EXACTLY what Nerve force is, we do not know. If we did know, we would know the Secret of Life. We know this: it is generated by the Nervous System through which it travels at a speed greater than 100 feet per second. It is the Master Force of the Body, the force that controls every heart beat, every breath, the digestion of every mouthful of food we eat, the action of every muscle, and the life of every cell.
Would you do the things described in this article?
Fred Gilman Jopp
MARK CAMPBELL, the bat, and I were seated at the roof's edge of a new twelve-story building in lower Broadway, Los Angeles. From our position we could see the swirling mass of people on the ground below. Since early morning they had been there, gazing upward and waiting, waiting patiently for the airplane behind us to slip off to safety—or death.
TRACTORS have found another place to work. They are not only useful on the farm, but in the factory as well. Building contractors have also been quick to apply the little tractors in hauling work about a large job. In fact, the small gasoline tractor is always on the job where there is any hard work to be done.
A BRITISH tramp steamer has recently been equipped with an apparatus that handles the coal from bunker to furnace, pulverizing the fuel on the way. It has been found inadvisable to grind up the coal on shore, owing to the tendency of pulverized coal to absorb moisture rapidly, cake badly, and become highly explosive.
A great invention that makes it possible to produce an entire book on a single phonographic record
Raymond Francis Yates
A GREAT humanitarian work has been achieved by Dr. Max Herz, of the University of Vienna. Dr. Herz, who is almost blind, has developed a device that means much to every sightless person. A complete phonographie edition of Shakespeare may soon be available for sightless people at a cost of fifty cents.
IN recent years the fire hazard in factories has been greatly reduced by the use of sprinkling systems. The water is started by automatic valves that are normally kept closed by a plug made with an alloy having a low melting-point. When this is heated slightly, the alloy melts and allows the water to flow.
WITHOUT warning you are attacked by hiccoughs. Perhaps you try holding your breathor looking at the ceiling while you swallow desperately. There are many other hiccough "cures," but few of them get at the heart of the trouble. A hiccough is caused by the spas modic contraction of the diaphragm, accompanied by the closing of the glottis.
THERE is one thing that will bring a dead tennis-ball back to life-air. But how can air be injected into a tennis-ball so that it will stay there? By means of an instrument that looks and acts like a hypo dérmic syringe. The tennis-ball itself must be specially made.
One Cloud’s Energy Equal to that of Six Battleships
If the energy that is stored in clouds could by any means be converted into usable form, the world would have at its service one more source of power. A cloud is a mass of material so light that it floats in the atmosphere; yet its particles were put there by the expenditure of energy, and this means just that much power to be put to use if it could be harnessed.
THE mass of a great thunderhead drifting across the sky, illuminated by frequent flashes of lightning, carries within itself an immense amount of energy, or power to do work. If all that energy could be converted into a usable form, we should have at our service a new source of power.
WORKING from the outside in, when studying a tree’s growth, the bark is the first consideration. It is of a corky nature and is composed of dry dead leaves. The bark protects the tree against evaporation and outside injury. Beneath the outer bark is the inner bark, which is soft and moist.
SIX years ago there was no sign of beavers in the Adirondacks. Today the forest is full of them and their work is everywhere. This comes as a result of restocking the Adirondacks with thirty-four beavers in 1906 and 1907. There are from ten to twenty thousand dam-builders in almost every watercourse and lake.
A STREAM of steam, moving with sufficient velocity, will carry considerable solid matter along with it. In this respect it acts exactly like air. An ash-conveyor that is nothing more nor less than a heavy pipe with steam flowing through it, is now in use.
NOTHING is more unsightly than a huge structure of corrugated iron. At Ishpeming, Michigan, there were two such monstrosities in the shape of shaft-houses belonging to an iron company, and their appearance became worse and worse, until it was very plain that something must be done about it.
All the strong men of France have tried in vain to lift him
JOHNNY COULON is still an unsolved mystery. When he wills it, not “all the king’s men” can lift him from the ground—and he weighs only one hundred and eight pounds. These are the regulations that Johnny demands before he will allow a strong man to tackle him: the strong man must face him, stand at arm’s length, and then take hold of him above the hips and yet below the ribs.
GO to the tool-box and get your saw. Perhaps it is a musical one! And there is no sound sweeter than that which can be drawn from the right kind of saw. How do you play it? Ford Hanford, the man who discovered the saw’s musical powers, tells us its secrets.
The change from lung power to machine in the ancient art of glass-making reads like a romance
Making Window-Glass the Old Way
The Patience of Job
Success Slowly Approaches
Like Pouring Money Down a Hole
Raymond Francis Yates
IN 1894 a man stood on a chair with a glass-blower's pipe in his hands, the lower end of which rested in a bowl of molten glass. He was trying to prove to a second man that glassblowing by machine was possible. As he blew into the cold end of the pipe, he lifted it, causing a cylindrically shaped bubble to form at the opposite end.
Soon we shall be able to take the telephone receiver off its hook and ask the operator to connect us with a ship halfway across the ocean. When this is possible, the operator will connect your telephone with a powerful radiotelephone station.
HERE is a new adaptation of the barbers' ancient sign. A revolving pole of red-and-white-striped glass containing electric lights is reflected in a number of oblong vertical mirrors arranged in a concave curve behind the pole. The invention is that of Peter Zarella, of Boston, Massachusetts, and the optical illusion produced is that of a series of ascending spirals.
"SEND me one of your four-room houses, C. O. D." A strange order, but it is possible that before long you may be giving that very order yourself. A French engineer is now building complete houses, which are placed on wheels and delivered to your lot by motor-truck.
AT Soochow, China, an American oil company had all the ground for its building, except for one small square. The owner refused to sell because the building to be erected would cast an “unlucky” shadow on the next lot, which he also owned. The Yankee manager almost despaired, when a Chinese assistant heard of the difficulty.
DRY cells have never been very successful when used in connection with flashlamps. Storage cells are impossible. A new cell has been perfected that uses lead and zinc elements. It is really a wet battery of radical design, and it is so arranged that the active chemical comes in contact with the plates only when the light is in use.
ONLY battleships are built to withstand the test that the Scarpa, shown below, is called upon to withstand. It is not a deliberate test of stanchness. The Scarpa ran on the rocks off the coast of Ireland. Like most merchant steamers, only about half an inch of steel plating constitutes the Scarpa’s hull.
AT the "round-up" in a "bull-dogging contest" at Mason City, Iowa, a motorcycle won the honors of the day. The object of the game is to catch the steer by the horns and twist his neck until he falls, then quickly tie him before he has a chance to get up.
IN spite of so-called "crime waves," storekeepers grow more trusting every day. One of them—he sells sewing-machines and accessories—permits his customers to wait on themselves at the “machine-oil” counter. They select their bottles of oil and then drop the proper amount of money through a slot; it lands in a locked drawer.
SOMETHING different—that's what many actresses hunt for. One of them decided to own the largest usable pencil that she could have made. Here it is. It measures twenty-six inches in length and one inch in diameter. There is a real eraser at the end and real lead throughout.
HOW does the snake-charmer charm? That's one of the questions we've always asked ourselves. And now an English doctor tells us one of the secrets. Take the case of the cobra, for instance. It is a very venomous snake, yet the snakecharmer is not harmed when bitten by one.
NEWLY poured concrete must be protected from the sun and rain. The sun causes it to dry out too rapidly, and this is liable to produce cracks. The rain washes the fresh concrete away. To protect a newly built road, the roadbuilders first lay canvas on the surface.
TAXICABS are always hard to find when it is raining. The man in the picture below is dropping a coin into the slot, and in a few moments a cab will rush up to the curb for him. This is the new way of calling taxicabs in Germany. When the coin is dropped into the slot, an electric circuit is closed and a lamp flashes at the taxi headquarters.
IT is now easy for fire departments to telephone from the fire-engine in the midst of fighting a blaze. The fire department at Glassboro, New Jersey, has a lineman on its crew who has rigged up a device that can be used wherever there are overhead telephone-wires.
PARENTS vary in regard to the treatment of a crying baby. Some let the baby cry; others rush to pick him up. A father belonging to the latter class worried considerably because he could not hear his child cry at night! The child slept a distance from the father’s room.
A VERY singular desert plant has recently been discovered in British East Africa. It is known to botanists as Euphorbia eustacei, and often exhibits a most remarkable habit of growth. Like so many other plants that thrive in dry locations, this euphorbia produces long spines that practically cover it.
THE last train has passed over this bridge. Engineers have warned that it is unsafe. It is a unique bridge, too. There is not another like it in the world. More than 3,800,000 feet of lumber was used in its construction. It stretches across a valley that is thirty-two hundred feet long.
WHO invented the wheel? Probably some caveman. At least, history does not record the date. The wheel was probably invented all over again, as far as this black boy is concerned, when he used his ingenuity to make a scooter for himself. He baked clay in earthen pots, first placing the bamboo “axles” in the center.
DEAD tennis-balls are worse than useless. What makes a ball go dead? Atmospheric conditions very often. However, if tennis-balls are canned— hermetically sealed—when manufactured, they will be as good as new when opened. This has been done recently in shipping tennis-balls to China. Heretofore the balls have lost much of their resiliency because of the long ocean voyage. But now, they are not affected by the journey.
RECENTLY, in Indo-China, not far from Saigon, a big-game hunter had wounded a large bull elephant, which he was unable to follow up. The beast came upon the railway where it passed through the jungle, and, scenting the approach of a train, charged down the track to meet it.
THE American user of motor "scooters" is perfectly willing to sacrifice comfort for speed; but not the average Frenchman. He wants to sit on a backed seat instead of a saddle, and he likes to stretch his feet in front of him. The result? His motorcycle is a strange affair.
IN the photograph above a tower of unusual design is shown. It stands near the deserted city of Fatehpur Sikri, British India, at one time the capital of the Mogul emperor Akbar, who ruled over a greater part of India from 1555 to 1603.
FEW people realize what an important thing welding has grown to be. Today it has a thousand and one uses—all of them of great value to industry. Above is a gigantic iron pipe with an elbow that is made in one piece. This was made possible through welding.
"SMALL children are interested in each other; they are chummy," says Mr. G. Rankin, a school director of Munhall, Pennsylvania. Whereupon he invents a chummy four, in the form of a desk. It is square, has four legs, and to each leg a swinging stool is attached, which is spring supported and vertically adjustable for different sized children.
BICYCLE riding, like any other sport, becomes monotonous in time. An Italian rider, however, has discovered a way to make it very exciting. He rides along the water-front, and whenever he sees a springboard that is several feet above the water, he rides right off it, straight for the water!
IN the twelfth century steel was unknown. And yet the people of that time skated whenever there was ice. What were their skates made of? Bone. The leg bones of animals were used. They were tied to the feet by means of thongs, after being properly shaped and sharpened.
AN airplane is like a kite in this: it needs wing surface to rise from the ground. Hence all the big weight-carrying machines have large wings. On the other hand, large wings mean air-resistance in flight and a consequent reduction in speed.
WE are just learning how to make use of compressed air: every day brings a new application. The railroads are now making use of it in filling the sand domes of their locomotives. The sand is stored away in an air-tight cylinder in which a pressure is maintained.
NOVEL is the angle of view afforded the moving-picture photographer when he takes to the air. But airplanes are too swift for “close-ups” and so it is necessary to make use of the “blimp.” Marshall Neilan, the director who staged “Custer’s Last Fight,” found that a gas-bag of 35,000 cubic feet, supplied by 200-pound metal containers, could be profitably employed, even when it required two freightcars to transport it 2200 miles to the scene of the battle.
THE learning of the Morse code is tedious. Here is a little automatic sender that obviates the necessity of learning the code. A Frenchman designed this apparatus for use in aerial navigation. The operation of the wireless outfit is reduced to the manipulation of the six keys.
GERMAN municipalities have always been models of fatherliness. They see to it—at least, they did before the war —that people behave themselves; that the streets are kept clean, that nobody makes night hideous with piano-playing after ten o’clock, and that everybody gets a seat in the street-cars.
A SUITCASE full of incandescent lamps for the photographer’s lighting effects is a novelty. A stand supports the open case, and when the socket of the wire is attached to the house circuit a brilliant illumination suitable for photography indoors is obtained.
IN America we ship eggs in crates, a very safe and economical way. The Chinese prefer to follow their ancient custom of shipping them in straw. A bird builds its nest of weeds and straw and that protects the eggs, so why not use straw as a means of packing them for shipment?
FLAT radiators of the automobile type for airplanes are not the best for the purpose. When the airplane is flying at high speeds, the flat surface offers resistance to the motion. Here is Lamblin’s radiator, which is worked out on new lines.
CATS, traps, poisons, and “other agents too numerous to mention” have been used to fight the rats that infest corn-cribs and annually consume millions of bushels of corn intended as cattle-feed. Yet, with all this drastic war, the loss of corn due to rats has been increasing rather than diminishing.
After looping the North Atlantic, the tiny yacht weathered the worst of the winter’s heavy gales
Weathering the Gale
What the Little Typhoon Did
What a Sea-Anchor Is Like
Buried in Water—but Staggers Up
The Sea-Anchor Line Parts
William Washburn Nutting
OUR cruise in the Typhoon from Nova Scotia to England, and back to New York via France, Spain, and the Azores, was made primarily for the fun of the thing. There was no burning scientific conviction to justify it, nor any thought of financial gain.
FOUR machines for unloading grain from railroad-cars to grain elevators have been installed in a new Pennsylvania railroad elevator at Baltimore. An operation that it took four men forty-five minutes to accomplish can now be done in ten minutes by three men.
PEACH-STONES—all during the war we saved our peach-stones and dropped them in barrels that were placed in convenient spots. Some of the stones were subsequently used in making gas-masks. But many tons of them were left over when the war ended.
TO carry a small gas or oil stove is an easy matter when you want to heat first one room and then another. To take a glowing fireplace from room to room seems ridiculous. But why should a whole house be heated when all that concerns you at the moment is the one room in which you happen to be sitting or working?
BUCKETS whirl around and dirt flies! With this digger, a trench about one foot wide and four and one half feet deep may be dug for a distance of eight feet every minute. The buckets are on a circular frame that bring them in contact with the earth.
IF you want to learn how to box and crate, what kind of wood is best, how to nail the crates or boxes to make them strong, how to strap, to bind, or wire the boxes, go to school and be taught. In this school (that of the Forest Products laboratory) is a large drum into which various kinds of boxes are put and thrown about with a violence that no truck-driver could match.
A VERY important detail, in treating fractures, especially those of the thigh, is that of preventing stiff joints. Exercises are usually prescribed, but these are carried on after the patient has left his bed, when the affected area is so stiff as to make exercise very painful.
THE latest phonograph novelty is a dancer who illustrates the record as it plays a dance. About a year ago, Florence Burgess Meehan, of Chicago, saw the native dances as they were performed for her in the palace of the King of Cambodia. She had many pictures made of these dancers.
OUR planet is getting heavier and heavier! How does that happen? Because of the meteors that are constantly falling on it. You may not have seen any of them fall, but the earth is a large place. In a year eleven thousand four hundred and thirty-five tons of meteors fall!
USING his inventive genius, a farmer took a barrel, an old dish-pan, and a forked limb, and made himself a mailbox to protect packages from the weather. The end of the barrel was first knocked out and a piece of the side wall of the dishpan was cut to fit over the opening in the barrel to act as a protection against rain.
WE use many things in our daily lives that are electroplated with nickel, copper, silver, or gold. The plating-machine shown below will help to speed up production and make cheaper the plated things we buy. The parts to be plated are hung from a metal wheel that revolves in the center of a series of anodes.
SPIDERS spin their webs with the object of catching flies and other delectable insects. If a spider could speak, he would doubtless tell you that it is a long, tedious job, but worth while in the end. Imagine the feelings of the spider of New Guinea when he returns to his web and finds it gone—stolen by cannibals!
DID you ever hold down a horse-drawn plow? It is real work. Here is a one-man plow invented by a German who had some plowing to do, but who did not have a horse. In fact, his little plot of ground was so small that the use of a horse was not worth while.
MAYOR THOMPSON of Chicago sends a radio message to Mayor Hylan of New York. Within twelve minutes’ time the message is placed on Mayor Hylan’s desk. It would take a much longer time to establish telephone connection. Radio works fast. That is why the cities of New York, Cleveland, Detroit, and Chicago decided to carry on their official business by radio.
A CEMENT structure is the home of this family of hogs. The cement piggery emphasizes the virtues of sunshine and cleanliness in the business of raising hogs. Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, Missouri, Ohio, Indiana, and other pork-producing centers have made notable progress in providing equipment that would explode the theory that hogs are simply born filthy.
ONE of the chief requirements for successful "putting" in golf is to aline or sight accurately the head of the putter, the ball, and the hole. Above you see a putter, to which is attached an adjustable sighting-rod, invented by Edward Hartford, of Deal, New Jersey.
EVERY man who cut~ his own grass will be interested in a lawn-mower, for which the inventor claims that it will cut grass more easily. Its cutting edges are longer than those of the ordinary lawnmower, although they do not require any more space.
SO densely populated with goats had a part of Catalina Island, California, become, that they were a menace. The farmers recently appealed to the commander of the Pacific fleet for help, and he detailed a squad of marines to attack the goat enemy.
THE mechanical picker is a labor saving device, first introduced in the states of Illinois, Indiana, and Iowa. This picker plucks the ears of corn from the upstanding stalks and deposits the grain in a wagon that keeps pace with the machine.
WILLIAM McPHERSON was super intendent of a large stone quarry in Colorado. A blast, for which he was not prepared, blinded him and blew off both his hands. Confined in solitude, McPherson suffered only as one used to activity can suffer—until he heard of a blind woman who had discovered that when she kissed the Bible she could discern the raised letters with her lips.
DURING the "crime wave," anything that looks like a pocket-book is attractive to the eyes of the purse-snatcher. Hence the ruse of a genuine book to camouflage the pocketbook. The covers of a volume may hold memorandum leaves, or they may merely enclose an open space in which bills are carried.
THE vehicle illustrated below represents an attempt on the part of Brown and Roper, young English engineers, to solve the problem of a single-seated vehicle with the comfort arid protection afforded by a car that has all the handiness and economy of upkeep of a motorcycle.
WITH the increased use of concrete, steel, and tile pipe, it is difficult to believe that large wooden pipes are still able to offer competition. One thing is in their favor, among others, and that is resistance to the influence of heat and cold.
VERY early in the spring, before the leaves are fully grown on the trees, the house sparrows build their nests. Thus the nests are plainly visible to passers-by. A few years ago Washington declared war on these birds, and as a result the nests were ruthlessly torn down.
UNDER the hard shell of the lobster's back are exceedingly sensitive nerve centers. When this part of the shell, the “carapace,” is stroked or rapped with a stick a hypnotic state is induced. The effect is probably similar to tiring the retina and optic nerve of the human eye by keeping a person that is to be hypnotized looking steadily at a bright object.
IN Japan this is the year 2581, and it belongs to the tenth year of the period entitled Taisho. On the day that marks the beginning of the new year, the Japanese children put on fantastic masks and have as much fun outdoors as do the children of any American city on Thanksgiving Day or Hallowe’en.
MOUNT WAIALEALE, of Kaui, Hawaiian Islands, is the rainiest spot on earth. The United States Geological Survey measured the rainfall with a gage. The summit of the mountain is probably the most inaccessible place at which a rain-gage has ever been installed and maintained.
WHY place three men in a car to shovel out coal, when the entire car can be clamped in a frame, given a twist, and turned over? A day’s work is finished in fifteen minutes. So rapidly does this tipper work that ten cars of coal can be handled in one hour.
IRWIN KRESSER, Jr., is four years old, and he owns a sedan car that fits him snugly. Except for the motive power, it is exactly like a large sedan. Irwin has to pedal in order to make his car go. There are headlights, lights on the dashboard, an electric heater, a speedometer, brakes, a horn, a winter top, and a summer top.
EARLY a billion and a half dollars' worth of property has been destroyed by fire in the United States during the last five years. New York state is the chief sufferer, her losses being a tenth of the total. Pennsylvania comes next with a loss half as big as New York’s.
THERE is a man in Redondo, California, who wheels a perambulator to the dock every time he goes fishing. Minding the baby while he waits for a bite? No; his perambulator contains fishing tackle and assorted bait, arranged neatly in drawers and on shelves.
EVERY year millions of dollars are spent scraping the barnacles off ocean-going vessels. Inventors have long striven with the problem of removing barnacles by machine without taking the ship out of water. At last a machine that appears to have some promise has been developed.
RATHER than struggle with lawn mowers, weeds, and worms, Mrs. Woodward, of Los Angeles, had a concrete lawn built around her house. It is painted grass green, and from a distance it can not be distinguished from real grass. What is more, the concrete is perfectly smooth and makes a good outdoor dance floor.
OIL-BURNING vessels to the number of 635 were in use in the United States in the year 1920. Has the increasing use of oil on vessels had anything to do with the recent acute shortage at Atlantic coast ports? It has been suggested that in order to conserve oil for use in the merchant marine, where it shows great savings in greater dead-weight capacity, it would be a good plan to discourage stationary plants from using it.
THIS blinded soldier manages to run his own drug-store and make a comfortable living without having had to learn a new trade. How does he know the difference between a bottle of sulphuric acid and a bottle of toilet-water? He does not need to smell them; he uses the Braille system of raised letters.
SUITABLE material from which to manufacture tennis-racket frames is becoming scarce and there is a consequent increase in the percentage of bad rackets. The Forest Products Laboratory at Madison, Wisconsin, has been working on a method of building rackets entirely of veneer.
ONE way to tell whether you are getting old is to hold the back of your hand with its fingers outstretched and with the other hand pull up the skin. If it quickly snaps back into place, you are young. If it comes down slowly and stays puckered in a ridge, you are old, no matter how few the trips you have made around the sun.
"BANKRUPT merchandise legally stolen from all parts of the U. S. A." This startling announcement is painted along the side of a boat that travels the St. Lawrence river. Pirates on board? No; honest men who buy merchandise at bankrupt and auction sales and sell it cheap.
AN apparatus for the "conditioning" of air in shops has been evolved by the Forest Products Laboratory at Madison, Wisconsin. It consists of a small cabinet in which water-sprays suck in the air, cool it, and moisten it. All this is preparatory to bringing the air to the temperature desired. This is done as the air leaves the chamber, by a coil, the steam supply of which is controlled by a thermostat located at the outlet.
HERE is an apparatus that decides whether you can concentrate your mind on several things at once. It comprises five U-tubes of mercury, which is made to rise and fall at a variable rhythm. The subject must control the mercury in the tubes to keep it level.
ARE you a motorist, an engineer, a camper, a nurse? Then you will undoubtedly be interested in the folding table invented by P. J. Risdon. It is very light in weight and when not in use will fold up into an oblong package that measures fourteen by thirty by one and a half inches.
IN the Museum of the School of Medicine, in Paris, can be seen a number of models of distinguished brains. Note the mold on the second shelf from the top, the second from the left. It is the brain of the famous scientist Berthelot. Within its convolutions originated the method of proving that organic compounds, such as fats, sugars, and other substances, could be synthetically produced without the intervention of some mysterious vital activity.
THE little green "spring peeper" that lives in the marshes of Long Island sends out his voice so loud at night that it can be heard half a mile. The photograph above, by Dr. Frank Overton, of the American Museum of Natural History, was obtained by flashlight.
WHEN moss grows in canals, it soon causes trouble. Yet how to remove it? George E. Stratton, of the United States Reclamation Service, offers several suggestions. If there is plenty of time, the canal can be dried out; the sun will kill the mossy growth.
SHOWN below is a grinding machine equipped with a small pump that pours a stream of kerosene on the cutting surfaces of the three wheels. This tends to keep the tools cool and save them from wear. High-speed tool steel is very easily “burnt” if it is allowed to remain in contact with the grinding-wheel too long.
ONCE "Mogul," a hippopotamus long a resident in New York's Central Park Zoo, was wild and fierce. He thought nothing of overturning hunters’ boats as an interlude to his morning’s bath, and if the hunters waited long enough, he would finish their adventures then and there.
IT would be exciting to see a 210-foot concrete stack, weighing two hundred tons, fall to the ground with a crash. That is what happened in the city of Spokane. The city engineers were called upon to bring the stack to the ground, and a short time after the order was received two hundred tons of concrete and steel lay sprawled out, a bent and broken mass.
TWO Englishmen, Messrs. Davies and Soames of London, are the inventors of an ingenious electromagnetic clutch that can be used automatically to regulate the electrical output of a generator or the mechanical driving power of a motor. There is no mechanical connection between the driving and driven parts of the clutch— only magnetic attraction, the extent of the magnetic force exerted being in proportion to the electric current passed through the electromagnetic coils.
WATER pumped under a boat embedded in the muddy bottom will help to raise her. From a fire-and-salvage tug above the wreck a hose runs down. Through a larger “discharge” hose refuse mud and water is sucked up. A diver guides the water-hose down to the bottom of the hull embedded in the mud.
Professor Scott’s machine to speed up slow readers
Raymonde G. Doyle
EARLY in the year announcement was made that the educational department of Springfield, Massachusetts, had decided to increase the reading capacity of the school children; and that Professor Colin A. Scott, head of the Department of Education at Mount Holyoke College, would direct the work.
ON the Severn river, England, at high spring tides the difference between high and low water amounts to nearly fifty feet. At ordinary high water the river can accommodate the largest ocean-going vessels; at low tide such vessels cannot navigate.
This Airplane Runs on Rails: It’s the French “Flying Express” to Carry Passengers and Mail between Lille and Turcoing
A NOVEL aerial railway, or flying express, has been devised by Francis Laur, of Paris, France. Its structure perhaps more nearly approximates that of a suspension bridge than any other structure with which it might be compared. From the elevated rails there depends a cigarshaped aerial railway-car, which at its forward end carries a substantial airplane propeller of the puller type, by means of which the car is propelled on its course.
THE aircraft carrier is one of the most important developments of naval war. With aircraft for spotting purposes a battleship’s gunnery was improved 30 to 40 per cent. An aircraft carrier must be repair base, fuel base, and launching and landing platform for airplanes.
HERE is a radio outfit arranged in a flat box. The man puts up a small aerial, on a cane, takes out his “book,” adjusts his receivers over his head, and combs radio messages from the sky. He “tunes” his outfit to different wave-lengths by adjusting the covers of the book.
With one instrument you can either see the mountains on the moon or magnify a spider to the size of a cat
The Davon Micro-Telescope
A Camera Is Part of the Equipment
The Telescope that Is Also a Microscope
P. J. Risdon
SUPPOSE that there were an instrument that is both a telescope and a microscope. Suppose that at a distance of twenty-nine feet you could with its aid read small print in a dictionary, or see the individual hairs on a mouse twelve feet away, or identify plants on a wall a quarter of a mile off.
WHEN children seesawed ten years ago, they were quite content to sing about Marjorie Daw-and get nowhere. Now, however, they like to travel. And the result? The moving seesaw. It was invented by Carl Gebert, of New York city, and is shown here traveling down Fifth avenue As the boys on the ends swing up and down, the motion is imparted to gears that are connected with the large wheels.
FEEDING fish to Indian and Eskimo children is one of the tasks of the Hay River Mission, located near Great Slave lake, in the northwestern part of Canada. The Indian and Eskimo children in the neighborhood are little savages and like their fish raw.
THE motorcycle is the poor man's automobile. It' is growing in use and popularity every year. The side car has increased its carrying capacity and added a touch of comfort for those who would like to ride without straddling the machine on a rear seat.
DURING the past few years—especially since the opening of government schools in 1907—there has been a large demand in Mukden for eyeglasses. The students, who form no small part of the residents in the larger cities, have taken chiefly to wearing spectacles.
MORE than twenty years ago Count von Zeppelin built his first giant dirigible airship. To determine whether the propeller that had been designed would drive his airship at a certain speed, he mounted the propeller on a launch. The propeller churned, not water, but air, just as on a dirigible.
IN books on polar exploration, authors are sure to tell you that "we erected a cairn to mark our position.” The cairn is a kind of signpost, built of stones or wood from the sleds. All these signposts are of interest, but this one especially, because it was built by the late Admiral Peary on that trip when he actually reached the Pole, after a struggle of twenty-three years.
INQUISITIVE men of the Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C., recently decided to make a few tests on the static or “still” friction of ball bearings. Two large ball bearings were placed between two steel blocks. The blocks were then placed under a testing-machine, and a pressure of from five hundred to five thousand pounds was applied vertically.
DICTIONARIES say that a football is a large india-rubber ball encased in leather. Such were the footballs of earlier days of the game. To-day they are built on the plan of automobile tires, and, while encased in the same tough material, they are not solid cores of rubber, but are inflated.
SO reads the sign that appears over the doorway of a New York store. You wonder at first whether the owner really means “soles” or “souls,” and then you notice that the doorway itself is cut in the shape of a sole. The store is one in which shoe-repairing and shining are done.
ACCORDING to Richard B. Moore, chief chemist of the United States Bureau of Mines, the United States is richer in helium than any other country. She is taking steps to conserve the supply, having built two plants, one for experimentation and the other for extracting helium from the natural gas.
"WHERE’S the telephone-book?" Most of us have asked that question many times. Telephone-books should have a fixed place in the world— especially in the world of business. In the picture above you see a new holder that can be fastened to the side of your desk.
HE Nubian crocodile, like his companion of the jungle, the lion, is reputed to be the most vicious of his species. The captive shown in the picture below is a fine specimen of those that frequent the Ganges river in India, where they were considered sacred and were treated with respect and awe, even to the extent of the natives flinging their babies to them as a fitting sacrifice to the river god.
THE handy little flashlamp becomes handier when it doesn’t have to be held in the fingers. To train the light on a certain spot, yet have both hands free, is an accomplishment afforded by the metal clamp recently invented by William Waegel, of Reading, Pennsylvania.
IN the Shah’s palace at Teheran may be seen the celebrated Peacock Throne, shown in our photograph, and valued at more than $30,000,000. It was taken from the Grand Mogul at Delhi by the victorious Nadir Shah. It is in many ways a curious and wonderful article, virtually a single chair, upon which the Shah sits when he holds diplomatic receptions.
AN active volcano, such as Mount Vesuvius, is one of the most interesting spectacles afforded to the eyes of man. Like any dangerous cataclysm, its bursts of flame and explosions of “lava bombs" are safer to witness from a distance than near by.
wE have been told that the United States has more bath-tubs to the square mile than any other country; but even some of us can remember the Saturday-night bath in the kitchen. Crude as it was, the old kitchen was comfortable, in the warm glow of the fire.
FOR administering vapor baths in conjunction with electric-light baths, and for controlling the apparatus at will, Winfred S. Clum, of Wilkinson, Indiana, has devised a cabinet equipped for either gas, alcohol, or electric heat. The boiling system consists of a supply tank that holds a gallon of water, which is automatically supplied to a boiling-pan.
MANUFACTURING a new glue from blood for use in welding airplane parts and in plywood exposed to moisture is an achievement credited to the Forest Products Laboratory. Glue made from blood is more waterproof than the casein glues now in use, a virtue that is especially desirable in the cleavage of woods exposed to the dampness of changing atmospheric conditions.
EGGS for hatching are always collected in cold weather to avoid freezing. The poultryman shown in this photograph has built a homemade device for turning the eggs when large numbers are being saved for hatching. The illustration clearly shows the mechanical details of the turning-rack.
THE ambitious beginner in golf nervously takes his stand, and swings at the ball with the grace of an old-timer. After the dust clears away, he finds the ball undisturbed at his feet. The onlookers enjoy the show, while Mr. Beginner feels like crawling into the sandbox.
BANANAS become discolored when bruised and the discoloration spreads; hence the banana becomes uneatable. Frank Schmitz has invented a banana carrier that guards the fruit from harm. It consists of a burlap sack that is fastened to the inside of a cylindrically shaped crate.
A GREAT and noble act for suffering humanity was achieved by the man who invented this theater seat. Did you ever sit on the end seat in a “movie” theater and manage to see all of the picture? If you did, you had a wonderful piece of luck. Usually, just as the villain is choking the poor, defenceless girl, in comes a lady with five children to file past you.
“HE’S muffed it!” The crowd groans as the second-baseman fails to hold the fast ball that shot his way. The speed at which the ball travels creates a cushion of compressed air in front of it. Thus, as it reaches his glove, the compressed air causes the ball to rebound.
FOUR hundred and thirty clips a minute —that is the speed of this hair-clipper. The man who dislikes the “feel” of hand clippers sneaking up the back of his neck will certainly be interested in the sensation this machine will produce It gives him a combination massage (because of the rapid vibration) and hair-cut.
THE owner of a Swedish freighter decided to take a trip on his vessel. He wanted to take his children also, and the question of milk had to be considered. The children had to be supplied with fresh milk every day, so their father decided to take two cows.
ONCE herring are caught, they must be transported to the cannery. If the net in which they were caught were towed to the cannery, many fish would be dead before they reached their destination. If they are taken from the water and placed aboard, then it is necessary to handle them twice.
ARE you eating more than half an egg a day? If so, you are getting more than your share of the product of the nation’s poultry-yard. According to a recent estimate, there are in the United States 599,000,000 fowls. These produce annually 1,921,000,000 dozen eggs, worth $1,179,000,000.
BLASTING machines have always been very heavy. Here is a small light one, weighing only three and one quarter pounds. It is so small that it may be placed in the pocket and carried from place to place When the handle is given a sharp turn, a momentary current of great strength is generated.
WHEN a 10,000-ton vessel "leans” against a pier, strains are set up in the pier and the vessel. The strains in the pier often result in damage. An engineer of a shipping company in Los Angeles developed a pier shockabsorber. A strip made of several large timbers is placed along the edge of the pier.
YOU can get plenty of second-hand cars for four hundred dollars—but not new ones. However, there is now a car, a very small one, that costs even less than that. It is a three-wheeler, the single wheel being in the rear. It is very simply made and is consequently very light, weighing about one hundred and fifty pounds.
THIRTY-FIVE thousand volts will enable a current of electricity to jump across an air-gap of one inch. The average bolt of lightning, which is purely an electrical discharge, is about one mile and a half long. How many volts does it represent?
ONCE again that cast-off safety-razor blade fills a long-felt want. This time it goes into the making of a handy cigarcutter—handy because it will fit a man’s vest pocket. The construction of this cigar-cutter is very simple. Two pieces of papier-mâche cover the blade, which is held in place by an eyelet.
DIVANS of today are enormous pieces of furniture with very wide arm-rests at the ends. Why not put these arm-rests to use? A Western manufacturer suggests building a phonograph in one and a case for records in the other. Neither phonograph nor record-case can be seen unless the tops of the arm-rests are raised, as shown in the picture below.
A CLIFORNIA speed cop is constantly on the lookout for motorists who are exceeding the speed limit or otherwise transgressing the iules of the road. When he spies a driver who is not pursuing the even tenor of his way, he gives chase on his motorcycle. If the car-operator refuses to stop on command, the officer speeds up—sometimes sprinting at a fifty-mile-an-hour gait—until he comes alongside the fleeing motor-car.
HAVE you ever had on a nice clean pair of white shoes and tried to get a drink of water from a public fountain located in the center of a big puddle? Well, here is a little idea that will avoid the formation of a puddle by taking care of the overflow.
H. C. Rowell, winner of the second prize, found that the first prize in the Popular vacuum cleaner will dry the Science Monthly’s Stepkitchen floor. C. R. TrimSaving Home Contest, conble, a New York top-floorstructed a hydraulic lift to apartment dweller, meets bring coal from the cellar.
A NEW soil substance has been discovered by the United States Department of Agriculture. It is a gelatin-like material that is very plastic when wet and resembles resin when dried. It has been named “ultra-clay.” When analyzed, it appears to be a silicate of alumina combined with iron, potassium, sodium, magnesium, and calcium.
WITH the aim of making a few parts do the work of many, a motor-truck maker has developed a dumping body that can be tipped in the usual manner, or raised and tipped at the same time. The new body is elevated by a hydraulic hoist, the additional elevating mechanism consisting of an extension elevating frame with a main elevating lever framework pivoted to the elevating framework at its midpoint and operated by pull rods and cables from the hoist.
ONE of the newest devices for vaporizing gasoline in automobile engines consists of an aluminum heat jacket that connects the carburetor with the intake manifolds. An opening at each end of the jacket connects with a like opening in each of the exhaust manifolds.
REPAIRING automobile skid-chains has hitherto been done by hand with pliers and a hammer. A recently devised machine is almost automatic in action, and will insert a new cross-chain in place of a broken one in less than a minute. It is claimed that the machine and one man will do the work of six men without it.
FORMERLY an automobile engine merely propelled the car. Later its power was harnessed to drive the generator; to charge the storage battery for lighting and starting; to drive an air-pump for inflating tires; to operate a horn, and to work the vacuum fuel-feed system.
IF you have watched the mechanics in a Ford service station grind valves, you know that the usual procedure is to grind one valve at a time. With the use of a new machine all eight valves may now be ground at once. While the machine is made only for Fords at present, new designs for other cars are under way.
THIS electric truck for handling castings from the molds to the heat-treating ovens has the advantages of low operating cost, mechanical dependence, and great mobility. It is operated by a storage battery and makes about four hundred trips on one charge.
A SYRACUSE engineer, George G. Porter, has devised a safety stop for Fords that makes it possible to thrust both pedals forward as far as they will go when a sudden stop is to be made. This action is secured by fitting a lever to the clutch pedal.
Some New Ideas for the Automobile Owner and Driver
Do You Want Advice About Your Car?
DOUBTLESS you have received many a hint about the care of your automobile or motor-truck from the Popular Science Monthly. We realize, however, that special cases require special advice. We therefore invite you to send your problems to the Automobile Editor, who will be glad to answer you.
Here Is a Truck that Was Built Especially to Carry Plate-Glass
OF all kinds of fragile commodities handled on motor-trucks, that commodity which is probably most subject to breakage is plate-glass in large sheets for windows. Plate-glass combines great bulk and awkward shape with extreme fragility.
UNTIL the development of the work-measuring instrument that is shown herewith, the farmer had no means of telling whether his tractor was performing all of the work that could be expected of it. If he decided that a three-plow tractor was most suitable for his requirements, he had to take the manufacturer’s word for it that the tractor purchased could pull three plows without putting undue strains upon the tractor.
It’s Not the Cost of the Truck, But— The cost of keeping the truck running
Pay Only for Actual Repairs
No One to Check Up the Driver
Daily Report Card
Questions that Save Money
THE driver holds the individually owned truck in the hollow of his hand. Because the driver is the one person who is actually with or on the truck, success or failure lies with him. Take any owner who operates two or three trucks. He may be a retail grocer in a large city or a small country town; a florist; a laundryman; a department-store owner; or even a small manufacturer.
If you have a motor-truck or automobile problem, let the Automobile Editor solve it
Soda to Clean the Radiator
Kerosene Will Remove Carbon
A Tire Gage for Compression
Proper Clearance for Pistons
Twovs. Four-Cycle Engines
Fluxes for Soldering
Detecting Acids in Oil
Why the “8” Runs Smoothly
Q.—Please tell me how I should use soda to clean the circulating system of my engine?—K. M., Paterson, N. J. A.—Mix lb. soda and 5 gals, water. Strain the solution and then pour into the cooling system, which has been previously allowed to drain out.
THE owner of a small shop or garage knows the amount of trouble caused by dust and dirt, especially if he does any amount of wood-working. If shavings, chips, and other refuse are allowed to collect, it is easy to lose tools and other small articles, good work cannot be done, and there is danger of fire.
HAVING broken an exhaust valvespring on my motorcycle when I was miles from a repair-shop, I hit upon the following simple and effective way of repairing the damage. Taking from the toolbox an iron washer having an outside diameter slightly larger than the coiled spring, I placed the washer between the two sections of the spring, letting the valvestem pass through the hole in the washer.
OF the various ways to utilize worn-out pneumatic tires, one of the most satisfactory and practical is to cut them up and use them instead of chains as antiskidding devices. To utilize the tire as a chain, first make about eight or ten clips —four or five for each wheel — as shown in the illustration.
BELOW is an illustration that shows a homemade and very effective hot-motor alarm. Any car owner with a little mechanical ability can easily build one. The sketch shows a section of the radiator at the top of the water chamber. The main tube of the thermostat device is made of bakelite or one of the impregnated bakelite fibers that is water and steam proof.
A PLACE for everything includes a place for the tire-gage, and instead of searching around the toolbox under the rear seat of the automobile for the tire-gage, take a small container such as a shaving-soap box, cut a section out of one side and with a nail fasten the box inside the tool compartment.
IN certain parts of the United States you will find some pretty bad roads. Some of them are almost impassable for motorcars in wet weather. A party of motorists encountered a section in a Western state where the soil was sandy and their heavy touring-car had considerable difficulty negotiating the roads, particularly as the ground was still wet after a heavy rainstorm.
WHEN building a new garage, many car-owners are at a loss to know how to fasten the bottom of the large swingingdoors with which garages are usually equipped. The fastening shown in the illustration has proved satisfactory and convenient.
FREQUENTLY the windows of a sedan or coupé will rattle, to the annoyance of the driver and other occupants. Loosening the guides or frames and moving them closer to the window will take out the rattle for a short time, but the results are only temporary and the windows are so difficult to open that a second person is necessary to go outside the car and push them in so they may be lowered.
STOPPING to consider that your entire safety, especially in heavy traffic, depends upon the reliability of your car’s brakes, there is food for thought. Safety demands that the brakes be kept in the pink of condition. First, they should bind tightly and surely when pressure is applied, and be free and ride clear when the pedal or lever is released.
A CHAIN-TIGHTENER as illustrated can be made in a few minutes from materials bought for a few cents at any repair-shop. Or, better yet, get down the box of odds and ends; possibly you already have all the material necessary. To make one set (two wheels) you will need:
IN the following instructions on how to make a bait casting rod, a radical departure has been made from the ordinary method of making rods. It is so valuable and economical that any one desiring a rod of his own make can easily go ahead with it and produce good work, having, at the same time, a rod that is equal to the best of them.
THE occupant of a small newly built house found himself without a refrigerator, but well supplied with remnants of building and moving, including plenty of sawdust and assorted packing-boxes. Taking advantage of circumstances, he proceeded to build an icebox.
SEVERAL disastrous explosions have occurred—one at Sublet, Wyoming, which caused the death of six miners— from driving a sharp-pointed hard-wood wedge through the top of a steel powderkeg. Experts assert that there is sufficient heat generated in driving the wedge to ignite black powder; that any method employed to puncture powder-kegs is extremely hazardous and should be avoided. Opening the bung of the keg is the only safe practice.
Every Garage Should Own This Distilled-Water Carrier
TO fill a battery from a large container of distilled water is not always convenient. The practice of pouring distilled water from one container to another before the battery is supplied should be discouraged as it permits of impurities getting in.
MANY queer and amusing effects in photography may be produced by masking, silhouetting, and double printing. The picture of a giant hen apparently taking a ride in an old fashioned automobile was produced in the manner described here, and will suggest other interesting combinations that may be obtained in the same or in a similar manner.
A FORCE pump that is very useful for all sorts of small and light jobs can be made from the rubber bulb of an old atomizer. Take the rubber bulb, with the thin rubber tube to which it is attached; push a piece of bath hose over the rear end of the bulb and secure it in position by means of a tin strap and a nut and bolt, as in Fig. 1.
THE writer has found by actual experience that oil positively helps to keep razors sharp, whether they be of the ordinary or the “safety” type. The best to use is a light and absolutely pure oil. An excellent manner of using it is to put it into a mediumsized bottle.
THIS novel attraction for a show-window can be made out of pipe-fittings at small expense. The pipe is of ¾-in. stock. At points a and b in the stem a hole is drilled which should be no larger than the shank of a pin. It is from these two holes that the gas escapes to the tees on which are fastened the mantles.
SOLAR engines have been built by many inventors, but most of these were expensive and complicated, quite beyond reach of the amateur. The illustration shows a solar whistle, such that any boy can make, provided he knows how to solder.
IT is frequently desirable to be able to ring the same bell from a single cell by either of two push-buttons or to ring several bells from the same battery. Simple as these propositions may sound, to many persons they present quite a puzzle. The accompanying diagrams show the necessary wiring and are self explanatory.
THE amateur worker frequently has to cut a square or rectangular hole through a steel bar, as when making a boring-bar or fly-cutter with an inserted cutting-tool. The common way is to drill a series of holes cutting into each other and then chip away the corners with a cold chisel and finish by filing.
SOME time ago the slate roof of my house needed repairing. When I learned that it would cost me twenty dollars or more for the scaffold that would enable the roofers to do the work in safety, I tried to find a way to avoid this expense. The pictures show how I made this possible by means of a roof jack, The board, resting in the gutter, prevents the ladder from sliding which I improvised and attached to the ladder in the manner shown.
SOME small cast-iron gears were required to be bored out to a larger diameter and faced off, and as no suitable equipment was at hand, a hardwood chuck was made up for the purpose that would prove suitable for other small parts besides gears.
A THREAD-CUTTING tool as shown can be made from any available block of wood and faced with a sheet of brass or copper at the opposite side from the cutter. The thread-cutter can be borrowed from a die with detachable blades of lesser diameter if the lead is right, otherwise a part of a flat file or small piece of tool steel can be toothcut with a triangular file and tempered.
VERY few motorists like to drive in the rain, but sometimes it is necessary. At such times, one of the worst things to contend with is the rain-blurred wind-shield. A very good way to overcome this annoyance is to carry in one of the car-door pockets a small bottle—about 4 ounces— of a mixture of glycerine and alcohol, about half and half.
FROM an old inner tube in good condition a serviceable gun-case can be made which will protect the gun and spare parts from possible injury from rain or contact with hard objects. If the barrel of the gun cannot be separated from the stock, the case can be made without difficulty.
A DUST-CATCHER for use with a jeweler’s or dentist’s emeryand buffing-wheel can be cheaply made of two baking-tins in the manner shown. Buy a shallow cake-tin and a bread-tin of the same width. Invert the bread-tin, which is the deeper, over the cake-tin and solder these inverted ends together so the top tin forms an angle as illustrated.
IN the storage-battery repair-shop or charging station, the splashing of the sulphuric acid rapidly eats holes in the workman’s overalls or jumper. Acid will not attack wax or paraffin and for this reason the clothing can be protected with a thin coating of these substances.
THE author had occasion to copy, by means of photography, some two dozen drawings and book illustrations; this work had to be carried out in a large library next to a main street. When the plates were developed, all outlines were found to be blurred instead of being quite sharp, as in the originals.
STEPPING on second-hand chewing-gum is usually very annoying, but one day I found a piece sticking to a hole that had just come in the sole of my shoe. I didn’t remove the gum and it very effectively sealed the edges of the broken leather and protected the under sole for several days until I was able to have it patched. Apparently there is a use for everything.
THE method here illustrated and described is of special value to the small shop or experimental laboratory equipped with only the ordinary light machinery. Figure 1 almost explains itself. A broached hole may be practically any shape. The hole shown in the box tool illustrated is square.
WHEN sowing small seeds in beds, where ordinarily there is much reaching, good, even distribution is easily accomplished by using a tin-can seeder. Any round tin can, so long as it has a tight-fitting cover, will do. Cocoa and baking-powder cans are the commonest types available.
THE picture shows a useful article that a boy can make out of material offered by a discarded wooden bedstead or other old piece of furniture. A study of the perspective view will make the joining and construction clear and furnish necessary dimensions.
THE material required for this forge will be an old flower-pot, a gallon can, a valve from an old oil-stove, and some brass or iron tubing. If there is an old oil-stove handy, the pipe found on it will serve nicely. Besides this, you will need a few feet of rubber tubing large enough to slip over the pipe, two strips of tin, a small quantity of cement, and a bicycle pump.
HAVE you ever noticed how quickly rust eats a hole through the mudguards, hood, or body of your car after the enamel has been worn or knocked off, exposing the metal to the action of the elements? It pays to keep a little can of automobile enamel of the color of the body finish ready to touch up any bare spot as soon as it appears.
SMALL children who have access to the kitchen during cooking operations are liable to cause accidents by playing around the gas-stove and mischievously or accidentally turning some of the stopcocks on or off. The writer, aware of the danger, constructed a shield, shown in the accompanying illustration, to protect the stopcocks of the gas-stove from the busy little fingers of his children.
ON almost any desk will be found at least one of the ordinary files on which papers and memorandums are stuck for future reference. In many cases the paper that is wanted will be found at the bottom, making it necessary to remove all the papers to get to the one wanted.
A CAPILLARY tube of not over 1 mil. bore, or a regular thermometer tube, is used and the bulb blown at one end, the other end being left open. The length of the tube can be 6 to 8 in., allowing some for the bulb. To blow the bulb, the end of the tube is held over a gas flame until red hot.
DESIRING to use a one-time parlor as a sleeping-room, it became necessary to obtain more adequate ventilation, especially for the summer season, there being but one double-sash window and one large single-sash window that could not be opened.
ANTS and bugs have an annoying way of getting into the lunch-basket during picnics. Here is a plan by means of which the food may be kept safe from attack. Get a piece of stout wire about 18 in. long. Then secure a can lid, or the lower part of a can, and bore a hole in the center of the bottom.
THE inshore waters of lakes bereft of bottom vegetation, weeds, etc., that offer shelter and protection, invariably are poor fishing-grounds. If vegetation of one sort or another is brought into such waters the fish will be attracted and good fishing will therefore be the result.
MOTH-BALLS may keep the bugs out of your overcoat and furs, but, according to the United States Bureau of Standards, they are of no use in aiding the power of your automobile engine. The market has been flooded with preparations that smell like moth-balls, probably taste like moth-balls, and perhaps are moth-balls.
A COMFORTABLE chair bottom may be made of strips cut from an old automobile tire. The method is as follows: Cut the beads from an old tire and then cut it into strips about 1 in. wide. To do this the tire need not be cut in two, but may be cut into one spiral strip.
THE reason so many screws are driven in with a hammer is often because no small boring-bit is available for making holes for them. Some workmen, in an emergency of this kind, will take a nail of suitable size, drive it in part way, withdraw it with a claw-hammer, and insert the screw in the hole thus made.
GROUND glass has two different surfaces. One is smooth and even and the other is rough and minutely hilly. The hilly side of the glass makes it valuable for photographic focusing. But the image thrown on the glass is not always as sharp as we desire it.
WHEN long tapers have to be cut and there is no special attachment provided, there is only one method left— to set the tailstock over in accordance with the angle of the taper and cut with the object in that position.
FREQUENTLY you are in need of a paper box and cannot find one already made of the required size and shape. By following the directions illustrated in the accompanying diagram, you will be able to make your own paper boxes tight enough to hold solids, even in powder form, and if made of paraffined paper, capable of hold ing liquids.
TO-DAY all shops use a "coolant" of emulsified oil or in some few cases straight lard oil for cooling the drill and aiding the cutting in drill-press work. One of the disadvantages of the usual gravity feed or pump feed is that the operator will go away from the machine at night and forget to turn off the oil, causing waste.
THE copper-asbestos gaskets used under the heads of detachable head motors, invariably stick so solidly when these are put on with shellac, that removal of the head for cleaning out carbon necessitates loosening the bolts or nuts holding the head on about two turns and starting the engine to shake or lift the head sufficiently to remove.
A “Y” aspirator that may be used to drain a cistern with the city pressure is very useful, but it is impossible to get the fittings unless one makes a pattern and has a casting made and machined. I made one by drilling a piece of pine scantling as shown.
THE rubber fabric of tires possesses great resiliency and, in accordance with its thickness, offers greater or lesser resistance to bending. This quality may be utilized by budding athletes for the development of the muscles of their hands.
THE arrangement shown is made of a ⅜-in. pipe frame, covered with cloth. The top pipes on which the cloth is hung has small holes drilled about 4 in. apart on the bottom sides. When the can is filled with water, or the city water turned on, the cloth becomes saturated with water.
A MECHANICAL swimming fish can be made with very little trouble. The untwisting of a rubber cord causes the flapping movement of the tail so as to propel the fish through the water on the same principle as used by the real fish. The rubber cord or band is stretched between hooks on two spindles.
What use have you for some of the “junk” in the attic or cellar? Popular Science Monthly will pay ninety dollars for the best answers
Rules Governing the Contest
THERE is the old baby-carriage, the old stove, the old bureau, the trunk, and the leaky wash-boiler. The attic also contains old phonograph needles, safety-razor blades, carpets, curtains, chairs, tables, picture-frames, hatboxes, etc.
AN electric fan was employed on a blacksmith’s forge to relieve the blacksmith from turning the blower by hand. Four stove-pipe elbows were cut in half, soldered together, and used as the casing for the fan blades. More stove-pipe was used to convey the air to the forge.
OCCASIONALLY plumbers or steamfitters, though well equipped with tools, are confronted with the difficulty of removing pipe joints too large even for their largest wrenches. The accompanying picture illustrates how a wrench of inadequate size may, in an emergency, be extended to grip the large screw joint.
DURING the summer months many vacationists make a hobby of collecting beetles and butterflies that they usually mount in fancy frames against a background of cotton. While this practice is quite interesting in itself, something more useful could be made of these specimens.
MOTHERS need have no fear of baby crying itself sick unnoticed on the front porch or in the back yard, if a simple contrivance is attached to the carriage to start a bell ringing as soon as the baby becomes restless. The contrivance consists of an improvised electrical contact to be attached to a bell circuit.
IN the country where the roads and footpaths are sometimes muddy, a good foot mat is needed for the front porch. The old auto tire makes an excellent mat for cleaning mud from the soles of shoes. The old casing, after being cut in two at the weakest point, is cut into strips about 1 in.
IN spite of the fact that state laws require, and factory rules compel, the use of safety devices on all dangerous machinery, workmen are still losing fingers and hands because they will not use the guards that are provided for their own protection.
A RIBBON will give trebled service if renewed occasionally in the following manner: Into a small bottle pour about a teaspoonful of light machine-oil. Then add the same quantity of ink. The ink used for stencil duplicating devices is the best because it does not dry rapidly.
ONE of the big oil companies was troubled by the corrosion and eating away of its pipe lines by earth action. Finally one of the company’s engineers solved the problem by enclosing the sections of piping acted upon in a casing of cement, then wrapping with tar paper.
FILLING a bag with a shovel without any mechanical means of holding the bag open, would require a man with at least three hands if the operation were performed with any degree of neatness and despatch. Bag-holders can be purchased, of course, but the illustration shows how to make one out of old pipe-fittings and a spring to hold the jaws apart.
THE loss of a tightening screw from a bow-pencil compelled me to search through a jeweler’s junk-box for a substitute. The nearest I could get was a watchscrew. As a substitute for the milled head of the original screw I shaped a brass washer from the framework of an old alarm-clock.
A WELL known lathe stunt is the cutting of a keyway by placing the shaft between centers, setting the tool upon its side in the toolpost and then moving the carriage back and forth by hand, feeding the tool in a little after each cut. This is a slow and inefficient method, but the principle is capable of being elaborated by the addition of a few attachments that will convert a small lathe into a hand-power chaper able to handle a large variety of light work.
IT is curious that the culture of the waterlily has only recently begun, considering what a wealth of material this beautiful vegetation offers. With the introduction of the Victoria regia the cultivation of water-lilies had an added impetus.
THE body of this lamp is made of four ½-in. boards fastened together to form a tube 7 in. square at the base and 5 in. at the top. Openings are cut in the boards for lighting the lamp and to add to its beauty. The square opening at the top is covered with a lid that has a hole 2 in. in diameter in the center.
IN replacing a bolt on a piece of machinery, it was desired to provide some means of locking the nut in place. The bolt was not long enough to allow the use of the ordinary lock washer, and on account of clearances it was impossible to use a longer bolt.
THE sketch shows a useful attachment for a small hand-power bench-grinder that converts it to a hand-power circular saw and the home mechanic will soon find many uses for one. The grinding wheel is removed and a small saw clamped in its place; usually a packing collar will be required to make up for the narrow width of the saw.
THE cost of getting photo prints made continues to rise, encouraging the amateur to do his own printing. With the ordinary printing-frame this is a slow process; by using some form of box printer the time is greatly reduced, but not every one has the ten dollars or more to spare for such a device.
A LAD who twice daily supplied the people in his neighborhood with newspapers found that the mud and water that worked into the bearings of his bicycle wheels soon wore them down to such an extent that they needed new cones and balls. To protect his wheels he cut washers of soft felt and fitted them over the bolt that runs through the axle of the wheels, as shown.
THE mechanical illusion known as a rolling or climbing cone can easily be made by any one possessing a lathe. The rolling body, Fig. 1, is a double cone (two cones base to base), with sides forming an angle of 45 degrees. This should be accurately turned from a piece of hard wood, leaving a pin projecting at each end to form an axle.
MANY engineers are firmly of the opinion that lacing must be used on belts exposed to steam, as, for instance, belts used on pulleys in laundries, etc.; that belt cement will not hold under such conditions. That all depends on the kind of cement used.
BELOW are illustrations that show the construction of a device which will be found useful around the small shop or garage for pulling gears, pulleys, or collars off shafting and a variety of similar work. The body of the puller is made of a piece of square cold-rolled steel, drilled for the clamp-screw bushing and slotted as well as drilled for various sorts of pulling arms.
MACHINERY that is to be operated in locations where much dust prevails should have the oiling holes well protected from the outside air. This is generally provided for, but in the case of farm machinery the manufacturers sometimes overlook the importance of this item.
THE great drying agent of the universe is warm air in circulation. Of course the sun and a hot stove may heat air and so in this way indirectly aid the absorption of water, but it is the dry, warm air in circulation that really does the work. By a most simple process I can dry wet boots in half an hour so they may be worn in comfort, and in a few hours I can take all the moisture from the wettest boots so they will be as dry as the day they came from the store.
A GOOD flexible varnish can be made out of wasted bits of vulcanized rubber that will come in handy for general use around the home and workshop. It is especially valuable in waterproofing shoes, and for cementing patches on automobile tires and worn rubbers.