How the World's First Wireless News-Picture Was Flashed Across the Atlantic Ocean
Paris gets President Harding's portrait in twenty minutes
The Miracle Picture of the Year!
Wilfred S. Ogden
LAST January Popular Science Monthly described the apparatus by which Edouard Bélin had sent photographs by telegraphy. By midsummer M. Bélin had realized improvements predicted in our first article, and was able to undertake transoceanic wirelessing of pictures and handwriting!
Cylinder on Automobile WindShield Contains Sunshade
ELEVEN years ago J. J. Bachmayer was in the vegetable business. His fingers got so sore tying bunches of onions and radishes, that he determined to invent a parcel-tying machine. A year later he built the first machine out of old junk and bicycle sprocket wheels.
EARTH'S biggest adventure this month will be its collision with a sort of celestial sandbar—a vast, sweeping path through the heavens composed of a lost comet's debris, whose myriad fragments, rushing into our atmosphere at twenty miles a second, will furnish one of the regular November showers of shooting stars.
Where the "Last Discoverers" Are Now Seeking New World Riches for Mankind
Earth's few remaining unknown spaces are being "mopped up" by an unprecedented number of explorers
"Mopping Up" Arabia and India
How Little We Really Know
Scientific Research Inspires Explorers
Ralph R. Perry
WE are living to-day in the greatest period of exploration that the world has ever known. During 1921 hundreds of men have gone forth into the waste spaces of the earth seeking at the risk of their lives new wealth and knowledge for mankind's benefit.
"Civilization Must Abolish War or War Will Destroy Civilization"
Prophetic pictures, based on statements by famous men, show why disarmament is the great international problem
THE INVASION—"Fleets of fast-moving tanks equipped with tons of liquid gas, against which the enemy will probably have no protection, will cross the frontier and obliterate every living thing in the fields and farms, the villages and cities of the enemy's country.
Motorized equipment now used on short lines is designed to compete with highway buses
This Car Is a Hybrid
Thirty-Six Persons and Baggage
A New Vision of Railroad Service
RAILROAD passengers may soon be riding in a new type of gasoline-driven car which will operate over many short branch lines and interurban routes more cheaply than steam or electric trains. After various makeshift experiments with auto-trucks converted into passenger coaches, the railroads have begun to feel the need of a standardized rail-car that will regain for them their lost short-haul traffic.
Read these typical romances of four poor boys who found the route to wealth and fame via wireless
A Radio Operator's Perquisites
Cost of Learning Radio
THE sky is the limit in the radio game. The brief annals of wireless are packed with the names of celebrities and men of wealth who were "just ordinary kids" when the radio bug bit them. Their success is explained by the fact that they grew with the industry—and helped it to grow.
FROM East Side schoolboy to millionaire radio engineer in eighteen years—this is the romance of William Dubilier. It all started when, at the age of fifteen, he happened to pick up a book on wireless, by Marconi. He read three hundred pages at one all-night sitting, went to school next day, and that same night attended a lecture on wireless.
PREFERRING citizenship in the land of Washington and Lincoln to a life in Serbia as a general in the army, Michal Pupin sold his schoolbooks and an old watch and started for America. He landed at Castle Garden at the age of sixteen, with five cents left in his pocket, and spent it for a piece of pie.
WHEN Roy A. Weagant was still in short pants and bare feet, he built a telegraph set and cut in on a local circuit in his home town in Canada. A discarded hand generator that fell into his clutches peeved him because he had to turn a crank with one hand in order to produce juice to operate his fearful and wonderful electrical devices.
Sarnoff Tried Every Job from Office Boy to Manager
"PEOPLE think that if a man gets a big job he must be a wonder. It is not so," says David Sarnoff, once office-boy and now general manager of the Radio Corporation of America. "I came to America from Europe at ten years of age. I did not know a word of English.
Easy Questions About Familiar Things—Can You Answer Them?
Five Minutes a Day Will Make You Master of These Fundamental Facts of Science
Frost on the Pane
Height of Clouds
Why are Reservoirs Roofless?
How are Fires Put Out?
Burns from Steam
Freezing of Pipes
When Lamps Smoke
Color of Cloth
1. When used externally, alcohol makes the body feel cool for the same reason that water does. In each case the liquid evaporates; and since heat is necessary to change a liquid into a gas, the water or the alcohol takes the heat from the body, to which it is closest.
EVEN if you don't own a flivver, you can have the pleasure of running into people. You can experience the sensation of having your automobile struck by another one, or by two or three at a time. The sport is staged in an enclosure paved with sheet steel and with an overhead covering of heavy steel netting.
INTERNAL heat, one of the chief causes of tire destruction, is said to be eliminated by the invention of a tire-manufacturing process that embodies seventy-three improvements. Each cord or rope in these tires passed through a machine called the beamer, which takes the place of the more familiar calender in tire manufacture and which coats each strand with an even layer of live rubbber During manufacture the strands sometimes dhere so that before the tread is applied it is necessary to go over the surface of the cords with a steel comb and separate the strands.
TO expedite the handling of heavy cases of canned meat between the packing floor and the shipping platforms an American concern has installed a shaft down which the cases can be dropped over thirty feet without injury. No cushions or spring shock-absorbers are used.
AN interesting experiment has been carried out on motion-pictures by a French scientist in which he has obtained some remarkable effects of depth without the employment of accessories beyond a unique screen. In his researches he discovered accidentally that if two positive views taken from the same negative and identical in every way are placed one on the other and viewed by transmitted light, the human eye distinguishes between the two views and produces an effect of perspective.
THIS French automobile crane may give a hint of one way in which the United States may make its barge canals profitable. It has been cheap, if slow, to haul by water, but unloading has been so expensive that few business men use the canals, particularly at way stations, where modern handling equipment was altogether absent.
ELEVATORS usually travel perpendicularly, but those that connect the East Boston tunnel with the State Street station run on a curve. Owing to the narrowness of the street at that point it was impossible to build the station directly over the platform in the tunnel, a variance of six and a half feet being necessary.
WITH a tube that looks more like a telescope than anything else, M. Lambert, a Paris scientist, accomplishes what seem like miracles with the dingy works of old painters. He has taken paintings that have become darkened with the dust of centuries and with his apparatus has made them appear to the eye as though recently finished.
THE professional photographer who prints negatives by the thousand needs a machine that will do the work quickly. The machine illustrated below has a capacity of fifteen hundred photographs in one hour. It prints from single films, uncut rolls, or glass plates.
THE huge hangar built at Lakewood, New Jersey, to house the ill-fated ZR-2 may never have a tenant. Whether or not the catastrophe of America's British-built dirigible will have a dampening effect on the further development of lighter-than-air craft depends on the governmental investigation of the accident.
THE milk aerator and cooler invented by Cyrus W. MacKenzie, of Waverley, Indiana, combines extreme simplicity in design, operation, and effectiveness in results. The inventor was a dairyman on a small scale, and found that cooling milk by dipping it up and pouring it back into the can aerated the milk and drove out the animal heat well enough, but took too much time.
BACK up your truck to the coal, sand, or gravel, pull a lever, and this truck-loading machine starts doing the work of four men. The elevator buckets, arranged on an endless chain, fill themselves at the feeding end and automatically discharge into a hopper at the top of the machine as shown in the picture below.
EXPERTS declare that a large percentage of night automobile accidents can still be traced to the blinding glare of headlights, in spite of the improved headlight reflectors of many types that are being adopted. To eliminate mishaps from this cause, an experimental installation of highway lighting has been put up on Paradise Road, near Swampscott Massachusetts.
A THUNDERSTORM that burned out the motors of the pumpin station at Clintonville Wisconsin totally cut off the city's water supply. In the emergency, a fire-truck supplied water service until the repairs could be made. The truck, which was equipped with a five-hundred-gallon pump, was located near the well.
JAPANESE gardeners prune, starve, and potbind trees to dwarf them. Conifers are best liked for this development, as the hard woods are not so tractable. The method of stunting is said to be secret, the heritage of certain families for centuries, but two explanations are offered.
ONE of the features of this horizontal forge press is that it economizes in overhead space, which is sometimes a necessity and always an advantage in small works. The soft metal in molds or matrices gets the full force of 10,000 tons upon it and the forge quickly turns out axles and similar products.
IT isn't the easiest thing in the world to cut hair so that it will hang evenly all the way round, but with the little guide shown above the hair is trimmed to the proper length. The device is an improvement over the traditional soup-bowl used by our grandmothers for this operation.
THIS window-display model of the Tower Bridge in London was made of valves and fittings, with only a postcard view of the original for a guide. In it there are 15,358 pieces taken from regular stock, comprising 230 different kinds of elbows, tees, crosses, nipples, and valves, and 16,251 joints were used to make up the fittings.
HUNDREDS of tests by the Federal Bureau of Markets prove that there is a vital relation between the grade of wheat and the yield of quality flour that can be milled from the grain, but it has been difficult to the point of impossibility to locate a small pocket of low-grade wheat hidden somewhere in the contents of a loaded freight-car.
BASED on an entirely new principle, this patented automobile wheel carries its pneumatic tire inside the rim, where it cannot be punctured or cut. As the illustration shows, the new wheel consists of an outer tire of solid rubber on a flexible metal rim supported by a small, fully inflated pneumatic tire attached to a second rim bolted to the hub.
THREE of the cleverest boys living on the East Side of New York City conceived the idea of making their own roller coaster from odds and ends found in back lots. The enterprise fitted into the imaginations of other youngsters and soon boxes and boards were collected in sufficient quantity to construct the coaster.
Susquehanna River takes coal rejected from mines and makes it better than colliery's best
THE Susquehanna is the world's champion "coal-bearing" river. It bears this coal not in strata, but in the lumps and dust that are ejected from Pennsylvania's great anthracite mines. This is "reject" coal, and it is estimated that the rejects from the 350 principal collieries in the state amount to nearly 500,000,000 tons a year, much of which is dumped into streams of various sizes that pass the mines.
BUILT with wings that fold back against the fuselage so that the plane may be stored in a Ford garage or any barn that will house a two-horse wagon, this new machine, designed by A. K. Longren, of Topeka, Kansas, may prove the Ford of the air. It is one of the smallest practical airplanes ever constructed.
PRODUCTION of steel direct from the ore in five hours is the revolutionary accomplishment of the French scientist, M. Basset, whose process is now said to be developed on a commercial scale. For years metallurgists have dreamed of a direct steel process, eliminating the spectacular Bessemer converter.
Let Popular Science Monthly Answer Your Problems in General Science
Other Readers' Questions that Will Interest You Too
No, the material on luminous dials consists of a minute quantity of a radium salt mixed with some phosphorescent substance as sulphide of zinc or barium. Such a combination will glow more in the dark than would radium, which, in its pure state, is not luminous.
FOR over eight years John M. Calder-wood sought to invent a mining-drill that would give the prospectors of the West the benefits of power drilling by a machine light enough to carry over desert country on the back of a burro and easier and more efficient in operation than the laborious hand-drilling incident to the use of single and double jack-hammers.
EXAMINATION of many specimens of meteorites has revealed the presence in them of living organisms. On being placed in the laboratory under suitable breeding conditions, the samples came to life and multiplied. Further study of these micro-organisms will go a long way in verifying the claims of certain scientists as to the animal life existing in other worlds.
Centrifugal Force—the Energy that Snaps the Whip and Dries the Clothes
How terrific destructive power is usefully applied in industry
It Made White Sugar Possible
For Separating Liquids
Freeing Compressed Air from Moisture
"GO Slow—Dangerous Curve Ahead" warns the sign by the roadside, but if it were made to say what it really means, it would read, "Look out for centrifugal force," for that is the mechanical principle which causes most of the accidents along the highways.
A GAGE for measuring artificial teeth has been devised by Dr. William C. Darbey, of Shanghai, China. It consists of a horizontal bar that is rested on the head of the patient, and two depending bars, each of which carry measurement markings on their lower portions. These bars are pivoted to the horizontal bar, and one of them may be slipped along this member to adapt the instrument to persons having faces of different degrees of fullness.
AN automatic clay-bird trap that is entirely different from anything made in this country is revealed in photographs of the first trap-shoot held at the Halen See shooting grounds, near Berlin. In American parlance, an automatic trap means one that is set and pulled from the firing-line, the person in the pit merely loading it for each bird thrown, and also changing the direction of the trap from bird to bird.
THIS time it is New Orleans and the surrounding territory that is the camping-ground for a new pest. It is called the "camphor scale," but it has no compunctions against other trees such as the citrus, oak, and fig trees. Just how or when the pest got into the United States is not known, but observations of its speed in spreading has led entomologists to believe that it arrived during the past year.
Can You Get These Eye-Testers Right in Less than a Minute?
HOW quick are your eyes? How alert are your brain cells? Do illusions fool you? Find out by trying these famous intelligence tests. They will make instructive recreation for a winter evening's gathering. Pass around slips of paper with spaces numbered 1, 2, 3, and 4. Let each person jot down in these spaces the answers to the questions contained in the numbered captions.
THIS ingenious mechanical contrivance is used to deliver orders between the locomotive engineers and the switchmen as the trains of the Midland & Great Northern Railway in England enter a section of single track running between Spalding and Lynn.
A METAL hot-water bag that contains no hot water but that is heated by admitting air to a chemical compound contained inside the case is now on the market. Its action is extremely simple. When the stopper is unscrewed for a fraction of a second, the bottle becomes warm, and will remain so for from eight to twelve hours.
IT is no small job cutting up seed potatoes for planting on a big truck-farm, but a great deal of labor is eliminated by a machine recently devised by John O. Jacobson, of Nielsville, Minnesota. A plunger pushes one potato at a time against a cross-shaped stationary cutter.
EARLY in 1920, Professor S. C. Mason, of the Bureau of Plant Industry, went to Egypt to get offshoots of the Saidy date, for the purpose of experimenting with its growth in the United States. The Professor brought back about eighteen hundred offshoots—from the Libyan Desert, the neighborhood of Cairo, and the Nile valley.
Electricity Heats Water as It Passes through Faucet
BY means of an electric resistance coil nearly a foot long placed in the center of the water-pipe, this faucet will supply hot water at the rate of thirty gallons an hour. Its action is instantaneous, and there are no switches to turn, since moving the faucet handle to the left starts the electric current.
EVEN the springs and the wheels of this eight-day pendulum clock were carved from bamboo with a penknife. With the exception of a ten-pound leaden weight which operates it and two small glasses which serve as gongs, the entire mechanism is constructed of cane such as is found in the ordinary bamboo fishing-pole.
Machine Makes Five Operations on One Piece of Work
THIS is another time-saving machine that will do as many as five operations on one piece of work. Five revolving tables are provided with vises. Each of the five vises holds a tool for a certain operation; such as reaming, drilling, countersinking, or tapping.
A ROASTING-PAN, a galvanized iron cover with a spout soldered in the center, a metal box, and an oilstove—all articles which can be bought at any hardware store or easily constructed at home —comprise a complete outfit for sterilizing dairy utensils by steam.
BY the newest spectroscopic methods of analysis, one five hundred thousandth part of a drop of blood on a criminal's clothing is enough to convict him of murder. With the new system perfected by Professor Florence, of Lyons, France, the smaller the amount of blood, the more certain and easy is its recognition.
AN astounding discovery by a Dutch scientist of a heavenly body twenty million times larger than the sun has introduced a new factor into astronomical circles. It is thought that the body is a huge cloud of dust that will eventually become a star.
JIROZAKA Hill in Yokohama, Japan, separates the exclusive foreign colony from the shopping district and presents a serious obstacle to motor-cars and ricksha men. The city authorities have been asked for permission to construct a moving roadway leading over the hill.
PONTOON bridges across Lake Washington have been proposed to relieve congestion on the ferries of Seattle. Fifteen wooden vessels constructed for the United States Shipping Board would be used as floats, and upon them an eighteen-foot roadway and two four-foot sidewalks would be constructed.
A ROUNDED wooden plank about one inch thick, fitted with staples and springs that fasten it firmly to a horse's hoof, has proved useful when teams must be driven over soft bogs or loose sand. The horse puts his foot in the center of the plank, and when the clamps are fastened as indicated in the illustration, he may walk wherever he chooses without sinking into the soft soil.
EXTERNAL sprinkler systems have been installed along the eaves of the Chicago Public Library to protect the priceless volumes in the building from the danger of fire. In case a blaze starts in any of the structures near by, a wall of water falls from the roof of the library, extinguishing flying sparks and protecting the building against heat and smoke.
CLEARER tone, a purer musical quality, and the total elimination of all scratching and scraping noises are claimed for this phonograph attachment. It consists of a round ball into which the needle fits, with only about a thirty-second of an inch of the tip protruding.
Why do we run the engine with the garage door tightly closed?
WHAT DO YOU DO
EXHAUST gases from an automobile contain a large percentage of poisonous carbon monoxide —the fatal "fire damp" so dreaded by miners. When a cold engine is warmed up inside the garage, with the doors and windows tightly closed, enough of this gas is produced to constitute a serious fire risk and danger of explosion.
AFTER the trustees of a small township had voted an appropriation to provide for a fixed number of electric-light poles to skirt the main highway through their bailiwick, the Ways and Means Committee made a report to the effect that if the poles were set 440 yards apart, as had been suggested, they would need three more poles, whereas if they were erected three quarters of a mile apart, there would be three poles left over.
Newly invented process reduces weeks to seconds in forming battery plates
A FUNDAMENTAL improvement in battery manufacture that reduces the time required to form a lead plate from weeks to seconds has been made byPedro G. Salom, of Philadelphia, for thirty-five years a prominent figure in the manufacture of storage batteries. The new battery is not only cheaper in cost, but it will increase the voltage 5 per cent over that possible with "pasted" battery plates, and will enlarge the capacity more than 25 per cent.
WHEN a Fifth Avenue jeweler adopts automobile-body building as an avocation, the result is likely to show the effect of his professional love of fine finish and beauty of line. As the illustration shows, the jeweler has left the beaten paths of motor-car design.
THE thousand-dollar steam-car is now in process of production. It is an attractive, five-passenger machine of conservative design. The boiler is placed under the hood, with the engine located in the rear axle, where it takes the place of the usual differential mechanism.
SOMETHING new in automobile accessories is a rotary power-driven tire-pump that occupies less room in the toolbox than the ordinary hand pump. The pump consists of a wheel that is rotated against the fan-belt and which is the cylinder of the pump.
THE grease in the axles of Ford and Chevrolet cars will often work out through the axle housing on to the brakes. If this should happen through wear of the axle parts, the trouble may be eliminated by a new device made especially for the two makes of cars mentioned.
AN automobile safety signal that operates on the principle of visible indications by means of illuminated cross-arms has been tested and approved by boards of safety of at least one large city. The signal takes the shape of a Maltese cross with a light-bulb in each arm and in the center.
IN these six pages of ideas about automobiles and motor-trucks Popular Science Monthly endeavors to help its readers solve problems of maintenance and repair. But there must be special cases that are not covered, and we invite you to write to the Automobile Editor and let him advise you.
IF I were to buy another car now, I should buy a new one, just as I bought a new one the last time, and the time before. I get far more satisfaction out of a new car than I could possibly get out of the amount of money I might save by buying an older one. But my real reason for purchasing a new car would be a utilitarian one.
If you have a motor-truck or automobile problem, let the Automobile Editor solve it
Advice to New Driver
When Building a Garage
Blowouts at High Speed
Q.—I have just taken delivery on my first car. What advice can you give me regarding driving or care of it?—G. A. M., Tallahassee, Florida. A.—As to driving, be twice as careful under all circumstances as you think that you ought to be. Keep your eyes open and use your imagination.
DID you answer the call of the open road this year? Did the running-boards of the "old bus" groan beneath their loads of tenting, bedding, eatables, and utensils? Tell us how much your trip cost, where and by what route you went, what big lessons you learned that will help others make plans for a similar vacation next year, and, finally, what automobile, camping equipment you purchased or improvised.
New and Useful Things for the Practical Man to Make
A Simple Radio Receiver for Everybody
COIL DIMENSIONS, ETC.
IN these times, when the Bureau of Markets is broadcasting daily reports of market conditions from a chain of stations all over our country, the naval stations are sending out weather and navigation reports, some commercial companies are operating radiophone stations, and thousands of amateurs are using both the radiophone and the radiograph, it behooves a good many of us to build receiving-sets, get into the game, and receive some of this valuable and interesting free information.
TO construct with ordinary tools and from ordinary material a pair of chemical balances that will weigh the ink on this sheet of paper is not at all hard or impossible. So delicate a pair can be constructed easily from 4 ft. of No. 10 iron wire, 4 ft. of No. 16 iron wire, 4 phonograph needles, some small strips of 1/16-in. brass, and 3 small blocks of wood.
BEAUTIFUL as well as useful articles can be made of carved clay. The clay must be soft, like talcum, and under no conditions should it be gritty. A gritty clay is difficult to carve. The purer the clay the easier it is to work. It should have the least amount of foreign material in it.
HAWAIIAN dancers, dancing animals, etc., shown in motion as shadowgraphs on a screen will form an attractive entertainment for children's Christmas parties. The figures of the dancers or romping animals are drawn on heavy manila wrapping-paper and carefully cut out.
GOOD looking as is this homemade ice-flyer, it is not expensive, as it can be made from used parts that a mechanic always has lying around his workshop. Its novelty and speed will make a strong appeal to all lovers of outdoor sport. And now for the construction.
DRY cells, whether for one purpose or another, are used in almost every country place. They make the spark that lights your gas and runs your engine, they ring your doorbell, operate the burglar alarm, and perform other duties too numerous to mention.
A SIMPLE form of jointed speed wrench for a small shop is worth duplicating, being of especial advantage in getting around almost any form of interference due to pumps, wires, and pipes. This wrench is not used to start or finish the bolt turning, but is for the express purpose of spinning them off.
HAVE you ever made extra money with your tools? If you have, we want to know just how you did the trick. If you constructed something, describe it. If there is a particular job that you do, let us know what it is. For instance, we have heard of a chap who mends furniture in his neighborhood during his spare time.
A BORING or milling table is a useful accessory to the small lathe and the illustrations show how one may be made and fitted to the lathe cross-slide, using the original cross-feed screw. No planer or shaper work is required as all work is performed either in the lathe itself or on the bench.
A FIRST prize of $50 and a second prize of $25 will be awarded every month to the authors of the two best articles appearing in this department. Every article submitted will be considered as a possible prize-winner. Those which do not win prizes may be purchased at space rates.
BECAUSE of the fact that when one is boring a hole in a stump preparatory to blasting, one cannot tell when the screw at the point of the auger will leave the solid wood and get into soil, so losing its feeding power, it is well to use an auger having the side cutting spurs at right angles to the cutting lips.
THE width of the device shown here can be made as desired, to suit the size of the box or of a size that will average reasonably close for boxes close to the range of the lifter. The tong part is made of ⅝ in. by 2 in. iron, while the lifting hooks are of ½ in. by 1½ in. by 2½ in. angle-iron.
I MADE a fairly good wheel in the following manner: Two circular disks were sawn from a 1 in. by 14 in. plank, the full width of the board. A ⅝-in. hole was then bored in each and the two pieces were nailed together, crossing the grain of the wood, and using sixpenny finishing nails.
A RESTAURANT I visit has a large icebox with heavy lift door. It is necessary for the waiters to raise this door many times. The ingenious proprietor placed a strong window-weight cord with weight attached over a pulley in the ceiling above the box, then attached the other end of the cord to the front of the icebox door.
DON'T polish your shoes on a chair or other furniture. Make a shoe-polishing stand. It takes up no room, does not disfigure the wall, is very useful, and is easy to make. All that is necessary for such a device are a few pieces of wood, a bolt, and a number of screws of different sizes, a saw, a plane, and a screwdriver.
A WEATHER strip on the bottom of the front door must close the open space entirely to exclude the cold, but when the door is swung inwardly the weather strip will strike the carpet and prevent the opening of the door. The strip shown in this illustration corrects this common defect by having narrow slots instead of screw-holes.
THIS ruler consists merely of a length of angle-brass with ½-in. flanges. Select a smooth piece and finish the ends neatly and the job is done. If you wish, you may mark an inch-scale on it. Use the ruler with the corner up. It gives a hold for the hand better than any except the triangular ruler, and it has the advantage because it will not slip.
IF you are handy with tools, you can construct a hinged folding tailboard with an eccentric lock such as the one shown in the illustration. The lock is cut from a piece of flat iron stock, the lower end (or tail) being bent slightly outward to provide a handle.
THE object of the device is to save coal, which it does by mixing the gases created in combustion with air and burning them, instead of permitting them to go to waste up the chimney. Manufacturers of several patented “carburetors” claim a saving of at least 20 per cent in the amount of coal used, besides complete combustion, giving a uniform heat, and burning the coal to a fine white ash without clinkers.
FOR heating the bathroom or other room when there is no fire in the house, as in the early fall or spring, a device can be made with little expense. The materials needed are a few pipe lengths, joints, an old pie-plate, and a small sheet of asbestos.
A SIMPLE modification of a ball peen-hammer for purposes of driving in ball-races or for any other use where a brass or copper hammer is required, as on gears, is shown in the illustration. For this purpose any hammer is suitable, even if the peening end is well worn and battered, as the ball must he sawed or ground off.
A Suggestion for a Cork Handle for Your Fishing-Pole
J. H. MOORE
IF the cork handle on your fishing-pole is worn, below is described how you can make one at practically no expense. Obtain three ferrules, or steel washers, and a number of large corks. Place one of the ferrules in position, put a few corks over the rod, fasten the second ferrule in place, then a few more corks, last of all finishing up with the third ferrule.
TO pull a pipe from the depths of the earth is strenuous work, but here is a tool that will be a sure help. Get a wagon-tongue and cut it about 8 ft. long. At the large end or butt, screw two steel plates to opposite sides and drill three holes through the plates and timber 6, 9, and 12 in. from the end.
ONE of the best ways to sharpen a skate is to slightly hollow or concave it in the center. The depression runs the long way of the runner and it is difficult to make it accurately unless you have a tool to hold the round file. The picture shows one designed for this purpose and that will do the work well.