructed from your Blueprint No. 12.
How to Make Rigid Shaft Hangers from Pipe Fittings
John G. Hanna
MOST mechanics know that an excellent light shaft support or hanger can be made with a piece of pipe, a flange and a babbitted tee. In using such a support for carrying a countershaft some distance above my bench to operate a bench drill, I found that the belt could not be tightened very much and that there was a tendency toward vibration.
WINDOW shades may sometimes be used more satisfactorily if hung to the window-casings as shown below instead of in the usual fashion. The shade and its brackets are mounted upon a light strip of wood or molding strip to match the style of window-casing.
Cheaply Made Garage Lighting Fixture Banishes Shadows
BY USING two inexpensive homemade reflectors, you can light your garage or shop with a mellow, diffused light that is much better for working purposes than the harsh light thrown by a single reflector. The primary reflector is simply a 10cent pan or basin.
A WASHINGTON, D. C., schoolboy who wished to trim a number of small photographic prints, improvised the paper trimmer illustrated. The blade is a cheap steel table knife, one edge being ground to a sharp bevel. The knife is attached to a block of wood with a round head screw and washer and a strip of sheet iron is fastened to the right-hand edge of the base.
Brass Paper Fastener Serves as Heavy Lettering Pen
C. M. T.
A DRAFTSMAN who does high-grade shaded lettering on certificates, testimonials, and showcards, rarely uses anything but pens made of brass paper fasteners for heavy lettering. The amateur draftsman will find this type of pen a useful makeshift when a commercial shading pen is not at hand.
Speedy Method of Making a LooseLeaf Notebook Cover
WHEN a loose-leaf notebook cover is needed quickly, or one of an odd size or shape is required, you can make it for a fraction of the cost of a commercial cover. The one illustrated, for a 4¼ by 7¼ in. sheet, is made of thin fiber board 7¾ by 9½ in. Another fiber piece 2 by 6¾ in.
TO GRIND chisels and plane bits quickly and accurately I use a guide as shown. By holding the forefinger against the guide as a stop and running the tool to and fro sideways, never changing the grip when dipping the steel in water or examining the edge, I am sure to keep a true bevel.
Making a Grooving Attachment for an Electric Drill
Arthur M. Samp
IF YOU are a worshiper at the home workshop shrine, you will do well to add an electric hand drill to your set of tools. One can be made, should the expense of a commercial drill not be warranted. Then, having a drill, add the saw attachment for grooving that is illustrated below.
HOW easily a rubber stamp can be made with a small tube vulcanizer was demonstrated to me recently by a mechanic in a small tire shop. An aluminum strip with lettering such as is made by a stamping machine of the penny-in-the-slot type was used as a mold.
DISCARDED iron pipes often can be utilized for fence posts if they are cut to length and given a coat of asphaltum paint to prevent them from further rusting. This would be done more frequently if simple methods for fastening wire to such posts were known.
NEAT and inexpensive to make, the reading lamp illustrated is designed to hook on to the head of a bedstead. Its reflector is nothing more than a can about 5 in. in diameter and 10 in. long, cut lengthwise so that it will form a semicircular roll about 3 in. deep.
BUILT mainly of 2 by 4 in. lumber, this cheap homemade press serves for putting in or removing bushings and gears, straightening parts, and performing similar work that requires considerable pressure. By the use of suitable blocks, short pieces of pipe, and mandrels, almost any simple press work can be done with this press.
Connecting Rods and Pipe Form Sensitive Bench Drill
BY UTILIZING connecting rods such as are used on Ford cars, the home worker can make himself a handy sensitive bench drill at little cost for material. The parts needed are six connecting rods, some 1-in. pipe, one T, one ell, one cap, two close nipples, and two pipe flanges.
TO KEEP round firewood from turning in a wood rack or sawbuck, it is necessary only to nail to diagonally opposite arms of the rack 8or 10-in. sections of a broken or discarded crosscut saw. These are placed as shown, with the teeth projecting or ZA inIn fact, one section usually is sufficient.
FOR the home or farm workshop where the necessary power is available, no single machine will do as much work and pay more returns in time and labor saved than a circular sawtable. The one illustrated has been so designed that it can be built at a minimum cost and with as little work as possible.
RECENTLY we found the house full of smoke caused by a red-hot electric iron that had been left on the ironing board. To prevent a similar accident, I placed a two-way socket at the end of the drop and screwed the iron plug in one and a red light in the other.
AN UNUSUAL design for a fence can be obtained by using discarded auto wheels as decorations. Such a fence is especially appropriate around a filling station or on the grounds about a garage. The construction is simple yet rigid. The top and bottom rails of each panel are 2 by 2 in. and the wheel is held between them by the flanges of the iron rim.
IN SMALL kitchens or kitchenettes, where every foot of space is valuable, a panel seat made as illustrated is a useful addition. When not in use, the seat folds up flush against the wall. While it has nothing to recommend it in the way of comfort, it does provide a handy rest for the housewife.
THE simply made carom shooter illustrated is designed to save the fingertips. A checker or carom is drilled through horizontally to take a plunger made from a length of dowel or other small rod. A rubber band is tacked, as shown, and held against the enlarged end of the plunger by a staple.
USEFUL rubber mats can be made quite easily from 1-in. wide strips cut from old inner tubes. If some of the strips are red and others gray, interesting patterns may be arranged. First tack down the lengthwise strips, stretching them slightly, and then weave the cross pieces.
Micrometer Variable Condenser Made for a Few Cents
FOR a few cents a radio fan can make a micrometer variable condenser that will give exceptionally sharp tuning in connection with a large condenser or used alone where critical adjustment of capacity is required in a hook-up. The condenser plates are two brass or zinc disks.
TO SAVE time in testing the relative merits of a number of mounted and unmounted radio crystals, I use the simple detector stand illustrated in place of the regular glass-covered detector on my set. Each crystal to be tested is placed on the copper tray with the tweezers, pushed under the catwhisker, and manipulated until the surfaces have been thoroughly tried out.
WHEN you have drained one of those handy filler-top desk bottles of fountain pen ink, the empty bottle can be converted into a spirit lamp for the workshop or laboratory. Nick the glass filler with a file just where it starts to contract in size, and snap it off clean.
ALTHOUGH heavy and large tools are almost invariably stored in the corner of the shop or barn because of the lack of a suitable box, this practice often results in loss or breakage. A substantial and serviceable container for such tools is a tight coopered barrel, fitted with a reenforced cover, hinges, and a hasp.
WHEN shrinking small parts together, it is not easy to obtain the precise fit necessary so that the outer part, when heated, will just slip over the inner. It is a matter of cut and try, plus care and experience. There is one little kink, however, that often has been found useful.
One Knob Provides Vernier for Two Radio Instruments
C. M. WILCOX
THE unusual feature of this Vernier control for a radio receiving set is that a single knob operates both the rotor of a variocoupler or variometer and a variable condenser. The operator makes fine adjustments of either without removing his hand from the knob, and this, of course, makes close tuning easier than if individual Verniers were used for the instruments.
SHOES can be made thoroughly waterproof at home by using any of the formulas given below. These have been tested by the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Formula 1: Neutral wool grease, 8 oz.; dark petrolatum, 4 oz.; paraffin wax, 4 oz. Formula 2: Petrolatum, 1 lb.; beeswax, 2 oz.
BY THE addition of the case illustrated, a common alarm clock can be used as a wall clock during the day and as an ordinary alarm clock at night. The case, if neatly made and carefully finished, converts even the cheapest alarm clock into a clock of attractive appearance.
ZIGZAG marks or patches sometimes found on films taken by amateur photographers are very often due to small holes in the bellows of a folding camera. To locate such defects remove the back of the camera and hold it up to the sun, with the shutter closed and place a black cloth over your head to exclude the light.
THERE are a number of ways of enlarging or reducing sketches, but the simplest method that I know is the one illustrated below. An ordinary rubber band and two pencils does the trick, or a rubber band, a lead pencil, and a pen. Put a knot in the rubber band close to the center, as shown.
A SIDE from corrosion, the greatest annoyance experienced by the householder is that of leaking joints in the socalled “closed system” of water heating. In this system there usually is a cheek valve, which prevents the hot water’s backing into the meter and damaging the hard rubber parts.
IN REPAIRING a broken sewing-machine belt, the home mechanic often has difficulty in finding a piece of soft wire the right size to bend into a connecting link. A length of No. 16 or No. 18 gage soft iron wire of exactly the proper size can be obtained by tearing off the cover of an old tobacco tin of the type shown and using the hinge pin.
Gilded Picture Frames Made without Special Moldings
TO MAKE gilded picture frames without rabbeted molding or any expensive materials is not particularly difficult. The stock for the frames should be ⅛, 3/16 or ½ in. thick and 2½ in. wide for small sizes, and ¼ or ⅜ in. thick and 3 or 4 in. wide for larger pictures.
YOU can often obtain more money for an old car if you “junk” it yourself than if you sell it intact to a junk dealer. Wreck the machine and separate the various kinds of metal. Sell the metal as scrap, and whatever is too bulky to get rid of in this way, dispose of to the junkman.
Plug Switchblock Gives Easy Control of Radiophones
THE radio fan who prizes neat and unusually efficient apparatus will find the switchboard illustrated an excellent means for controlling the connections of his loudspeaker and telephone headsets. Five pairs of phones and a loudspeaker can be plugged in or out at will without changing any connections.
EVERY sportsman occasionally wishes to test the accuracy of his rifle sights. In doing this easily and quickly, the gun rest illustrated is a distinct aid. It reduces the “human element” to a minimum, and, by using it for several shots, the grouping on the target will show up any marked deviation to right or left, or high or low.
THE addition of a revolving indicator to a milk-bottle box makes it unnecessary to write notes to the milkman when extra quantities of milk and cream are desired. The wooden roll, made from an old curtain pole, is mounted so as to revolve easily near the top of the box.
CEMENTS and glues can be used for the most diverse purposes in the home workshop. Some are water resistant, others fireproof, and others useful for joining either similar or dissimilar materials. An effective cement for many substances can easily be made by soaking one part of glue in an equal quantity of water.
To FIT a mortise lock in a door is a problem that confronts at some time or other almost every home worker. It can be done quite easily and with perfect accuracy if the proper method is used. Even for one door it is advisable to make a pattern, as shown in Fig. 1, from a part of the cardboard container in which the lock was packed.
SIMPLE in design and not difficult to make, the oak lamp illustrated below is intended for use on a mission or “craftsman” library table. The shade may be of silk or parchment, or constructed of wood and stained glass in the home workshop. The lamp is proportioned for a two-light fixture.