ARE you to-day, like millions of other Americans, longing for a home of your own? Are prohibitive building costs keeping you a slave to your landlord and to an excessive monthly rent? Approximately 7,000,000 families in this country own their own homes.
THE idea of driving a boat with an air-propeller is not new by any means, but this particular boat illustrated below has many original features that make it stand out from any of the other boats that have been developed along these lines. The weight of the upper works is supported by two special metal pontoons.
FIFTEEN years ago the creamy white terra-cotta walls of the lofty Times Building in New York city were new and clean. Gradually they became gray and dull, and in the spring of this year it was decided to have them cleaned at a cost of about six thousand dollars.
DOES a stream flow through the corner of your farm? If so, get busy at once and put it in harness, for it represents horsepower going to waste. Its energy, created by the same force of gravity that moves the current, will provide electric lights, or it will furnish the electricity for storage batteries; or it will pump water into irrigation ditches.
SHORTLY after the declaration of war, all German telegraph cables were cut. Mr. C. H. Gray conceived the idea of utilizing these cables, and, on behalf of the French government, undertook the operation of converting them. The success of the operations was of immense importance, proving that the recovery in good condition and relaying of deep-sea cables is practicable.
THE telescoping metal chicken-coop and wire feedingpen shown below were devised to keep out rats and other enemies. While the coop and feeder are separate units, they may be connected to provide a runway six feet long. The coop is made of galvanized iron and looks like a small traveling-bag.
NEARLY two years ago the government dredge Florida was caught in a storm off Anastasia island near St. Augustine, Florida, and wrecked, the master and several of the crew losing their lives. Shortly afterward the U. S. S. Isis, in the service of the Geodetic Survey, was sent to the scene to chart the wreck as a protection to coastwise navigators.
She Carries a Complete Theater in an Ordinary-Sized Suitcase
A MINIATURE theater, which is carried from place to place in a suitcase, together with its properties and hand-painted paper stage folk, is being used by Miss Stella Boothe, a specialist in child hygiene, to convey to children the idea that good habits lead to health and happiness.
PERFECTLY honest forty per cent cream leaves an up-state creamery in a can addressed to a New York hotel. When it arrives, the butter-fat content may have shrunk to twenty per cent or less. Somewhere along the line the can has been opened, the cream stolen for sale, and the shortage made up with milk.
IF the plans of the recent International Air Convention are ratified by the government, the near future will see every city of any size in the United States blazing at night with a number that will enable airmen to tell exactly where they are.
A tiny beam of X-rays is passed through a crystal of salt and then strikes an “ionization chamber” connected with a strip of goldleaf in an electroscope, which moves over a graduated scale and measures the amount of electrical energy that is left in the X-ray after passing through the crystal at different angles.
If man could release the powerful force that holds atoms together the world’s power problems would be solved
Radium Sets Scientists Guessing
Will the Atom Explode?
SCIENTISTS today are probing the secrets of an explosive power capable of blowing the universe to pieces. When Sir Oliver Lodge startled the world with his declaration that an ounce of ordinary matter contained sufficient energy to lift a whole fleet of battleships from the water, he was not talking pure theory.
DURING the months of spring and early summer there frequently develop, in reservoirs, a host of minute creatures that impart to drinking waters various “fishy” and other disagreeable odors and tastes. It is commonly supposed that such odors and tastes are due to the decomposition of fish or other animal or plant forms in the central reservoirs.
ON the Princess Matoika, coming from Antwerp to New York, one of the officers noticed a pipe sticking out of a pile of coal. He ordered an investigation, and the coal was cleared away. As the coal-pile decreased, the pipe was found to lead to a box. To the amazement of everybody, a stowaway was discovered hiding inside.
Though the electric boiler has been perfected for industrial use, it is practicable only where the cost of fuel is exceptionally high
What is an Electric Boiler?
Steam-Storage Boilers Are New
Raymond Francis Yates
IF we had a heavy electric current at our disposal and caused it to pass through a container of water, the temperature of the water would be raised to the boiling-point. The current would be led in and out of the water with two carbon electrodes.
The New Boiler in which Steam Is Generated by Electricity
This shows how the electric boiler is used to supply steam for manufacturing-process purposes. When the machinery of the plant is idle during the night, the water turbine drives an electric generator that supplies current to the electric boiler.
DROP a nickel in the slot, and the glass door opens in front of the piece of pie you covet—such is the system in the wait-on-yourself restaurants that grow more popular every day. There are little glass doors in all four walls of the restaurant, and behind them are plates of food.
Plugging Belle Isle strait might warm New England also
Would Shorten Trip to Europe
The Warm Gulf Stream
Will the Ocean Obey?
Changes that Would Arise
Walter Noble Burns
THE strait of Belle Isle, a narrow channel separating Newfoundland from Labrador, is a hole in the wall of the Atlantic seaboard that is mainly responsible for the bleak winter climate of eastern Canada. Plug this hole, scientists declare, and eastern Canada and New England would have a climate as mild and delightful as that of the Carolinas.
THIS drawing shows the results obtained by a careful analysis of more than eighteen thousand injuries. It shows at a glance where we injure ourselves most. The hands and fingers are injured most! and this is natural, since we use our hands more than any other part of the body.
SOUND waves travel at about 1100 feet a second. Here is a new type of pro peller that can be driven at a tip speed of 1500 feet a second. The sound it produces is far higher in pitch than that of any air plane propeller, and its tip speed is higher than has ever been attained experiment ally, the previous record being about 900 feet a second.
Underground Roads and Elevated Speedways May Solve the World’s Worst Traffic Tangle
Commissioner Enright’s Plan
Raymond Francis Yates
APPROXIMATELY one third of the half million motor-cars in New York state are registered from the city of New York. One hundred and sixty-five thousand cars roll along its streets every day. New York’s traffic problem is a peculiar one. The greater part of the city, the busiest part, at least, is located on the long, narrow island of Manhattan.
THERE is not a spot on this globe that has not yielded what the housewife calls “dust.” It is found settling alike upon the white polar snows and on the Sahara desert, as well as on the decks of ocean-going ships. The earth is continually colliding with great swarms or clouds of dust and small particles, ranging in size from a pin's head to a walnut.
AN apparatus by which the action of sound waves and the phenomena of echoes and reverberations in auditoriums can be reproduced in moving-pictures has been invented by Dr. F. R. Watson, professor of physics at the University of Illinois. By means of this invention the acoustics of a proposed building can be tested out from the architect’s plans, making it possible to conquer echoes and other acoustic defects before, rather than after, the building is erected.
A FEW years hence the city of Glendale, California, plans to have one of the most beautiful oak-tree drives in the country. All trees along a five-mile motor thoroughfare have been removed and tiny live-oaks have been planted at regular intervals along the road.
An ingenious device that lifts the water in shallow streams
How Additional Water Is Raised
Some of the Results
P. J. Risdon
WHEREVER shallow water is encountered in canals and little rivers, there is danger of boat propellers fouling the bottom. To prevent this the propellers are sometimes housed-in vertical recesses in the hull, known as “tunnels,” the tops of which slope downward fore and aft.
IN the ordinary process of enameling, sheet iron is first freed from grease in an oven, cleansed and dried, then covered with a layer of enamel. This first layer is then melted in an oven, and an enamel of different composition applied, melted, and cooled slowly.
Health Determined by the Amount of Oxygen Consumed
THE amount of oxygen consumed in performing a particular piece of work is believed to be a definite indication of a person’s health and general physical condition. To diagnose your health it is therefore as important to measure your oxygen supply as to take your pulse or temperature.
ONE day James W. Carrico saw his young son thrusting his arm into a pail of drinking-water and fishing for the cup. The boy was wet up to the shoulder, and undoubtedly the water was the richer by a few thousand germs. It was right there that the idea of the unsinkable cup was born.
PROCESSIONARY caterpillars will go round and round in a circle until they drop exhausted, because they haven’t much sense. These caterpillars usually travel in a procession, one of them becoming the leader and the others following blindly.
ONCE upon a time, two tiny chicks broke through their shells at the same moment and fell into the hands of the Department of Agriculture. One chick was fed properly—his rations being carefully balanced. The other chick was fed the way the average farmer feeds his chicks —that is, in a haphazard fashion.
THERE is now a small electric fan that will screw into any electric-light socket. It is threaded at the end like an electric bulb, and can be moved from place to place as easily. The fan blades have a metal guard around them to protect the fingers from possible injury.
MOST of us have read of babies who were changed in the cradle and of the confusion arising therefrom; the subject has long been a fruitful one for story-writers. A certain maternity hospital in New York city is doing its best to avoid such accidents by a very simple scheme.
SEVERAL grades of gasoline are in the market, greatly differing in their effectiveness, but so similar in appearance that even the eye of the expert cannot detect the difference. Since the prices are graded according to the quality of the gasoline, dishonest dealers make considerable extra profit by selling to their transient customers inferior gasoline at the price of superior grades.
A remarkable method of repairing machine parts that has unlimited industrial possibilities
P. J. Risdon
WHEN you electroplate, you coat with a valuable metal, such as gold, silver, or copper, an article made of a baser metal. The article to be coated is connected with an electric circuit and immersed in a chemical solution so as to constitute what is called an electrode—that is, a terminal to or from which the electric current flows through the solution.
How to Carry Out the Wonderful Electro-Deposition Process
Producing the Fine White Surface
Larger Repairs May Be Possible
THE process of depositing a coating of iron that has been successfully carried out in England and France is as follows: The article to be coated is first cleaned with gasoline to remove all oil and grease. It is then immersed for twelve hours in a bath containing a scalding solution of caustic and washing soda at a temperature of 194° F., after which it is rinsed and cleaned thoroughly with wire brushes.
Mr. Davis’ drawing shows in detail the process for coating metal with iron now being used extensively in England and France in the automobile-repair trade. It is possible by this process to deposit a coating of iron of one twelfth of an inch on an object of cylindrical shape.
Automobilists—Don’t Miss the New Car Accessories Pictured on These Pages
When You Want Expert Advice About Your Car
IN these pages of ideas about automobiles and motor-trucks the Popular Science Monthly endeavors to help its readers solve problems of maintenance and repair. But there must be special cases that are not covered, and we invite you to write to the Automobile Editor and let him advise you.
A WELL known company has introduced a motor-truck engine with several features of design that bid fair to become popular, also a revolutionary transmission design by which both speed and pulling power are increased. The new transmission provides speed in direct drive as well as pulling power in the lower gears that does not necessitate an engine of excessive size.
A dollar in time for maintenance saves many repairs
FOR every three dollars spent on a motor-truck, one dollar goes for maintenance. The lack of one dollar spent on maintenance at the proper time may mean an unexpected break-down on the road and a loss of from ten to twenty-five dollars in operating income or the expenditure of an equal amount to get a second truck to complete the work of the first.
The Popular Science Monthly invites you to send your automobile problems to the Automobile Editor. He can tell you anything you want to know about a car, and he is here to help you
Determining Battery Poles
Advantages of Four Valves
Re-Using Lubricating Oil
Soapstone in Tire Casings
Delivery Costs and Sales
Q.—Can a voltmeter be used to determine the negative and positive poles of a battery and if so, how?—J. B. B., Chicago, Ill. A.—A voltmeter can be employed to determine battery poles by touching the voltmeter poles instantaneously across the circuit.
A RIGHT-ANGLED priming-cup set at the fork of the intake manifold on the Ford engine will be found to be one of the most useful fittings on the car. It is seriously needed on the Ford, but may be used on many other engines to advantage. If a dash control is added, as shown, its utility is very much increased.
FAUCETS of the type shown in the accompanying illustration are employed very often in hotels, clubs, lavatories, restaurants, etc. In this type the inconvenience of having to employ one hand to maintain a flow of water is apparent. The illustration shows a method of avoiding this handicap by a simple expedient, a key-ring, which practically every man carries.
AN amateur photographer’s greatest help is a table suitable for all kinds of photographic work. It consists of two lateral frames between which the table proper can be inclined at any reasonable angle to facilitate the work. It also carries two sliding tops that enable the photographer to take macrophotos by simply introducing bellow extensions.
WINDING a coil of insulated wire for an electromagnet, dynamo field, or transformer becomes an easy operation if the amateur follows the directions given below: In Fig. 1 is shown a coil wound upon a round core. To simplify matters, a single layer of wire is shown, but the same principles would apply to a coil of any number of layers.
DWARFED fruit-trees are always grafted on slow-growing root stocks. They should never be planted so low in the soil that they touch, or cover, the grafting scar. If they are planted too low, they will detach themselves from the rootstock, produce their own roots, and soon lose the entire appearance of a dwarfed fruit-tree.
SIMPLE but efficient is this method of attaching a motor to a sewing-machine. A small electric motor of sufficient power to operate the machine is necessary. A wooden block support is placed back of the balance wheel and screwed to the machine top from beneath.
THE automatic fire-alarm here described is simple and inexpensive and can be made by any one with a saw and a few drills. The perspective drawing will show the general construction and assembly. A light L-shaped wooden frame, screwed fast to a supporting back of the same material, carries on a pivot at O the twisted copper strip C, which is in electrical contact with one side of a circuit entering at X.
WHEN rebushing connecting-rods in the steering-gear, or spring shackles, it is frequently found that available reamers are either too large or too small. It is frequently suggested that pieces of tin be placed at the side of the reamer: but those who have tried this method will agree it is difficult to obtain satisfactory results.
WHEN locking their doors, most persons think it sufficient precaution to leave the key in the lock to prevent the lock beinig picked or another key from being fitted from the outside. While this practice might foil the amateur housebreaker, it is of great assistance to the professional in gaining entrance.
AMATEUR electricians know that a Daniell cell is best on closed-circuit work. It does not polarize rapidly and is therefore well suited to the needs of the amateur electrician’s laboratory. A few cells will produce sufficient current to operate small motors, bells, etc.
ELECTRICITY is one of our most useful servants. An outline of its more common daily uses would fill a book of no mean size. The editors of the Popular Science Monthly want to find some uncommon uses for electricity. They want to know what new uses readers of the magazine have found for it in home, shop, or office.
THIS skip-jack sailboat can be put together for about twenty dollars and many hundred dollars worth of pure fun may be had with it in a single season. The boat is really a scow with a sail on it. It is splendid to swim from, since it will not tip. It must be admitted right here that this is not a rough-water boat.
WHEN rowboats are moored to the shore or a dock by a bowline, the wind, tide, or current tends to swing them back and forth and chafe them against permanent projections. This can be remedied as follows: Drop a heavy mooring anchor about three boat-lengths from the shore.
A CARBON-PILE rheostat is a form of resistance that is very useful in the small laboratory. It is surprising how few amateur electricians know of this device. In a pile of flat pieces of carbon the electrical resistance will depend upon the contact between the individual pieces, and this contact will in turn depend upon the pressure applied.
OLD newspapers yield a considerable volume of illuminating gas when used as described below. Get an old syrup-can complete with an airtight fitting lid. Punch or drill a hole in the lid to receive a length of ¼-in. brass gas-piping, and make a good joint.
HERE is a good suggestion for the amateur photographer. When the water is allowed to run full force into the photographic washing-tray, a current is created. The prints come in contact with one another and stick together. They are prevented from receiving the proper amount of washing in this way.
PRACTICAL and simple is this method of cooling beverages so that they are refreshing as well as palatable. It is based on the rapid evaporation of water. The liquid to be cooled is placed in a preferably thin-walled container. Around this is wrapped a towel well soaked with cold water.
DISCARDED safety-razor blades may be used for ripping seams, by the photographer for cutting masks or mats and in many other ways. The difficulty of their use lies in the inability to comfortably handle them alone. A clothespin, though, can be turned, in a few minutes, into a very satisfactory handle for the blades.
A LUNCH-BOX can be made from an old book of the proper thickness and size. With a straightedge and an old safety-razor blade, the center of the pages are cut out as shown. When this is done, a thick preparation of glue is smeared around the inside and over this pieces of cardboard, cut to the proper size, are placed.
GESSO is the composition of which framemakers model the fancy scroll-work and such like on to their moldings. To make it, heat some ordinary glue in a double vessel. The regular glue-pot is the best, but two cans, one inside the other will do, the outer filled with water and kept boiling, until the glue in the inner can, mixed with a little water, is melted.
IF a lawn is to be leveled, this homemade scraper will be found very useful. Two large blocks of wood about 6 in. thick and 5 ft. long, are held together with two iron rods threaded at each end. Holes are drilled in the heavy wooden pieces to accommodate the rods.
BUILDING an electric calliope is simple, and the materials, aside from the electric motor, are quite inexpensive. The motor driving the device must be of the 110-volt style, some small fraction of a horsepower. If a perforated disk is traveling at high speed and a jet of air is directed against the perforations; a shrill whistle will be produced, providing the disk is traveling fast enough and the air is at high enough pressure.
THOSE who are frequently called upon to tie up parcels will find the cord-holder and -cutter described here a valuable addition to domestic time and labor savers. A ⅞-in. board, 6 in. by 10 in., forms the foundation. A cylindrical tin can of 5 in. diameter and 6 in. high is nailed to the board with small nails driven through the bottom of the can.
NEXT to a net, the most essential requisite of a butterfly-collector is collecting glasses into which the specimens are thrust. These are bottles having wide mouths and usually containing cyanide of potassium, which kills the butterflies quickly and painlessly.
SUPPLYING green feed for laying fowls in winter has always been more or less of a problem with poultry-raisers. The practice of gathering greens during the open season and drying them for winter use has been successful, and is recommended as a good poultry procedure.
FOLD a newspaper several times into a long thin pad, and you will have a good emergency razor-strop that cost nothing. When the paper is folded to the size of a leather strop, attach a strong paper-clip to one end so that it may be hung from a nail or hook.