A GROUP of 60 blind men in Cincinnati are periodically entertained by a leader who reads to them aloud from current publications. After a recent reading of POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY, the verdict of the sightless listeners was, "Give us more of that magazine!" Questioned on their enthusiasm, the men declared that from the articles in POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY they could better visualize what was going on in the world than from any other book.
BERT FAULKNER, General Manager of the Woods Brothers Construction Company, writes us: We wish to compliment you on the story in your July issue concerning our Missouri River bank protection work. Both in illustrations and text, the story is the most complete that has been edited.
From Tourist Hotels in Death Valley Will Be Visible Both the Lowest and Highest Places in the United States
Tourist Hotels Planned
Death Valley Photos Taken for Popular Science Monthly
TYPICAL VALLEY VISTA
A RELIC OF '49
FAMOUS BORAX CLIFFS
Death Valley's One Oasis
Yearly Rainfall Almost Zero
Mountainsides Are Burned Wastes
Winter Climate Delightful
Two-Man Clipper Trims the Hedge Evenly
Voting Machine Arrests "Repeater"
Novel Fire Engine Has Detachable Pump
Tool for Workbench Straightens Nails
John Edwin Hogg
THE ghastliest yet most entrancing desert on the face of the earth is to be made a vacation playground! Death Valley, that vaguely famous mystery spot in eastern California, 337 feet below sea level at its lowest point, sweltering under summer temperatures up to 160 degrees—is to be robbed of its sting and thrown open to tourists, who in winters to come may delve into its fascinating mysteries in ease and comfort.
Will This "Whirling Leaf" Flying Machine Solve Greatest Problem in Aviation?
Vertical Flight Is Aim of Revolutionary Helicopter
The Screw Propeller Type
Models Rise Readily
These New Aircraft Lift Themselves Straight Upward
A Record Ascent
HAVE you ever observed one of the winged seeds of the maple or sycamore making its way to earth after it has been detached from its stem? Whirling like a miniature wind wheel, the seed, describing a spiral as it is carried by the breeze, often travels hundreds of feet before it strikes the ground.
Experts Amazed at Richness of Musical Reproduction Due to Resonating Wooden Rods
Uses Wooden Rods
What Is Tone?
Like the Human Ear
How the Mechanism of Our Ears Reproduces Music
No Limit to Its Size
Used in Radio Broadcasting
Automatic Tip Cart Dumps Its Load when Tractor Backs
Whirling Blades Reduce Stumps to Chips
Marine Safes Will Float if Ship Goes Down
There Is Cash in Your Camera
Electrified Map Converts "Geography" into Game
Alarm Clock Lights the Fire in the Morning
PROMPTED by a desire to preserve for future generations the art of the great singers of today, Charles A. Valentine, a banker of Yonkers, N. Y., has perfected an extraordinarily novel talking machine that reproduces in all their original beauty and quality the recorded voices of famous artists.
Duplicate Children, Exactly Alike in Mind as Well as Body, Revealed by Amazing Scientific Studies
Two Persons or One?
Twins in Mind as Well as Body
A NATION-WIDE twin hunt, following the recent dramatic death in Chicago of the famous Blazek sisters—"Siamese twins," joined together from birth—has brought to light the fact that there are now living in this country two attractive young girls, Violet and Daisy Hilton, who are also said to be fastened together at the spine in fashion similar to the joining of Rosa and Josefa Blazek.
Inventor of the Lowest Priced Type of Radio Receiver Tells How to Get Hundred-Mile Distances with It
Where the "Knocks" Originate
Was This the First Radio-Phone?
Much Depends on the Tuner
Radio Wave Chutes
The Ideal Set for the Home
Home Made Sets with Unusual Ranges
Three-Wheeled Truck for Road Building Runs Backward
Tempered Air Massages Suffering Patients
Rotary Wire Brush Cleans Metal Surfaces
Light Car Makes Eighty Miles to the Gallon
Boat Can Be Rowed in Three Sections
Replacing Ties Now a One-Man Job
Spring Fastener for Belt Takes Up Slack
Phonograph Alarm Wakes Sleeper with a Tune
Nitrogen as Tire Filler
Roller and Scraper Combined for Roads
Store Window Swings Open to Display Goods
Cyclomobile Is Midget Auto, All but the Engine
Mechanical Ox Walks over Ground
Faulty Vision the Rule
Tiny Flask Boiler Will Clean Pipe Quickly
Practice Tube Measures Singer's Lung Power
Machine Wields Shovel like a Man
Fence Type Aerial for Autos Is Permanent
Staple Extractor Combines Lever and Hammer
Telephone Meter Tells How Long You Talk
Adjustable Paint Spray Gun Is Economical
GREENLEAF W. PICKARD
WITH a nine-turn loop aerial, three feet across, using a crystal detector and tube amplification, I have enjoyed loudspeaker reception in Boston of radio-phone broadcasts from Schenectady, 160 miles away. Likewise, with a crystal detector I have heard, on occasion, Pittsburgh, Detroit, and even Chicago.
BUT for an odd accident that happened to Greenleaf Whittier Pickard— radio engineer—one spring morning at Cape May, N. J., in 1902, the amazing era of wireless progress through which we have just passed might have been set back dozens of years.
Astounding New Theory Pictures Ours as a Mere Pinwheel among Millions of Other World-Groups
A Revolutionary Theory
Earthly Units Inadequate
Is Our Universe like This?
The Congregations of Stars
What Makes the Milky Way?
Galaxy Is Smaller, Says Curtis
A Mere Drop in the Bucket
An Invisible Screen
Marvels of Photography
The Two Theories
THOSE who love to moralize about the infinitesimal nothingness of man and his world in comparison with the vastness of the universe should be happy now. For out of the present controversy about the dimensions of our billion-starred universe has emerged the astounding probability that it is only one of at least 700,000 similar universes that can actually be photographed with modern high-powered reflecting telescopes.
BUILT of blocks piled one upon another, like toy houses in a nursery, artistic concrete homes have recently been completed near Reading, Pa., by an ingenious method that bids fair to answer the problem of cheaply supplying American families with attractive dwellings.
EVERY 25 seconds last year, carelessness caused an automobile accident involving personal injury. Nearly 12,000 persons were killed, and 1,500,000 injured. Every large city has its "graveyard" where wrecked cars too badly damaged to be worth salvage are piled by the acre.
A NATURAL history museum that is almost the equivalent of a free University course always open to the public, offering to an entire community entertaining instruction in scientific subjects, is becoming one of the most popular of all civic enterprises in San Diego, Calif.
RACING cars equipped with radio sets for sending and receiving will soon participate in long distance motor classics. The antenna will be strung along the streamlined tail piece and communication will be maintained throughout the race by head phones and transmitter slung over the mechanician's head.
SIMPLIFIED, compact gages for measuring the area of tanned hides have just been perfected to take the place of the complicated and expensive devices formerly used. The instrument, placed approximately in the center of the hide, has a heavy circular base of cup shape, the center pin of which forms the pivot for the rotatable superstructure of the measuring mechanism.
A FRAGILE glass container filled with deadly gases and attached to the door of a safe or vault is a device invented by Walter C. Beckwith, of Fostoria, Ohio, for protection against safe cracksmen and burglars. The container and its holder are locked to the safe directly over the crack between safe door and jamb. Any movement of the door or an unusual jar, such as might result from an explosion, breaks the bulb and releases the fluid, which kills instantly.
TAKING advantage of the fact that 22 words constitute 31.8 per cent of all the words in common use, an inventor has perfected a typewriter the keys of which print whole words instead of letters. The machine is said to save 20 per cent of the typist's time.
A NEW and unique principle for the regulation of temperature has been developed for use in an electric flatiron. The device maintains a steady, even heat that will not scorch or burn the fabric on which the iron is being used. A small vertical post mounted on a piece of spring metal over a cell of metal alloy is connected with the current switch.
Marvelous New Instrument, Using Ultra-Violet Rays, Photographs Wriggling Microbes Enlarged 12,000,000 Times
Invisible Light Preserves Details
Rays from Spark Separated
Motor Driven Slicers Pulverize Soil
Lamp and Copy Holder Combined for Typist
Rotary Stone Polisher Is Driven by Air
Bracket for Paint Pail Fastens on Wall
Vacuum Tube Radio Set only Six Inches Long
Canaries Gassed to Test Safety of Masks
Road Maps by the Wayside Guide the Tourist
New Lamp for Workbench Casts No Shadows
Camp Heater Torch Can Be Packed into Kit
Soldiers Ride a Six-Foot Ball for Exercise
Toy Balloon Sails 102 Miles in Contest
Stretching Machine Used to Treat Clubfoot
Hand Tool Coils Wire Springs Evenly
Tug on a Cord Closes Automatic Gate
Colored Nets Fool Fishes
Oblong Reading Glass Focuses Itself
Tests Prove Value of Geophone in Mine Rescue
Ultra Violet Rays Used to Cure Sunburn
Dredger Truck Cleans Irrigation Ditches
Wilfred S. Ogden
IN THEIR relentless war on microbe-bred disease, scientists now have at their disposal a powerful new weapon in the form of a marvelous microscope that, by employing "dark light" — invisible ultra-violet rays—faithfully photographs the form and structure of living bacilli magnified 12,250,000 times!
A TRIPOD, with legs nearly 12 feet long, to elevate a camera to otherwise inaccessible positions, and an adjustable mirror to throw rays of sunlight against dark nest openings, enabled Robert B. Rockwell, a bird lover of Denver, Colo., to obtain the remarkable photographs of the rare saw-whet owls shown on this page.
A NEAT and reliable method of measuring the cubic contents of automobile cylinders by means of sound has recently been perfected by M. F. Charron-Godet, professor of physics at the University of Angers, France. His invention rests on the acoustic principle that the pitch of the tone produced by vibrations of an inclosed mass of air varies with the volume.
Mountains of Shale Promise Last Reserve as America's Oil Supply Diminishes
How Crushed Shale Gives Up Its Oil
The Production Rate
Mountains of Shale
When Oil Ceases to Flow
Uncle Sam—World's Oil Spendthrift
Stopping a Leak
The "Cracking" Process
Three Successful Shale Methods
WHEN the oil wells run dry—then what? Feverishly draining nature's rich underground stores to provide gasoline for our automobiles and fuel for our engines of industry—consuming each year millions more barrels of oil than we produce —we are suddenly confronted with the statement of the United States Geological Survey that we have used up all but 7,000,000,000 barrels, the entire remaining oil supply in the United States.
ON FARMS or in manufacturing plants, waste of vegetable origin, like wood chips, sawdust, bark, nut shells, fruit stones, sugar cane and cotton seed may be turned into profit by a miniature gas plant of great simplicity in which refuse is distilled to yield heat, gas for lighting or heating, tar and other valuable by-products.
MOVEMENTS of high speed machinery, too rapid for the eye to detect, can be slowed down for study and analysis by means of an ingenious new mechanism known as an oscilloscope which, strangely enough, makes use of a peculiar, sluggish property of the eye called "persistence of vision."
Crankcase Oil Dilution, Chief Cause of Power Loss, May Be Conquered by Newest Methods of Lubrication
Many Products from Crude Oil
Veteran Garage-Man Builds Wearproof Car
Three Methods of Lubrication
Oil Dilution—the Arch
Loss May Be Ten Horsepower
The Rate of Dilution
How Fuel Is Utilized
Harold F. Blanchard
In crude oil there is only a very small percentage of true gasoline. Crude oil is a mixture of a great number of oils all belonging to the same family but varying gradually in volatility from the very light oils, which are gases at ordinary temperatures, to the very heavy oils which are almost solid.
Amazing War Record of Uncle Sam's "Mystery" Radio Station Points to Gulf of Mexico as Source of Wireless Jinx
The Crucial War Test
What Marconi Discovered
How Static Was Traced
A Thunderstorm Map of the United States
The Pickard Explanation
How Loop Aerial Works
The Record of Otter Cliffs
World's Largest Boiler Will Heat 1000 Homes
Front Wheel Engine Drives Novel Cycle
Small Windmill Wheels Charge Battery
Germ Proof Jackets for Paper Money
DID you know that radio interference from "static" during the summer of 1918 threatened the success of the war and jeopardized the lives of hundreds of thousands of American soldiers on transports crossing the Atlantic? And did you know that these lurking disasters were overcome through the generosity of an American citizen and the ingenuity of American radio engineers who combined their resources to make of an obscure radio station on the New England coast one of the outstanding accomplishments in wireless of the war years?
What the Armstrong Super-Regenerative Circuit Will Mean to Broadcasting—Tremendous Amplification without Noise—The Pioneers of Wireless
Bowl of Corn-Cob Pipe Holds Radio Set
The Facts about Short Waves
An End to Interference
America's Most Popular Radio Expert
Putting the Squeal to Work
Amplification Minus Disturbing Noises
Aerial for Canoe Collapses into Hoop
"Cascade" Method Supplanted
The Real Pioneers of Wireless
Two New Types of Indoor Antennae
The First Apparatus
Barrage Loop Kills Static
Two Indoor Aerials
THE present practical applications of E. H. Armstrong's already famous "super-regenerative" circuit have been thoroughly discussed throughout the country, since the young radio wizard made the sensational announcement of his achievement.
Cheap to Build and Operate Is This Small Cyclomobile Speedster
William J. Beach
WHILE this little machine was not built in an attempt to eclipse all efforts of the automobile industry or even as a substitute for a motorcycle, it is a very satisfactory little car, and in actual use has proved its sturdiness, dependability, and low cost of upkeep.
THOUSANDS of leaders and lines are lost annually to stream fishermen who fish with bait. The hooks sink to the bottom and are imbedded in snags, which generally are logs. The angler becomes impatient, jerks the line and either breaks the hook or the leader.
ALTHOUGH there are many devices on the market for holding a screw while starting it in a place that is hard to reach, the best method I have found is to cut the end of a hard wood stick of convenient length so that it is wedge shaped like a screwdriver and slightly larger than the slot in the screw head so that it will hold securely when forced into slot.
TAKE a piece of 3-in. brass pipe and flange over one end by heating the pipe and hammering it with the ball end of a machinist's hammer. When the flange has been made, cut off the pipe so that the piece will stand about 1½ in. high. Cut a sheet of brass to exactly fit inside the pipe, soldering it on the under side about ½ in. from the bottom.
WHILE there is much to be said in favor of small paper boats, the difficulties of making them ordinarily have been too much for the model boat builder. Such boats were formed of cardboard and rendered seaworthy with bichromate of potash, which, when added to glue, makes it waterproof.
WITH a little care an autoist can make his car look like new by giving it a coat of enamel. Half the secret of success lies in preparing the car properly for the paint, in having a good place to work, and in using first class brushes and materials.
THIS rugged sawbuck may be made quickly with no other tool than the bucksaw itself. Cut four shoots about 3 in. in diameter and 4 ft. 6 in. long and point the ends. Drive them into the ground as shown so that they rest at an angle of 45 degrees across a 4-ft.
THE mechanically inclined owner of a small gasoline and oil filling station in the District of Columbia fills in the time during which he is not attending to the ordinary wants of his customers by renewing and installing automobile running-boards.
THE crystal detector illustrated has proved highly efficient in receiving broadcasted programs 53 miles from the Pittsburgh station KDKA. The base is the ordinary 5 by 7 in. hard rubber developing tray. The detector unit makes use of a safety razor blade in place of the usual catwhisker.
Converting Phonograph Boxes into a Children's Wardrobe
J. A. PARSONS
THIS wardrobe was made from two phonograph boxes purchased from a dealer for 25 cents each. The heavy strips were removed from the outside, and used inside as cleats in converting the two boxes into one. The whole was fastened together with threepenny casing nails.
THIS revolving clothes-dryer, which folds up when not in use, consists of a square support upon which slides a crisscross arrangement of four pieces of wood, put together as shown in the illustration below. The four arms pivoted to this crisscross are supported by pieces hinged to the top of the post.
THE chemistry of today extracts perfumes from many flowers and parts of other plants. In some plants, as in the mace and in the vanilla, the perfume is in the fruit; in oranges and lemons it is the rind that exhales a pleasant odor; in the florentine sword-lily it is the root; in camphor the wood, and in cinnamon the bark.
Answers to Sam Loyd Puzzles Appearing in August Issue and June Prize-Winners
DIVIDING A COW HERD
THE MAGIC SQUARE REVERSED
Let us call the youngest son's portion X cows, and the entire herd 7X, since the seven couples received like allotments. The youngest son's lot represents 8/9 of the number of cows from which the wife of the next elder son subtracted her ninth.
THIS simple tapping chuck has a friction drive that will slip before the tap breaks, except in the very small sizes, and it also has a high speed reverse motion. The materials for making it cost less than $3, while the similar commercial attachment sells for about six times as much.
MACHINISTS and tool and die makers will sometimes find it practical to keep steel from warping in the hardening process by clamping it in a vise. A sectional die was sent to our toolroom recently with one of the sectional blades too soft because it had been ground down to about ⅛ in. of its usefulness.
A FLANGE connection for a tubular part having broken off at the joint, a method of reenforcement was devised that greatly increased the strength of the joint without adding to the cost or increasing the difficulties of brazing the joint. At the junction of the flange with the tube, a circular brass wire ring was set on previous to brazing.
THERE are times when the small shop must handle work that is really too large for its equipment, and additions must be quickly made. An example of this class of work is turning large shafts and other heavy pieces that must be firmly supported in a steady rest.
IT IS a good thing to know that bushings can be made out of standard pipe. Many pipe-fitters don't know that it can be done. Or, if they know that it can be done, they don't know the correct size of drill to use for tapping. I have occasionally made bushings out of pipe, but each time I found it necessary to first look into my handbook for the drill size to use and that is so much trouble that it is frequently easier to go to the store and buy a new bushing.
A HANDY shop truck that will move at a mere touch may be made with old ball or roller bearings. Build a triangle frame as shown, 30 in. high, and 30 in. from front to back along the center line. Offset plates are provided for the wheels. The front one swings on a 1-in.
THE depth gage illustrated, I find to be very useful where a depth gage is much used because it requires no screw for tightening the head. It also has the advantage of not shifting on the rod, as those that are tightened with a screw often do when they are being set.
THE exceptional versatility and usefulness of the machinists' and toolmakers' parallel clamp rival that of the carpenter's hand screw. The illustrated method of strapping small work to the faceplate of the lathe is handy to know. The clamp serves the purpose of a strap, bolt, and blocking.
IN A central station of 3000 horsepower about 150 ft. of 1½-in. steam hose is used to blow out combustion chambers and around upright water tube boilers. The steam pressure of the nine boilers depends on having clean tubes and economizers, as only one boiler at a time can be spared for repairs.
THIS lathe tool holder, which has certain advantages because of its flexibility of adjustment, consists of a body or shank machined as shown. It has two spherical seats cut in the jaws to take a ball that is split in half. Each half has a square cornered groove milled in it to suit the usual small high speed steel tool bit.
Pipe and Pipe Fittings Make Sturdy Wheelbarrow Frame
G. A. LUERS
A STURDY wheelbarrow frame that will in stand unusual abuse without damage may be made of pipe and pipe fittings. The one illustrated, which was built in a plumbing shop, has a flanged pulley for a wheel. Aside from cutting the pipe and threading the ends, the only work required was that of boring out the pulley hub.
FILES may sometimes be used for broaching standard size holes in place of the usual expensive broaches. An example of this cheap method of broaching is illustrated. The casting shown is a slide for a ½-in. bar. It has a cored hole with the central surfaces relieved so that only the two ends have to be finished.
IN shops where sheet metal is handled, more or less trouble is experienced with patterns such as are used for elbows, skylights, ventilators, and the like. If a hole is punched in the patterns and they are hung on a nail or wire, it usually happens that a number have to be removed before the pattern desired can be taken off.
WITH this simple little instrument it is possible quickly and accurately to measure the height of trees, buildings, and other tall objects. To make it, obtain a square board. A convenient size is 16 in. square. For the best results the board should be prepared like a drawing-board with battens to keep it from warping.
Old Auto Shoes with Concrete Filling Used as Truck Tires
DALE R. VAN HORN
THE wheels of this shop truck, which was designed by the foreman of a large shop who disliked the noise made by steel tires, are four old auto casings filled with concrete. They were laid on a flat surface and filled with a rich cement mixture with the exception of the center, where lengths of 2-in. pipe were inserted to serve as bearings.
A RUSTIC clock for the home, hunting lodge, or summer camp may be made from a carefully selected section of tree trunk. Smooth one end to serve as the face and tack brass numbers on it. Drill a hole through the center and gouge out sufficient space in the back to permit the insertion of the works of an alarm clock.
PIPE and pipe fittings form this strong, serviceable gate. It will be found useful in many places, especially for guarding small-sized elevator shafts, well holes in the floor of a shop, and openings in outside fences that are made of pipe.
BROKEN fishing rods, either of the split bamboo or solid wood varieties, may often be repaired by splicing the parts. If the break is like that shown in Fig. 1, the ends should be trimmed to an angle such as shown in Figs.
HAVING broken the large blade of my jack-knife, I ground the stub off in such a way as to leave a part of the thick back edge projecting to form a small screwdriver. The thinner edge was ground square with a sharp corner and it serves as a scraper.
TO MAKE a small tool kit easily and cheaply, go to your hardware dealer and obtain a good shotgun-shell box. Measure up from the bottom 4⅞ in. and draw a line all around; then cut the top section off on that line. Take the bottom section and, turning it up on one of the sides, mark the ends as shown in the drawing.
Farm Tractor Used for Sharpening Posts like Pencils
GEORGE G. McVICKER
AS I watched one of my boys sharpening a pencil with a small thumb-twisting sharpener, I conceived the idea of attaching a similar device of a proper size to a farm tractor for sharpening the large number of fence posts and stakes required each year on the farm.
Pipe Fittings Make a Cheap and Quickly Assembled Grinder
HAROLD N. WRIGHT
NO DOUBT many of my fellow readers have met with the same difficulty as mine—needing a power grinder but not feeling justified in buying one. I overcame this dilemma by constructing a bench grinder from pipe fittings, as shown in the accompanying sketch.
WITH this attachment the amateur photographer will have no difficulty in placing his camera in many positions that would be impossible if an ordinary tripod were used. A brass ball is gripped between two heavy steel strips, into the free ends of which two holes are drilled.
IF YOUR radio outfit consists of a loose coupler and crystal detector, a honeycomb or duolateral coil of 1000-meter length placed in the antenna circuit will make it possible to bring in stations using wave lengths up to about 1500 meters.
How to Construct a Bench and Tilt-Top Table for the Veranda or Sun Porch
Coupon for Ordering Blueprints
THIS attractive combination bench, chest, and tilt-top table can be made at small cost and with little difficulty by men who have had a certain amount of experience in handling woodworking tools. It has just that mixture of utility and novelty that professional decorators use so effectively.
A WIDE range of mirror adjustments is possible with this shaving cabinet, which can be made quite easily with the carpenter's tools found in the average home workshop. The mirror is pivoted by means of two pins that pass through the door stiles into the mirror frame.
MY GARAGE, like many others, was limited in size by the area I had to build on and by the weight of my pocketbook. Therefore, I did not have much room for even a small workbench, so I built a folding bench as illustrated. The top, when not in use, is turned up and locked in the slot cut for it out of two by fours."
A CHEAPLY constructed lathe for the home workshop can be made as shown in the accompanying drawing. The bed consists of two pieces of straight-grained, well seasoned wood 4 by 6 in., and as long as desired. The headstock block is of wood and the bearings are two drop tees.
Lathe Fixture Simplifies Drilling of Small Deep Holes
GEORGE W. ELLIOTT
TIME can be gained and fewer drills broken in the drilling of small deep holes on a lathe if a drill guide is made and used as shown in the accompanying illustration. I made use of this expedient when it was necessary to drill a number of connecting rods 44 in. deep.
Blowout in Auto Tire Temporarily Repaired with Burlap
L. B. ROBBINS
ON A recent automobile trip I stopped to assist a fellow motorist who had a blowout in one of his rear tires. I offered him the loan of a large blowout patch and anything else of use in the tire-repairing line, but he waved them all aside. Instead, he asked me if I would carry him to the next farm for some burlap.
MACHINISTS and toolmakers will find useful the illustrated attachment for setting dividers on micrometers. It consists of two steel rings with marks about the circumference somewhat similar to the marks on the barrel of the micrometer.
IN REPAIR work on automobiles often much time is lost because parts and tools are placed on the mudguards or the car frame and are sometimes knocked into the drip pan or to the floor. To avoid this difficulty, it is well worth while to make a simple swinging tool tray.
Pulley-Like Fastening for Swing Rope Gives Long Service
JOHN H. SCHALEK
IN ORDER to reduce excessive swing-rope expense, the management of a playground maintained by a large steel company for the children of its employees, devised the ingenious fastening pictured in the accompanying drawing. The pulleys are turned from selected white pine and bushed with steel tubing.
Ornamental Candlesticks Made of Hammered Copper or Painted Tin
THIS craftsman's candlestick may be fashioned from sheet copper or brass or even made from a discarded can that has contained sirup, coffee, or oil. "Hammer" the cup and handle and after riveting this to the tray —if tin has been used—paint the stick any desired color.
WHEN a long woodworking clamp is necessary, it often is possible to join together shorter clamps in pairs. This expedient first suggested itself when some tables about 6 ft. long had to be glued up and the only available clamps were about 4 ft. long. The writer had ⅜-in. holes drilled through the bars and then fastened pairs of clamps together with machine bolts and wingnuts.
A SPLIT or leaking pipe may be repaired temporarily with an improvised clamp consisting of a bolt, a nut, and some wire. These, when used as shown, will hold a piece of brass and a gasket against the pipe with great pressure.
ANY one with a little mechanical skill can make this practical cigar-lighter. First, make a square wooden base, with a cavity cut out from the bottom, or, to save this work, the lower part of the base may be made of four pieces of molding. The size of the entire lighter depends upon the size of the battery.
A CONVENIENT poultry-feeder that will not clog or waste in feeding any kind of dry mash or grains, may be made from a length of stove-pipe and a pail or tin with straight sides. For a 6-in. pipe, a container about 9 in. in diameter and 7 or 8 in. deep is right.
ANY one who has a 5or 10-gallon can of oil to handle, whether he is a motorist or a garage man, will appreciate a cradle such as is illustrated. It makes it easy to pour oil out of a large can into a smaller container. The cradle may be so designed that it is equally useful whether the can is almost full or nearly empty.
Easily Made Filing Jig Saves Vise Jaws from Damage
W. L. GILLESPIE
WHY file into the jaws of a good vise when in a few minutes' time you can make a jig that will save both vise and file? It can be made to fit any size vise and will hold all kinds of thin work. Once firmly gripped in the jig, the work cannot slip down and is not likely to shift sideways.
Overhead Washer for the Garage Prevents Wearing Out Hose
L. A. G.
TO SAVE wear and tear on rubber hose and to facilitate the washing of automobiles, an overhead arm may be rigged up quickly in the garage as shown in the accompanying drawing. If the hose is not provided for in some such way, the wheels of the car are apt to run over it, and often it will be dragged over the more or less rough cement floor.
THERE are many places in the home and shop where a safety valve should be used, but they are sometimes omitted on account of the expense. A good substitute may be made by using a water faucet of the type shown in the illustration, which can be bought at any hardware store, and which has a valve that ordinarily is held closed by a spring.
FOR those who have a phonograph that is not of the cabinet style, the record cabinet illustrated will prove a useful addition to the living-room furniture. It will not only provide a place for the records, where they will be protected from dust and damage, but it will also serve as a stand for the phonograph.
Stand for Egg-Beater Is a Useful Kitchen Accessory
ONE of the most tiresome jobs in the kitchen is holding a beater for whipping cream, eggs, and the like, so I made a very simple stand, as shown in the accompanying sketch. The base of the stand is a ⅜-in. flanged union and the support a 10-in. length of 24-in. gaspipe.
IN LAYING out drawings to small scale, a magnifying glass assists a draftsman to make his measurements more easily and accurately. To hold the glass, a bracket made from 1/32 by ½ in. brass should be bent as shown and fastened with a machine screw and nut to a spring clip, clamped to the scale.
A Draftsman Can Easily Carry This Large Drawing-Board
LESLIE G. ROLLER
EVERY draftsman who has had occasion to carry a large and cumbersome drawing-board from place to place has felt the need of a portable board. The accompanying drawing shows the construction of one that is strong and rigid when set up, yet it can quickly be taken down to make a small and convenient bundle.
OFTENTIMES the amateur mechanic or carpenter is in need of a clamp to hold a freshly glued box or other wooden article and resorts to makeshifts when he could easily bring his lathe into use for this purpose. The faceplate is put on the head of the lathe and the tailstock moved forward.
PROCURE a brass or copper pipe about ½ in. in diameter and 4 in. long. Cut two wooden ends for the tube, each 2 in. square, with a round hole in the middle of each, which will fit snugly over the brass tube, one at each end. Next, wrap the tube with waxed paper and wind with 150 ft.
THE tread of a lawn-mower wheel is sometimes broken when the mower is rammed against the edge of the curb or a stone. Such an accident recently broke the rim of my mower, but a repair was made with little difficulty by casting babbitt metal in place of the section broken out.
THE home workshop mechanic who has a small electric motor can mount it on a board and hinges in the manner shown so that considerable belt adjustment can be made to suit the work the motor may be called upon to do.
THE appearance of some radio panels can be improved by using a Ford ameter lens and rim to form a window for the opening through which the light of the vacuum tubes is watched. These can be purchased for a few cents at automobile accessories stores and many garages.
Evaporating Vegetables and Fruits with an Electric Drier
J. Arthur Frank
FIFTY years ago drying fruits and vegetables was accomplished by the slow and unsanitary process of spreading them on the attic floor and letting time and nature dehydrate them. Now they may be dried with the aid of an electric fan. The foodstuffs to be dried are placed in wooden trays, the bottoms of which are of fine window screening.
NICKEL-PLATED surfaces may be kept brilliant by wiping them with a cotton rag moistened with a solution of one part sulphuric acid and 50 parts alcohol. Quickly rinse the metal with clean water and dry with a linen rag. This method prevents wearing away the finish through use of gritty polishing powders.
Roomy Waterproof Tackle Box Adds to Joys of Fishing
R. P. L.
ALTHOUGH there is no part of a fisherman's equipment more necessary than a tackle box, it is difficult to get one that is just the right size and design. Any man handy with tools can, however, make his own tackle box. The one illustrated is made of ⅜-in. oak, the lower section, if not the entire case, being covered with tin.
TN MAKING large layouts I find use almost every day for the wooden compasses illustrated, and they are very often borrowed by men in the pattern room. Shaping them is a neat problem in woodwork, but if sufficient care is used, the finished instrument will be found both accurate and durable, and in some respects handier than a beam compass.
Developing Tray Has Ruby Lamp for Illuminating Films
EDWARD W. PRASEK
THIS combination developing tray and ruby lamp lessens the danger of fogging a film by taking it out of the solution in order to see whether it is fully developed. The tray is of ½in. wood, 4 or 5 in. wide and 30 in. long. The side pieces are cut as shown, so as to allow an electric lamp and socket to be placed beneath the sheet of window glass that forms the bottom of the tray.
A SIMPLE way to lock a door from the inside without a key is illustrated. Drill a small hole through the latch bolt of the door lock as close to the door frame as possible. When the door is closed, insert a nail or steel pin into the hole. It will then be impossible for any one on the other side to turn the knob.
FOR rapidly rethreading a number of studs and screws, I use a die-holder held in a breast drill. The holder is made in a lathe from a piece of cold rolled steel. I also have converted an old screwdriver to take this holder for use in rethreading rusted, burred, and tight studs.
Wooden Pumps that Float Are Favored by Some Boatmen
Henry S. Laraby
BOAT pumps that are entirely practical and are used by many oyster tongers I have known are constructed of wood. Their advantages are that they will not sink, they do not tend to roll, they have a large outlet, and they will stand harder treatment than the ordinary iron pumps.
A FINE looking chess and checkers board may be made of plate glass. Cut a piece 15 in: square and grind the edges smooth with emery powder and turpentine. Mark off lines 1½ in. from each edge, thus leaving a square 12 by 12 in. Divide this square into 64 small squares, each 1½ by 1½., in., by marking off eight divisions on each side 1½ in. long, and joining across to the opposite side.
Farm Gate Can Be Opened without Leaving Automobile
FLORENCE L. CLARK
A FARMER can open a gate such as the one illustrated without leaving his automobile, buggy, wagon, hayrack, or tractor. The simple mechanism that opens the gate is operated by pulling a rope that passes over pulleys on the top of a pole and is carried within reach of the driver by a projecting iron rod.
WITH the aid of a length of rubber cut from an old inner tube, it is usually a simple matter to take off a stubborn headlight rim. Stretching the rubber as tightly as possible around the rim, as shown, will be found to give a good grip that will not slip.
Screw Jack Provides Pressure for Homemade Fruit Press
DALE R. VAN HORN
WHEN the purchase of an expensive fruit press is not warranted, one that will serve all ordinary purposes can be made at little cost by using a small screw-jack to provide the pressure. The framework is made of 4 by 4 in. timbers. A convenient size for it is 30 in. high and 20 in. wide.
THIS clothesline reel, which is often mistaken in its leafy setting for a birdhouse, is made of short lengths of shiplap on a frame of odds and ends of 2 by 4. The whole is then fastened firmly to the tree by means of a frame that encircles the trunk, and is braced with a bracket.
This Sling Shoots an Arrow Whittled from a Shingle
A SLING and arrow that will give any boy vast amusement can be made with a jack-knife. Whittle a strip of wood about 16 in. long—a shingle will be just the thing—to the shape of an arrow and somewhat like a blue-jay's tail. The arrow should be approximately square in section toward the point and taper gradually to where the tail begins.
THIS sketch illustrates a simple method of making a sandpaper pencil pointer that is easily renewable. The handle is of wood, shaped as shown. A piece of fine sandpaper or emery cloth is folded to fit the block and slipped on with the loose ends in the slot, which holds the abrasive securely in place.
TO MOUNT a reel of barbed wire when running farm fences, a wooden frame with iron axle and crank handle may be attached directly to the end gate of a wagon. The frame is made of two pieces of 2 by 4, 3 ft. long, mortised to fit the floor of the wagon. These pieces are supported by two 1 by 6 in. braces and made rigid by another crosswise brace. In unrolling a spool of wire, the free end is tied to a post and the wagon is driven forward. In coiling up loose wire the crank has to be turned by hand.
ARTISTIC concrete bird baths may easily be made by using two discarded kitchen pans for molds. A dish about 20 in. across will serve for the outside form, and another dish 6 or 7 in. less in diameter, with either vertical or tapering sides, will make the inside form.
THE illustrated fuse plug is made from an ordinary separable knife-blade attachment plug. The fuse element is simply a strip of tinfoil. This is glued or fastened with shellac to a disk of mica in such a way that it forms a link in the circuit that will burn out if the current exceeds the carrying capacity of the tinfoil, the proper size of which can be found by trial.
TO DRILL holes in glass, particularly near the edges, is one of the most exacting tasks the home worker has to do. It is not hard, however, to make a little machine that will exert uniform pressure and cut glass like metal. This device consists of a box-shaped structure, made either from metal or wood, in the form of an inverted L, in which runs a vertical shaft with a flanged wheel 3 in. or more in diameter.
BY USING paraffin in place of expensive thermostats, any one who knows how to connect a common electric doorbell can arrange a good fire-alarm system for home or shop. The doorbell can indeed, be used as the alarm signal bell and very little except wire and some brass plates will have to be purchased.
FROM a clothespin can be made a good wooden minnow. First make a swivel of stiff brass, bent as shown. Drill a fairly large hole through the bottom of it and two smaller holes through the lugs to take a wire ring. Attach the swivel to the head of the clothespin with a long screw.
THE accompanying illustration shows how the writer added a shoe shining stand to an ordinary kitchen chair. When not in use the stand is pushed under the seat of the chair like a drawer. The two side pieces, marked A, are nailed to the support B, and to a rectangular piece at the other end.
IN AN emergency a chicken coop can be made by burying the lower half of an old barrel lengthwise. The inside is then filled with earth until the surface is a trifle above the level of the ground outside. Half the cover, hinged at the top, makes a door.
Canvas Sling Protects Boat from Damage in Transportation
ROBERT PAGE LINCOLN
IF A boat or canoe is to be transported far when it is to be stored for the winter, it can be protected from unnecessary racking and damage by arranging canvas slings to hold it on the trailer or truck used for carrying it. The damage that can be done a boat while being carted on an ordinary trailer will most readily be understood by those who have tried that method. Iron rods or other supports should be fastened to the sides of the trailer, and slings of doubled canvas, 6 in.
Bench Vise for Carpenter Has Wide Range of Adjustment
G. A. Luers
THE bench attachment illustrated has several advantages over clamps and the usual woodworker's vise for certain classes of work. This construction, as devised by a Washington mechanic, consists of a 2-ft. length of angle iron, with a hole drilled through each end.
MANY varieties of garden flowers are easily bent and broken by either high winds or heavy rains. Especially choice plants may be protected by making a support of four pieces of strong wire. Three of these are legs, each of which has a loop at its upper end.
A FLEXIBLE ruler can be made cheaply by incasing strips of lead not more than ⅛ in. thick and ⅜ or ½ in. wide, in thin, tight-fitting rubber tubing. It will bend to an irregular curve and stay in place without any tendency to spring. If it becomes uneven in time, place it edge up on a flat surface and tap it gently with a piece of wood.
Simple Method of Casting Small Bearings of Babbitt
USUALLY the amateur machinist experiences more or less trouble in casting small bearings for the machines he is using or making in his home workshop. After trying everything I had ever heard or read of with no great success, I finally hit upon a method of making a very simple mold that could be used again and again.
A RESOURCEFUL housekeeper had a tinsmith make her the drier illustrated. It consists of two galvanized iron pans, the outside 6 in. and the inside 4 in. deep, soldered together at the top edges. A funnel about 8 in. high is set into the bottom of the upper pan, so that the lower pan can be filled with water through it and steam can escape.
Vise Made from Bolt, Angle-Irons, Spikes and Spring
F. N. WACHS
I MADE the vise illustrated from two pieces of 2 by 2 by 3/16 in. angle-irons, two spikes, one ⅜-in. bolt 1¾ in. long, one spring picked from the scrap pile, and one ⅜-in. plate washer. One piece of angle-iron was bent as shown in Fig. A. Two holes were drilled in it and countersunk underneath, so that the guide made from the spike, shown in Fig.
Brass Paper Fastener Serves as Marker for Draftsman's Scale
A CONVENIENT way of marking a draftsman's triangular scale so that the proper scale can be kept uppermost at all times, is to use a brass paper fastener as a marker. It is attached to the scale by bending it in such a way as to grip the grooves.
Now and then one of the panes of glass about the house will become cracked or shattered. If the replacement pane is to give lasting service, it must be set carefully and well. First, the size of the glass must be measured by taking the up-and-down and the crosswise distances between the widest points of the old putty.