Most Wonderfully Illustrated Magazine in the World
WHAT qualities in men are of greatest value to science?” A reader asks that question. Progress in science, like progress in everything else, must have imagination and enthusiasm for its foundation. Imagination pushes the human mind forward.
Brief Bits of Timely Comment On the Sciences of the Hour
BRIG. GEN. WILLIAM MITCHELL, assistant chief of the United States Army Air Service, one of the leading factors in the progress of American Army aviation, who is shown below with the new Curtis metal scout plane in which he made test flights recently: “Aviation is producing a profound effect upon geology.
Crackling of 2,000,000-Volt Lightning Bolts in Laboratory Reveals New Wonders of Science
May Speed Nature's Processes
How Electricity Leaks
Water Cited as Example
Charges Against Evolution
Raymond J. Brown
IN A steel-lined, brick building in Pittsfield, Mass., a few weeks ago, occurred an event which electrical engineers say ushers in a fascinating new scientific era and which may even alter the course of the future history of the world. A 2,000,000-volt lightning bolt, greater in strength than the combined output of every electrical generator in the United States hissed and thundered in terrifying purplish flames through the research laboratory of the General Electric Company, then shrank and died to silence as a grimy, spectacled electrician turned a switch.
for all that man has done and hopes to do in the world, may have grown up, naturally and gradually, just as all the other human attributes have done. The hypothesis of a special creation is no more necessary for speech than it is for the origin of man himself.
Gas Pressure in New Eight-Inch Bottle Lifts 15 Tons; Fills Auto Tire in Three Seconds
Designed for Many Uses
Exciting Moments Double the Weight of Crowds
A SMALL steel bottle, scarcely larger than the familiar hip-pocket flask, yet by the turn of a valve, capable of releasing power sufficient to lift a street car from its tracks or tear the walls of a building from their foundations. Such is the amazing new pressure device, invented by Walter S. Josephson, a mechanical engineer, and which was given its first public demonstration in New York recently.
REMARKABLE though its development has been in the last dozen years, in one important respect the science of aviation may be said to have remained virtually at a standstill since its infancy, and that is in the type of engine used to furnish the the motor power for aircraft.
IN a demonstration staged recently by the French automobile firm of Peugeot an automobile burning heavy oil exclusively made the trip from Paris to Bordeaux and back. Not a drop of gasoline was used throughout the journey of nearly 800 miles.
ABOVE is the well deck of the U. S. S. Langley, aircraft carrier of Uncle Sam’s navy, showing how planes are stored. The diagram shows new arresting gear designed for the Langley’s flying deck. On a revolving platform are stretched fore and aft and athwart-ship wires.
The Personal Experiences of One Inventor Who Overcame Many Failures by New Methods of Marketing His Creations
Lives by Inventions
Success Follows Repeated Failures
A Substantial Profit
Satisfaction in Creation
IS THERE money in inventions—for the inventor? I refer not to the great epoch-making inventions that alter the course of history, such as the telegraph, the steamboat, and the airplane. Everybody knows that fortune and fame usually reward the maker of revolutionary mechanical discoveries.
Member of the Essex County, New Jersey, Mosquito Extermination Commission
Water Is Breeding Place
"Jersey Mosquito" Famous
Means of Eradication
Abram H. Cornish
YOU probably are complaining bitterly about the mosquito this summer. But what are you doing to eradicate the pest? Nothing, if you are like most other men. And yet, were it not for this carelessness and indifference, which dates back into antiquity, the mosquito might have been stamped out from the civilized world ages ago.
They will occur within two weeks of each other; the lunar eclipse on August 26 and the solar on September 10—a rare coincidence in astronomy. Total eclipse of the sun, the first to be observed in the United States in five years, will be visible in California only, although partial eclipse will be visible throughout the United States.
THIS new electric motor truck recently developed by a British manufacturer has been found especially useful as a sprinkling truck for use in street cleaning. The batteries, which operate the truck for from 25 to 35 miles without recharging, are carried under the frame and are arranged for easy removal.
FOR fishermen who balk at the chore of scaling the big beauties after they land them, Denis E. Bowe, of Waseca, Minn., has invented a wire clamp device that holds the fish head and tail firmly while the scales are being removed. The fish is placed on a long wire frame, to which is attached a spring clamp that holds the tail.
A NOVEL automobile chassis which, by means of a pivot arrangement, is said to keep the body of the car riding practically on the level even when the wheels strike the roughest bumps has been devised by Dr. Joao Severiano de Mirando, of Taubate, Brazil.
WOODWORK behind a stove or range can be saved from scorching by washing the wood with liquid asbestos paint, which can be mixed at home in this way: Three parts gumlac, four parts sodium borate, seven parts powdered asbestos, 20 parts water. Heat the water, add the gumlac and borate, and when all have been dissolved stir in the asbestos.
ANNOYANCE caused by a door which becomes jammed in wet weather and rattles in the wind in dry weather may be eliminated by means of a newly invented adjustable hinge. By adjusting the hinge door clearance? can be changed quickly when changes in weather cause the wood to expand or contract.
BY MEANS of an elaborate system of electric signal lights, the key of which is a “spot board” located in the lobby, the management of a large Chicago theater is able to tell at a glance just how many seats are vacant, and Where these seats are located.
ONE of the newest sanitary devices for the boudoir is a roller brush designed for cleaning combs. As the brush is rolled over the comb, the stiff bristles enter between the teeth, quickly cleaning out all dust and hair. The roller brush is so constructed that it can be removed from the handle for washing, thus providing an entirely sanitary and easy method of cleaning.
ANTI-AIRCRAFT defense practice is made realistic at McCook Field, Dayton, Ohio, by a motorless target glider that goes through the maneuvers of a real air plane as it glides to the ground after release from the carrying plane. The glider, made of linen, wood, and a piece of metal, has a twelve-foot wing spread.
A SHORTHAND system of industrial efficiency is embodied in a set of templates designed recently by Frank B. Gilbreth, noted “one best way” engineer, for quickly drawing symbols and letters on process charts, production charts and other factory records requiring similar work.
ON THE theory that the human eyeball is pulled out of shape by the tugging of strong muscles against weaker ones, thus interfering with the focusing of light rays and causing nearsight, farsight and astigmatism, Dr. Nelson Y. Hull, a New York optometrist, has invented a novel machine for exercising eye muscles.
Wonder Waves Now Put to Use in Factory, Home and Shop
Wilfred S. Ogden
JUST as the use of X-rays has revolutionized surgery and dentistry, so now these wonderful rays that can penetrate the toughest metal are beginning to work their miracles in industry. In this new field, their fascinating possibilities, of which until now the public has heard little, are just beginning to be developed by science.
TO TEST with scientific accuracy the master scales used by railroads, Uncle Sam now employs carefully standardized weights which are shipped about the country on flat cars. Since each railroad tests all the scales on its line with its own master scale, this new method of government weight tests assures national uniformity of weight measurements.
A NEW gas mask recently invented by an officer of the Chemical Warfare Service, U. S. Army, is said to overcome the difficulty of talking while the mask is in place. A diaphragm of tracing cloth which cannot be penetrated by gases is held in place in front of the mouth by an aluminum disk.
COMBINING many hooks in one, the in genious metal device shown at the right has been designed to save space in small closets. Each hook carries a clothes hanger. In addition, it will make an ideal rack for knives and brushes in the kitchen. It also can be utilized in the garage as a rack for tools.
ANYONE who has tried to oil the family car or the lawn mower without getting daubed with oil will appreciate a new oil can that works like a pistol. The can is grasped in the hand like a revolver, the nozzle is placed against the oil cup or nipple, and a push sends the oil into the machine.
AN IODINE antiseptic pen is one of the valuable new additions to first aid equipment. The pen consists of two glass tubes, a rubber stopper and a distributing brush. Iodine is placed in the bottom tube. The rubber stopper, into which the pen is fitted, is then inserted.
Small Sailboat Racing Comes Back as Popular Summer Sport; Sloops of Star Class Test Scientific Seamanship
Catboat for Beginners
George A. Corry
SMALL boat sailing and racing this season is enjoying a boom such as the sport hasn’t known for a quarter of a century. This rejuvenation and . return to popularity of a pastime that seemed doomed to extinction with the advent of the automobile and the motorboat, has been brought about almost entirely by the development of the one design sailboat, known as the Star class.
TWO 40-foot boats, identical as to hull and of the same sail area, but rigged respectively as an American schooner and a British ketch, will sail soon from New York for Cowes, Isle of Wight, in what is probably the most interesting international race ever arranged.
REMARKABLE success in the treatment of pneumonia by the use of electric current was reported recently by physicians on the staff of St. Mary’s Hospital, Hoboken, where the new method perfected by Dr. Harry E. Stewart, Yale University athletic coach, was tested.
IN A new type of shredder for the housewife’s kitchen, the knife blades can be removed readily for resharpening. In the usual type of slicer the blades are fixed and the instrument, once it becomes dull, remains so because of the difficulty in removing the knives.
AN OLD time novelty that is coming into vogue again is the candle clock. Rings are painted on the candle at regular hour or half hour intervals. Each time the flame reaches a ring the specified time has passed. The candle clock was invented by King Arthur and the candles are still being manufactured in England.
THE yield of pineapples in the Hawaiian Islands has been increased 50 per cent by forcing the plants to grow through broad strips of brown paper that completely cover the soil around the plants. Usually when pineapples are planted in the loose soil, the weeds immediately attempt to choke them.
A NEW aero lift scaffold for painters and builders, designed to eliminate the necessity of climbing ladders and carrying heavy planks, may be erected or dismantled in a few minutes. The upright standards are 3⅜ inches square and hollow, and weigh only 1½ pounds to the foot as against the 2½ pounds of the average sturdy ladder.
PLEASURE automobiles are being put to work, thanks to the ingenuity of engineers who recently have harnessed the automotive power plants to various kinds of machinery. One of the most interesting developments along this line is a new method of raising sunken ships, invented by Charles Mitchell of New York City, and now being tested at Bridgeport, Conn., where the Calvin Tompkins, a 300-foot freight steamer, sank two years ago.
A BINOCULAR magnifying glass, which attaches to a bandeau fastened around the head, has been invented by Dr. J. Molinie of France to take the place of the reflectors with holes in the centers now used by physicians. The instrument leaves both hands of the user free.
A NOVEL method of replacing the rotted portions of telegraph poles without interrupting the wire service recently has been adopted in Europe. A tripod is constructed to hold the upper portion of the pole in place while the stump is sawed off near the ground.
THE use of pegs cut from waste lumber to plug the holes left in railroad ties after the steel spikes have been pulled is one of the recent developments in the nation-wide movement for lumber conservation. The plugs serve to prevent the starting of decay in the ties.
SOME of us bathe twice a day, some of us once a day, and some of us still stick to the old fashioned Saturday night schedule. But most of us, I know, do not really understand how, when, where and why we should bathe—at least we do not understand the underlying scientific answers to these questions.
ONE of the most spectacular oil well gushers in history formed this huge crater, 600 feet in diameter and 100 feet deep, in the famous Smackover field of Arkansas, where oil spouts from the earth at the rate of 100,000 barrels a week. The picture at the left shows the great gusher just as it became unmanagable, destroying the derrick and machinery before creating the crater.
COMPRESSED air is used to reproduce actual flying conditions in the newest type of wind tunnel, designed by Dr. Max Munk, technical assistant of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, and recently operated for the first time at Langley Field to test models of aeroplanes and so determine the effect of varying air currents.
SIMPLY turning a faucet switches on the current of a new type of electric water heater and instantly supplies hot water for the kitchen, bath or lavatory in which it is installed. Opening the faucet allows the water to flow through the heater and trip a switch as it flows.
AN OLD sparrow’s nest recently found in an apple tree at East Cleveland, York, England, was found to be composed of two shoelaces, an old railway ticket, three stamps, a safety pin, three pieces of red cloth, finger of kid glove, half a cigarette, part of a photograph, and half a yard of bandage.
A SIMPLE and yet effective method of cleaning oily and greasy machinery and garage floors has been achieved in the invention of a hydraulic washer by Wallace Miller of Colorado Springs. The washer consists of an aluminum cylinder that can be screwed to a hot water faucet and has a removable bottom through which cakes of laundry soap can be inserted.
THE perfect operation of the largest “upside down” telescope in the world was reported recently by Dr. Frank Schlesinger, director of Yale University Observatory, New Haven, Conn. The telescope is employed to determine the light-curves of faint, variable stars.
COLORING the wood of growing trees with aniline dyes is one of the recent achievements of science in producing tinted lumber. Nearly any color can be used. A slanting hole is bored through the foot of the tree trunk. After the lower end of the aperture is plugged up, the dye solution is poured in, filling the hole to the brim.
Thirty Questions and Answers to Test Your Knowledge
Electricity and Radio
What Is Life?
The Story of the Mind
Electricity and Radio
What Is Life?
The Story of the Mind
SCIENTIFIC knowledge of electricity has been revolutionized in the past few years by the discovery that electricity is really composed of little particles called electrons. If anything is charged with electricity that means merely that it has electrons on it.
Scientists Mine Precious Radium from Petrified Trees
THAT precious radium can be extracted from the trunks of petrified trees found in Western Colorado is a comparatively recent discovery by scientists which promises to increase the world’s meager supply of this rare metal. Petrified trees, standing in the position in which they grew and completely covered by sandstone, have been found to contain large quantities of uranium oxide and vanadic oxide.
A SEA and land boat goes into operation soon at Leesburg, Fla., for harvesting of sawgrass, used in the manufacture of paper pulp. The machine reaps the grass and conveys it into the hull, where it is cut and blown into a freighter hold. When afloat, the machine is propelled by two stern paddle wheels.
ON THE street cars in Milwaukee, Wis., a novel glass wiping device recently has been installed to keep the motorman’s window free from rain and sleet. The wiper makes it possible to clean the outside glass surface from within the car. It is operated by slightly turning a handle located on the inside of the window frame.
A WAY to utilize old rubber inner tubes and a machine to carry out the idea have been invented by C. B. Martin, of Canton, Ohio. The machine is designed for cutting tubes cross sectionally into bands by means of a circular knife. Bands of various sizes may be cut from bicycle, motor-cycle and automobile tires.
A FEW strokes over a hone are said to be sufficient to put a keen edge on scissors blades inserted in this new sharpener. The device holds the blade at the proper bevel to produce a cutting edge when it is pushed over the hone.
TO PREVENT punctures and wear without eliminating the desirable qualities of the pneumatic automobile tire, a Baltimore manufacturer has devised a pneumatic tube that fits around the hub instead of around the rim of the wheel. A solid tire is used on the rim.
A HOME made camera print drier which overcomes the amateur’s usual difficulty of rapid drying, performs the operation without causing the films to curl. A square frame made up of four pieces of wood is set upon four legs, two of which are longer than the others to permit the liquid to run off the surface.
How Every Motorist Can Insure Against Costly Accident by Simple Methods of Inspection and Repair at Home
Installing New Lining
Center Rivets Come First
Will Your Brakes Stand These Tests?
What to Let Alone
U. S. Bureau to Lengthen Life of Batteries
F. A. Platte
YOU are driving at moderate speed, say 30 miles an hour. The road is clear. Suddenly a large truck backingout of a side lane, emerges with a roar about 70 feet ahead on a stretch of road where you can’t turn out. Instinctively you jam on your brakes and pray they will hold.
UNUSUAL experiments in feeding animals are now being made in Scotland to determine the best and most economical method of stock-feeding and to reduce loss of animal life through nutritional diseases. Goats are used chiefly in these experiments.
A MUNICIPAL bat roost at Austin, Tex., houses thousands of bats, each of which eats an average of 260 malaria mosquitoes a night. Since scientists say that a colony of bats will eradicate malaria in any locality, the animals are housed and protected in Austin and other Texas cities.
ORPHAN boys are employed to draw the lucky numbers in the Cuban National Lottery, using the elaborate apparatus shown above. Of two globes, one inside the other, the larger contains hundreds of small balls marked with the numbers in the lottery.
THE White Horse of Kilburn, situated on a chalk cliff in Yorkshire, England, is badly in need of a new coat. This may not mean much to Americans, but is interesting to all Yorkshiremen. The White Horse was formed by cutting away the turf on the hillside, revealing the white chalk underneath.
REALIZING that touring automobilists are often in doubt as to when they enter or leave a city, the Chamber of Commerce of Salem, Mass., has erected a series of original and unusual boundary markers. The markers typify two characteristics for which Salem is noted—her old fashioned Colonial doorways, and witchcraft.
How Kansas Developes Fitter Families; A Remarkable Experiment in Eugenics
THE average American family of today is the result of haphazard mating. Men and women marry with little scientific thought as to their physical and mental fitness for bearing and rearing children. When the children come they too often are brought up in the same haphazard fashion in which their parents chose each other.
DAILY reports from branches of the postal service and from the mail plane service in all parts of the United States now are received by radio in the Post Office Department at Washington, D. C. The new postmaster general, Harry S. New (at left) is shown listening in on the reports.
RECEPTION over distances of more than 1000 miles using a loop aerial is attained by Rutledge Mayo, of New York City, with the set pictured below. The self-contained loop aerial is shown in the back of the cabinet. The set consists of three stages of radio frequency, detector, and two stages of audio frequency amplification.
TO TEST out a theory that the calls made by bats are heard only by animals, bat calls were broadcast by radio recently in an interesting experiment at London, England. Receiving phones were placed on the ears of dogs. The attitude of the air dale in the photograph indicates that he has heard the bat calls as he is sniffing the air to find the bat’s scent.
THE great White Star liner Majestic recently has been equipped with automatic transmitting and receiving sets which permit the sending of radio messages at the speed of 80 words per minute when the vessel is 1000 miles at sea. The receiver prints the dots and dashes on a tape which later can be deciphered at leisure.
THE joys of radio now reach even the crews of Uncle Sam's submarines. While the S-50 lies at the New York Navy Yard, at Brooklyn, N. Y., the crew sets up its outfit on deck and gathers about the loud speaker to enjoy news and entertainment sent out by powerful broadcasting stations in the vicinity of New York City.
THE latest addition to the innumerable new uses for radio is its installation on racing automobiles and in race track pits. Many accidents in racing have been due to the fact that drivers going at terrific speeds could not be notified that accidents to other cars were obstructing the course, thus making collisions with such cars inevitable.
First of a Series of Articles Explaining New Hook-ups
Evolution in New Hook-ups
First Dual Radio Station
How Circuits Are Related
Fundamentals of the Circuit
Single Circuit Easy to Master
How to Change Single Circuit Set into "Flivver"
From Single Circuit to a Flewelling Circuit
The Super-Regenerative Circuit
FOR the average radio fan —especially the man or woman who is just beginning to master the principles of radio science—there is no better receiver than the simple single circuit set. I have consistently advocated this type of circuit for best all-round results; and even the recent interesting developments in new fangled “trick” circuits have not altered my belief.
A GIANT loudspeaker to be used in guiding transatlantic liners into their berths has just been installed at the Southampton docks in England. The photograph shows the monster megaphone in position for throwing voices to incoming ships.
SAFETY first is the rule with this village blacksmith at Goes, Holland, who takes no risks with refractory horses. He backs the animal into the four posted wooden structure shown in the picture, slips the bolt under its chin, ties the hoof to the diagonal cross piece, and then shoes it in comfort and safety.
ON THE tip of this novel envelope sealer is a rubber sponge with which gummed surfaces are moistened for sealing. The sponge is of soft rubber and is pliable like a paint brush. It provides a neater and quicker method of sealing.
A PIANO with two keyboards, invente by a Hungarian musician, Emanue Moor, is said to facilitate playing difficul compositions. The second board has exactly as man, keys as the ordinary piano but the co responding notes are pitched one octav higher. With an ordinary keyboard th pianist often must cross his hands to pla notes in the upper register, and he find that one hand interferes with the other This is avoided when two keyboards an employed.
MORE than a million persons in the United States at this time of year begin to ask themselves the quesm: "Is hay fever really curable?” he summer’s welfare of the million deds on the answer to that question. Can y safely remain at home if they wish?
PERFECTED recently by a Chicago firm, this electric switch for motor starting is open for inspection and yet is safe for inexperienced workers. The operation is carried out by means of a crank handle at one side that opens and closes the door and throws the switch off and on.
A SAFETY stepladder that would prevent at least a part of the 20,000 accidents in which ladders figure annually has been sought for a long time by engineers. A concern in Dayton, Ohio, now claims that a new ladder that it is manufacturing will accomplish this result because of its strength and stability.
COMPELLED to drive 384 huge concrete piles through nearly 50 feet of muck and mud, engineers constructing a 500 foot bridge over the Ohio canal connecting Akron, O. with Kenmare, a suburb, succeeded in forcing the piles to drive themselves hydraulically through the mud.
TO facilitate the sharpening of chisels and planes, a holder that guides the blade as it is moved across the oil stone and thus assures an accurate bevel, has just been invented. The blade is clamped tightly in the tool and the roller stem in the other end is adjusted at a height which will give the desired angle of bevel.
SOWING grain from an airplane flying over plowed fields has been proposed. From parallel perforated metal tubes extending at intervals from front to back of the lower plane, the seed would be forced by air pressure created by the flight of the plane.
ONE of the recent developments in piano attachments permits a pianist to provide the music of an orchestra. Twelve tassets extending over as many piano keys actuate xylophone and bells. Cymbals join in the accompaniment and are operated by the foot.
AN INNOVATION in motorplows successfully operated near Berlin, Germany, employs two huge wheels on which most of the weight of the plow and motor rests. On the outer circumference of the wheels are shovel-like blades that sink to a depth of six inches into the ground, thus obtaining firm traction.
TWELVE tons of earth with one bite! No, it is not a weird prehistoric monster that has suddenly come to life again. It is a mechanical monster of human make. The world’s largest electric shovel, weighing 365 tons, has just gone into action in the iron ore lands of Pennsylvania.
FLOWER pots that dissolve when placed in moist ground recently have been invented to avoid the necessity of transplanting. Plants forced from the seed can be bedded without removing them from the fiber pots which soon dissolve and mix with the soil.
SLIGHT pressure of the foot controls a newly invented radiator valve, turning it either on or off. The chief advantage of the valve is that it eliminates the necessity of bending over and turning a dusty valve. It is especially valuable in hospitals because doctors, nurses, and attendants do not need to soil their hands by touching it.
EVERY housewife who has stood over a hot kitchen stove cooking a meal in ordinary open pots and pans will appreciate a new electric steam pressure cooker recently put on the market. An electric heating element, imbedded in the bottom of the cooker gives the necessary heat for generating steam in the container.
How Any Home Owner, with Ingenuity and a Few Tools, Can Fix Household Electrical Appliances
Repairing the Fan
FOR BROKEN WIRES
FOR OPEN CIRCUITS
Fixing the Motor
Repairing the Motor
Victor H. Todd
HOW often have you walked into a friend’s home, and pointing to a particularly attractive looking vacuum cleaner, fan or sewing-machine motor, exclaimed, “What a handy thing to have around! You must get a lot of good out of that.” “No,” replies the friend sadly, “It doesn’t work any more; I guess it’s broken or burnt out.”
THIS recent photograph shows the giant Zeppelin ZR-III, nearing completion at Friedrichshafen on the Lake of Constance, Germany, for early delivery to Uncle Sam in accordance with the reparations agreement. On its trip to the United States it will be manned by a German crew.
ONE of the most ingenious of recent proposals for mooring airships is the invention, by John Mason of Cape May City, N. J., of a floating hangar and landing field adapted for use on either land or water. Its chief advantage lies in the fact that it swings head to the wind, thus reducing wind interference in landing a dirigible safely.
A PADLOCK containing a police court summons, when locked on the automobile of the Seattle speed violator marks the car until he reports in court to pay his fine and have the lock removed. The lock was invented by three Seattle policemen to eliminate the trouble caused by offenders who fail to report.
A DASHBOARD alarm that signals “Low Oil” recently has been perfected by a manufacturing concern in Elgin, Ill., to provide automobilists with a means of discovering instantly when the oil pump is not working properly. The device consists of a metal bulb in the center of which is a diaphragm.
THE apparently impossible feat of mixing gasoline, water, lubricating oil and air as an explosive for automobile engines has been accomplished by M. A. Newman and Dr. K. A. Mayers, of San Antonio, Tex. Oil and water are kept in separate compartments of a tank under the hood.
EVERY man who uses tools around the home or automobile will appreciate a handy new practical wrench that is cast in one piece and has openings to fit 10 different sizes of nuts. It has no moving parts to be adjusted or to get out of order, and does not slip or spread as do other types.
BEWARE of your tires while going through the Imperial Valley of California. The puncture vine, otherwise known as “tribulous terristis,” meaning earthly trouble, has migrated from the edge of the Sahara Desert to the valleys of California, where it lies close to the ground waiting to puncture slightly-worn automobile tires.
WIDESPREAD use of painted lines to divide highways in order to keep motorists on the proper side of the road has led recently to the construction of a road painting machine mounted on a motor truck. Paint, played upon a felt tread by compressed air, is transmitted to the pavement by a trailing wheel. White paint is used so as to obtain a sharper contrast with the oil soaked pavement.
"Pullman" Car and "Steam Yacht" Are 1923 Novelties of the Open Road
MOTOR CAR "PULLMAN"
THIS TWO-STORY ROLLING COTTAGE
TYPICAL of the luxurious “cottages on wheels” that have joined the annual summer motor caravan this season is the “Pullman” motor car shown above, designed by Mr. and Mrs. C. F. Rouze, of Pontiac, Mich. Its interior is divided into two large compartments, each of which is converted at night into a sleeping room with double-deck folding beds that become cushioned seats in the day time.
AN AUTOMOBILE iS as old aa its paint. And it is just as true to say that the paint is as old as the varnish that covers and protects it. That new car of yours —how it glistens and sparkles out there in the driveway. How long will that lustre and beauty remain to thrill you?
MANY capable, all round machinists look forward to establishing a small jobbing business of their own. Mechanical abilityalone does not, however, insure success in such an undertaking. It is safe to say, I think, that 75 per cent of small jobbing shop owners try to grasp all the business in sight and are constantly seeking to add new accounts.
IN A SMALL auto repair shop in southern Maryland a mechanic often saves time with what he calls a “spark plug persuader.” He uses the ordinary type of spark plug socket wrench with a small rod through the center and two openings to suit plugs of different sizes and, in addition, a simple tool made as shown from a short length of pipe.
Hacksaw Slot Converts Plain Nut into Useful Locknut
AN ORDINARY nut can be made into a locknut in a few minutes by cutting a hacksaw slot half way through the nut about one quarter in. from the chamfered face, as shown. Tighten the nut in place and bend over the edge so that the slot is closed.
SIMPLICITY of control, compactness, and sensitivity are the essentials for the ideal vacation radio set. These are all present in the single control receiver illustrated. Indeed, to my mind, the selectivity and ease of adjustment of this circuit make it the simplest to build and operate of any tube set.
THE newest way of camping is to pitch a tent on a barge. The camper then chooses a sheltered river or stream for his camping ground. The floating camp has many unique advantages. It is easy to build and not expensive; it provides a good, comfortable canvas home with large storage places for food and other essentials; and the camper may move on and drift with the current and wind whenever he feels like picking up and changing his camp.
TO MAKE the supports for a concrete flower box or garden seat, prepare a form of ⅞-in. wood, as shown. Then mix one part of cement and two parts of clean sand to a mushy consistency, wet the form well, and pour in a layer of concrete about 134 in. thick.
Arbor, Bench and Swing are Three Attractive Projects from Popular Science Monthly's Famous Series of Home Workshop Drawings
Arbor Has Two Roomy Seats
Coupon for Ordering Blueprints
OF ALL the noteworthy projects in POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY'S series of blueprints, perhaps the most timely and useful for outdoor construction in the long, light evenings of midsummer are the arbor, the combination bench and table, and the porch swing illustrated.
SHORT stroke slotting on small tool and die work is often done on the shaper or large slotter for want of a small slotting machine. If one of the drill presses in the shop is not kept constantly busy, it can be converted into a small slotter that will do fine and accurate work.
Accurate Surface Plate Aids in Making Speedy Layouts
Henry S. Laraby
FOR laying out work accurately and with the least loss of time, one or more laying-out surface plates made as shown below will prove a valuable addition to the equipment of any machine shop. Small plates for tool or gage work should measure about 12 by 18 in.
FOR the home drafting table and the small shop or garage, the universal electric lamp illustrated has marked advantages. It can be clamped to a table, chair, box, lathe, drill press, or to any edge that is within the range of the clamp. It can be adjusted to any height within its limits and the light can be set at almost any angle to furnish the best illumination for the work, whether drafting, reading, machine, or pattern work.
Rotary Tools Increase Speed and Safety in Press Work
Die-Holder Turns Automatically
C. M. Wilcox
MECHANICS and designers who have to deal with press work may find useful suggestions in the design of the set of press tools illustrated. This is a “safety first” setup and couples speed and accuracy with a minimum amount of handling. The tools are used to close formed sheet metal rolls on buckles.
DURING 1906 I was working as a toolmaker in a shop in New York state at the highest rate of wages then paid for that class of work. I was 28 years old and married. On considering my situation carefully, I concluded that I had advanced about as far as I could ever expect to go if I continued to depend on my manual skill alone.
Additions to Lathe Equipment Save Machinist's Time
TO STOP quickly the rotation of his lathe, a Los Angeles machinist uses the shopmade brake illustrated. Its frame consists of a length of strap iron attached rigidly to the lathe bed and cone housing about 1½ in. above the largest cone. To the left end of the strap a flat spring is fastened, its natural elasticity holding it against the underside of the strap.
THIS handy fixture for setting thread tools is placed between the centers o the lathe and leveled by means of the cros bar, as indicated. The bar also serves for setting the thread tool at the right height It is therefore important that the cros bar be located so that the bottom of it comes on a line with the lathe centers The fixture is made of machine steel am left SOFT.
WHEN much inside calipering is to be done, the addition of steel balls on the caliper points will make the work easier and insure greater accuracy. For A pair of 6-in. calipers, 5/16-in. balls are about right. They are easily annealed in cast iron chips, drilled to fit the points rehardened, and soldered to the calipers Outside calipers can be fitted with bal points in the same WAY.
ONE of the simplest yet most useful tools, especially for the home machinist, model maker, and small shop mechanic, is a hand operated boring bar. Many jobs too large for the only lathe in the shop can be bored out and faced on the ends with this little machine.
Tuning Unit Useful in Many Radio Circuits Does Away with Difficult Rotor and Stator Windings
Edwin G. Gettins
NEARLY every radio fan who has tried to make a variometer of the standard type has found difficulty in winding the concave rotor coil and in sticking the convex stator coil in place. Much easier to make is the spider-web variometer illustrated.
EVER try to lay out an angle without a protractor? All you need is a scale and a pair of dividers. Strike an are with a radius of 3.58 in. and every 1/16 in. on the arc will be very nearly one degree. For ordinary purposes the dividers may be set for a radius of 3 9/16 in.
IF YOU are using a single circuit radio receiver and are annoyed with interference from several broadcasting stations, the construction of the simple double loop illustrated will make your set much more selective. The device will work with either a crystal or a vacuum tube set.
OPEN grained woods, such as oak, chestnut, ash and gum, can be given a novelty finish in craftsman’s gray with little difficulty. Give the raw wood a coat of linseed oil and when that is dry dust out the pores of the grain thoroughly. Next fill the grain with white lead or a commercial paste filler colored a light gray. Force the thick filler into the grain with a putty knife and remove the surplus.
WHEN grinding in a set of valves, many automobile mechanics first dress down the worn and pitted surface of each valve by filing it. The valve stem is held in the chuck of a sensitive drill press and revolved against the file, which is kept approximately at an angle of 45 degrees to the stem.
Keeping Your Micrometer True With Three Lapping Disks
CONSTANT use of a micrometer results in the edges of the anvil and the end of the spindle becoming slightly rounded. This wear can be corrected most accurately by the use of three cast iron lapping disks, one .275 in. thick, another 283 in. thick, and a third .291 in.
IN WORKING with a diamond lap it is desirable to know just when the lap is in contact with the work. This often requires more than a keen sense Of touch. By placing on the work the forked end of the tool illustrated and putting an ear to the other end, the sound of the lapping process will be magnified greatly and the slightest contact will be audible.
TO SPACE equal distances around cylindrical work accurately, a micrometer may be used, as shown, in connection with the table found in any mechanical handbook giving the length of a side of any regular polygon inscribed in a circle. If, for instance, it is desired to divide a 1-in.
IN MAKING up two special dials for an engine control it was necessary to finish the faces with engraved lines and letters, for which full size blueprints were furnished. To do the engraving as quickly as possible with the equipment at hand, an ordinary drill press was used.
WHEN the spindle or chuck on a milling machine runs out of true while drilling or boring holes, the simple tool illustrated is useful for quickly centralizing the hole. Catch the spindle in the chuck and let it run at a high speed. Take the point of the spindle between the thumb and first finger and the needle at once will true itself.
A SPLIT bushing made as shown to fit a standard boring tool holder is a useful addition to the tool equipment. It allows a drill rod to be used for small boring and inside threading jobs on the lathe. The utility and convenience of drill rod for making such small tools is well known.—E. W. BURNETT, Ottumwa, la.
DIFFICULTIES experienced in obtaining perfectly true and flat surfaces on a planeror shaper-tooled job are often due to poorly designed or wrongly used tool holders. When the tool is held in a rear position, as illustrated, there is less likelihood of chattering.
WOODEN trestles or sawhorses are often made, even by experienced carpenters, so that the weight is borne mainly by the nails that hold the legs to the cross beams. A better method is to bevel off the inside edge of each leg at the top, as shown, and make a notch of corresponding shape in the cross beams.
THE dial illustrated has proved exceedingly useful in setting the expansion valves in a storage plant. It would also be valuable on any valve where close and accurate setting is required. The 5½-in. dial is cut from tin. A blank nut is drilled and tapped for a setscrew and then soldered to the dial.
SPOT facing is a method of removing metal with what we might term a flat-bottom drill tool having multiple cutting edges. It is one of the quickest and cheapest ways to remove metal and should be used wherever the requirements of accuracy are not too exacting.
MACHINISTS are sometimes confronted with a milling operation where the small size of the cutter or the depth of the cut and shape of the work is such that the pendant arm of the mill has not sufficient clearance. This difficulty is often overcome by using the auxiliary device illustrated.
BY USING a silvery white, slow melting alloy, it is possible to obtain direct casts or impressions of woodcuts, coins, medals, medallions, engravings and the like without injury to the objects. The alloy used is not influenced by atmospheric changes, and it can be bent, hammered, turned, and cut with a knife, as well as used for soldering tin, lead, and nickel.
CAN you name the bright stars visible these fine summer evenings? It is not easy to do without a good map, but flat star maps are somewhat difficult to use, and globes are expensive. It is, however, a simple matter to make an excellent substitute for a globe map.
SOLDER and Babbitt metal can be used in many ways for making emergency repairs, one of them being to hold split rivets in place. A split rivet in my suitcase was torn out and, lacking other means to repair it, I laid some ordinary wire solder on top of the prongs and melted it into a button.
MOST radio amateurs who have assembled or built a fine looking radio set are reluctant to place it in a cabinet where the larger part of the apparatus is out of sight. A novel and not difficult way to get around this is to build a plate glass cabinet, as shown, using a black composition panel for the front.
A SERVICEABLE buffer and polisher can quickly be made by drilling holes in an automobile engine valve, as shown, and stitching a piece of heavy felt to it. The valve is held in the chuck of a portable electric drill or any other type of drill available and, while rotating rapidly, pressed against the surface to be rubbed.
IN REPAIRING old clocks I have often found that the screws fastening the works to the back of the case have loosened and let one side of the movement hang down out of plumb. The clock would not therefore, keep correct time even if the case and shelf were perfectly level.
MANY lawns would be kept in better condition during the hot summer months if the garden hose could be moved from the back yard to the front of the house on a reel instead of by the primitive but common method of carrying it in a wet, muddy coil over the shoulder.
IN CONSTRUCTING a radio set it is not necessary to follow directions to the letter. The tuning coils can be wound on tubes of various sizes from 3 to 5 in. with wire of any size from No. 26 to No. 20 covered by any suitable type of insulation. Primary coils should have at least 30 turns; secondary coils 40 to 60, and tickler coils 50 to 75 turns.
STOVES and ranges equipped with hoods or canopies can be fitted quite easily with an electric fan to exhaust the heated air. The details can be arranged to suit the various types of hoods in use. In the installation shown the top ring for the fan connection is 2½ in.
TO HURRY the process of varnishing invites failure. If a second coat is applied before the first one is thoroughly hard, the varnish is apt to crack. If driers are added to the varnish to hurry its drying qualities, it is likely to cause pinholes and other defects.
With 405 cans to his credit Mr. Thurston smokes his way towards the lead
Mr. Byron Thurston of St. Louis is more than qualified for membership in the Edgeworth Club. But his position in the championship-smoker class is not so well established. Mr. Thurston’s interesting letter follows: Hotel Garni, St. Louis, Mo.
A ¼-IN. brass rod 14 in. long sharpened at one end, and fitted with a clip made of 18 or 20-gage brass at the other, is an excellent holder for The pointed end is pressed into the ground and the nozzle slipped into the clip. This holder holds the nozzle in any desired position, and when one part of the lawn has been sprinkled the whole contrivance, nozzle and all, is turned as on a pivot so as to water another section.
IN ORDER to obtain very loud results from a radio loud speaker, a power tube can be used in the last audio frequency stage set and 150 to 300 volts applied to the plate circuit of that tube. More than 100 volts should not be used in any plate circuit, however, where an ordinary transformer and phones are used.
BY INSTALLING an extra lead from the starting battery, an automobile can be used quite satisfactorily for lighting a small country shack or cottage or a camp while on a summer trip. Care must be taken, of course, that the battery is not exhausted through over use, but if the machine is being used normally every day the battery will be sufficiently charged to take care of the extra demands upon it.
THE combined sun and shower bathhouse illustrated, is one I built in a location where the sun’s heat could be depended upon most of the year. This heat is utilized for taking the chill off the otherwise ice-cold water sufficiently to make bathing a pleasure.
SCREWDRIVERS, files, scrapers, and other tools that have a constant tendency to roll off the bench or machine can be improved by the simple expedient of weighting one side of the handle. A center into the handle, as shown, and plugged with a piece of lead, or brass or other rod.
Small Ornamental Fountain Made of Cement or Plaster
A SMALL fountain for the conservatory, sun porch, or sheltered nook in the garden can be made without much difficulty from either waterproofed plaster of Paris or cement. If piped water from the house main cannot conveniently be obtained, a tank can be installed in the pedestal and compressed air pumped into it to operate the fountain spray when desired.
How to Build a Pergola Backstop for the Tennis Court
B. Francis Dashiell
PERGOLA backstops add much to the attractiveness of the home tennis court and are not a great deal more expensive to build than the more or less plain and crude type often used. The possibility of planting shrubs and climbing roses beside each column, or at least the outside columns of the backstops, adds further to the general appearance of the grounds.
IN PAINTING the side of a house or other building it is not always convenient to erect a scaffold, especially if the work is to be done by one man. In such cases, a plank supported between two ladder brackets will usually serve. The brackets are cut from steel plates, as shown, the projecting ends are bent to form hooks, and chains fastened to the outside corners.
THE frame of this useful and easily made bench for the home garage or workshop is 2-in. angle iron. The two front legs are cut roughly 40 in. long, and the back legs, 48 in. long. All then cut 1¾ in. deep at one end and the feet are bent, as shown, while hot.