Most Wonderfully Illustrated Magazine in the World
SCIENCE moves its products rapidly from the laboratory into the home. Most of us remember when automobiles were called “horseless carriages,” when airplanes were considered impractical, when radio was unknown. Yet today 11,000,000 Americans operate automobiles.
WE are the most “high strung” people on Earth. The average American is a bundle of nerves, ever ready to spring into action, mentally and physically. The restless energy of Americans is proverbial. We may well be proud of our alert, active and sensitive nerves, as it indicates the highest state of civilization, courage, ambition and force of character, but this high nerve tension has not been without its grave dangers and serious consequences.
Thousands Say New Invention Banishes Every Ache—Instantly!
Why Pain Disappears Instantly
How New Invention Works
Results Positively Guaranteed
Send No Money
NO longer need most of us suffer the tortures of tired, weak, aching, burning feet! For foot specialists have perfected a marvelous new device, which usually the very instant you make use of it, causes the pain and aches to disappear. No matter how long you have suffered—no matter how many different treatments you have taken without relief—this new invention is positively guaranteed to relieve you completely of all foot misery and to bring you glorious foot comfort, or it costs you nothing.
Brief Bits of Timely Comment On the Sciences of the Hour
DR. SIMON FLEXNER, director Rockefeller Institute of Medical Research, discussing the $150,000 gift of John D. Rockefeller, Jr. to 15 hospitals in theUnited States and Canada to promote the use of insulin in the treatment of diabetes, as described on page 23 of this issue: “Insulin is one of the greatest discoveries of modem times.
How a Young Laboratory Assistant Won World Fame by Discovering Serum that Offers Relief to Millions of Diabetes Sufferers
What “Insulin” Means
Where Experts Failed
What Causes Diabetes
Dr. Banting Begins Research Work
Successful Tests in United Stat
Robert Lansing Is Aided by Insult
Began Life as a Farm Boy
FROM six hospitals in the United States a few weeks ago came some news that electrified the scientific world. A serum derived from the entrails of animals, given to the hospitals for clinical test of its efficacy as a treatment for diabetes, had proved so extraordinarily successful in administration to many hundred patients, that the physicians who conducted the tests asserted without qualification that it appeared to be a sure method of controlling the disease.
A GRAY monoplane—the A-6455—soared gracefully over the Glenn L. Martin flying field, Cleveland, Ohio. Up, up it went, while a little group of spectators on the ground watched with nervous expectancy. Suddenly there was a burst of flame from the engine.
PRACTICALLY all the scientists in the world believe in the theory of evolution. The vast majority of educated people believe in it also. Only a few weeks ago a group of leaders of American thought in science, religion, and public affairs issued a public statement affirming their conviction that evolution is true and that it does not conflict in any essentials with the Christian religion.
backward and forward. In the corner of the human eye there is a little fold of skin that is a remnant of the third eyelid of the ancient reptiles, a structure that still persists in our distant cousins, the birds. An occasional person has on the top edge of his ear a little sharp point, known as Darwin’s point, that is a vestige of the pointed ear of the cats and insect-eaters.
WITH such authorities as th United States Bureau of Mines continually reminding us we are consuming our petroleum resources at an excessive rate and that we can count on this source of power for the automobile for only a comparatively few years, engineers and inventors have been urged to develop the steam car to a greater degree of perfection.
A NOVEL rubber silencer, said to eliminate all rattles in auto hoods, consists of a vacuum cup that grips the surface of a hood firmly, at the same time gripping the hood fastener by means of two cleats. The device thus prevents movement of the hood.
CAN you imagine a family marooned on a modern ranch? That is exactly the plight in which my family and I found ourselves at Barrett, San Diego County, Calif., only a few months ago, because three miles of deep water at the front and the lofty mountains at the rear formed impassable barriers.
AFTER you have read of Mr. Korte’s,ingenious use of his automobile, write and tell us about the unusual uses to which you put your car. What useful work does it do in addition to its regular duties in transportation? What led you to put your car to this novel service?
FOR accurately testing the uniformity of gear tooth profiles and the spacing of teeth in production work, an instrument has been invented which is easily operated and equally adaptable to spur and helical gears. It has a range of from thtee to 10 diametral pitch, may be used to check any pressure angle and can be applied to a gear while it is in place in the machine.
ONLY the non-immortal tire now stands in the way of non-stop, longdistance motor journeys such as wheels never before achieved. No longer need automobile engines, capable of better han mile-a-minute speed and astounding ndurance, halt unwinded in mid-course or oil, fuel, and water.
BY THE invention of an instrument as the “interferometer,” Prof. Albert Michelson, of the University of Chicago, has made it possible for scientists to measure the diameters of far distant stars which, even to the most powerful telescopes, appear as mere pinpoints of light.
HOURS of time may be saved the shipper by a new portable weighing machine, shown above weighing a locomotive, which makes it possible to weigh carloads after they have been put in the car. The machine acts on the same principle as the ordinary “jack.”
TO DO away with the disadvantages of open fireplaces, measured by housewives in terms of sooty curtains and darkened wallpaper, an English inventor has perfected a coal fire grate which, he claims, consumes its own smoke. The grate is fed from the top.
BICYCLING in the water is the newest sport at the fashionable seashore resorts along the Atlantic Coast, where bathers ride an odd craft imported from England, In the water, the craft is submerged, except for air tanks fore and aft. Pushing the pedals operates a three-bladed propeller that carries a guard to prevent it from being fouled by seaweed.
ONE of the most valuable uses yet devised for old, discarded safety razor blades is that of a scraper for removing paint or varnish in any job of refinishing. For this purpose the handy razor blade holder shown in the illustration has been invented, and now being manufactured. The razor blade ¡ inserted in a metal clamp and fasten«1 securely by means of a thumbscrew, comfortable grip for the fingers is provide The keen cutting edge also may be use in scraping and smoothing woodwork.
ON THE knapsack principle, an Ida inventor has designed the fisherman creel strap shown below. When not neede the fishing basket may be slung on the bae A simple adjustment of the strap perm the basket to be lowered instantly.
How Scientists Fight Odorless, Tasteless and Colorless Carbon Monoxide, a Growing National Peril
Drivers Are Affected
Garagemen Suffer Depression
Benzol Increases Gas
Valuable Experiments in Mines
Raymond J. Brown
IF THE entire population of a city were to breathe air containing two parts of carbon monoxide to 10,000 parts of air continuously night and day, a arge proportion of the population would be ncapacitated for work. Many with weak arts would die.”
AN improved method of salvaging sunken ships was demonstrated successfully off Whitestone, Long Island, recently when the wrecked coastguard cutter Scally was raised by compressed air pontoons. This new system consists of two working units—a submarine tractor driven by electric motor, and open-bottom, submersible pontoons.
Prevention of Disaster Is First Aim of Modern “Smoke Eaters” Wh Battle with Flames and Risk Lives in Thrilling Rescues
A Frightful Danger
Carelessness Chief Cause
The New and the Old Way in Fire Fighting
Checked at the Start
Ammonia Fumes Are Dangerous
Firemen Trained in College
MODERN fire fighting is a scientific profession. It may be compared with the profession of medicine. All fires have common characteristics that enable a fire department officer to use certain clearly defined principles in coping with them, just as a doctor, through his knowledge of disease symptoms and effects, is able to effect cures for individual patients.
A REMARKABLE feat in precise machine work on an enormous scale was accomplished in the shops of the General Electric Company at Schenectady, N. Y., when the 40-ton steel shaft shown here was tooled down on a giant lathe to the exact size necessary.
THAT the Morse telegraph code, invented 80 years ago and used with scarcely any modification ever since, is fundamentally unscientific and unsuited to the new developments. in telegraphy, particularly in radio, is the belief of General George O. Squier, chief signal officer of the United States Army.
AN INNOVATION in highway safeguards is a center curb at a dangerous turn in a road under a Southern-Pacific railway bridge at Weimar, Texas. The middle curb, eight inches high, divides the roadway into two lanes, each 10 feet wide. An eight inch concrete post at each end warns the motorists to “Keep to the Right.”
HOUSEWIVES who are continua’ scrubbing out stains caused by tea coffee while it is being strained will welcor the new non-drip strainer recently invented. This new strainer is equipped with a small basin slung underneath. When strainer is in use, the basin is pushed aside.
A PROTECTION for the housewife wh is timid about answering door calls furnished by the door guard that grips th floor, as shown below. It may be pushe into place or released by a movement of th foot. When in place, an intruder cannc possibly open the door beyond the point a which the guard holds it, unless he smasht the panels.
ANY motorist can be his own tire repairman, and can successfully mend lunctures and blowouts by using a new old patching material, which is so comounded that heat will not cause it to oosen or weaken. The material comes in a heet and is made of specially treated rubber einforced by a special fabric.
A MOTORIZED prune picker with which one man can do the work of seven to 10 has made its appearance in the Santa Clara Valley, California, where 65,000 acres of prunes are harvested each year. A metal roller, operated by a one-horsepower gasoline motor, carries the machine from place to place.
CHLORINE gas, used as a war weapon, now is being turned against the germs of influenza and is proving effective in preventing the disease. In experiments with students at the University of Arkansas, conducted by Professor Harrison Hale, during a recent “flu” epidemic, the gas treatment reduced the sick rate 90 per cent.
Giant Merry-Go-Round Wind Motor to Harness Breezes
HARNESSING the wind for mechanical and electrical power by means of a vindmill a mile in circumference is the mazing project being worked out by a ompany organized by a Florida inventor. Experiments conducted with model 75-ot Windmotors are said to have demontrated the enterprise to be entirely feasle.
THE two photographs above demonstrate, according to the New York Tribune Institute, the right and wrong ways of filling an ice-box. The icebox in the illustration at the left is “stuffed;” that is, the food is packed in a haphazard manner which crams the compartments, stops the circulation of air and prevents the refrigerating chamber -from extracting the heat from the other sections of the box.
FOX raising on a large scale has been developed in Southeastern Alaska during the last year, according to reportsof the Interior Department. Many farmers have taken up the raising of blue and silver foxes. Small islands along the coast, useless for other purposes, have been turned into fox farms.
THE glass shield on the upper part of the electric light bulb shown here prevents the light from causing the chains which support the fixture to cast shadows on the ceiling. A special kind of glass developed by a Pittsburgh manufacturer is used in the shield to filter out objectionable shadows.
THIS novel shield prevents a housebreaker from opening a lock by shattering the glass and thrusting his hand through the opening. The lock is covered completely. Its bolt engages the shield as well as the socket in the door frame, making it impossible to unlock without a key.
MANY a motorist prefers a car with a closed body, yet does without it because of the additional expense involved, or because he fears that neither his skill nor equipment is sufficient to construct the metal panels himself. But now K. L. Childs, of Detroit, Mich., has designed a type of body construction for enclosed cars that offers many attractions to the ambitious and skilful amateur.
NEXT to creation itself, the sun always has remained for mankind the supreme mystery of the universe. Now we are on the threshold of an event to which astronomers everywhere are looking forward eagerly as an opportunity to leap across the barrier of distance which separates them from complete understanding of this source of heat and light.
THE only comet ever known to turn its tail toward the sun—one that supplied 10 years’ fuel to the great furnace of the sun—is Baade’s comet, recently discovered by Walter Baade at the Bergedorf University Observatory, Germany. Baade’s comet undoubtedly is the heaviest comet in proportion to its size ever discovered.
Trapping and Banding Annual Backyard Visitors Is New and Fascinating Hobby of Important Scientific Value
Strange Habits Learned
Saving the Birds
HOW would you like to contribute something to science and at the same time increase your own joy n life? Here’s your opportunity. Take up bird-nding, the science that is a sport. It is a fascinating science of discovery—the discovery, by means of identification tags, of ;he travels, habits, and individual characteristics of migrating birds that you see every day about your home.
PARCHMENT lamp shades, which lately have achieved wide popularity in the home, are employed by an Indianapolis company as an advertising novelty. The illustration shown here indicates how a parchment shade may be used in advertising a brand of cigars.
A SPECTACULAR. demonstration of -he employment of airplanes to cooperate with the infantry by picking up messages from the ground and delivering them, was witnessed recently at Brickfields, Plymouth, England. The photograph shows a plane about to pick up a message attached to a line.
MOTHERS everywhere will be interested in a new combination baby’s ' bathtub and cradle invented by Mrs. Charles Dancy, of Chiswick, England. At the left the device is shown in use as a tub. When folded, it forms the cradle at right.
THE wrecking of the building shown at the right is almost directly traceable to a gentle rainfall in Philadelphia recently. This lumber storehouse had a flat tar and gravel roof and a drain pipe that was stopped up. Tons of water from heavy rains had accumulated on the watertight roof, having been impounded within walls of masonry that rose about three feet above the roof surface.
AN ILLUMINATED bonnet in the shape of the dome of the state capitol at Sacramento, Calif., was an advertising oddity seen by tourists in California recently. The hat was worn by Miss Eleanor Posey, a native daughter of Sacramento, to advertise the beauty of her city and of the Sacramento Valley.
A NOVEL horse racing amusement device recently introduced at Ocean Beach, Calif., consists of a series of wooden steeds running abreast on tracks and propelled by the riders. The thrills and excitement of real horse racing are duplicated as the amateur jockeys travel the 500-foot course on steel rails.
THE old-time bell pull has been revived recently as a home decoration to take the place of the somewhat unsightly buttons on the ordinary switch plate for turning electric lights on and off. The switch is turned by pulling a tasseled cord.
A HONING tool for grinding motor cylinders, which requires no abrasive materials, liquids or lapping compounds, which automatically fits itself without adjustment to any cylinder from 2 13/16 to 5 inches in diameter and which is selfcentering and self-aligning, has been developed by a Chicago manufacturer.
CONSTRUCTION of a dam across the Susquehanna River near Conowingo, Maryland, is speeding up an archaeological investigation of a prehistoric Indian workshop on an island eight miles above that place. For years John L. Baer, of the U. S. National Museum, has been seeking the solution to the mystery of curiously wrought stones found in abundance there.
TO AID the typist in making erasure when a carbon sheet is used in th typewriter, a newly invented metal shiel is inserted between the first sheet of paper and the carbon. Often, when carbon sheets are used, the type makes impressions in the white paper that are difficult to erase.
AN INGENIOUS combination tabl lamp, phonograph and radio outfi has been perfected by F. W. Hochstetter of Dayton, Ohio. The same magnetized diaphragm that i used in the loud speaker when the lamp i employed as a radio receiver, will play phonograph records when a needle is in serted.
OR the automobile tourist, one of the new conveniences is an ingenious auto chenette invented by Miss Lou Shields more, of Los Angeles. It consists of a inet attached to the running board, taining a refrigerator, compartments for d and dishes and a water tank.
'O PREVENT waste effort and duplication of work in the writing of busis forms—invoices, orders, requisitions, s of lading and similar records ordinarily uiring many carbon copies—a rapid fire dicating machine has been perfected by ationally known manufacturer.
A NEW time and labor saver for factories where heavy material is carried from place to place is an elevating truck that can lift entire rolling platforms and their loads to a height of five feet. The platforms are lifted by an elevating shelf running on a truck framework and driven by an electric motor.
A NEW high-speed airplane of the fighting type, which is expected.to beat all records in aeroplane performance, has been completed for the British Air Ministry. Its outstanding feature is the unusual wing shape, thin at the center, thickening towards the inner third of the span, and tapering finally off to a fine line at the outside.
EQUIPPED with a periscope, a doubledeck omnibus that may be operated by one man successfully has been designed and built by a New York inventor and has been placed in regular service. The vehicle is of the pay-as-you-enter type, a coin box permitting the driver to collect fares.
A FRENCH inventor is responsible f this ingenious surveying instrumen which establishes lines and slopes, measur distances without use of a tape and permi the surveyor to draw map as he proceeds The surveyor may take his sigh through the vertical tube in any directi without moving around the table.
DESIGNED especially for use by traveling men, a self-illuminating safety razor makes it possible to shave in the dark. In the handle of the razor is a tiny electric bulb, encased in a rubber holder which prevents dampness from rusting it. The lamp is adjusted so that it always throws its light on the spot where the razor is cutting.
AN EFFICIENT and inexpensive pneumatic shock absorber for light cars, perfected in Los Angeles, differs from other designs in that it replaces the usual moving piston with a rubber cushion containing air under pressure. The sectional view of the shock absorber above shows the construction.
FINGERS of Post Office Departme workers employed in the manufactu of mail bags are protected by a spiral spri guard from injury in punch presses used inserting eyelets in the heavy canvas. The guard surrounds the punch a moves in advance of it, giving warning the descending stroke.
How Science Has Restored Vision by Uprooting Hidden Poison Factories
Noted American Authority on Teeth and Health
oor Teeth—Bad Nutrition
Sight Is Restored
How X-ray Aids Dentistry
Care of the Dead Tooth
Poison Factories of the Teeth
Edwin F. Bowers
FOUR hundred million defective teeth exist in the United States—about four defective teeth to each person, if all these teeth were cared for properly, average of 10 years would be added to e life of every normal man, woman and ld in the land.
IN THE Veterinary School of the University of Pennsylvania is an operating room for animals which is said to be one of the largest and finest in the United States. Here animals ranging in size from dogs and cats to horses and cattle undergo operations of all kinds performed by experts.
Pony Express Riders to Race Over Plains, Reviving Frontier Days
Landmarks of Overland Trail Tell of Scientific Progress
Old Landmarks Still Remain
“Buffalo Bill's” Long Ride
Al. H. Martin
FOR one thrilling moment this month six states of the ar West — Missouri, Kansas, Colorado, Utah, evada and California—ll push back the hands f time and live again in he days when sturdy ioneers clashed with the ndians in the struggle or the empire beyond he Rockies.
AN ANTI-FRICTION roller bearing, which, it is claimed, may be used indefinitely without lubrication, recently has been invented by a New York engineer. The inventor asserts it is 70 per cent more efficient than any type now on the market. The new bearing combines the roller bearing and ball bearing principles.
IN a new device for conserving the carbon paper used in making “second sheets” on a typewriter, the letter-head and second sheet are placed in the machine, and the carbon paper is fed between them automatically from the roller above. When a sheet is finished original and copies are removed simultaneously, leaving the carbon paper wound about the platen.
A NOVEL automobile wheel that will enable the motorist to change a tire— tube and shoe—in not more than 10 minutes, and with no other tool than a small steel wrench, recently has been constructed. Nuts threaded to the ends of the spokes hold the steel rim in place.
TO THE handy man about the workshop at home there come times when it is necessary to hold some round stock in a vise; yet the occasions for this sort of work are sc few as to make it impracticable to own an expensive pipe vise. The device shown in the illustration below slips into any wooden or iron vise, and will grip and hold almost any size of round stock.
AN INGENIOUS accessory for a canoe combines a wheeled carrier for use in making portages, a back rest for paddling, and a life preserver in case the canoe should upset. The cushioned device is fitted in the canoe as a back rest. When it is necessary to transport the canoe over land, the apparatus is placed beneath the bow, the wheels are attached and the canoe then may be wheeled along like a wheelbarrow.
How Racket Experts, by Mastering Simple Principles of Physics, Have Won World Supremacy on Courts
Science Wins for American Athletes
Service Stroke Highly Important
“Follow Through” Is the Secret
William H. Keats
THIS is the greatest season in the history of American lawn tennis—a sport that bids fair to rival baseball and boxing in national popularity and in world supremacy. In baseball, 72,000 fans this year witnessed the opening American League game in the huge new stadium of the New York Yankees.
SAILING before the wind on scooterroller skates is a new sport that has become popular on the streets and in the parks of Berlin, Germany, where it was introduced by an English inventor. The skates are made of light metal and have extremely large rubber-tired wheels, resembling the “scooters” so popular with American children.
A MICROSCOPIC animal about one two-hundredth of an inch long has been discovered by L. L. Woodruff, of Yale University, who has named it “Paramecium polycaryum.” It is one of the one-cell forms known as protozoa. It moves about rapidly in a drop of water and feeds on bacteria.
BY UTILIZING all manner of odds and ends such as can be found about almost any machine shop, an Italian workman has constructed a strange looking craft with which he glides along the Po River in Italy. The boat is steered by means of a bicycle handle connected with the rudder.
THE largest bass drum in the world is eight and one half feet in diameter—taller than the drummer who plays it. The instrument is constructed on the design of a smaller bass drum, from which it differs only in its proportions. To transport it along the street in a parade, the drum is mounted on a small carriage with heavy rubber tired wheels.
THE development of small movie projection for home use has led recently to the perfection of a pocket movie camera, ideal for taking cinema photographs on the automobile trip. The camera holds 81 feet of film, and is said to produce motion picture photographs as perfect as do the movie cameras of regulation size.
LIEUTENANT G. W. GODDARD, the United States Army air service shown below with the new aerial cam which he has invented and which he tr out successfully in a recent flight in vicinity of Los Angeles, Calif. The new camera is for mapping purpo It automatically makes successive ex sures of uniform size on a film 390 feet l and six inches wide.
A NEW volcano has just been born. P liminary reports have been confirm' by recent advices to the U. S. Hydrograp Office which gives the location of the v cano in the China Sea near the coast French Indo-China. Volcanic activity in this region is d dared to be something quite new by H. S. Washington, of the Carnegie Instit tion of Washington. The volcano is n 97 feet high and in full eruption.
BY SUBSTITUTING small endle treads for the conventional rear whee Andre Citroen, known as the Henry Fo of France, has produced a motor car whi he says is capable of ascending any gra less steep than the side of a house.
EVERY golfer can afford to have his practice fling with these tees made from paper. The tees are made from stiff paper, and are so inexpensive that the golfer will not mind hitting them into space and losing them. They hold the ball always at the same height, thus assuring uniformity in the drive, provided, of course, the stroke is always the same.
THE distinction of being the first student in the United States to be graduated by radio goes to Lester Picker, of "San Diego, Calif. Confined to his bed by injuries and unable to attend his high school commencement exercises, he broadcasted his graduation speech from his home.
A FRENCH architect’s design of the apartment house of the future calls for a structure 10 stories high, built in receding terraces so as to afford light and air to every apartment. The three lower floors of the house are to be occupied by a gymnasium, a swimming pool and other health -and amusement facilities.
A BUCKING automobile which accurately imitated the actions of a lively bronco was exhibited recently at the National Western Horse Show in Denver, Colo. Bounding around the arena, the car at times lifted all four wheels in the air and came back to earth with a bang that resembled the attempt of an unbroken filly to throw its rider.
FRANK ZAGER, of Chicago, is shown above persuading “Baby Grand,” his prize-winning radio canary, to sing over the telephone. Long distance singing is no new feat for Baby Grand, which more than once has given radio concerts from Chicago broadcasting stations.
Success in Every-Day Affairs Can Be Won by Bombarding the Mind with Purposeful Ideas; How Ford and Marconi Did It
The Habit of Failure
James J. Walsh
THIRTY years ago Henry Ford completed his first gasoline engine after working on it for two years. He found the thing would run when mounted in a buggy, but it wouldn’t back up. So Ford laid it aside temporarily. But for two solid years he kept thinking and believing that an engine capable of going forward and backward at the will of the driver was possible and that he could build it.
TO OBTAIN exact information as to the strength of wood used for such purposes as rudder posts, elevator spars and aircraft beams, the U. S. Forest Service has constructed an unusual torsion testing machine in its laboratories at Madison, Wis.
A BREATH recording machine designed to teach actors, singers, and orators to sing or speak correctly and with maximum conservation of energy, has been invented by a Viennese opera singer. An oscillating plate is suspended within a small horn, similar to the mouthpiece of a telephone transmitter, in such a way that it will vibrate when the sound waves of the voice are directed against it.
AN INGENIOUS “silencer” for phonographs has been put on the market recently by a Texas manufacturer. As shown in the illustration, the device is inserted between the needle and the reproducer. Its design and materials are such that it filters out the scratching of t needle on the surface of the record, it claimed, while reproducing the record wi unimpaired volume and a sweet and natu tone.
Living Human Cells Dissected in War against Disease
A FASCINATING field of science which is expected to lead to highly important discoveries in the war on disease has been opened recently by the perfection of an improved micro-vivisection apparatus with which living human cells, invisible to the unaided eye, can be dissected and studied.
MECHANICS have entered the nursery and have made the time-honored hobby horse run with the speed of a bicycle while still maintaining life-like motion. A large rear wheel is propelled by the rider as he bounces in the saddle, pushing down with his feet on the stirrups.
USING United States one -cent pieces as their material, two sheetmetal workers in New York City recently held a contest to determine which one could hammer out the smallest kettle. The results of their handiwork are shown in the illustrations.
INSTEAD of using paint, powder, lip sticks and eyebrow pencils to give definite character to the features, actors and actresses of the Staatstheater in Berlin cover their faces with thin flexible rubber masks representing the faces of the characters to be portrayed on the stage.
IN THIS room are filed the thousands of applications for patents registered with the United States Patent Office. As soon as an inventor sends in his application to the patent office, clerks go through the files in this searching room to ascertain whether or not application already has been made for a patent on the same device.
IT ALWAYS has been a source of pride to be the only one in the world able to do something that no one else ever has been audacious, patient or original enough to do. As a result there are some very curious records. In Paris, in 1809, the famous Danes, Baptiste and Francois, competed in a race on the Place de l’Opera, in which both of them walked on their heads.
THRILLS a plenty are furnished for the spectator by the “Squirrel Cage,” a new daredevil stunt now being performed in leading vaudeville theaters. As the name implies, the idea of the new thrill producer is taken from the familiar revolving wire cylinder in which captive squirrels do their daily dozen.
HERE is the giant transmitter of the new WJAZ broadcasting apparatus at the Edge water Beach Hotel, Chicago, said to be the most powerful radio station in the world. Programs transmitted by this apparatus can be heard everywhere in the United States.
PROBABLY the most elaborate of all home radio outfits in America is that owned and operated by George Freisinger, of New York City, who has installed transmitting and receiving apparatus in his home. Being wealthy, he has spared no expense on his apparatus.
AN INVENTIVE radio fan has devised a surprisingly efficient loud speaker from his head phones and a pair of tea cups, as shown in the photograph above. The head set is connected with the amplifier and each ear piece placed into a teacup. He reports that a clear, bell-like tone of astonishing volume is produced.
RADIO as a stimulant to recruiting is being used with great success by the New York National Guard. The photograph above, taken at Thirty-fifth Street and Broadway, New York City, shows how it is done. Music from the big loud speaker always can be depended on to attract a crowd; then, when the crowd is large enough, a recruiting orator mounts the rostrum and explains to the assemblage the advantages of National Guard Service.
ONE of the greatest problems of radio telephony—privacy of conversations —has just been solved by engineers of the Bell telephone system, through the invention of apparatus that is reported to have worked successfully over a 30-mile stretch of ocean between Los Angeles, Calif., and Catalina Island.
Second Article: The Secrets of Reflex and Inverse Duplex
TO THE majority of radio fans, the mention of “reflex” and “inverse duplex” circuits conjures up visions of circuits hard to understand and still harder to design. As a matter of fact, these circuits can be mastered easily once the fundamentals are understood clearly.
Simple Ways to Mend Worn Electrical Heating Appliances at Home
hen to Replace Switch and Plug
Iron May Need New Element
Victor H. Todd
N ALMOST every household there is at least one piece of electrical appas—usually a flatiron, a ster, or a heater of some ;—that Won’t work. Either ppears to be “burnt out” t blows a fuse every time connected. you have such an applie, don’t throw it away, to fix it yourself.
INDUSTRIES using large quantities of coal, stone, and similar materials always have lost much time through the necessity of halting the materials in transit to weigh them. Now there has been devised a scale by means of which any sort of material, whether carried by car, bucket, or on belts, may be weighed in motion.
CAN you be depended on in an e gency? Will you persevere in a difficult until you have completed it, or will quit? Professor Thomas D. Howard, psycl gist at Northwestern University, cl that science now can tell these things a you, and can define unerringly othe your characteristics by means of a acter-reading machine he has invented Traits of character, he asserts, are vealed by the manner in which the pe being studied operates a set of signals trolled by hand levers and foot pedal the machine, in response to dictatio orders from the examiner.
World’s Only Bed of Epsom Salts Won by Engineering Skill
Monorail Line Offers Solution
Methods of Preparation Simplified
THROUGH modern engineering skill the world soon 1 be able to avail itself one of its most rerkable chemical desits—a vast bed of gnesium sulphate, the emical compound own commercially as som salts. This deposit—the only a in the world that tains magnesium sulate in a pure state—is ated amid the arid stes of Wingate Pass, ar the west side of ath Valley, California r years after its discovit lay untouched, simbecause of its inaccesility to any form of commercial transporion that could be devised.
WANDERER III, official scout car of the American Automobile Association and accredited representative of the government National Parks Service, is said to be the best equipped and most dependable car in the world. This remarkable automobile, fitted with every conceivable appliance and accessory for efficiency and service, has made 16 trips from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and has covered 500,000 miles of highway in the United States during the last seven years.
New Automatic Gear Shift Controlled at Steering Whe
FOR years automobile drivers have wondered why somebody didn’t invent an automatic gear shift that would operate mechanically without electricity or some other outside power agency—a gear shift suitable for any car and one cheap enough in price for the average pocketbook.
IF YOU are about to buy your first automobile, you probably are confronted with at least four perplexing estions. How much should you pay for car? What make is best for you? Should u buy a new or a used car? Should it be closed or an open model? Scores of prospective purchasers have ked me these questions.
WHENEVER you need a scraper in connection with repars about your car and have no sharp tool at hand, you will find a discarded piston ring will usually do the work very well. It makes an excellent tool for scraping a bearing and for cleaning carbon from cylinder walls and is an aid in finishing many jobs quickly and accurately.
IN EVERY home where there is a small baby, a combination crib and play pen is one of the most necessary and useful pieces of furniture. It can readily be moved from room to room, away from a drafty window, out on the porch, into the yard, on the roof of an apartment house, or wherever needed.
LOUDER signals, greater sensitivity, more selectivity, more compact sets —these are the rallying cries of radio experimenters. Each new set has thousands of adherents. Some radio fans pin their hopes on the old reliable single circuit regenerative receiver; others boast triumphs achieved with single tube super-regenerative receivers.
CAN you always identify walnut and mahogany when you see them? And do you know offhand the differe between a piece of burl walnut veneer d a crotch figure, or what distinguishes dleback from striped mahogany? To know these two greatest of cabinet ods intimately and recognize them in eir various forms and figures is a valuable accom -plishment.
MAKING the stand for this microscope is really the most difficult part of the work. In this case toy construction parts have been used but plain metal strips or wooden parts will serve the purpose. The base is a flat plate with two short arms rising from the center of both long edges.
COMPELLED to use a corner of the cellar or garage or some equally restricted space', the amateur machinist is often at a loss as to the best method of arranging his bench and machine tools. A compact and efficient layout, making use of a framework of pipe and pipe fittings, is that illustrated in Fig. 1.
A Six-in-One Machine of Simple Construction that Does Tool and Side Surface Grinding Hand Milling, Drilling, Wood Turning and Buffing
Valuable for Automobile Repairs
Swivel and Slides Give Flexibility
B. R. Wicks
FOR the countless small grinding jobs that all machinists and bench hands meet in the ordinary course of their shop work, the 6-in. bench grinder illustrated is, I feel confident, one of the most unique and useful machines of its kind. Resembling in main essentials an ordinary bench grinder, it is a many-purpose machine.
From Machine Shop Apprentice to Production Engineer
Ingenuity Solves Many Problems
Cutting Down Handling Costs
Brazing High Speed Steel Tips on Lathe Tools
Simply Made Depth Gage
THE man who is constantly looking for better methods is the one who is going to get the better job. The truth of this has been indicated by little flashes here and there along the road of my own experience. My decision to go after the better job was prompted by my spoiling some valuable and important work in my 'prentice days.
WHILE the cylinder method of checking squares is popular with mechanics because the cylinders can be carried around in their toolkits and take up little room, something larger is required in the toolroom for setting squares and testing various precision tools.
Measuring Diameters with a Self-Registering Indicator
CALIPERS and a scale are used ordinarily for measuring the diameter of afts unless a micrometer large enough for íe purpose is at hand. The caliper method is slow and the miometer method is useful only for stationry shafts. As a substitute, the tool illustrated will measure quickly either a revolvig or stationary shaft or circular part.
TO FILL an order for a larger number of small metal parts, in each of which everal holes were required, the foreman of small machine shop rigged up a shaper to erve as a punch press, as illustrated. The die, bolted to the shaper table, cares at its back a heavy plate with a doveail groove in which the punch block slides, This block is attached to one end of a toggle sint, the center of which is fastened to the haper ram by means of the sliding arrangeant shown.
SPRINGS attached to the legs of chairs ave been found to ounteract the fatigue elt by workers in facories where the vise of eavy machinery auses a certain mount of vibraion. Operators who do assemling, testing, and imilar tasks while eated at a bench, ind the vibration iresome and oying.
HOW an auto differential is put to ingenious use in an industrial plant is strated in the accompanying diagram. The machine carries two reels of wire, wire being wound from one to the other, conditions are such that the wire must slack at all times.
O CLAMPING screw is ded with a tool der constructed the principle of t shown in the ompanying ilration. It is de of a piece of chime steel. hole for the bit is broached an angle of 10 rees to the long The central opening is then drilled filed and the saw cuts made as indied.
NE of the most useful tools in my emergency kit is an offset screwdriver very short bits, made as shown. It formed from a straight bar of steel ut ¼ in. square, the ends being drawn thinner. A short portion at each end is turned down at right angles to the shank and one is turned flatwise.
EVEN as a mother or father will hesitate in picking out the favorite child, so will a mechanic hesitate in naming his favorite tool. He loves them all, yet one will be usually of greater practical worth than all the others. My favorite tool is a 50-ft.
Three Prizes Offered for Letters on “The Most Useful of My Tools”
POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY
IN THE article above, Mr. Romig tells about the most useful of his tools. Mr. Romig has many good reasons for the selection of the tape line as the pride of his toolchest. In his letter to the Editor he describes a surprising number of uses for it around his home.
SMOOTH running and good looking as this car is, it was about ready for the junkman a few months ago. It was that type of “used” car that can be picked up for less than $100—sometimes a great deal less. If you are of a mechanical turn of mind and know how, you often can remodel such an auto into a thoroughly serviceable machine.
THE simplest fixture for making picture frames is an ordinary machinist’s vise. After the molding for the framé has been cut in a miter box to the right lengths, one piece is placed in the vise, as shown. The front jaw fits into the glass rabbet and one corner of the jaw is placed exactly flush with the end of the rabbet.
DURING the first seven months I owned my Ford, I rented four different garages. Then I decided to put up my own garage, and within a month I drove my car into it. The garage cost me only $78.15, but that was due to my doing practically all the work myself.
EVERY owner of a portable radio set would appreciate an aerial that winds up without kinking into a space no larger than a pocket steel tape. To make such an aerial is not difficult. Obtain 100 ft. or more of copper ribbon about ½ in. wide from a dealer in brass and copper or any large electrical supply house.
Oilcan Serves as Automatic Reservoir for Poultry Pen
E. R. SMITH
A FIVE-GALLON oilcan that does not leak may be used as a reservoir for the drinking water pan in poultry yards or hen-houses. A hole is punched in the screw cap and the can is filled with water. It is then turned upside down and placed on a wooden block in such a way that the cap is over the drinking pan and a trifle below the top of the pan.
WHEN it is necessary to use an open end wrench for unusually heavy work, the jaws can be protected from spreading and possibly breaking by means of a steel clamp placed across them, as shown. This was done recently in the case of a tank cap that had become corroded and was exceptionally hard to remove.
THE uprights, A, of these high jumping or vaulting standards are straight pieces of 1 by 3 in. lumber. For jumping standards the height is usually 6 or 7 ft.; for vaulting, about 13 ft. The supports, B, also 1 by 3 in., are .nailed to the uprights and.braced by the pieces C.
NEEDING a broomhanger not long ago, I tried in several stores to buy one, but without any luck. I found, however, that it would be a simple matter to make a substitute from an ordinary wire ceiling hook such as is to be found in almost any clothes closet.
HOME workers sometimes will find useful the painters’ and plasterers’ trick of mixing dry plaster of Paris with vinegar instead of water to make it retain its workable qualities for a longer time. It is then similar to putty and does not set so quickly.
THE best recent summary of the proofs of evolution is “Evolution and Christian Faith,” by H. H. Lane (Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J., 1923). A much briefer book of similar scope is, “I Believe in God and Evolution,” by Dr. W. W. Keen (J. B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, 1923).
PLASTER of Paris can be put to many uses in the home workshop but as ordinarily handled it is more or less fragile and apt to break, especially if subjected to any abuse. This shortcoming can be remedied, however, by the use of so-called Keene’s cement, which is a commercial product used by plasterers for finishing walls and making tile effects in kitchens and bathrooms.
GAS consumption for water heating in one home has been reduced materially by the installation of the pipe flues illustrated. The tank has been in use for about five years and has repaid the cost of installation many times. The tank and burner arrangement is of a common type, but I installed five l½-in.
AT A cost of not more than $1 each for materials, it is possible to provide good yard lights for the farm or small town property. The supporting board is by 12 by 18 in. cypress, cut as shown. A 10 by 24 in. sheet of galvanized sheet steel or iron is bent in an inverted V shape and nailed to the upper edges of the board to form a hood.
Automatic Photo Print Washer Changes and Agitates Water
JOHN H. SCHALEK
ALTHOUGH I have tested nearly all the photographic print washers placed on the market during the last five years, none has given the satisfaction of the one illustrated. This is built on the principle of the Tantalus cup of the ancient Romans.
END pieces for tubes on which homemade radio coils are to be wound can be made satisfactorily with no materials other than hard cardboard and some liquid glue. Suppose the tube is 3 in. outside diameter and 1/16 in. thick. Cut several 2⅞-in. disks to make a pile a little more than 34 in. thick, and an equal number of disks 334 in. in diameter.
TURNING taper pins, filing down bolts, truing valves and similar small repairing jobs, as well as coil winding, can often be done with a breast drill, if other means are lacking. One way to mount a drill for this sort of work is to use two small strap brackets bolted to the bench as shown.
A STRONG rack or table for the sickroom that can be attached to the bedpost and swung around to various positions, as well as raised and lowered, can be made with little difficulty, as shown. A strap hinge is bent to go around the bedpost and the point of one leaf of the hinge is then formed into a loop to take the table rod.
Adjustable “Plank” Saves Time in Painting and Paper Hanging
TO AID me in my paperhanging and painting business, I use a staging plank that is adjustable in length. The one plank serves all purposes because it can be compressed to suit a small room or pulled out for a large room. It is inexpensive and can be made by any one.
THE breakage of small drills, which is a constant annoyance to amateur mechanics, can be reduced greatly by breaking the drills short in advance. The smaller sizes of drills are too long for general use in a hand drill, but broken in two they are stiff enough to stand up quite well.
BY USING a spring as shown, a photographer can dispense with the numerous spring clip holders ordinarily needed in the dark room. One spring holds a number of negatives and there is no danger of the films being scratched. To insert a film the spring is bent at one point with the fingers, as indicated, a corner of the film inserted and the spring released.
PERSPECTIVE mechanical drawings can be made with considerable speed and accuracy by the use of a simple adjustable attachment that automatically supplies right-, left-hand and, if necessary, “over” vanishing points. The attachment consists of an extension that can be bolted, as shown, to two corners or the upper edge of the board.
A COMBINATION bookrack and cabinet with small drawers and pigeonholes often is a desirable addition to a flat top desk or a table used as a desk. The design shown is particularly simple to construct and the shape of the ends and the dimensions can be changed to suit the requirements and taste of the builder.
USED on the tilting surface of an adjustable drawing board or artist’s table, the holder illustrated keeps the ink bottle level. It is made of two strips of light sheet metal about ¾ by 5 in., and two short strands of malleable WIRE.—JOHN M. PIPP, Muncie, Ind.
SMALL drawers or boxes for storing bolts, washers, nuts, cotters, drills, reamers and other small parts and tools, can be made up quickly for use in the home shop from ordinary 1-gal. oil cans. One side and a part of the top and bottom of the can are removed and a portion of each end is doubled over and bent, as shown, to form runners.
IN THE home workshop it is sometimes necessary to make ferrules. Often they can be found ready made; for example, the brass caps on the ends of the carbon rods in a much used variety of dry cell serves well for light use. Small flanged unions, such as are used for gas lines on autos and on supply pipes for wash basins, make substantial and ornamental ferrules.
THE smooth mechanical working and the neat appearance of a panel-mounted receiving set, depend to a considerable extent upon the accurate laying out and drilling of the radio panel. A well spaced panel with cleanly drilled holes is a delight to the eye.
As any ex-doughboy will tell you, a thousand tons of tobacco distributed over a fighting force of 2,000,000 men showed good intentions, but it didn’t fill the need —not by a few million pipefuls. Even today letters still come in from veterans who have forgotten the horrors cf war and remember only the thrill of “a real American smoke” in France.
MANY a vacuum tube has been broken because a pair of pliers or a screwdriver has been dropped upon it accidentally. Such mishaps can be prevented by protecting the tube, as shown, with a section of cardboard mailing tube. Notches are cut in the lower edge if necessary, to clear the socket binding posts.
A COMPACT and inconspicuous method of arranging an aerial on an automobile is to sew the wire in a loop inside the top of the car. The necessary length of insulated wire, say 80 or 100 ft. of No. 20 single or double cotton covered wire, is sewn in an orderly arrangement to a strip of black or brown cambric chosen to match the color inside the top of the car.
TO TRIM ornamental trees quickly and uniformly is not easy, even for an experienced gardener. An amateur can do it well, however, if he uses a templet of metal, wood or cardboard, made as shown. The shape desired for the tree is first drawn to small scale on a piece of material no larger than a hand-glass and then cut out.
RUGS, blankets and stiff articles of clothing cannot easily be hung on a line with ordinary clothespins so they are often merely thrown over the line. Much better than that method is to hang them with cheap iron clamps, which can be obtained in any five and ten cent store.
HOW often have you asked: What is the best stain for this particular job? What is the best cement for this difficult joint? What will fill this crack? What will bleach out this spot ? These and scores of similar questions constantly arise in every home workshop.
TWO added conveniences for the average garage are a lamp in front of the doors and an extension device of some kind by which the doors can be released and opened without leaving the car. Both of these can be obtained at once by a fixture made as shown.
WHILE the majority of loft ladders in barns, shops and storage buildings are wooden, a stronger and more durable type of metal ladder is usually worth the moderate additional cost in making the installation. The ladder illustrated, which is one used in a barn on a Virginia farm, illustrates a cheap and durable form of construction.
THE cost of frames and not the value of the pictures is often what makes it necessary for art stores to charge nearly prohibitive prices for the kind of pictures we all should like to have in our homes. The process of lithographing has become so perfected that reproductions of the old masters can be made in exact detail and coloring, but a square foot of excellent art, costing only 25 or 50 cents, requires about 4½ ft. of frame worth from 50 cents to a dollar a foot.
Making Watertight Joints for Wooden Boats and Tanks
A SIMPLE trick by which the amateur woodworker can make a boat, tank, tray or watering trough watertight is to compress a groove into the edge oí each board with a tool such as is illustrated. The edges are then planed until the surface is even again and butt joints are made in the usual way.
Buried Tank Keeps Reservoir Water Cool for Drinking
G. A. V.
WHEN a home or factory is provided with a roof tank or water reservoir mounted so that it is exposed to the heat of the sun, the heat often makes the water insipid to drink and too warm for a cool shower bath. A good method for cooling it without the use of ice is to draw off the water through a tank of about 50 gals, capacity, buried under the basement floor.
WHENEVER possible, drill holes before nailing, especially if the joint is to be subjected to much strain. The holes should be 1/32 to 1/16 in. smaller in diameter than the nails that are to be used. Nails driven into these holes will have, according to the Forest Products Laboratory of the United States Forest Service, considerably more resistance both to direct pull and to sheer than nails driven directly into the wood.
How to Build Plank-Faced Front Doors Inexpensively
Edwin M. Love
FRONT doors of the plank-faced variety, so popular in many Spanish and some English type houses, are usually sufficiently expensive to bar their use in homes of moderate cost. A southern California contractor, however, uses a method of building them for less than half the cost of millmade doors.