SCIENCE never stands still. Progress is its underlying law. Because of its discoveries and inventions, human life is changing constantly. To realize the extent of this change one need only turn to “The Story of Man and His World,” page 32 of this issue.
Brief Bits of Timely Comment from Scientists of the Hour
LUTHER BURBANK, famous plant wizard, shown above driving a tractor at the ground-breaking of a 40acre Luther Burbank Park, dedicated in his honor at Santa Rosa, Calif., during the recent celebration of his seventy-fourth birthday: “The motor tractor probably will not be surpassed by any other mode of soil cultivation for the next few hundred years, at least.
Thrills Made to Order from Levers, Pulleys, and Wheels
Circus "Magic" Based on Mechanics
Baker's Tricks Prove Valuable
Thrillers Made Safe
How the “Big Top” is Erected
THE lions roar. The elephants trumpet. The clowns cavort. The performers are garbed in glittering spangles. Add the smell of animals and tanbark, and you have a circus in full swing. Yet few of the spectators realize that mechanics make the scene possible-that without mechanical magicians the circus of today could not exist.
WHEN flood waters of the Big Muddy River suddenly roared through a break in the roof of Coal Mine No. 9 at Murphysboro, southern Illinois, a few months ago, engineers said the mine was doomed. The workings were flooded with a billion gallons of water.
New Science Reveals that Health and Success Depend Largely on Ability of the Mind to Summon Reserves of Human Energy
Why Matthewson Won
"Second Wind" Explained
Fear May Cause Death
Wishing and Willing
Will Power in Marathon Dance
Extent of "Will Cure
Machine to Test Will Power
James J. Walsh
THE other day, when Christy Matthewson, one of the greatest baseball pitchers in history, returned after a long absence to his old haunts at the Polo Grounds in New York, he was greeted as the hero of a contest eclipsing even those famous diamond battles of old, when he pitched the New York Giants out of many a crisis.
Daring Explorer Attempts to Fly 2000 Miles across Frozen Arctic in One Jump; May Shorten Travel Routes
THE whole world this summer is watching with interest the daring attempt of Capt. Roald Amundsen to fly 2000 miles across the frozen wastes of the North Pole without a stop. If the famous explorer succeeds in jumping by airplane from Point Barrow, Alaska, to the island of Spitzbergen, just north of the Scandinavian peninsula, he will have opened up an Arctic airline that will shorten transportation distances from North American cities to Europe and Asia by thousands of miles.
Record Non-Stop Flight Hastens Day and Night Postal Service
Beacons Guide Fliers
Sky Traffic Lights
Norman C. McCloud
LETTERS mailed at New York at noon, delivered in San Francisco the next evening! When the two army fliers, Lieuts. Oakley G. Kelly and John A. Macready, recently landed at Rockwell Field, San Diego, Calif., completing a non-stop transcontinental airplane flight of 2600 miles from Hempstead, N. Y., they did more than establish a new world long-distance record.
SCIENCE is about to open the door that will release from the waterpower resources of the country 80,000,000 horsepower of energy, enough to heat and light the homes and turn the wheels of the nation. One obstacle only stands in the way of utilizing the tremendous power flowing in our rivers—that is the lack of a practical means of transmitting electric current at high voltage for long distances.
How Our Ancestors Gathered Knowledge by Cooperation
The Constant Climb of Civilization
Men Begin to Work in Groups
Cooperation the Key to Civilization
Fathers of the Modern World
The Old Stone Men Overcome
New Stone Men Used Better Tools
New Stone Traces in Persia
Human Progress Flourishes in Asia
The Difference in Knowledge
The Oldest Race?
Man Turns Tables on Nature
E. E. Free
MODERN life is distinguished from the caveman life of 15,000 or 20,000 years ago by the thing called civilization. So far as we can determine from the remains that have come down to us, the cavemen were about as clever and inventive and artistic as we are.
COVERING an area of 20 acres and with a capacity of 1,750,000 barrels, the world’s largest oil storage tank is nearing completion at Wilmington, Calif. The concrete tank will rise only eight feet above the ground, half of it being below the surface.
SEEKING to eliminate dangerous dust explosions in mines, flour mills, and other industrial plants, scientists recently have succeeded in developing a device that promises to do away with much of the hazard when the atmosphere becomes permeated with finely divided particles of highly combustible dust.
A HANDY little cardcase that keeps the cards clean and gives them up at the pull of a ribbon, has been invented recently by a Chicago firm. It lies flat in the pocket, has no metal parts, flaps, or buttons, and is made of flexible leather. A ribbon fastened at the back runs under the cards and comes out at front near the top.
THE latest in “go-go” signals is now being operated on trolley cars in Baltimore. The signal consists of two lights, red and green, which indicate when the car is stopping or starting and when it is slowing down. When the car is under way, the green light burns; when it is slowing down, the red and green show; and when it stops, the red alone shows.
HUMAN beings have no monopoly on toilet accessories. The barn owl, among other birds, has a comb concealed on the inner edge of one of its claws. The English pigeon and the hawk each have a powder puff. The powder is made by certain small feathers that become brittle and crumble into a fine white powder, which the birds use to gloss their feathers.
TO PROMOTE an “Own Your Own Home” campaign, an Omaha lumber company is using a novel automobile that is really a model house on wheels. The body of the car is a reproduction of an old English type house decked with flower boxes holding evergreen shrub plants.
ONE glance at a newly invented glass mailbox tells whether the postman has delivered a billet doux or a bill. The glass is hard enough to withstand considerable pressure. A strong lock protects letters from theft. Screw holes are so placed that the box cannot be removed when the lid is closed.
A ROWBOAT built in two watertight sections that can be collapsed, to facilitate transportation or storage, has been invented by Adan E. Olson of Holton, Mich. The sections are divided so that one section will fit into the other. They are connected by means of a detachable hinge and pin arrangement so that the boat can be assembled or taken down without tools.
ONE of the world’s most spectacular and thrilling sports is that of hunting with cheetahs, or trained leopards, in India. The animals are trained to stalk, kill, and surrender their game to the hunters without mutilating it. The remarkable photograph above shows a cheetah retrieving a deer during a hunt in Baroda State, India.
USE of concrete for marine construction is not so certain a solution of the marine borer problem as has been assumed, in the opinion of C. A. Kofoid and Robert C. Miller, members of the biological section of the San Francisco Bay Marine Piling Committee.
OFFICIALS of the New York City Board of Education and principals of more than 25 city high schools recently witnessed the first successful demonstration of radio for instruction in high school classrooms. At its conclusion they were convinced that eventually radio will offer to thousands of pupils in widely separate localities the advantage of listening to leading instructors and experts with whom otherwise they never would come in contact.
ONE of the scientific miracles of the day is that many deaf persons are enabled to hear by means of radio. Leo Kuehn, of Detroit, Mich., recently heard for the first time in his life when a doctor placed a pair of radio receivers on his ears. Most deaf persons can hear better over a telephone because of the concentration and amplification of sound in the receiver.
To the list of novel and ingenious radio appliances is added the invention, by Tracy Hicks of Kansas City, Mo., of a wireless pocket phone requiring little if any antennae and only a ground wire. The set has a phone at one end of a tube in which is contained the crystal detector and a tuning coil.
KENNETH HARKNESS, chief engineer of the New York Radio Guild, is shown above tuning in with a tiny aerial recently designed by him. The aerial is sc sensitive that it picks up broadcast concerts on its three-inch coil of wire. Eighty-five feet of wire, spider-web wound, is used in the construction of the coil aerial. Concerts broadcast from Schenectady, N. Y., have been plainly heard in New York City, a distance of 15€ miles, over this set.
THAT thunderstorms and the aurora borealis affect the audibility of radio messages has been definitely established in recent experiments by the Weather Bureau of the United States Department of Agriculture and by the reports of northern radio stations.
Silencing Shrieks and Groans in Sensitive Radio Sets
Our Radio Editor Announces Important New Inventions
How the New System Works
Is Equivalent to Two Condensers
The New Dry Cell Vacuum Tubes
Keep a Step Ahead in Radio
THE world of radio is astir with the most important divorce case in its brief but spectacular existence. It 3 the divorce of radio frequency amplification from radio regeneration. And the outcome of the separation, caught with great possibilities for the a future of wireless, is o silence the shrieks, roans, and whistles of egeneration that have tarred the enjoyment f supersensitive reeiving sets.
MEN JASPER, THE JANIXOR, down in the boiler room of mnerica’s first radio-equipped oartment house at Newark, .. J., can listen in on grand oera, jazz, or baseball, simply V pushing a plug into the wall, ach of the 74 tenants of the oartment house can listen to ne same program in the same ay.
REACH down In your pocket and pull out a dollar bill. It may look a hundred years old if it has had bard usage, or it may appear to be merely a yearling. It is neither. The life of a dollar bill averages from eight to nine months, according to estimates made in the Federal Reserve Bank.
NOW being fitted out in New York is a ship equipped with a recently in vented mechanical fishing device, whereby the catching of large quantities of fish in record time and at minimum expense can be accomplished. The mechanical fish catcher consists essentially of a tube extending from the bow to the stern of the boat, emptying into a trap.
A SIMPLE metal device attached to the end of a garden hose at right angle to the natural coil has recently been put on the market as a substitute for the hose reel. Once the device clamps the end of the hose to a bend of the coil, the remainder may be rolled up, and hung on a peg.
MADE up of springs, this chain permits keys to be used without detaching them from the person. Any desired number of the spring links may form the chain. By this means the keys are fastened permanently to the owner and there is no danger of forgetting them.
Double Trudgeon Crawl Helps Champions and Beginners Alike
An Easy Stroke to Learn
Stroke Supports Shoulders
How to Swim with a Championship Stroke
Learning to Roll
Records Broken with Strode
Edward T. Kennedy
REACHING out into the sport of swimming, science - is proving once again that the best way is the simplest way. Through scientific study of various strokes, experts recently have developed a method of propulsion which, while it has made “learning to swim” an easy problem for the beginner to master, has produced John Weismuller, the swimming speed marvel of the world.
THIS HARMLESS TREE FROG is a friend of the farmer and backyard gardener alike; for it devours countless insects that are injurious to food plants and to grass. It also feeds on disease carrying flies and mosquitos. Thousands of these valuable little creatures are killed thoughtlessly every year
AUTO MOBILE manufacturers are going back into their great motor laboratory—the speedway. Not for the sport of it; not for the big cash awards given the winners; but for its scientific value to the industry. The Packard Company is the first big concern to announce its return to the track.
The development and improvement of tires is a second striking outgrowth of the speedway. At the outset, tire trouble was the scourge of the racetrack. Public attention was called to this weakness nearly 20 years ago, when Barney Oldfield went through the fence on a Detroit track.
ON THE heels of the recent rainmaking experiments at McCook Flying Field at Dayton, Ohio, where airplanes succeeded in annihilating clouds and causing precipitation by spraying clouds with electrically charged sand, comes the report that Richard T. Ringling, member of the famous circus family, has purchased 10 airplanes to be used by professional rainmakers in Montana’s dry land farming district.
A NEW automobile funnel that fits snugly into the radiator inlet and stands erect by -itself has been invented to take the place of the old style funnel that had to be held. This novel device permits the use of both hands in pouring water. In addition, it is rigid enough in its position to support the weight of a pail of water on its edge, thereby lessening the exertion of holding the pail clear at radiator height.
To ERADICATE ink, it is no longer necessary to perform a complicated experiment in chemistry, for the invention, by Thomas W. Cappon, of Newark, N. J., of a fountain pen containing a fluid has provided a simple means of erasing. The fluid is stored in a glass tube inserted in the fountain pen.
ADD one more use to the useful automobile. AtLovelocks, Nev., the Nevada Valleys Power Company operates a power house at which one of the 48-inch floodgate valves is seldom used. For this reason no electric drive is provided. - But the superintendent owns an automobile, and that auto sQived the power question.
ON A small farm near Bern, Switzerland, can be found a large tree from which water gushes. At first glance the spring may seem to be an artificial arrangement. Instead, it is simply still another of Nature's curious little freaks. Not until the tree had attained a considerable growth was there seen any indication of a spring.
MOUNT LOWE, Calif., which over looks a panorama of rare beauty, boasts of a scenic railway along which a car, propelled by a mule, carries sightseers up the steep route for a view of the mag nificent scenery. The railway was built single-handed by a young man who went to the mountains to regain his health.
AS IF to further substantiate California claim as the state. where things assu record breaking magnitude, Miss Margery Bush, of Petaluma, has grown what is probably the world's tallest sunflower. It was grown in the back yard of her home and measured 15 feet from the root to the top of the flower.
THE deepest mine in the world, the John del Rey gold mine in Bra penetrates the earth for more than miles. At this depth the temperature `the rock is 117° F., necessitating elaborate system of artificial cooling. The great operating problem is the h cost of ventilating and hoisting throw a steplike series of shafts and levels which the bottom slopes are reached.
THE first successful equivalent of glassblower's lungs recently was invented. Pressure on a but ton provides sufficient air in proper velocities to enable the glassblower to perform the most delicate work mechanically. The button controls a valve in a line leading from a compressed-air chamber. Air passing this valve, shoots into an injector and sucks with it an equal amount of air from the outside. The combined jet of air then passes through a blowpipe.
A MONORAIL hand cart, designed to replace the wheelbarrow, recently has been invented in Germany, where it is finding extensive use in street railway work. The car has two wheels each equipped with a double flange. To the frame is attached a long handle with which the operator keeps the car upright and against which he pushes.
A UNIQUE lifesaving apparatus, termed t-he "skittle peg" by its inventor, a Finnish fisherman, is actually a miniature buoy, large enough to inclose a person standing up right. It consists of a watertight bag with two sleeves, a bucket at the base and a hood that is provided with a window through which the shipwrecked occupant may look out.
DETACHABLE leather heels recently have been invented to afford rapid. and inexpensive replacements for worn heels. The upper part of the heel is screwed firmly to the shoe and has a number of lugs that hold the detachable base. Any one can remove the old heels and put on new ones in a few minutes.
AN INDOOR garden that will provide a plentiful supply of table plants can be obtained from fruit pits usually thrown away by the cook. Date stones are excellent for this purpose. Place a number of the stones in a jar of water and soak them for a week; then plant them in a pot filled with rich soil.
AUTOMOBILE road signs that anticipate tourists' questions and answer them have been placed at the six main approaches to the city of Madison, Wis. The signs have proved helpful to dozens of parents driving in from distant points to visit their sons and daughters at the University of Wisconsin.
CURING green, water-soaked grass in five minutes is the remarkable feat claimed for a haymaking machine designed on an entirely new principle, invented by Nuna C. Hero, of New Orleans. The inventor predicts that it will take the gamble out of haygrowing, and increase the productive capacity of present hay lands about 50 per cent.
EVERY mother who has worried for fear her baby will fall out of a window will be interested in a new removable window guard made of steel bars strong enough to keep burglars out and baby in. It may be taken from room to room as needed and folded away when not in use.
FOR the man without a workbench, who now uses the piano bench or kitchen chair as a sawhorse, an inexpensive folding steel horse recently has been invented. It may be used as support for temporary workbenches, display tables, banquet tables or platforms.
A LINE cover operated in a spring reel, designed to do away with the soiling of newly washed clothes by a dirty line, has been patented by a housewife who lives near a railroad. She wearied of doing her week’s wash over a second time because the line had been soiled by smoke from passing trains.
Lead-Boring Bugs Cut and Ruin Miles of Electric Cable in California
WHEN lead fuses blow out on electric light and power lines in California, it is not always due to a short circuit, but often to a lead-eating beetle that penetrates the metallic covering of the fuse and eats away the lead. This beetle, scientifically known as Scobica declivis, also has destroyed many miles of lead cable covering for telephone lines.
THE detachable rowboat motor now may take its place with typewriters, stenotypes, and other portable machines in mode of transportation. A new carrying case, just put on the market, is neat and compact and rides securely on the runningboard of an auto.
A NEW type of propeller, adaptable to any size craft, and said to have increased efficiency, due to its queer cloverleaf form, is coming into use on the Pacific coast. Its widened blades, it is claimed, present about twice as much surface to the water during one revolution, and produce greater speed than any other propeller of the same size and pitch.
EVERY farmer, freight handler, and commission man engaged in handling eggs will welcome the invention of a new cushion locked pad for egg crates, which is said to reduce breakage to the minimum. The honeycomb containers are made of light cardboard and are backed by a corrugated strip of padding for each row of eggs.
SOME 20,000 individuals ask me questions about the weather every year. Weather questions pour into our New York office over three trunk telephone lines at the rate of one a minute on ordinary days. At the first gust of an approaching storm, the calls often mount to 10 a minute
THIS picture shows a thrilling moment in the newest air sport—hunting the great bustard, Europe’s largest bird, by airplane. This sport was originated recently by Spanish aviators attached to an airdrome on the southern plains of Spain, where the huge birds are plentiful.
Noted Health Expert Prescribes the Ideal Scientific Summer Outing, Especially for Young Men, to Rebuild Worn Parts of Mind and Body
C. Ward Crampton
EVERY man needs a vacation; some men need it more than others. The experience of thousands of young men has proved beyond question that the right kind of summer recreation can return a tremendous profit in health, happiness, and efficiency for the months of work that follow.
How New York Seeks Escape from Deadly Traffic Tangle
BY RUNNING auto roadways through a huge office building north of Grand Central Terminal, New York plans to carry northbound and southbound traffic around the terminal and over the present viaduct above the congestion of Forty-Second Street.
A STURDY, yet collapsible steel and can vas rowboat that can be packed in a box 12 by 18 inches, recently has been perfected for the use of tourist fishermen. Riding on the runningboard of a touring car, it can be taken along on a summer's week-end trip.
HOW long does it take paint to dry? To answer this question accurately and to test the drying qualities of various paints and oils, Howard A. Gardner, of Washington, D. C., has invented a machine that automatically records the drying time to within a few minutes of absolute accuracy.
RAIN need not bother the golfer wh owns one of the new golf bag raincoats The coat weighs only 15 ounces and ca be rolled up and slipped into a golf bag. Its sleeves are short and loose to avoid interference with free action of the arms. Attached to the coat is a rubber hood that fits tightly over the head and keeps the rain from running down the golfer's neck.
A NEW level for use in laying foundations, tile pipe, cement and brick wall and for other construction jobs, recently has been placed on the market by a concern in Athol, Mass. Weighing only half a ounce, this level can be hooked over a un stretched between two points to determine the levelness of surfaces that are to rough for surface levels.
THE "arm-mobile" is a novelty i kiddie cars, recently invented by resident of Oakland, California. Two arms, each fastened off center t one of the rear wheels, are hinged together at the front end to a curved bar tha swings on a pin under the front of the cax "Rowing" backward and forward turn the rear wheels and propels the car.
LEAD is one of the heavyweights and alcohol one of the bantamweights of the chemical world, yet Thomas Midgeley, chemist of the General Motors, has made them join hands amicably to vanquish the "knock" in automobile engines. The new compound is composed of six parts of ethyl combined with two parts of lead. By adding it to gasoline, a lower grade of that fuel may be used, it is claimed, without the engine knocking about it. Only a few drops are needed to produce the correct results.
FEW people who enjoy tapioca pudding realize that they are eating a product of the poisonous cassava root. In its natural state this root is extremely bitter and harmful because of the hydrocyanic acid that it contains, but when heated it becomes palatable and its poisonous qualities are readily dissipated.
THE first X-ray pictures ever taken of a mummy were recently completed by dentists at the American Museum of fatural History, New York City. The pictures showing the skeleton in detail are expected to be a great aid in studying the evelopment of bone formations in the volution of man.
IN SMALL town hotels where hot water is not available for shaving, traveling len sometimes fill a paper bag with water id hold it over a lighted gas jet. .They how that the heat from the flame, traveling upward, will heat the water and will ep the bag dry without burning it.
TWO Danish scientists, Dr. G. Hevesy and Dr. D. Coster, working at the ty of Copenhaven, have announced the scovery of a new chemical element which ey call “hafnium.” Hafnium was discovered by means of X-ray spectrum. It occupies, the anish scientists believe, one of the six cant places long known to exist in the t of the chemical elements.
AGES before Dr. Edward Jenner discovered how to make us immune from smallpox by vaccination, the long-living and prolific cypress tree used practically the same method to procure immunity from rot. This astonishing fact was discovered recently through scientific study of the most famous trees in history.
ON THE principle that superheated steam breaks down carbon, Dr. K. A. Mayers, of San Antonio, Texas, has invented a volatilator for gasoline engines which, he claims, increases the engine's power, prevents carbon deposits, and provides a lubricant to the moving pistons.
A RECENT innovation in safety locknuts marks an improvement over existing types in that it can be applied to an ordinary bolt without a cotterpin hole. In the upper surface of the nut is a depression into which fits a two-pronged forked pin.
FROM an ordinary dinner plate and two pieces of blotting paper any backyard gardener can make a simple and effective seed tester at home. Cut the papers so that they fit the plate, one on top of the other. Then pour on enough water to wet both papers thoroughly. Now place from 10 to 50 seeds between the sheets of paper. Keep the plate in ordinary room temperature and the papers moist.
ALMOST any morning now you may meet the mail carrier dressed up in a modified Sam Brown belt. And instead of hunching up his left shoulder that bears the sack, he will be walking upright. The right shoulder of almost every mail carrier is about an inch lower than the left, due to the weight of the mail sack, carried on the left side.
HOW long will a building last? For the guidance of property owners' who are not sure how much to charge for depreciation in figuring taxes, the Federal Internal Revenue Bureau gives the following: “The average usual life of a frame building is 25 years, a brick building 35 years, and a stone or concrete building from 50 to 100 years."
TO FACILITATE working with tools in the dark, a useful flashlight handle that will hold a wide variety of tools has been designed especially for automobile owners. The flashlight is so placed that it throws its beams directly upon the work.
NEARLY every radio fan has seen many of the commercial and homemade “smallest” sets that have appeared from time to time, often taking the form of the crystal set that fits into a pocketbook. Most of these sets, however, have been of ;he freak variety, with a receiving range usually limited to about five or 10 miles at most.
A CULTIVATOR frame with gasoline engine has been converted into a power lawnmower by an Ohio concern. A 30-inch lawnmower is attached to the frame of the cultivator by means of special fastenings. When the small gasoline engine is running and the clutch is thrown in, the mower is guided with little exertion on the part of the operator.
HAIR spun from glass is now being used by German wigmakers in manufacturing lifelike toupees. They claim that glass hair is the most effective substitute for real hair yet devised, defying detection. The glass wigs are said to be light in weight. Curls and waves can be produced, and the color won’t run.
A FIELD glass provided with an auxiliary lens for astronomical observations has been perfected recently for use in near and far vision. The auxiliary lens is contained in a cylindrical tube attached to the front of the binoculars. This closes off one of the eyepieces and directs all rays to the other eye.
Thirty Questions and Answers to Test Your Knowledge
The Story of the Stars
The Story of the Earth
THE questions this month begin with the Story of the Stars. Did you know that the sun was the only star in our solar system? The “stars” that most people know best are really the planets—Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and the rest. They are so far off that it takes thousands of years for light from them to reach us, and light travels at the rate of nearly 200,000 miles a second.
WITH a self-feeding tack hammer recently invented, one can tack placards and decorations without paying the usual price of bruised fingers. Tacks are contained in the handle of the hammer and need not be handled by the person driving them.
A POWERFUL little tool for driving nails and tacks in inaccessible places as been designed especially for upholster rs and picture-framers. The tool drives tails by means of forceps that are brought together by pressure on grips at the handle. t eliminates the danger of breaking glass marring fine furniture with a hammer.
A DISK cut from a strong piece of card. board and attached by a string to the v-heel of a sewing machine can be made to erve as a perfect rotary disk cutter. By giving the disk a high speed, it is possible even to cut a pencil in pieces.
AN INEXPENSIVE envelope sealer that can be clamped to any desk or able is one of the newest office accessories n the market. The machine is made tirely of metal and has only one moving art. The envelope is sealed by first passing the ap between a moistening roller and a pring made of strips of nickeled silver, hen pulling it through another set of prings, which seal it securely.
TO ASSIST strangers in locating municipal buildings, railroad stations, or business houses, an automatic city directory recently has been installed in Miami, Fla. The apparatus consists of a large map of the city and a printed list of buildings and stores.
A HANDY tool for evenly and quickly applying putty has been invented by Charles H. Weber, of Columbus, Ohio. It consists of a cylinder and piston, the outer end of the piston being attached to a rack bar that is in mesh with a pinion attached to a rotary handle.
ORDINARY wax or sealing-wax now may be utilized by any woman in decorating the home or in entertaining the children, through the perfection of a new molding process by a Chicago inventor. Molds for paperweights, book ends, and various animal toys have been put on the market with complete directions as to their use.
INSTEAD of inspecting a road surface to see where it needs repairs, the up-to date highway engineer now can drive over the road in a car equipped with an ingenious new instrument that automatically charts the road surface. The machine, of aluminum, is mounted on the dashboard.
AN UNUSUAL alarm recently perfected serves the double purpose of condensing the vapors generated in the radiator and of signaling by whistling and exposing a red disk whenever the water becomes too hot. The alarm is fastened to the radiator in place of the usual cap.
DEPOSITS of oil and dirt can be readily cleaned from automobile engines an frames by air pressure. The apparatu consists of a long nozzle through which mixture of air, oil, and water is sprayed on the part to be cleaned at a pressure c about 90 pounds a square inch.
FORD owners will be interested in a new quick change transmission lining, which is said to save time and repair bills. Th lining can be installed easily without changing the construction of the car. In changing the lining, it is necessary only to remove the plate on the transmission cover, slip out the worn linings an slip in the new ones. The three linings can be changed in half an hour by one man.
A NEW automatic safety fender that drops instantly to the pavement if a car strikes a person, recently has been approved by the Underwriters' Laboratory as a valuable accident prevention that will save many lives. The fender consists of a bumper, a horizontal trip bar, and an automatic screen.
Whole Nation Is a Playground for Summer Tourists; How to Make the Auto Trip Successful
It Pays To Be Prepared
CHOOSING A CAMP SITE
Points to Remember on the Trip
GET A TOURIST CAMP DIRECTORY
THE CAMPING EQUIPMENT
Dont Take Chances on Roads
Carry Only What You Need
Harold F. Blanchard
AT LEAST a million people are going auto-camping this summer. Only a few years ago the fascinating summer sport of "camping out" was limited to a very few vacationists who were willing to "rough it"-to put up with its inconveniences and even its hardships.
WHAT is the best way to equip your car for auto camping with out building a special body or going to any unnecessary expense? This is a question that confronts thousands of prospective auto campers this summer. I shall, therefore, give in brief outline what equipment is considered essential for a party of four on more or less extended camping trips, and a convenient method of disposing of it about a touring car to the best advantage.
To BUILD an attractive garden fountain, and benches, pillars, and curbing of concrete is not particularly difficult and costs surprisingly little or materials. Those illustrated were made in spare ime by the writer and a companion in a few weeks at a total outlay of $17.50, mostly for ement.
DO YOU know that looking at a photograph with only one eye gives the effect of depth and distance similar a stereoscope? Try it by closing the nd to make a narrow tube, holding it to e eye, and looking through at a photo placed about a away. Keep the other e closed and take care that ly the picture and none of a surrounding are seen, r otherwise the effect is oiled.
THE use of locating buttons is undoubtedly the best method for locating and boring holes when the holes must be accurately placed, yet it has the disadvantage of being the most expensive. It always means the expenditure of much time and labor.
A GOOD pul for gib-he machine keys c be made from old 1 2 - i n. f i forged to sha shown. The edi should be grou smooth. The tool driven under I head of the in the same way as a wedge, but it superior to the wedge or chisel common used.
MACHINIST alike will find and this home novel mechanic holder for small drills a time saver in ociting the right drill. By turning the top that the desired number on the dial comes opposite ;he arrow mark on the case, ind by shifting the knob ;o one of four possible positions, an outlet hole is automatically brought opposite ;he compartment in which he required drill is to be ound.
TO SIMPLIFY the work of welding caps on cylinders of about 4-in. diameter, an acetylene welder built the simple rotating clamp illustrated. With slight modifications the same clamp can be used for other similar jobs. It consists of piece of ¾-in. pipe about 30 in. long, with two slots ⅜ in.
FINDING it necessary in an emergency to extend the capacity of a vise, I mounted two extra jaws as shown and let the work rest on the regular jaws. This permitted work to be held that was from 1½ to 2 in. larger than the original capacity of the vise. The extra blocks should be at least ⅜ in. thick or, better still, from ½ to ⅝ in., to make certain that the work will be firmly gripped.
FOR special purposes it is sometimes necessary for a mechanic to improvise a vrench. This is not particularly difficult to lo if facilities are it hand for shearDIVET ng and bending teel plate. The tools illustrated are made of ¾-in. steel )Iate sheared to he required hape. One. see ion is then Loubled over, rivted, and provided with a pivot in. The parts must, of course, be properly empered.
SETTING tapers on a grinder, lathe, or milling, machine by means of the graduations on the machine itself is usually considered an unsatisfactory method for obtaining accurate results. It makes it necessary to fit and try work when the allowance is small.
ALTHOUGH nitrogen-filled electric lights of from 100 to 200 watts meet a ong-felt need for better lighting in the shop, re found in our shop that the vibration made by cranes and heavy machinery requently caused the filaments to break, even when the bulbs were suspended on heavily braided lampcords.
Solving Weighing Problems by Water Displacement Method
W. F. Schaphorst
NOT infrequently it is desired to know the weight of some part or other on a machine that cannot be detached easily for weighing and is too irregular to be computed quickly. In such a case the weight can be found indirectly by weighing the water displaced by the part, if the part; projects in such a way that it can be made; to displace water.
THIS adjustable boring toolholder is inexpensive and very easily made. The shank of the adapter is held in the milling machine chuck, and the shank of the toolholder proper is turned off center to allow various adjustments of the boring tool.
Transferring Templet Saves Time for Draftsmen and Machinists
Charles A. Pease
THIS adjustable templet will be found A very useful in shop and drafting room for transferring points from one drawing to another, and from a drawing to the work, as well as for prick punching drill holes for duplicate work. The device serves all purposes, for a set of fine, keen points are provided for drafting, and a set of circular 60-degree points for shop uses.
FOR jigs or machine parts,WASHER where it is necessary to use blind BUSHING bushings that are to be renewed when worn, one way to provide for the easy removal of the bushings is as follows: The hole for the pushing is drilled deep enough to permit a nut to be placed n it before the bushing is put in.
Plumber's Tool Saves Time in Tightening Washbowl Waste
WILL W. GIBSON
EVERY plumber knows how awkward it is to hold the waste while tightening it in a bowl or bathtub. Generally the handles of the pliers are used to get a grip, but the simple tool illustrated is much better. It gives a firm hold and does not mar or bend the cross bars in the waste.
THE methods used for fastening parts to plates in the shop are important, be cause much of the work must be clamped down for laying out, drilling, assembling, Lung, assembling, grinding, boring, and other machine operations. For such fastenings the type of plate pin illustrated is handy because of its adaptability and simplicity.
TO SAVE time in locating centers for radii in making mechanical drawings, I scratched the scales illustrated on one of my transparent triangles. This simplifies considerably the drawing of fillets and rounded edges, which occur so frequently in mechanical drafting.
OUR old but sound motorboat is now repaired and remodeled at stem and stern and recalked throughout. It now remains only to make good the decks and interior and prepare for installing the engines. The skin or lining, and certainly the floorboards, should be removed as far as possible.
A GOOD working drawing and a bill of materials are essential whenever you wish to make anything at all elaborate in rour home workshop. They save you time, money, and effort. To try to get along haphazardly without them is to invite failure. No expert mechanic would think of attempting it.
Easily Made Double Handgrasp Improves Bait-Casting Rod
Robert Page Lincoln
ANY one who has done much casting with a bait rod knows the value of a double handgrasp. In reeling the lure or handling a fish, the left hand instinctively goes forward to grasp the rod, and an extra cork grasp is therefore a desirable addition.
Spacing Gage Fastens Directly to Shingling Hatchet
THE shingling device illustrated, which I made for a carpenter friend, has saved him much time in laying shingles. It consists of a locating pin made in two pieces, as shown, to fit through a hole in the blade of the shingling hatchet. By placing the pin against the edge of the row of shingles already in place, the head of the hatchet gives the location for the row of shingles to be laid above without the necessity of measuring.
THIS box kite, which is of Japanese origin, is made in the simplest possible fashion of eight sticks and some cambric or paper. Four of the sticks are 20 in. long and four 12 in., all of them either 3¼in. square, ⅜ in. square, or ¼ by ⅜in. Two crosses are made by nailing the smaller pieces together in pairs with thin brads.
Taking Large “Closeup” Photos with a Folding Camera
BY USING a portrait lens and extending the bellows of a single lens camera a little more than usual, it is possible to take photographs of small objects and documents so that the image fills practically the entire plate or film. Shortly after the war I photographed many honorable discharges for soldier friends in this way.
THE garage question is a serious proposition for many men who do not own their own home or who, like the writer, are compelled by their business to move from place to place. After building five garages in as many towns or locations, I designed two knock-down or portable garages and constructed the one illustrated.
THE best account of the New Stone Age is Tyler, “The New Stone Age in Northern Europe,” referred to in the previous chapter of this serial. The best general history of the world, including all the essentials of the origin of civilization, is H. G. Wells’ “The Outline of History” (The Macmillan Co., New York, 1921).
FOLLOWING are the correct answers to the 30 questions on fundamental facts of science printed on page 64 of this issue. Grade yourself 10 points for each question answered correctly and see how near you come to a 100 per cent score for each classification.
The Vernier attachment consists of a 12tooth brass pinion of the same pitch as the "dial," with a pitch diameter of ¼in., and to this pinion a small knurled knob is soldered. The whole unit is free to slide on a shouldered stud anchored to the panel.
AN ENJOYABLE radio program coming through the writer's receiving set was turned into a barnyard chorus on several occasions because of the poor contact between the rotor spindle and its bearings. The bearings were of the common type-strips of brass, each with a bearing hole and a spring slot.
USUALLY the simplest method of bringing an aerial lead-in indoors is through some part of the window. A narrow board is often placed either at the bottom or top of the window, as shown, and a hole bored in it for the porcelain insulator. The objection to this method is that the meeting rails of the sash no longer come together and therefore a considerable draft can enter the room.
Spacers Prevent Short Circuiting Radio B Battery Switch
To CHANGE rapidly the voltage of a radio B battery, it is convenient to use a switch with several contacts. Usually five are sufficient, since 16½ volts is about the lowest point at which a gas detector bulb functions satisfactorily, and 22½ volts the highest, the space between being di vided into intervals of 1½ volts.
Easily Made Vernier Condenser Tunes Radio Set Sharply
H. H. HOUCK
IN THESE days of extreme radio interference, perhaps the most useful addition to the average set is one or more Vernier condensers. The type illustrated can easily be constructed and is quite free from the effects of body capacity. Two brass plates of heavy gage are needed.
Unique Switch Gives Distinction to Homemade Receiving Set
A. M. C.
IF YOU wish something original for one or more of the switches on your radio set, the simple sliding switch mechanism illustrated will be found a neat, serviceable, and distinctive arrangement. I use it to vary the plate voltage current for the B battery, but it would serve equally well, of course, for the taps of a vario-coupler or other variable inductance.
Electric Light Shade Serves as Horn for Loudspeaker
ALL that is necessary to make a very cheap yet neat looking loudspeaker is a 1500-ohm telephone receiver, a common tin electric-light shade, a brass shade holder, and a few odds and ends to be found in almost any home workshop. On a wooden base ⅞by 4 by 8 in., screw a support made from a brass strip ⅛by ½ by 7 in., drilled with a 3/16-in. hole ½in. from each end, and bend as shown, 1 in. from one end.
Coffee Can Makes an Adjustable Trouble Light Protector
R. A. FRANKLIN
THIS trouble light protector is made from a 1-lb. coffee can and a length of bailing wire. It protects the lamp, saves the worker's eyes from all glare, and at the same time serves as a very effective reflector. The wire handle, being movable, can be set at any point on the circumference and the protector can be held or hung up with the light turned as required.
Simple Lock Prevents Tampering with Radio Receiving Set
A. C. SELETZKY
THIS lock makes it possible to break the filament circuit of a radio receiving set in such a way that it can be closed again only with the key. Simple in construction, it can be made with materials found in every radio fan’s workshop. The key is round stock with a slot cut in the end to fit the end of a screw that is filed down as shown.
WHEN the home worker attempts to re paper a bathroom with the imitation tile paper so frequently used, he usually finds it next to impossible to remove the old paper. That is because the paper has a coat of water-resisting varnish. The first step in removing it, therefore, is to take off the varnish.
Then he headed north and found it up near the "jumping-off place"
No matter what part of the world you may find yourself in, few things make you feel more at home than to walk into a store and discover your favorite smoking tobacco for sale. With your favorite tobacco in your favorite pipe, life is worth living in almost any corner of the globe.
Child's Play Crib Made from Collapsible Onion Crates
A. J. LOCHER
IN MAKING the child's play crib illustrated, I used three collapsible onion crates and some scrap lumber obtained from a sawmill. The total cost was 60 cents for material. Since making the first, I have built four others for friends and received $3.50 for each.
MANY backbreaking jobs can be light ened by the simple hoist. It is made from a 25cent clothesline pulley, attached by an S-hook to 3 ft. of 1-in, angle iron. A hole in the center of the angle iron takes a 7/16-in. pivot bolt. At the end opposite the pulley is a length of 1-in. angle iron bolted with a short ⅜-in. bolt at right angles to the main arm.
A Simple Horizontal Bar Serves for Stretching Exercises
R. W. THOMPSON
HAVE you ever noticed how much better a good stretch makes you feel? The blood tingles to your fingertips and your head seems clearer. Stretching exercises are, indeed, considered among the most valuable, because they temporarily relieve the pressure on the spinal cushions and set the blood in vigorous circulation.