THIS is a tractor unlike any of those with which we are familiar. It is a three-legged machine. It is shown, with its designer, doing tricks. It is going over rifle-range butts, a dangerous thing for a tractor to do. This machine is a fast worker.
Europe is far in advance of the United States in crime detection
THE Sherlock Holmes type of detective, the man who smells a letter and tells at once that the murder was committed by a bald-headed man wearing eye-glasses, may seem a far-fetched creation of the novelist. His exploits have been overdrawn for the purposes of fiction, but his methods are sound.
HIGH on a cliff a man built his house. As he sat on the veranda one day, watching the rippling water in the bay below, he was seized with a desire to go canoeing. But how could he and his canoe leap the cliff? He planted a stake in the ground near his house, and drove another stake firmly into the bottom of the bay.
THE average life of a flag is thirty days of constant use. In the navy yard at Norfolk, a man who had never seen a flag made, J. H. Herbener, was given the job of increasing the flag factory’s equipment and turning out flags for the Fifth District of the United States Navy.
TRAVELERS in the picture above are hurrying, on foot and in railroad trains, toward a terminal the like of which, is strange to our eyes, but which may be an accomplished fact in only a few years. A glance at these persons hastening toward the terminal shows them taking the same kind of baggage that present-day travelers carry—and, indeed, travelers through the air will probably start with as slight preparation as they now do for a railroad journey and with far less preparation than for an ocean voyage.
HAVE you mailed your subscription to the Aerial Mail? If you want to keep in touch with what is going on in the air, you’d better get it in at once. Yes, the latest publication is a daily, edited and printed on board an airplane in flight. The news is received by wireless, written, put into type, and printed on airplanes flying between London and Paris, so the edition must be printed in both English and French.
WHEN a girl walks down the street with a cane in one hand and a small bundle in the other, she may be on a shopping-tour or she may be looking for a place to pitch her tent for the night. For that cane may be a collapsible tent-pole and the bundle a tent.
"STOP at the Glenmore!” At regular intervals you see this sign as you tour through the country; you decide to stop there. But when you arrive, weary and worn, you find that the Glenmore is in the heart of the city on a noisy main street, or else that it is full.
DOES the shape of your nose satisfy you? Is it convex, concave, crooked, or flat and unshapely? If you are not pleased with it, and if the fact makes you unhappy and morose, you can have the defect corrected without a scar. Dr. Julien Bourguet, of Paris, France, has developed the art of aesthetic surgery, and is able to give any one a nose approaching perfection.
EVERY one has seen a little toy consisting of nothing more than a screw propeller mounted horizontally on a vertical stick. You wind up a rubber band and then release it. The toy, driven by the horizontal propeller, rises straight into the air.
A DEVICE that rapidly elevates boxes, crates, loose barrels, and packed stuff to the necessary height to pass into a cargo-carrier at the wharves, and then conveys the goods to the ship and deposits them in the hold of the vessel, has been invented by P. G. Donald, of London, England.
WITH a new process of making concrete piles, a core is first built with tar paper and wire netting. The tar paper is wrapped around a paper core. Over this is placed a layer of wire netting. The wooden core is removed, leaving a cylinder made up of the paper and the netting.
THE water-gate below is provided with a floating bucket, which fills as the water in the canal rises. This causes it to drop, and as it does so the “sheaves,” or large iron pulleys over which cables pass, rotate a steel bar to which other pulleys are attached.
FIRE protection can be easily secured by an improved tube device of inflammable material. Put tubes in all dangerous places, and connect them by piping to a main tank that holds a fire-extinguishing liquid. When fire breaks out, the tube will burn, and down will come the liquid, putting the fire out.
THE bent old man with a divining-rod in his hand has long been a fascinating figure both in fiction and in real life. He is supposed to have mysterious powers that cause the rod to bend when it is held over water or metal deposits, and thus indicates where they are located.
In which the audience sees a huge cruiser explode and sink
Torpedoing a Stage Cruiser
"ALMA" is the stage name of the French cruiser that is the victim of German treachery in the dramatic play “In the Night Watch.” As the curtain goes up for the first time, you see the deck of the Alma gaily decorated with Japanese lanterns; you hear music; there’s a dance on board.
CHICKENS infested with mites or other parasites are not good layers. Eternal vigilance is the price of a good egg crop. The diminutive sprayer, penetrating the corners and crevices of an infested poultry-house, is effective where only a small flock of chickens is maintained.
ON a very hot summer day, the mere exertion of rocking will make you uncomfortably warm. One inventor decided that he was going to enjoy rocking and yet remain cool; so he made a fan operated by the motion of the rocker. The movement of the chair causes a large gear wheel to revolve.
PROVING that simple patents pay well, we illustrate one that has made money for its inventor. This is a holder for the cigar-box. It is so made that it fits over the back and side of the box. Extending from the lower section is a small wire. When the box is opened this wire springs into place against the cover and holds it open.
THE wooden image in the picture below is not unlike some of the men you see to-day; and yet, that image was made centuries ago. Men have not changed much with the times. The statue is known as “The Man of Bulak,” and is now in a museum in Cairo. It is supposed to represent a village chief and it dates back to prehistoric times.
HERE is a quick way of taking cranberries from the bushes. Comb them off. The device used is both a comb and a scoap. The comb takes the berries from the vines and the scoop holds them. It is not long since berries were picked entirely by hand—a slow, costly job.
IF plans of Hawaiian educators are carried out, pupils will have their education brought to their very door. Application for a Pan-American university charter has been made, with “classrooms” in the pineapple and sugar fields throughout the territory of Hawaii.
BOARDS used to be used as forms for road concrete. They were unsatisfactory in every way. They would warp, leak, and break, causing imperfections in the road. Then came the steel forms— real helps and time-savers. The steel forms may be put in place in a short time.
MOST of us wear down the heels of our shoes unevenly and this gives us an untidy appearance. Hence it behooves us all to wear revolving rubber heels like the one below, which will give your shoes a much longer life. These heels are constantly in motion when you walk, and in consequence they wear slowly and uniformly.
THE difference between a pony and a horse is the size—and sometimes this difference is very great. In fact, some ponies are so small that they can walk between a horse’s legs without bumping. The pony shown in the picture below is the smallest of them all; hence, he has gone into the theatrical business.
IN California an architect has over-topped convention and built a house with an attractive porch on the roof. After all, what is a porch for? It is a place where family and friends can gather at leisure hours, or in the quiet of the evening. It should be a cool place, if the house is built in a warm locality.
ALTHOUGH the director of the chemico-physical section of the Research Institute for the Textile Industry at Dresden personally supervised experiments toward artificial wool, he has pronounced his efforts a failure. The process consisted of compressing wool scraps otherwise worthless—short fibers, ends, shreds, etc.—after treating them with certain chemical solutions.
A BLOCK of wood — that’s what you think the hand below is holding; it’s too regular to be a stone and too large to be a jewel. But it is a jewel; an uncut emerald weighing six hundred and thirty carats, or about four ounces. It measures two and five eighths inches from end to end.
NEXT time you spray the garden, notice the shape the water takes as it leaves the nozzle. You will see that it is hollow and cone-shaped. Centrifugal force may be blamed for the hollowness. A full spray would be better for the flowers and plants, and now there is a device that, when attached to the nozzle, will produce this.
IN the illustration above is shown a machine for ordering ice. The housewife decides the amount of ice that will be needed for the day. Going to the little slot-machine that hangs on the porch wall, she slips a coin or a ticket in the slot, then unlocks an indicator that tells how much ice is wanted.
FISHERMEN who catch fish from the pier at Santa Monica, California, need not worry about the cleaning of the catch when they arrive home. No more will there be that domestic lecture that removes all of the joy from a perfect fishing day. This Pacific coast city has equipped its pier with running water and sinks for fishermen who wish to clean their fish where it is made most convenient.
ONCE there was a dog, and it had a wooden leg. This is not a fable, but an actual fact. The dog was run over by an automobile, and one of its hind legs had to be amputated. A three-legged dog doesn’t stand much chance in this world; hence the dog’s kind mistress had a fourth leg made for it.
CHIEF enemy of tobacco-growers is the flea-beetle. In one season it did six hundred dollars’ worth of damage an acre in the tobacco fields of Florida. Now there is a machine that scatters poisonous dust on tobacco plants—from eight to twenty pounds to the acre.
HARD it is to imagine anything that will recommend itself more readily to the heart of the confirmed football, baseball, or basketball rooter than this three-in-one megaphone. Should your team be winning, the megaphone will carry your joy to the field.
AFTER heavy rains had washed out the sandy subgrade of a section of highway in New Mexico, leaving the concrete slabs with but frail support, an engineer of the Bureau of Public Roads quickly adopted the novel procedure of jacking up the roadbed, and rammed wet sand into the dugouts to support the concrete slabs.
FAT chickens command higher prices than lean chickens. Chicken breeders who supply broilers and roasters for the market know this, and are not willing to leave the fattening of their chickens to chance. To prevent the bird from using up fat by exercise, it is kept in a coop so small that it has practically no room for exercise.
TURTLES are not acrobats by nature. Their clumsy hard shells make it impossible for them to twist and turn with ease. A London shopkeeper took advantage of this fact and placed in his window the three turtle towers shown above. Spools of various sizes support the startled turtles in air.
Protection from the Live Wires by Special Apparatus
DEATH lurks in these wires. The men are repairing live wires. They call them “hot.” When they are “hot.” they are dangerous, and the lineman must watch his step and his hand. The platform is insulated so that it helps the lineman to keep safe. A wooden shield is also placed over the wire so that accidental contact through slipping or falling is remote.
MAGNESIUM is an extremely light metal and it has little mechanical strength. It is about one third lighter than aluminum. The metallurgist has succeeded in alloying this cousin of aluminum with other metals that impart to it the proper degree of tensile strength.
THOSE who have gone camping with a smoky oil-stove or an alcohol lamp will appreciate the convenience of this little acetylene burner. The coffee-pot in the picture above suggests breakfast, with flapjacks on the side. The little cooking outfit, however, is equally useful for preparing other meals, and one can imagine very good soups and sauces.
CONSTRUCTING a square box is usually a simple matter. Here is a box that, although all the parts are finished, it is almost impossible to assemble. The box has been in existence in an English family for more than a hundred years, and is said to be the only box of its kind in existence, and yet very few people have ever been able to put it together; and some of them have worked on it for months.
The Wonderful New Process that Kills the Germs in Milk
Whereas sterilization by pasteurizing milk is often noneffective, recent experiments by three British scientists seem to prove that electricity solves the problem. Samples of milk treated electrically, taken on fifteen successive days, failed to disclose any trace of typhoid germs; and milk that had been infected with tubercular germs was also cleared by electricity.
Three English scientists discover a new sterilization process
Milk Kept Sweet for Two Weeks
Must Pasteurizing Go?
Should All Bacteria Be Destroyed?
P. J. Risdon
MILK is pasteurized by heating it. The object is to destroy injurious bacteria that cause typhoid fever and tuberculosis. Unless these bacteria are all killed, the survivors multiply at a rate beyond belief, and the risk to the consumer is proportionately enhanced.
The game introduced on New York’s Bowling Green in 1732 has lately been revived in several American cities
"NEXT stop, Bowling Green!” Few of the passengers who hear the New York subway guard shout out this station, know or even wonder why the comparatively small patch of grass at which the train will stop is called “Bowding Green.” That patch received its name in the year 1732, when three men — John Chamber, Peter Bayard, and Peter Jay—leased it for the large sum of one peppercorn a year.
THE ingenious French engineer, Canuelle, has made a revolutionary step forward in the art of lifting water to a higher level. No pump, air pressure, vacuum, buckets, or pipes are used. Advantage is taken of the property of liquids known as surface tension.
ONE of the elevators in a New York skyscraper was recently put out of commission by the breaking of a hydraulic pump casting. On examination it was found that the metal casing was badly cracked in four places, the breaks penetrating clear through the shell, and extending five or six inches.
NO matter how careful or experienced a ship pilot may be, it is impossible to dock a large vessel—or a small one, for that matter— without striking and rubbing the dock. This causes damage to both the dock and the vessel. In the case of a big, heavy vessel, the dock is apt to be displaced several inches, and if every vessel that docks causes a like amount of displacement, it will, not be long before great damage has been wrought.
GARDENERS lacerate the soil of a barren plot, insert some seeds, take a sprinkling-pot, and with a little care bring forth an abundance of soft green grass to delight the eye. According to a record from the patent office, attempts are ever being made to make the desert of a bald head blossom with a crop of new hair.
THERE was a flare on the crest of the volcano. A red destruction poured through the forests, the earth shook violently, and the seething lava trickled down the hillsides. Great cracks opened in the earth, swallowing men and women. Buildings staggered and fell in clouds of dust, and crimson tongues of flame burst through the blackness of the night.
IMAGINE yourself standing in front of your phonograph giving it instructions to play certain selections and having it faithfully carry them out. Mr. Earl Hanson, a radio engineer of Washington, D. C., has made this possible. The phonograph that does the playing is located in the garage or another part of the house.
Reconstructed from bones forty thousand years old, found in the Neander valley, this picture is scientifically correct
The Neanderthal Man No Weakling
Nature’s Great Experiment
What Is Time to Nature?
Other Experiments in Man-Making
And Was This the Being from Whom We Sprang?
Charles R. Knight
LET sand me take years you to a place back in forty Germany called the Neander valley (Neanderthal). And there let me show you the fierce, half-brutish savage that roamed the wilderness—the creature that, as far as science now knows, was one of Nature’s very earliest attempts at creating the species Homo.
SHORT men or tall can use this locomotive seat. It was made especially for engineers. It can be raised or lowered six inches to accommodate a man from five to six feet in height. The seat is supported on rack members that rest on brackets attached to a box carried on locomotives.
THE country jail has long been a standing joke. If the tales told about it are true, no desperado ever took it seriously. There must be some truth in these yarns, for the town of Mansfield, Missouri, has built itself a calaboose of reenforced concrete, strong enough to hold the boldest jail-breaker.
IN New South Wales a schoolboy grows enough vegetables to feed a family of six. He does it with the aid of his father’s sheep. He had taught them to pull a light hand-plow and to haul his homemade “push” car. Two wethers could easily draw the plow over the boy’s garden. Three sheep haul a load of two bags, or six bushels, of wheat.
MANY of the grasses that now form important crops in the United States were introduced by accident. This is true of “Kentucky” blue grass, white clover, and others. But the Department of Agriculture is always scouring foreign countries for new crops.
A TRAFFIC expert of Washington, D. C., has gone about the task of eliminating automobile accidents in a thoroughly scientific manner. First find where most of the accidents happen, and then apply the remedy. That is the way William Eno reasoned it out.
LOS ANGELES must be a very convenient city—especially for automobilists. Where a road leads over a steep hill, a second road is provided that goes around the hill. The road that leads over the hump is the shortest way. The road that leads around the hill is the easiest way.
RUBBER is a peculiar substance. It must be treated just right before it will stand up under service. This is the way an inner tube would look, when inflated, it if did not receive the curing or vulcanizing process that makes it tough and durable.
NEVER was there a time when a drunken man received envious or admiring glances. In fact, many years ago he was severely punished by his horrified brethren. He was forced to wear a “drunkard’s cloak,” which was in reality a large wooden pail with a hole in the bottom and an opening down the side.
A SPIDER’S web has great attraction for the average fly; he needs no enticing personal invitation from the spider such as we learned in the second school reader. This being the case, an Englishman decided to copy the spider; he built a fly-trap that looks like a large-sized web.
WEEDS are flagrant lawbreakers. In spite of the fact that twenty-five years ago most of the Northwestern states of the United States made it illegal to allow Russian thistle to grow, this weed has spread from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Weeds in general are far more serious enemies to food plants than is usually recognized.
THE United States Department of Agriculture is teaching women to make their own dress-forms. The only materials needed are a gauze shirt, some gummed paper, cardboard, scissors, tape-measure, pins, a sponge, water, and a pencil.
USE the stucco machine shown below and you cut down the cost of the inside finishing of a building. Plaster and stucco are contained in a cast-iron tank, which, together with the gasoline engine that drives the air-compressor, is mounted on wheels.
BOX-KITES used by weather men for measuring atmospheric conditions occasionally develop a tendency to fly sideways or to perform other antics in the air that interfere with the accuracy of observation. If there is one weak stick in the framework of the kite, the strain of the wind on the sails is sufficient to produce distortions, and this leads to bad flying.
ONCE thirty men used to do the work this conveyor is now doing. The engineer who designed this conveyor used to stand and watch a score of men toiling in the sun to lift boxes and barrels up the embankment. This was down on the old Mississippi, where the sun is really hot.
WHEN the Omaha was launched at Tacoma, Washington, the moving--picture camera-men scratched their heads trying to think of a suitable place to “shoot” the picture from. They wanted to be high and in the center. Why not use the crane and a material-handling box?
FEW human dish-washers would refuse to give up their jobs to machines. The electric dish-washer is an expensive piece of mechanism in home kitchens; but in restaurants and school kitchens it pays to employ machinery for cleaning dishes. Hand-washed dishes contain forty times as many bacteria as machine-washed ones.
IN the larger cities, a truck with an adjustable platform is used to take care of the street lamps. The man in our picture does the work without a truck. He carries a single-pole ladder that has a hook at one end. He simply places the hook over the top of the lamp-post and climbs up.
THIS is the way the United States government would build “Big Berthas.” Let us compare this big fellow with the guns carried on the old Constitution, which did its fighting in the days of our great-grandfathers. A broadside from the Constitution’s twenty-two 32-pounders had a total weight of 704 pounds.
NONE of us knows how he talks. We are so used to our own voices that we overlook our vocal defects. Now, here is a device that enables you to listen critically to your own voice. It shuts out all outside sounds, and, at the same time, it magnifies the voice about ten times.
TRAVELING through the Orient—that sounds much simpler than it really is. In many places the roads are almost impassable, and none but the coolies attempt to walk them. How, then, do tourists and the people of the upper class manage to travel on routes where the roads are so poor?
FOUR thousand tons of armor-plate shell-torn as the result of shooting tests, was to be sold as scrap iron. Therefore it had to be cut up. This was a difficult job even for the oxyacetylene flame. The plate was badly warped by the impact of the shells, and the holes made were ragged and mushroomed.
IT sounds like good finance, doesn’t it, one million dollars to save twenty-five millions? That was the estimated amount needed to prevent forest fires in 1921. Everybody who reads knows what the shortage of paper has meant in the past three years—business failures, higher prices for books and magazines, a shortage in the market even of standard authors in cases where publishers are holding off new editions in the hope of a drop in prices.
MAGNETS to remove particles of steel from the eye are not new. Still, the eye magnet invented by Dr. Charles W. Burrows, formerly Chief of the Magnetic Division of the United States Bureau of Standards, is worth describing and illustrating, because it meets the need for an efficient instrument for first-aid needs.
ALMOST every farmer ranks well as an inventor, for he must always be inventing substitutes and applying his inventive faculties to all kinds of problems met on the farm. Dew and rain used to destroy alfalfa before it had a chance to cure in the sunlight.
WHEN you look at the instrument in the picture above, you think at first that it is a banjo; but when you notice that the top of the instrument almost touches the ceiling, you realize how large it is. It is five feet tall. What is it? An orchestra.
CARVING vegetables into shapes resembling flowers is not a novelty, but the chef in the picture is an artist in vegetable-carving. Glance at the spray of rosebuds in the vase. From the tightly closed bud to the one that is unfolding its petals, they are perfect.
SHOULD you want to prevent outsiders from looking in, and yet wish to see what goes on outside, paint window-screens white outside and black inside. Black absorbs light, whereas white reflects it. Thus, if you paint the outside of your screens white, the light will be reflected and will appear to blur.
THE arc light that furnishes illumination for the artificial sunlight of the moving-picture also furnishes an enormous amount of heat. A metal shutter protects the inflammable film when the pictures are not in motion. Now, however, the shutter can be dispensed with, for a “cold” light has been invented by M. Dussaud that consists of a wheel or disk upon the edge of which are sixteen incandescent lamps.
EVEN Nature is on the warpath. A mushroom has been found that actually explodes. Naturalists call this mushroom the lycoperdon; country boys call it a “puffball.” The interior of this mushroom contains a spongy, white mass. When the lycoperdon is young, it is very good to eat, like all other well-behaved mushrooms.
INDIA, which covers about one third the area of the United States, and which has more than three times as many inhabitants, has retained some of the most primitive customs. In the rainy season the tributaries of the Ganges and other streams change greatly in level.
SEEDS must be planted with care. That is one of the fundamentals of successful farming. Realizing this, a farmer developed a seeding-machine that could be used by an inexperienced person. This sower operates like a hand-organ. Turn the crank, and a small disk revolves rapidly.
"NEXT stop, Times Square,” bawls the subway guard; but you don’t see him. His voice comes to you by telephone from another car. This is a feature of the one-guard-to-a-train system that is being operated in New York city. The guard controls all doors of a six-car train by a handle in one of the cars.
THE rapidity with which Europeans are taking to airplane travel may be gaged by the fact that representatives of the principal airplane companies recently met at Brussels to determine rates for travel through the air. The fare between Paris and Brussels was fixed at 150 francs (ten dollars) and that between Brussels and London at 175 francs (twelve dollars).
WHEN an artist tries to paint a street scene, a crowd of people invariably gathers around. How can he avoid this annoyance? Harry Lachman, an American artist, remains in his automobile when he wishes to paint. He opens a trapdoor in the top of his sedan.
IF all the nickels that are dropped into the telephone pay-station slots during a year were placed edge to edge, they would form a line from New York to San Francisco and then extend far out into the Pacific ocean. There are four hundred million of them!
THIS little pig went to market, but he had the distinction of going in an entirely new way. First his feet were tied together; then a stick was placed across his back and another beneath his body. Strong banana leaves were wound around him and them.
AT first glance this bathing-girl looks like any other bathing-girl; but when you look closely at her bathing-suit and cape, you notice that they are made of rubber (price, seventy-five dollars!). What are the merits of a rubber bathing-suit? In the first place, it is different, and that is always an attraction.
A SCHOOL of fish were swimming near a drydock at Balboa; it so happened that a ship was expected at about that time and the gates were opened. What then? The school swam in. Later, when the water was pumped out, they were stranded on the bottom.
How Dr. Harry M. Archer risks his life in treating wounded fire-fighters
There Is Even an Oxygen Machine
The Fire Doctor a Hero
Raymonde G. Doyle
IF any one were to set down the biography of Dr. Harry M.Archer, of New York, one of the first facts he would record would be that the doctor is chief surgeon of the Fire Department there. He might go further and say that Dr. Archer is regarded as a hero in the department, and that he holds a medal inscribed, “For Valor.”
You will discover a new world of fantastic creatures
"HTUNTING with a camera” is a fascinating sport, well known and widely practised by lovers of nature, but it has remained for Professor W. H. Longley, of Goucher College, to inaugurate a new method of catching nature unawares—“fishing with a camera.”
THE unattended type of flashing marine light is now being applied to highway purposes, marking dangerous curves, railroad crossings, and other places heretofore marked by signs. An installation has been made on the road from Washington to Mount Vernon, and the lights are also to be installed in the White House grounds.
THE largest electric chicken hatchery in the world is located near Artesia, California. It has a hatching capacity of about 100,000 eggs and a monthly output of approximately 120,000 chicks. Chicken hatchery experts claim that this electric chicken farm has gone old mother hen one better in that the hatching is done automatically and positively, whereas the old hen is sometimes negative in that she will desert her nest on occasion.
IF the freight-car here pictured comes into wide use, valuable freight may be sent with every assurance that it will reach its destination in perfect condition. Incidentally this “container car,” as it is called, will save the railroads money.
TELEPHONE coin-boxes take three different-sized coins—a nickel, a dime, and a quarter. When a coin is dropped into the opening at the top of the box, it is automatically weighed and measured before a connection with Central is established; a Chinese yen, if it were the proper weight and thickness, would bring a “Number, please?”
NOTHING is perfect—not even pile-drivers. Realizing this, an inventor produced a better pile-driver—one that pulls the piles into the ground. The blows do not strike the pile itself. Therein lies the value of the new device. Concrete piles may be sunk without danger of breaking or cracking, and wooden piles without danger of splitting.
WHEN the Mississippi river rises with the season’s freshets, it covers wide areas of flatland and the fish swarm over this region with the flood water. Following their natural trend, they seek the deeper pools in the quiet backwaters, many of which seem to possess the proper qualification for breeding-grounds.
AS a man reaches his limit of physical performance, when he virtually becomes exhausted, his blood-vessels are no longer widened, but on the contrary contracted. His heart finds it hard to widen the vessels sufficiently to allow the blood to pass.
HE pilots who flew the first airplanes, more than a decade ago, scarcely realized how brave they were. A modern flier, as he inspects machines of theirs that have been preserved, marvels at the flimsiness of construction and the utter lack of the instruments on which he depends for safety.
DUCKS have been shot from airplanes. They have also been slaughtered by the simple process of running the plane through a flock, a proceeding that is effective but somewhat rough on the propeller if the blade gets a fair whack at a fat duck with the tip of a blade.
IT has long been known that green plants derive the carbon required for building up their structures from the carbonic-acid gas mixed with the surrounding air. It occurred to Dr. F. Riedel, of Essen, that vegetation might be stimulated in a high degree by artificially augmenting the carbonic-acid concentration of the surrounding air.
ALL alone, without even a driver, small tractor travels up and down the banks of the St. Maurice canal in France, dragging behind it a heavy canal-boat. What makes it keep to the straight and narrow path? Cables, a balancing arm, and the principle of the resultant of two forces.
Not the form of an Apollo but the invisible relation of brain to muscle
Brains Make an Athlete
The Secret Is—Brains
Why Reaction Times Vary
Perfect Coordination Means Success
The Athlete s Worst Enemy Is Nerves
Eugene White Nixon
NEARLY has a theory every to follower account of for sports any unusual ability in athletics. But very few of these theories are correct. We are told, for example, that Babe Ruth’s success as a home-run hitter is due to his fine eyesight, or to his unusually powerful wrists.
A CABINET is mounted on a steel arm that may be clamped to table or wall. A swivel joint is provided so that the cabinet can be moved to the most convenient position. The mirror, which is also the door of the cabinet, may be placed at the best angle and held in this position.
SAYS Brigadier-General Burton in the Daily Mail: “I have eaten lizard patties in the West Indies, porcupine in India, and curried liver of tiger. Our soldiers in India used to like flying-foxes (bats). “Food accepted in one country may be rejected in another; and the tiger will reject portions of a carcass that are eaten with avidity (in the form of haggis) by a Scot.”
NTATIVE copper crystallizes in irregular cubical forms, sometimes flattened, elongated, or round. It often is deposited around mine timbers or on iron objects, and is found in crevices between rocky masses. Perhaps that was the origin of the huge mass here shown.
IN Cincinnati there lives a man who owns a flivver and is proud of it. Unable to find a place in which to tuck it away at night, he built a garage in front of and underneath his house. The house is a three-story wooden one, situated on a terrace, and set several feet back from the sidewalk.
WHERE is that buried pipe? Right here, ten feet down and twelve feet from the curb, says this instrument. A weak alternating current is sent through the pipe. The connections are made in the house or building that the pipe enters. This alternating current sets up a magnetic field.
PLAYING football on a table—the latest sport in England. There is one man on each team, and he sits at one end of the table while his opponent sits at the other. The players do not even put their feet on the table as you would expect. How, then, is table football played?
“HIS face seems familiar,” says one of the masked detectives, as he looks over the morning line-up of prisoners in the Los Angeles jail. The prisoner’s Bertillon measurements are promptly taken, and his identity soon established. This method of checking up the whereabouts of criminals is of great value in curbing the so-called crime wave.
A BAD egg—why is it? The pores of the shell allow air to enter, and in time the air ruins the egg—just as it will ruin a can of peaches. How can you prevent an egg from going bad? By hermetically sealing it. Victor Clairemont, of Chicago, has invented a machine for doing this.
THERE is a right and a wrong way of doing everything. Below you see illustrated the right and wrong way of picking strawberries. Study both pictures carefully and the next time you spend your vacation in the country you will be able to pick strawberries as they should be picked.
WITH charts in use by the police in all large cities, it is possible to describe a person who has never been photographed. These charts, devised by Bertillon, are called the “portrait parlé,” or “spoken picture.” Bertillon classified all possible eye colors, hair colors, profiles, and full faces.
SEAVEED is the latest victim of economists; new uses for it are being found constantly. The picture above shows it in its latest form—clothing. Both the sweater and the pair of stockings that the girl is holding were made from seaweed that grows in China.
New Crucible Eliminates Danger in Handling Hot Metal
POURING hot metal from an ordinary crucible is a hazardous job. An ingenious and safer pouring device has at last been placed in the hands of the foundrymen. With this one man may handle a five-hundred-pound crucible with perfect safety. This is more than two men could handle by the old method.
WHEN spring comes, the foresters connected with the United States Forest Service go forth into the woods and plant guide-posts along the highways and forest trails. Throughout the winter, when there is little work to be done in the forests, the men spend their time stenciling the names of towns and the number of miles between on seasoned boards.
SLEEPING accommodation is one of the big problems of camping. Cots are heavy and they add greatly to the bulk of the “outfit.” A number of cots also require considerable space, and this makes a large tent necessary. An inventor has come to the aid of the camper with a cot that will accommodate four persons.
HERE is a detachable heel. A base heel with studs is fixed on the shoe. Its counterpart—the actual tread—is slotted to receive the studs. Draw out a small metal slide and you unlock the studs. To put on the heel, you place it so that the studs will slide into the slots.
IF you run on a flat tire, you will soon ruin it. This holds good for bicycles as well as for automobiles. If you are forced to use your bicycle when the front tire is fiat, tie a roller-skate to it. The skate will follow the dictates of the rear wheel as effectively as the front wheel did.
BEANS by the yard. That is the way they would sell them if they grew like this. Here is a bean-pod that contains enough beans to fill a hungry man. It is just four feet long. The average pod is four inches long. A simple calculation shows that this big pod is equivalent to just twelve ordinary pods.
A STRIP cut from the “chicken wire” of a garden fence makes an excellent guard for a woman’s dress, when attached to a motorcycle. This was discovered by Mrs. H. Atherly-Jones, of Roehampton, England. The wire was first straightened out, then bent over the gasoline-tank, where it was padded with material that prevented it from scratching the enamel.
ELEPHANT-HUNTING in British East ' Africa is conducted with tame elephants as a means of conveyance between camp sites. But when it is necessary to send runners from one place to another, the quickest way is by motorcycle. Some trails are adapted to the use of motorcycles, but of course it is impossible to “blaze” a new trail with one.
CONVERTING scrap steel back to pig iron is a valuable idea from France. The scrap steel is charged from an upper level into an electric furnace. Then electricity is conducted to the furnace by an apparatus suspended from the wall. After the steel is melted, certain elements are added to increase the percentage of carbon, silicon, etc., and the mass is tapped out as pig iron.
SHOWN below is the smallest shoe we ever heard of. Its length is one inch and three quarters, the height one and a half, and the width only five eighths of an inch. It is so small that the English penny standing beside it assumes large proportions.
PURPLE velvet and ermine—that’s what kings and queens wear. And for a good reason—mine is too expensive for the rest of us. There is, however, a rabbit that has fur that looks like ermine. Nose, paws, ears, and tail are black, while the body fur is white.
MANY a miner’s life has been lost in a mine cave-in. When part of a shaft caves in, it frequently entraps a number of men, cutting off their air supply. To prevent the loss of life by this cause, the United States Bureau of Mines has developed an emergency breathing device that will supply entrapped miners with the vital life-giving oxygen for several hours, often long enough for the rescuing party to reach the prisoners.
WHEN a lion roars, he may have something to roar about. Take the case of Queenie, star lioness of the Brooklyn zoo. Even if she is more than seven years old and weighs somewhere in the neighborhood of nine hundred pounds, she couldn’t help roaring when she had a toothache.
THE electric cooker illustrated here, which was invented by a German engineer, may be connected with any electric-light socket. The current passes through two, four, or more carbon plates that are immersed in the water contained in the tanklike base of the cooker.
WHEN the thermometer registers nearly a hundred, the heat is almost insufferable in the narrow streets of the lower East Side of New York city. But in Jacob street there is one cool spot—as the horse in the picture above found. It is at the place where two temporary water-pipes join above the street.
HOW many hours does it usually take to go along the edge of the lawn beside the concrete walk and nip off the straggling tufts of sod? The very thought almost makes one’s back ache. Run the remarkable trimmer shown in the picture along the edge of an eighty-foot lawn, and it will take just twenty minutes to make a clean job.
ONE of Boston’s residents, Mr. Henry Cummings, has invented a wind door that will keep out flies, snow, rain, cold, and hot air, and yet will admit people without blowing their clothes or otherwise inconveniencing them. The wind is created by an electric fan that is located directly beneath a grille in front of the entrance.
SHOULD you wish to get rid of an old masonry wall without using dynamite, first drill in the wall a bottle-shaped hole having a small opening; rill this with lime, add enough water to slake it, and close the hole with a snugly fitting wooden plug.
IT is true that the old man-drawn ’rikshas still jog along the roads of Japan, but it will not be long before the motor age invades that country. In fact, it has started. The first motor-propelled ’riksha has made its appearance on the streets of Tokio.
BOYS are not daunted by the high cost of baseball togs. They make their own gloves, masks, and chest-protectors. Take, for example, the enthusiastic catcher below. He took his mother’s cheese-grater, cut holes in it, and used it for a mask.
AN eye test for detecting tuberculosis in cattle has the approval of the scientists of the Bureau of Animal Industry, United States Department of Agriculture. It happens occasionally that an animal will pass the older tests, but will react to the eye test.
FASTENING a swivel clamp on the ordinary flash-lamp adds to its usefulness. It really makes a workman’s tool of it. With this lamp, a man may use both hands and yet play a beam of light on his work. The little clip holds the light to the workman’s belt.
THE venerable United States battleship Kearsarge, will live on in active naval service as a mighty self-propelled floating crane. The crane mounted on this vessel can handle weights up to 250 tons, and even more. The Kearsarge will proceed under her own power from shipyard to shipyard to do the heavy work of juggling guns, turrets, armor-plates, and boilers .
WHILE some women are going through the tortures of the permanent waver, others are clamoring for a permanent straightener. It’s simply a question of wanting what you haven’t got. In England, now, hairdressers are using the steel rollers shown below on many women who have naturally curly hair that they want straightened.
IRON pipes used to be cast with the molds lying on their sides. It has been found more efficient to cast the pipe with the molds mounted vertically. This brings about a better distribution of metal within the mold, and consequently sounder castings are produced that do not have any blow-holes in them.
LIGHTHOUSES and automatic buoys are now used to guard the treacherous parts of our coastline and harbors. In place of a warning flash of light or the shriek of a siren, a single cable with an oscillatory electric current surging through it will soon be used.
NUTRITION chemists at the Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station, St. Paul, who these days are much interested in problems relating to diseases that grow out of deficiencies of one kind or another in the diet, have struck a trail of possible importance to the farmer, and, it may be, of grave concern to medical science as well.
WITH the aid of an apparatus invented by a French house-painter, any person of average strength could climb a rope without great difficulty. Should he become tired on the way, he could rest by sitting in a sling. The principle of the invention can be illustrated by suspending a rope from the ceiling and passing it through a ring.
OUTDOOR exercise, of course, is the best in the world. Tennis, golf, football, baseball—what healthy young man (and nowadays young woman) would not wish to spend part of every fair day in the pursuit of one or more of these games? But, alas, when one lives in a city flat, and spends most of one’s time in an office, there is scant opportunity for such exercise.
IN the Belvoir Park at Zürich, Switzerland, there is a tropical-lily pond—shown above—heated by coils of hot pipes lying on the bottom of the pond. The pipes are connected with two boilers located in the gardener’s lodge. Throughout the summer months when the lilies bloom, the water in the pond is kept at a temperature of from 80° to 85° F. And in the wintertime one of the boilers is used for heating the gardener’s lodge.
ALL over the world the rat has made itself hated for its persistent spoliation of food and its carrying of disease. In recent years well organized campaigns have been carried on in various countries against this serious menace to the human race.
DRILLING for oil is a gamble. It may turn out successful or it may not. Dame Nature has more to say about this than the drillers. When the drill gets down into the earth far enough, something exciting usually happens. If a sudden rush of oil mounts skyward, there is great joy at the camp.
Nine planes are to carry one hundred passengers in a cabin with wide windows
CAPRONI, signer and the builder famous of airplanes, Italian dea man who dreams of aerial navigation on a grand scale, has built the biggest airplane that any one has yet ventured to construct. Those who saw the huge bombers that he built during the war, multiplaned machines with spans of about 100 feet, gasped at his daring.
JULIAN HUXLEY, a descendant of the famous Thomas Huxley, has been making some experiments that throw a great deal of light on age and growth. He kept a flatworm at the same age for a time during which the rest of the brood passed through nineteen generations, and this merely by alternate starving and feeding.
SMALL electrical furnaces, gas furnaces, and crucibles are lined with a heat-resisting substance. When this breaks down, the molten metal touches the cold metal of the furnace or crucible, and there is trouble. It used to be difficult to make a repair in the lining of a device while hot.
A ROUND slide-rule—that is an innovation. The ordinary slide-rule is long and slender. This one is thin and circular. It is equivalent to a slide-rule six inches long, and it can be carried in the pocket, since it is light and requires little space.
LOW shoes, buttoned shoes, laced shoes —all of them need accessories. There’s the shoehorn, the button-hook, and the device for putting tips on laces that have lost theirs. All of these things are combined in the new instrument shown above.
WHEN you go into an electrical supply store now to purchase frosted bulbs, you will not be told to return in an hour or more. A half dozen or a dozen bulbs may be frosted in the twinkling of an eye with the little lead-lined tank shown at the right and a special frosting fluid that acts quickly and leaves no disagreeable odor.
IN scientific work it is sometimes necessary to weigh one part in 100,000,000. Such weighings are usually carried out in a vacuum. The need for making weighings in a vacuum arises primarily from the fact that, owing to its weight, air has a buoyant action on all objects immersed in it.
ABOVE you see a combination seed-corn dryer and germinator devised by an Iowa farmer. The ears of corn that have been selected for seed are stuck on nails on the frame, and left there until time to test for seed. Each nail is numbered. The base of the drying-frame is made of sheet iron filled with small pockets.
WHO has not seen droves of stock going quietly along a highway, and, without apparent reason, suddenly dart into wood-lot, grainfield, or cherished lawn or garden? The corral on wheels below obviates all these happenings and peacefully gets from six to twelve or fifteen cattle—depending on their size—to market or fair, as the case may be.
IN the East End of London there lives a group of people known as costermongers. For years they have worn distinctive clothes with large pearl buttons. In spite of the fact that pearl buttons worn so conspicuously as in our picture are not fashionable, the costers refuse to give them up.
RECENTLY some experiments were made by British aviators in the Transvaal in connection with the artificial production of rain. A biplane, into which were built two sand-boxes containing one hundred pounds of sand, flew above the clouds.
DWELLERS in big cities are familiar with restaurants where it is possible to obtain a dinner by the coin-in-the-slot plan. There are machines that vend chocolates, chewing-gum, and stamps. Most of these slot-machines, however, have sold commodities that were sure to have a steady sale.
ECONOMY has at last reached the boardwalk. Many people who formerly rode in beach chairs at fifty cents an hour are now traveling on the electric car shown below at a fare of five cents a trip. This car is merely a modification of the electric baggage-hauler that is seen in many railroad stations.
ONE of the newest conveniences for the automobilist is a two-quart oil-can that can be carried conveniently under the engine-hood on two clips hung from the hood rod. The can has a special spout that enables the driver to pour the oil into the engine without dirtying his hands or clothes.
FEW jobs are so difficult to handle with the average garage equipment as the straightening of rim kinks. The new rim anvil shown below is the only device on the market that will take care of rims of every type and size. The anvil consists of a solid block of gray iron with a variety of grooves and faces to accommodate rims of.
THE friction drive, which was used almost exclusively in the early automobiles, and in which the power of the engine is transmitted to the rear axle by the friction between two circular disks, one at right angles to the other, has been revived in a new make of automobile that, in general appearance, looks like any other.
Its identification can now be made absolutely sure
AUTOMOBILES valued at more than ten million dollars were stolen in New York state alone in the year 1919! This hardly seems possible, yet facts from the office of the New York Secretary of State confirm it. It is now possible for an automobile thief, having removed the license-plates and changed the motor number and other identifying marks, to appear at the automobile bureau and, by filing an application carrying the changed motor number, to obtain new license-plates on payment of the fee.
WHEREAS the average automobile light, when dimmed, does not give sufficient light for driving, here is a new lamp that meets all the driving requirements without dimming. This is accomplished by using two reflectors instead of one in each lamp-case.
EVEN with the wind-shield open, on a hot day that portion of the automobile driver’s compartment between the floorboards and the cowl gets little, if any, ventilation. On long drives this pocketed air is heated by close proximity to the engine and causes great discomfort to the driver.
"CAUTION” in large black letters on a red background glows suddenly from the driver’s side of the automobile in front. You observe due caution, and presently he swings to the left in the direction of a side street. All’s well. That caution signal was attached to the back of his hand by means of a strap that fastened across the palm; the glow was caused by a small electric flash-lamp attached to it.
GASOLINE fuel accumulates water, dirt, and other insoluble products. The dirt and water are not separated until they reach the needle-valve of the carburetor. It was to overcome such trouble that a Buffalo concern perfected a combination gasoline purifier placed in the gasoline line at the engine.
MANY unusual and almost revolutionary ideas have been incorporated in this six-wheeled gasoline-electric motor-truck perfected by E. W. Weaver and T. S. Kemble, two Cleveland automotive engineers. Its designers claim it has successfully passed the most rigid tests and showed a 33-per-cent increase in fuel mileage over the conventional five-ton gasoline-consuming truck.
Thus you can easily save thousands of dollars a year
What the Unit Plan Is
The Difference between the Old and the New Systems
Are the Bearings Burned Out?
How Many Spare Parts Do You Need?
Some of the Advantages
“For example, a fleet of 700 one-ton
BIG was Bill the Butler maintenance boss of a fleet of fifty motor-trucks operated by a haulage company in one of our big cities. The day Big Bill was called into the general manager’s office to give an account of his year’s stewardship of the fleet of trucks worth $300,000, I happened to be present.
The Popular Science Monthly invites you to send your automobile problems to the Automobile Editor. He can tell you anything you want to know about a car, and he is here to help you
Broken Spark-Plug Wires
Dim Lights on Fords
Horsepower of Truck-Engines
Causes of Engine Heating
Detecting Binding Brakes
Q.—How can I prevent spark-plug wires from breaking at the point where they are bent around to hold under the terminal nut of the center electrode of the spark-plug?— L. A. H., Brooklyn, N. Y. A.—When placing a wire terminal under a terminal nut such as is used on a spark-plug, be sure to twist or turn the wire in the same direction as the nut must be turned to tighten it up.
Below is given a detailed description of how to build one
Uprights and Struts
Power and Propeller
Edward M. Folkerts
THE aerial-propeller-driven pictures shown are cycle-car of an that can be built by the amateur. The framework of the body is of white pine covered with 28-gage galvanized sheet iron. The curved side pieces must be soaked in water before they can be bent into the right shape.
I CONSTRUCTED both the locomotive and turntable of light wood. The motive power for the locomotive was a clock-spring from an old eight-day clock. (See drawings for position of spring.) The power to revolve the automatic turntable was a similar spring.
BELOW is shown the details of an alarm that was rigged up and made ready in an evening. The contact post, consisting of a small stick of wood to which were attached two narrow strips of brass, sprung so that the two tips pressed quite firmly together, is shown at A. This was concealed in a small clump of uncut weeds.
A SOLID T-square can be converted into an adjustable one, as the accompanying illustration shows. The wood screws that secure the straight edge to the head should be removed and a good size flat-head screw with a knurled thumb-nut substituted. A piece of steel shaped as shown has an end fastened with small wood screws to the straight edge and the other end slides through a clamp fastened to the head.
THE flower-stand shown here takes very little work and material. The lumber can be cut to the right sizes at the mill and the cutting of the joints and fitting together done in the home shop. The top of two pieces had best be glued together, with three dowels in the glue joint for strength.
TODAY it is quite the usual thing to find the housewife using an electric toaster, an electric coffee percolator, and even an electric motor-driven egg-beater. Necessarily this makes a need for some sort of a junction box in the kitchen to distribute the current.
USING such materials as he found in cellar and attic, a young student of landscape gardening made the bird-bath pictured below. The upper and lower platforms and the square post that supports the upper one were made from boards taken from a discarded wooden bed.
WHEN you are in need of a good scraper for particular jobs, make one like the one shown in the illustration. The bit, ground to a thick bevel, is fastened by means of a screw through a small piece of sheet iron to a handle fashioned from 2-in. material.
IN windy weather it frequently happens that the violent swaying of the heavy load on the clothesline causes it to slip from the notch in the supporting pole. The result is usually disastrous and part of the washing has to be done over. Such accidents may be prevented by providing the poles with supporting hooks.
AN excellent brush and pencil rack . is made with corrugated cardboard mounted or glued on to a block of wood or cardboard box. The cardboard is cut the desired length and width and a second one the same size and shape is glued on to the first, but with the grooves running crosswise, thereby preventing the sides from warping.
PROVIDED you have a Ford sparkcoil and a battery, you can improvise an apparatus that will enable your boy to study the Morse code to his heart’s content. The illustration clearly explains the arrangement and wiring. One of the wires is attached to the end contact of the coil and the battery.
TAKE a piece of flat stock about ë in. thick by 1 in. wide and bend it to shape as in the drawing. So there will be no side play in the toolpost, rivet a strip of steel to part A. part Bend end B to make a double stock for drilling and tapping for screw C.
ILLUSTRATED here is a toy that performs tricks a real acrobat is unable to do. It can hang by its toes, or even by one toe, with the body hanging in space, without support. If the arms are properly adjusted, it will stand on one or both arms with the body at any angle desired.
THE little spinning pointers used in different types of games can be electrically driven as illustrated here. A toy motor drives the pointer. The motor is placed in the way shown in the picture. Directly under it is the dry cell. Mounted at the side is the push-button.
SHOWN here is an octagonal barn with a homemade silo in the center. It is planned to accommodate 12 cows and 6 horses. The mow capacity is 50 tons loose hay. The upper story consists of a large haymow and the feeding alley around the silo is wide enough to admit enclosed hay-chutes, straw-chutes, and also for silage, and a place for mixing feeds that may be spouted down from the bins overhead and located around the silo.
YOU can use old fountain-pens as pencil-holders. If it is a self-filling pen, take the rubber tubing from the barrel and also remove the part that holds the pen-point. After this is accomplished, take a piece of pencil about 3 in. long and place it in the barrel of the pen, leaving about 34 in.
IT is very easy to make this trousers-holder. Take two sticks, preferably ├ in. by ┞ in., and about 10 in. long. Three quarters of an inch from each end drill holes of about ┛-in. diameter in each stick, then bore a second set about 34 in. from the first holes.
FITTING the ends of a homemade roller with empty shotgun shells makes them uniform, as well as giving the roller a finished appearance. A rough stick first fitted with the cartridge ends can be smoothed down uniformly, the ends acting as a gage.
HOME workshops can be supplied with a gage that will cost nothing beyond a few minutes’ work, and that will be quite as effective as one costing more. Procure a large spool and trim a stick of hard wood till the spool will slide on it easily. Drive a small brad in one end of the stick and slip the spool on the other.
TO prevent the slipping of a stand on a hardwood floor, and also to adjust slight inequalities in its feet, I cut four Pieces out of a section of an inner tube of an automobile. These I tacked tightly to the legs of the stand. The tight tacking produced a cupshape formation of the rubber, the suction of which answered the purpose better than anything else I could have used.
BELOW is described the way a fountainpen was made. A piece of brass or copper tubing ├ in. in diameter was cut to the length of 6 in. The upper end of the tube was then closed with a cork. This cork should be solid and free from holes, to insure against leaking.
THE all-metal adjustable horse shown in the illustration was introduced in one of the shipyards on the Atlantic coast to take the place of the wooden horse that had formerly been in use. Although the metal horse costs a trifle more than a wooden horse, it lasts a great deal longer, hence meaning considerable saving.
GOOD office furniture and desks in the home are usually marred by pushing the chair underneath the desk, bumping the legs, scraping off the finish and chipping pieces of the wood off the edges. This can be avoided by placing a rubber band in.
OLD inner tubes may be utilized to ad vantage for making wooden stairs practically noiseless. The tubes are split open their entire length and cut into strips 18 in. long and as wide as the circumference of the tubes. These strips are tacked on the steps in the manner shown in the illustration.
SERVICEABLE sandpaper blocks for draftsmen may be made by following the directions here given. The drawing is self-explanatory, but it should be noted that it is best to make the clamp ring a solid piece. The writer tried first to bend up 3/16-in. wire and met with failure.
A DRAFTSMAN’S rule is triangular, having six scales, two on each side. He may be using the scale of 50 ft. to the inch, but when he lays down the rule, it will invariably tumble over on another over side. When the draftsman again picks up the scale, he must turn it over, looking at the scales till the 50ft. one is found.
THE family meat-grinder giving out and no thumbscrew being handy, I made one out of an old wringer clamp. A piece of the threaded end had to be cut off to make the screw the same length as the old one. It was not necessary to cut a new thread on the screw, but I ran a tap in so as to make the screw work freely.
QUICK and easy is the method for providing locking means for hexagonal nuts shown in the accompanying illustration. The job was done on the gear-box of an automobile. The plugs for the shifting forks were held by means of lock washers; and these washers, pressing against the soft aluminum case, caused the latter to be severely torn and damaged.
FOR bringing a phonograph record to a standstill when a piece has been played, a new device is here described. The device consists of a trigger against which the tone arm presses when it has run its course. This releases a spring, which pushes a small brake-shoe against the rotating record table.
THE grip of the wagon brake on the wheel may be greatly strengthened by covering the brake surface of the shoe with a piece of old rubber tire fastened to the wood with wooden screws. The width of the strip depends on the width of the wheel tire.
OLD tires, too worn to be used on an automobile, will supply excellent material for making a baggage mat such as is used at the railway stations to protect baggage from injury when it is dropped on the platform from cars or trucks. The mat is of circular form.
FROM the spring of an old mouse-trap and a bit of wire the cashier of a Western bank improvised a clip for holding flat the checks and bills in the cash drawer. The wire was bent as shown in the picture with a mouse-trap spring around one of - the short sides of the rectangle.
MANY a good negative has been broken when left to dry leaning against the wall, because it was knocked down. A perfectly serviceable drying-rack can be made from a block of wood or a piece of heavy board in the manner shown in the illustration.
WITH a pocket comb, a safety-razor blade, and an ordinary paper-snap, which can be purchased in any 5-and-10cent store, a practical safety razor and hair-cutter can be easily contrived. To be used as a razor, lay the blade on the comb, so that the edge of the blade projects slightly over the edge of the comb, then make it stationary by clamping on the paper-snap.
FROM a few feet of inner tubing in fairly good condition a golf-bag may be made which, better than a canvas or leather bag, will keep the clubs dry in any kind of weather. The bottom of the bag may be made by cementing a round piece of rubber to the inner tube, which should be folded over the inserted bottom, and cemented to it.
ETHER is very useful for removing grease spots from clothing and other textiles. For a long time it has been used in cotton and woolen mills for removing spots from new cloth. Ether can be purchased in drug-stores in half-pound cans. It is not expensive, but is very volatile.
SHOULD your belt slip on the pulley, you can remedy the trouble easily if you have an old automobile tire available. The side walls of old tires are usually in good condition. If you cut them out of the casing and fit them around the pulley, it will save you a great deal of trouble and loss of power.
A CRANK handle fitted to the pulley furnished with a belt-driven grindstone has proved very successful. The stone had been sent to a place having no available power. Instead of making an entirely new crank, a round wooden handle was sawed and bolted to the pulley rim.
IN soldering a sheet-iron boiler, I found that the pit holes (or rust holes) would not let the solder run over them. As I did not want to insert a patch, I inserted pins in the holes—first cleaning the surface of the metal. Then I applied solder flux and put a bit of solder over each pinhead, lifting the iron so that a little mount of solder was formed over each pinhead.
A SMALL hole in a casting, as a sand hole, can be readily closed with a piece of lead the size of a shot, calked in with a blunt-nosed tool. A larger hole, ½ in. or more, requires a plug of such size that a successful calking job is not practical. In the event that the casting will stand threading, a tapped plug is correct and makes a serviceable repair.
HERE is a scraper that will take off the worst mud from shoes. It can be made at home from bottle-caps. These metal bottle-caps, with which so many of our bottles are closed, are saved until a are saved until a number of them have been collected.
SOMETIMES when a carpenter’s saw is laid upon a roof of considerable pitch, it has a tendency to slide off. This can be prevented by a simple means shown in the illustration. Bore a hole in the saw handle and drive a long wire nail through it of slightly larger diameter.
FOR the benefit of amateur carpenters who wish to add to the furnishings of their home, directions are given here for making a useful as well as an ornamental combination table, particularly suited for the library. The general appearance of this table is shown in the perspective illustration and the details of its construction and all necessary measurements are given in the diagrams accompanying this article.
A VERY efficient moistener can be made from an empty ointment jar and an old wide-mouthed bottle as follows: Take three or four pieces of cheesecloth and tie them over the mouth of the bottle, then put a small quantity of water in the cup, set the bottle with cheesecloth in the water and the moistener is ready to use.
THE ice-chest shown and described here was built by the writer and his comrades while they were stationed with the army in Texas. The front and rear sections were made, as shown in the drawing, of 2 in. by 4 in. scantling. One side was covered with matched beards, the space between the 2 in. by 4 in. was packed with hay and the boards were nailed on the other side.
THE camp-stove shown in the illustration was used successfully for ten years by G. W. Conklin, the maker. It may be easily constructed by the handy man and Mr. Conklin freely gave the writer permission to tell the readers of this magazine how the stove is made.
A VARNISH that is suitable for hardwood floors in the house or shop, that is waterproof and has good wearing qualities, consists of the following proportions of rosin, turpentine, and linseed oil: One pound of rosin, dissolved in 1 pt. of turpentine to which add 2 qt. of boiled linseed oil.
METAL sawing can be done more efficiently by supporting the saw at one end. The workman can make a longer cut than without such support, employing a long blade, with a consequent saving of time. As the blade is now guided throughout the stroke, it is no longer subject to the frequent breakage occurring in this class of work, and no gripping is to be feared, hence it will be seen that this very simple method presents decided advantages.
HEREWITH is illustrated a machine for the cutting of circular gaskets or washers. This little device will often be found useful in a garage repair-shop, and at times will be instrumental in saving time. It consists of a hardwood rectangular base A cut to such size as to accommodate bracket B, to which is riveted the square nut C, acts as the bearing for the screw D.
IF you have an old automobile tire that has outlived its usefulness as a tire, and you have no other more important use for it, you may transform it into a watering-trough for your chickens. With a sharp knife cut the tire in halves as shown in the illustration.
HERE is a pretty silk-handkerchief trick that any one can do. Two silk handkerchiefs are shown and passed for examination, if so desired. Then they are both taken in one hand and tossed in the air. They fall down knotted together. The “key” to this simple bit of conjuring is a thin rubber band, such as is used in flower shops or a small band of any kind painted white.
NOT every household is equipped with a supply of wiring staples for insulating electric wires. When such staples are unavailable at a time when some wiring is to be done hurriedly, they can be improvised by using double-pointed carpet-tacks with pieces of old inner tube, about ¾ in. square, as insulators.
BLOCKS for printing conventional patterns on table-covers, napkins, and other textile fabrics for the purpose of ornamentation may be made from heavy linoleum which is extensively used as floor-covering. All that is required is a smooth piece of linoleum, a sharp knife, indelible inks, and a certain skill in drawing.
CANARIES do not like to be in the sun and invariably seek the shadiest part of their cage. To provide an awning for the bird, take a few strips of stout wire or banded brass, bend them to the desired shape with a pair of pliers, and provide a few cross pieces for support.
THIS cord-climber is similar to the climbing monkey, only he goes by lifts instead of a constant run, and he hasn’t learned how to climb down by himself. The cord is suspended from a nail or hook, and when the cord below the model is pulled, he stretches himself, measuring about 2 in. at a pull.
A TYPEWRITER that is used in the home or boarding-house should be as silent as possible in order not to disturb others. Recognizing this, the writer, who lives under the handicaps imposed by a boarding-house, tried out the various rubber and felt pads on the market but found they only lessened the noise to a slight degree.
CLEARLY shown in the accompanying drawing are the construction and use of this hanging-basket support. It is suitable for a sunny corner of the house in the wintertime and may be used on the porch or lawn in the summertime. Because of its natural beauty and comparative inexpensiveness, yellow pine is the best material to use.
SOME days ago, while in a machine-shop, I noticed a pipe-rest, evidently made in the shop, for supporting pipe while the pipe was being cut in a machine using a saw-blade (working horizontally) as a cutter. As the rest was not attached to the floor, it could be placed at a distance to accommodate various lengths of pipe. The spool had previously been turned in a LATHE.
CHICKENS can be kept in their pen by nailing two-foot slats at an angle to the posts and stringing a number of strands of thin wire through them as shown in the drawing. The chickens do not see these wires and when they attempt to fly over the fence, they strike the wires and fall back into their yard.
A FOOD trough for pigs is readily made from concrete, using for a form a semicircular section of log and rectangular box made with nailed planks as shown in the appended illustration. A log of the desired capacity of the trough is selected and this is split lengthwise, placed face down on any flat barn or other floor, the outer casing is placed over this and secured with two nails to prevent it from shifting while the cement is poured.
WHEN the amateur mechanic has an extra deep hole to drill in metal that is beyond the capacity of an ordinary drill, he is at a loss just how to proceed. Few mechanics know that they can make a drill for this work very easily. The drills mentioned in this article will drill holes of small diameter to a depth of 10 in. with perfect accuracy, providing they are used only on a lathe.
AN extra chuck for small drills to be used in an ordinary carpenter’s brace can be made as follows: Procure a piece of good tool-steel about 5/16 in. in diameter and 2 in. long. Drill ⅛-in. hole lengthwise through the center through the center of the piece.
NEVER stick a stamp to a letter. There are at least three better ways. If you are enclosing one stamp in a letter, make two slits ½ in. long and ¾ in. apart, then slip diagonally opposite corners of the stamp in the slits. If there are two stamps or more to be enclosed, make two slits 1 in. long and about 1 in. apart and run the string of stamps through.
WITH an assortment of tin cans to work with the writer made a tin can automobile that is very good looking. The hood is made of about three quarters of a large condensed-milk can, one end being left in for the front of the car. The seat is made of part of the remainder of the large milk-can.
DON’T keep the flower-pot standing in water; it is injurious to the plant and especially to the root system. The moisture, when the plants are watered, should run through the root balls as quickly as possible. The roots not only require moisture, but also air, and if the saucer is full of water, and if the pot stands directly in the saucer, little if any air can reach the roots, since the soil is supersaturated with moisture.
A LABOR-SAVING concrete mixer that can be improvised from materials normally procurable without cost, is shown in the illustration. It consists of a tumbling barrel in which half-bag batches can be rapidly and thoroughly mixed with the least effort and provides a means of emptying the concrete directly into the barrow without additional shoveling.
CAN-LIDS are often difficult to remove. Here is a plan by means of which they can be loosened easily. Tie a piece of stout twine loosely just below the cover, then thrust under the twine a pencil and start to twist this. When the twine is tight, the cover of the can comes away readily.
What use have you for some of the “junk” in the attic or cellar? Popülar Science Monthly will pay ninety dollars for the best answers
Rules Governing the Contest
THERE is the old baby-carriage, the old stove, the old bureau, the trunk, and the leaky wash-boiler. The attic also contains old phonograph needles, safety-razor blades, carpets, curtains, chairs, tables, picture-frames, hatboxes, etc. Have you been able to save money and add a convenience to your home by pressing some of these things into service again?
PAINTINGS mounted on stretchers have to be framed for exhibition purposes. It is not always feasible to provide frames and mats for each painting. The same frame and mat may have to serve for many pictures of corresponding size. In such cases it is not desirable to fasten the canvas in the frame permanently with nails, screws, or glue.
A VERY easy way to pour milk from a full bottle is as follows: Near one edge of the paper cap cut a V-shaped opening with a knife, and near the opposite edge cut an X-shaped opening. By lifting up the point of the V, and the four points of the X, milk can be poured in an even, steady stream from the bottle.
THE wagon herein described is a vehicle that combines the features of a rowboat with those of a cart and, if properly made, will be a great muscle developer as well as a source of amusement. The working parts are such as to require careful construction.
ONE of the thin sections of a fishingrod was broken. No duplicate of the part being obtainable, I decided to mend the break. I cut off the rubber-holding brass tip of two lead-pencils, of which one was slightly smaller than the other, and removed the wood and lead in them.
WHEN small tubes of brass or copper or steel are to be bent, they have a tendency to flatten out at the curve. Small tubes can be bent without flattening if they are first filled with molten resin. Larger tubes may be filled with sand. If resin is used, the tube is heated again after bending and the resin is blown out with a bicycle-or automobile-tire pump.
FOR this table the frame is made from yellow birch poles that may be cut in the woods and are from 1 in. to 2 in. thick. The photographs show the completed typewriter table, both rear and front views. Each leg was 24 in. long, casters raising it to 27 in., allowing 1 in. for the thickness of the top boards.
By L. A. Laurier THE apparatus here described makes it possible to read a newspaper clipping whirling around on a disk making 3000 r.p.m. When assembled, the device may be put in a show-window as an advertising attraction. A good smooth-running battery motor or a 110-volt fractional horsepower motor may be used.
THIS automatic pump is operated in connection with the exhaust of a gasoline engine and is used as pump for cooling water circulation or, in a boat, for pumping out the bilge-water. As can be seen from the drawing, two blocks of wood are hollowed out to a depth of 2 in. and about 10 in. in diameter.
A SMALL bag of cedar shavings or a few' cedar-wood blocks placed in the bottom of a trunk in which clothes are kept, or placed in a clothes-closet, will keep out the moths and thus prevent the clothes from being moth-eaten. It will not fill the clothes with a disagreeable odor as moth-balls do.