Eliminating the personal equation in the judges’ stand
Latimer J. Wilson
FLAMSTEED, director of Greenwich Observatory, England, two centuries ago, had an assistant. He would watch a star approach the “spider-web” line in the field of view, and as it crossed the line he recorded the time. But investigation showed that he was persistently one second out in his announcement of transits.
Yes—if you follow such precautions as are here outlined
What to Ask
That Mythical Million Dollars
A Man with a Past
Some Rich Oil Companies—on Paper
Beware of that Oily Candor!
Never, Never Go Near an Oil-Field
Follow These Precautions
Guy Elliott Mitchell
THE man or woman who has not had the following statement thrust upon him in the past two or three years must indeed be a hermit: Last Chance—Six Cents a Share A producing oil-well is ten times as valuable as a gold-mine. It makes dollars ten times as fast.
WHY should large wheels instead of small ones be used on an airplane’s landing-gear when rough ground is encountered? The action of small and large wheels is illustrated when a roller skate is compared with a bicycle. See what happens when each runs over a rough surface.
DEMOVING wrinkles is a comparatively new development of painless surgery; A wrinkle is too much skin brought about on parts of the face by the expansion of the skin. This is caused by thinking, worrying, or even by laughing. Persons who do not think, worry, or laugh have tight skins and masklike expressions.
For Thirteen Hours We Clung to the Balloon Rigging
How the pilots of a navy balloon cut away the basket to lessen the weight, and how one of them slept in the air, clinging to the cordage
The Fate of an Army Balloon
Running into a Storm Center
Thirteen Hours in the Rigging
Lieutenant Raffe Emerson
THE National Balloon race of 1920 began at Birmingham, Alabama, on September 25. With winds usually to be expected, the city was sufficiently inland; and the by-product gas furnished by a local steel company was good, having a lift, as balloonists express it, of about forty-five or forty-eight pounds to a thousand cubic feet, corresponding to a minimum of thirty-six hundred pounds, and a maximum of about two tons for standard eighty-thousandcubic-foot-capacity racing balloons.
“We were running into a storm center. In the morning we might not be able to dispense with the basket to advantage. We decided to get rid of it while we could, and proceed.” Thus nonchalantly does Lieutenant Raffe Emerson speak of the decision that resulted in thirteen long hours spent in the rigging of a balloon.
UNPACK the pressed-steel plates, carry them one by one up to the roof or out to the place where the tank is to be erected, and you have the simplest method of putting up a storage-tank for liquids. Since the sections are uniform in size and interchangeable, there is little trouble in assembling this reservoir for the water, oil, or other liquid to be stored.
BALLYBUNNION, on the coast of Ireland, is famed, first, for its excellent bathing beaches and, second, for its strange monorail railway that connects it with the town of Listowel, ten miles away. A French engineer named Lartigue designed and built the railroad several years ago at the small cost of fifteen thousand dollars a mile, and it has been operated successfully ever since.
THIS is a very obedient crane— so obedient, in fact, that it will lower a ton-and-a-half weight on an egg without breaking it. Of course, the weight cannot rest on the egg—it must just touch it. The demonstrator held the egg on a large ring casting and signaled to the crane operator to lower the heavy weight.
THE Pacific ocean yet remains to be conquered by the airship or the seaplane. Following the American coast to the Behring straits, where the sea crossing is but 25 miles, a total of 5400 to 7800 miles would have to be flown. Crossing the ocean directly, using such islands as Hawaii as a stopping-place, the water stretches would be 2090 and 3400 miles, within easy range of a dirigible.
IN Union Square, New York city, every clear night, you can see a large telescope pointed at the sky. Arthur F. Nursey made the telescope, and acts as a guide to the sight-seeing expedition into starland. He is one of those street astronomers who have acquired much information about the wonders of the heavens and who find pleasure in educating the crowd to the things above their heads.
WHY not put automobile bodies on motorcycles? In the picture to the right you see a motorcycle that has been treated in just this fashion. Both the driver and his passenger are provided with comfortable seats; these seats have upholstered backs and sides on which the riders may rest their arms.
How Reginald Bolton would feed New York with coal through two big pipes
Two Rushing Black Streams
The Car Problem Soltied
The Water Will Preserve the Pipes
IF this scheme is adopted, seven million tons of coal a year may literally pour into New York city. The coal will be ground at the coalfields, mixed with water, shot into two fourteen-inch pipes, given a terrific impulse, and sent on its 250-mile journey to New York.
Under a white light a portrait appears; a red light transforms it into a man and a horse
M. Fitzhugh Browne
Look at the two pictures at the bottom of this page—the portrait of the lady and that of the man and horse. When seen in an ordinary light, the portrait of the lady appears; but the instant a red light is thrown on the canvas, or it is seen through a red filter, it becomes in a flash the picture of the man and horse.
IN most places situated on the water life-savers keep watch in rowboats that are equipped with a few life-belts. But this protection is inadequate in many instances. On large lakes, for example, a small boat is apt to sink far from shore, and its occupants may drown before a life-saver can row out to them.
HELP! Police!” These words, flashed in white letters on a red sign, had all the effect on several passers-by of a shout. For the sign was hanging outside of a jewelry shop in the diamond district of New York, and the minds of the hurrying pedestrians were full of newspaper accounts of the various daylight robberies that heralded the city’s “crime wave”—reputed to have come from farther west.
THE man who stands in front of a roaring furnace all day, feeding it with coal, has a hard life. It is not so much the manual labor that weakens him, but exposure to terrific heat. Now comes the water-cooled door and door-frames. Men can work in front of a furnace equipped with these water-cooled devices, without much discomfort.
IN England the first aerial lighthouse has been in operation since April, 1919. Sunlight automatically lights and extinguishes the incandescent torch, which sends into the nignt sky a blazing stream of light. Aviators in the near future will be guided across the continent by extended rows of such lighthouses.
AN airplane with four engines built in the wings of the machine is the latest style of giant air-cruiser. The machine is in the form of a monoplane having a spread of one hundred and five feet. The wings are thick enough to accommodate the engines, which are fitted into the strong metal frame.
Why Thomas Augustus Jaggar descends into volcanoes
Volcanic Research in Hawaii
The Mouth of the Fiery Furnace
L. W. de Vis-Norton
ISOLATED from the rest of the world, in a wooden shack on a mountain in a mid-Pacific island, lives a man who is devoting his life to one of the strangest professions on earth—the science of volcanology. And he is making discoveries that will help to avoid the toll of thousands of lives that often follows volcanic eruptions.
STRAWS, we are told, show which way the wind blows. The proverb does not mention paper pie-plates or sheets of waxed tissue-paper; but Mr. B. M. Varney, of the University of California, has found both of these articles quite serviceable in visualizing the paths of the remarkable air currents in the Yosemite valley.
TOADS don’t look as if they had much sense and their actions seem to confirm it. If red-hot pieces of charcoal are thrown in their path they gulp them down, thinking that the bits of charcoal are fireflies. This mistake is natural enough, but the stupid toads don’t realize that they’ve made a mistake; they will gulp down a second piece just as eagerly! Some toads will eat three or four pieces.
THE retarding effect of headwind upon vehicles, boats, and airplanes is fully appreciated only by experts. It must be borne in mind that still air opposes a resistance to a moving vehicle equal to that of a wind of the vehicle’s speed. Thus a vehicle traveling at thirty miles an hour against a headwind of thirty miles an hour is really up against a wind of sixty miles an hour.
SPONTANEOUS combustion often starts in the interior of a coal-pile. Long steel tubes with bulbs mounted at their lower ends reach down into the coal. The tubes and bulbs are filled with alcohol, the expansion of which moves the pointers on the dials, thus indicating the temperature.
It is not generally known that even perfectly still air opposes any moving vehicle to a degree equaling that of a wind of the vehicle’s speed. Thus a vehicle traveling at thirty miles an hour against a headwind of thirty miles really encounters a sixty-mile gale.
NOWADAYS a machine like this can turn out a hundred-foot mast in three hours, when it used to take a man one week to do such a job. A rotating cutter comes in contact with the rough mast as it revolves between the centers of a lathe. The cutter is mounted on a small truck or carriage that rolls along a railroad track.
IF you are driving along at a brisk rate and your automobile strikes an obstinate pedestrian, here is a device that automatically prevents the car from running entirely over the unfortunate victim. Two iron shoes, projecting in front of the rear wheels, at the touch of an obstacle on the push-bar are released.
THE manufacturer who ships heavy wares in barrels can save time and money by making use of a specially designed cleat that fits the head of the barrel. The cleat is placed in position with the flat end driven downward between the hoop and stave. A nail is then driven through the hoop and cleat. A truss runs across the barrel-top, ties the two cleats, and stiffens the barrel against the strain of whatever heavy weight it may contain.
A HUGE water-wheel, sixty feet high, has been in existence at Troy, New York, for the past eighty years. In the first fifty years of its life it worked for a large manufacturing plant, developing as much as twelve hundred horsepower. But at the age of fifty it was retired—due to its old-fashioned way.
HERE is a huge auger that once had a war-time use. It was employed by German army engineers in mining operations. Today it is used to bore holes in the construction of tunnels in Germany. It can also be used to put underground conduits in place without digging ditches.
GERMANY has been starving for rubber ever since the early days of the war. The little rubber in the country is put to use only in cases of absolute necessity. In fact, it is so expensive that it cannot be used except where it is badly needed. The man in the picture is forced to wear boots hammered into shape from galvanized iron.
LOOK at the complicated and expensive rubber shoe the miner must wear if he wishes absolute comfort and safety while he works. The shoe is in one piece; it hasn’t even a flap up the front. The top of the shoe is close-fitting, and is provided with an outside lace that will draw the top together if the wearer happens to have very thin legs.
WHAT is the efficiency of the gasburner in your home? This should interest you, as you have to pay the gas-bills. Below you see a physicist in the Bureau of Standards trying to determine the actual heating value of a certain amount of gas supplied to a certain type of burner.
IN the picture above is shown a new apparatus by which one man can load heavy logs. The two inclines have pegs that fall in one direction only. When a log is rolled over them, the pegs fall, but are pulled back by a spring into a vertical position after the log has passed.
HERE are several ways to save coal: Experiment with different kinds and mixtures until the best is found for your heater. Do not poke the fire unless the coal is the kind that forms a crust to interfere with the draft. Clean out ashes each time after shaking. Insulate pipes and warm air-ducts. Keep the humidity between forty and fifty per cent, for moist air heats more quickly and is much more healthful.
A NEW device has been perfected for developing films and plates. It is made of metal, and consists of a long narrow tank into which is fitted one or more holders, also made of metal. The holders have flanged sides that are adjustable and detachable.
THIS room represents a refrigerating outfit designed by the National Bureau of Standards for studying primary and secondary batteries. Low-temperature electrical investigations are made by direct absorption in the absence of brine. Temperature measurements are made with thermocouples. On the inside of the box are two panels, one for wires conveying the current and another for voltage. These are affixed to the cells being measured inside the box. In front of the observer’s desk are similar panels to which the panels inside of the box are conveyed.
WHAT’S happened to the many pairs of dice that used to jingle at the bar? Some of the braver dice-owners are doing their “crap-shooting” at home now. But the weaker ones who have submitted to the anti-crap home regulations, but who would like to keep a memento of days gone by, are uncertain about the disposal of their beloved “bones.”
IT’S easier to learn when you’re young than when you've grown up, so we have always been told. Take the game of chess, for instance. It is one of the best brainexercisers there is, and yet the champion player is a very young boy, who has beaten chess-players of many nations.
To be an efficient snake-charmer, you must really love creeping things, and be willing to let them crawl all over you. Take, for example, the two African snakecharmers shown above. Not only are their pet snakes wound around their necks, but they have their snakes’ heads in their mouths! The snakes are of the poisonous class, and yet they do not harm their masters.
SOME of our large cities—New York and Chicago—are overpopulated; but compare them with the island of Ukara in Lake Victoria Nyanza, Africa. It has an area of thirty-six square miles and has a population of nineteen thousand. A man must not touch his neighbor’s leaves, sticks, or rubbish.
AND of making many pipe-cleaners there is no end. There are almost as many kinds of pipecleaners as there are of pipes. Some of these cleaners steam out the disagreeable “cake,” others remove it by chemicals, and still others scrape it out.
HERE is a new French Pullman car mounted on rubber-tired wheels. It is to be “pulled” over the battlefields of France by an automobile. Complete accommodation is provided for this luxurious car. A wash-room, beds, and luncheontables are carried.
THE punching of thirty thousand holes in steel plate tank heads is only a day’s work for this machine. An ordinary punch-press is used with a special attachment that turns the heavy plate disk every time a hole is punched. Two men operate the press. One trips the punch-press and the other manipulates the device that turns the plate. A horizontal shaft has a notched disk mounted on it. A pawl engages the notches, and as a hole is punched, the operator turns the horizontal shaft, which is connected by bevel gears to the vertical shaft carrying the steel disk to be punched.
CRACK! For the twentieth time you bump your head against the chandelier. And you will continue to bump it unless you shorten its chain. To shorten it you must remove some of the links. This can be done with the peculiar pliers shown. The handles are notched on the inside and the jaws are notched on the outside.
IN the picture above is shown a steel car trailing after the tractor. This car contains a dynamometer (an instrument somewhat like a spring scale) that measures the pull of the tractor. The power of the tractor when driving farm machinery by a belt can be measured by belting the tractor engine to the dynamometer.
SHOULD your automobile run on two wheels, your tire expenses would be cut in half. But how can an automobile run on two wheels? Mr. Andrew Duresen, of Minneapolis, is able to answer that question, for he has recently patented a twowheeled motor-vehicle.
HANDLING molten metal in foundries has always been a problem. Accidents occur frequently when the crucibles are carried about by hand. A man stumbles, falls, and there is a hurry-up call for the ambulance. This little electric crane helps to eliminate accidents and adds greatly to the efficiency of the foundry, since it can carry heavy loads.
A BLINDING flash is followed by a harsh crackling sound. Lightning has struck the tall pinte, splitting it in two. One half falls on .the villain and the other half bursts into flames. Exciting, isn’t it? But how can it be reproduced in the movies?.
“HARK, the bell is ringing!” Whereupon the nurse removes the empty bottle from the hook. Bell and hook are part of a bottle-holder invented by Charles McNeil, of Beverly, Massachusetts. The bottle is placed in a cage suspended from the hook.
APPARATUS on this truck is used to test natural gas as it comes from the wells, to determine its gasoline content. Before gas from new wells is piped to a plant, its gasoline content is determined, to make sure that the quantity of the gasoline?.
SCATTERED through the snow-covered Swiss Alps are slanting slopes possibly smooth enough to permit a flying-machine to land if it is equipped with suitable running gear. There are also lakes upon which a hydroplane could land, if they happened to be within convenient reach.
WHEN you hear the name of Sir Walter Raleigh, you immediately think of a puddle, a coat, and Queen Elizabeth. But Sir Walter did many things besides casting his coat in the mud for a queen to walk on. For instance, he helped in the work of colonizing America.
IF you’ve never seen a python, and never hope to see one, take a long, careful look at the picture above. The queer snaky creature that is resting its chin on the fence is the. dead image of a python ready to spring at its unsuspecting prey. Why dead?.
PERSONS sleeping in hotel rooms with one of these little fire-escapes located near the window can feel perfectly safe, since, in the event of fire, it will lower them to the street below with no danger of accident. A man of average weight will drop about four yards a second until his feet rest on the street.
HE plays me trombone in a theater. He sits beneath the stage, and, what is more, he faces the audience. He can’t see the play. At the end of the crook of his long trombone he fixes a mirror. Thus he sees the stage, not because he is interested in the play, but because he must give a blast from his instrument at the right moment to suit some action or word on the stage.
THE people in some of the countries across the seas are hard pressed to raise money to pay their national debt. To levy taxes on the rank and file of the populace is to work new hardships that have already reached a limit of endurance. Thus it is that the government of Germany has decided to sell advertising space on mail-boxes and other government property.
CAN a theater do without-Ushers? Several theaters in Vienna have managed it by placing an electric light on each seat. When the seat is empty, the light flares up and illuminates the number on the seat. But when the seat is occupied, the light, becoming disconnected, disappears.
NO man can dig a ton of coal and load it into a wagon each minute of the working day. But it is possible for one man to make a machine do this work for him, and that at the low cost of half a cent a ton. Wagon-loaders have been in operation for a long time; but the device that uses propeller blades to break into the pile of coal or crushed stone to be loaded into a wagon or passed upon a conveyor is indeed a wonderful labor-saving machine.
SCRUBBING and mopping floors is one of the most disagreeable tasks for houseworkers. The apparatus illustrated is a German invention, and in some respects it resembles some of the numerous mopping devices used in America. Attached to a long handle are two folding wings of metal.
A COMBINED snow-plow and flanger, invented by Eben R. Packer, of Wilmette, Illinois, is effective not only in clearing the bulk of snow from a railroad roadbed, but in cleaning the rails sufficiently for the wheels to get good traction. It consists of a main plow, adapted to clear away the large body of snow from the track, and rearward of this main plow are diminutive plows that are spaced close to the rails to clean them off if any small quantity of snow remains after the main plow has passed.
VISITORS to wonderful city aquariums, like that one in old Castle Garden, where in the early days Jenny Lind charmed New Yorkers, seldom stop to consider that the strange and beautiful specimens behind the glass walls did not originate there.
OFFICE efficiency managers, please take notice! Here is a bookkeeper’s desk, invented by B. P. Beeson, of Sapulpa, Oklahoma, that will add efficiency to any accountingoffice. With it a bookkeeper may keep all of his books spread out before him, and reach any one of them merely by turning his swivel-chair.
HERE is a device that makes it possible to use one room for the double purpose of a sleeping-room and living-room, and yet in the daytime not only to have all the floor space free for living-room purposes, but to have nothing about it to suggest the bedroom.
BANG! Down comes a die on a huge stamping-press, and the entire top of a shoe is cut out at one stroke. The shape of the piece of leather cut for the “upper” of the shoe is shown at the left of the picture. It will be seen that when it is bent double, this forms the crude shape of a finished shoe.
ABOUT one per cent of the air every man breathes is composed of the “noble gases,” and the other, ninetynine per cent of nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. For respiratory purposes there is little need for anybody bothering much about the aristocratic gases, argon, neon, helium, krypton, and xenon, for every one of these elements is so absolutely inert that no matter how much it may be petted or abused by scientists with instruments of experimentation, it shows not a sign of response.
FORTY-THREE miles an hour is the speed of this gliding boat. A powerful airplane motor mounted on a pontoon with a streamline cabin makes up this craft, which has been designed for passenger-carrying service along the shallow rivers of French colonies.
CAN you imagine the profile of a beautiful woman translated into delightful organ music? Harmonious sound, when analyzed, will also trace beautiful profiles with amazing accuracy. There is nothing poetic or sentimental about the work of Dr. Dayton C. Miller, of the Case School of Applied Science, who discovered this almost unbelievable similarity between the charm of physical beauty and the beauty of sound.
UNTIL this device was perfected, it was necessary to bring hot metal to the molds for pouring. With this new arrangement the molds are brought to the furnace and poured. According to common custom, the molten metal is tapped from the furnace into a ladle, which is then transported to the molding or casting floor, while the metal is allowed to run into each mold from the ladle.
IF we could manufacture light on a plan as economical as that of the firefly, the glow-worm, and other living “lightmakers,” our illuminating problems would be solved. Professor E. Newton Harvey, of Princeton University, has devoted much time to the study of animal luminescence.
HIGH altitudes are uncomfortable for passengers and engines alike. The dearth of oxygen makes breathing uncomfortable, while the thin air and lack of oxygen spoil the proper functions of a gas-engine. To navigate the region of high winds, where astonishing speeds could be attained by taking advantage of the favorable currents, requires a special type of airplane.
WITH a new electric monorail system designed specially for lumber-yard work, loads of fifteen hundred feet of lumber may be picked up and moved from one point to another as easily as you can lift a glass of water from one table to another. Upon the monorail system is run an electric hoist and operator’s car.
A GERMAN has invented a boiler in which the whole process of clothes-washing is carried out. It consists of an upper and a lower compartment. The lower compartment contains a receptacle with a central spray pipe and a clothes cover. The clothes are placed in the lower compartment and a soap solution is poured over them.
ONE application of the gyro-toy is a device to enable an airplane or motor-boat to steer an absolutely straight course in dense fog. This is not the now famous gyro-compass, but a new and exceedingly sensitive mechanism. The device that pilots the aviator straight as an arrow on his course consists of a heavy-rimmed gyro-wheel having on its circumference blades similar to those of a water-wheel, and mounted inside a cylindrical casing.
THE job of an elevator operator looks easy. But when the elevator is of the freight type, with the floor openings protected by heavy doors that must be opened and closed each time goods are put on or taken off the elevator, the operator is fagged out at the end of the day.
TYPHOID germs thrive on sweets. Thus physicians often use rare fine sugars for detecting them. The germs will rapidly multiply when in contact with the sugar and will soon make their presence known. Heretofore Germany has monopolized the rare-sugar market, but now many manufacturers are able to produce these sweets.
WHEAT unground can be purchased at a comparatively low cost. When white flour is made, the outer portion of the wheat grain is removed, and with it the more nutritive element of the wheat. During the war, the suggestion was made that people grind their own flour in a coffee-mill.
DO you “roll your own”? If so, you know that, working at top speed, you can roll only two cigarettes a minute. And they will very likely be too thin or too fat, too tight or too loose. Machine-made cigarettes are practically perfect, and they are turned out by the hundred.
TWO Italian airmen have devised a novel craft, known as the “umbrella-boat.” It is shown in the illustration below, with the inventors in one end of the craft enjoying the sun and breeze. The sail is made oval in form. Two sections make up the sail.
“SEND me ten yards of thirty-six-inch grass.” Grass is sold by the yard as if it were cloth, now that Mr. MacDonald, of Harpenden, England, has discovered that grass will grow on a bolt of goods as well as in soil. He lays out yards of cloth on the floor of his greenhouse and sows grass seed thereon.
NOW it’s the elephant’s turn to be the victim of fashion; it has been elected by hat-makers to relieve the long-suffering egrets and birds of paradise. Its whiskers will henceforth adorn women’s hats. Just why an elephant has whiskers, when the rest of its body is practically hairless, is puzzling.
CRANKING a car is not so simple as it seems. If you don’t handle the crank with care, it may jump back at you and break your wrist. There are many people who will not attempt to crank a car. Yet John, the huge black gorilla below, does it with the utmost indifference.
A GREAT elm fell to earth with a crash. It landed firmly across a bank, the center part remaining in the air. In a short time the boys near by were climbing on it and running across it. It was far enough off the ground to act as a bridge, and the residents decided to make a real one of it, and thus satisfy a craving in the hearts of most of us, to climb obstacles.
IF your land is thirty feet below front street level and the rear is ninety feet lower than the front, how can you build on it? This problem was solved by a New York architect. The steep bank of the Hudson has been turned into a building-lot by constructing a foundation higher than the house erected on top of it.
ONCE a contractor was called upon to erect a large concrete building during very cold weather. The ground was frozen so hard that he was unable to make an excavation for the cellar. This fact did not deter him in the least. He went ahead with the building and dug the cellar later, when the weather was warmer.
“KERCHEW!” Some one sneezes in the crowded subway train. All the people near are much alarmed; but, since they can’t move, they must accept the deadly germs showered around. Now, however, there is a small pocket inhaler that will kill these germs before they do any damage.
GAZE upon the Hotel Lutz, Oil Town, Oklahoma. The rates? About five dollars a day. Pay this or sleep in the open. Note the absence of bell-hops, coachmen, and taxicabs. This is the kind of a hotel that springs up overnight after oil has been discovered. When this happens, communities develop rapidly and there is not time to construct a more elaborate place to sleep.
THE animals residing in the New York Zoological Park receive instant attention if they show the slightest signs of illness. The physician in charge of them has the walls of his office lined with shelves, on which medicines of all kinds are kept.
A BOOT manufacturer well known in the United State's made these boots, just to see how large and how small boots could be made. After he produced them he took them to a convention of boot manufacturers to show his brother manufacturers the two extremes of boot-making.
WHY does the sailor call his food “chow”? Because chow is an abbreviation of chowchow; and chowchow, according to the dictionary, is “a mixture of all sorts of things.” The sailor’s meal is served on one large plate, and it soon becomes a mixture of all sorts of things.
FOR guarding the hands of punch-press operators a safety device has been developed by an Ohio manufacturer. If the operator’s hand is not withdrawn from the die when the punch starts to come down, a wire arm sweeping across the front of the press pushes it gently away from danger, a necessary precaution for girls, who frequently forget work in daydreaming.
HOW do you dispose of your hat when you go to the movies? If you hold it in your lap, you will probably drop it when the picture becomes exciting. If you slip it in the wire holder under the seat, it can easily slip out and get walked on. There is now a bag that will fit under the seat and will hold all your belongings safely.
THE usual R. F. D. mailbox is a simple affair of tin and wood— efficient but ugly. It stands out in front of the house and spoils the looks of the place. What’s the remedy for this? Build more stately boxes. Below you see a mailbox that is made like a birdhouse.
STRANGE as it may seem, there are several hot springs in Iceland. Thus the inhabitants are supplied with a constant flow of boiling water. On wash-day the women carry their soiled clothes to the nearest spring and let nature do the rest. In the picture below you see three women at work in Reykjavik, the capital of Iceland.
IF you believe that your singing voice is as good as any you’ve heard on the phonograph, then you need one of the new home recorders. The recorder consists of an adjustable bracket and arm, a horn, a metal guidingplate and finger, and a recording needle.
ADD up all the money in the country, then count the number of people, and you will be able to tell the average wealth a person by dividing one number into the other. The Federal Reserve Board announced recently in its monthly bulletin that the per capita wealth in the United States is $51.06.
HERE are three men. One is the brother of the victim of a murder, another is the prisoner condemned for the crime, and the third is the officer of the law. It is easy to distinguish the prisoner by the curious weight that is attached to his right ankle.
LIVING in a boat on the river and growing one’s own fresh vegetables is an experience not enjoyed by many people. Here is a resourceful woman who not only grows everything from lettuce to tomatoes in sufficient quantities for her own use, but has some to sell each season.
YOUNG Paul Schmoll, Jr., still wears short trousers and has a high soprano voice, yet he has already built an entire village—in his back yard. It is so marvelously constructed that people are always visiting it. Both the youthful builder and the village are located at Mobile, Alabama.
IF a steam plant is not watched carefully, many thousand dollars can roll out of the chimney in the course of a year. The greatest loss is caused by running the boiler at maximum capacity while the actual need of the steam-engine or -turbine may vary through a fluctuating load.
SAYS Dr. Charles W. Moreley, a chiropodist: “Let me see your footprints and I will tell you how you feel or what you are thinking about.” Dr. Moreley has applied his system to criminal detection with unusual success. Footprints will tell whether a man is short or tall, heavy or light, ill or well.
FLAX straw was thrown away as waste in former days, but now it is used in the manufacture of rugs, carpets, and upholstery. The longer the straw, the better the price paid for it. In this country, the flax from Wisconsin is of the greatest length, says Mr. A. H. Wright, of the College of Agriculture at Madison.
THIS weight motor is made to help do the chores on the farm. It will pump water, turn the churn, and drive the grinding-wheel—if it is first wound up. It is really a machine for storing up muscular energy and using it at will. A weight attached to the end of a long rope is wound on a drum and allowed to drop again, thereby imparting motion to the drum.
IN all forms of transportation, the cost of operation, including capital, establishment charges, running cost, maintenance, etc., increases roughly as the cube of the speèd of the carrier. Without considering the fuel for power, the cost mounts as the square instead of the cube.
“ ANY fish to-day, lady?” Not so long ago Marshall Lloyd, of Menominee, Michigan, was going from back door to back door asking this question. He was a fishmonger. And now he is a millionaire! His wicker-weaving invention did the trick. Since Biblical days wicker-weaving has been done by hand.
HOW do astronomers quickly discover new stars, or variable stars, comets, or wandering planetoids, many of which are too faint to be seen except by the method of photography? How can one compare two negatives of the Milky Way region in which literally thousands of stars appear, and instantly pick out a tiny star-dot on one negative that does not appear on the other?.
THE farmers in the great West, where during certain seasons it is more arid than the East, must pay more attention to their irrigation problem. They must handle with care the water Nature bestows upon their fields during the rainy part of the season.
STANDARDIZED building can be assisted by the use of a simple device by which the rooms of a house can be molded complete as the structure rises. Here is an invention that enables the molding forms to be raised intact from the inside. The four walls of the room-forms are held in the grip of adjustable mold braces on the inside of the room, while the outside sections are elevated by derricks.
WHY are all violins shaped alike? Because of the superior resonant qualities of that particular shape. One violinist, Everett E. Dunham, of Seattle, Washington, liked to hit the high notes, and he found that the generous curve of the violin interfered with his forearm.
FOR the benefit of people who need lots of sun, Samuel Stevens, of Asheville, North Carolina, has invented a revolving house that enables the inhabitants to be in the sunshine as long as the sun is visible. All a sick person need do is to press an electric button and his house will revolve.
THAT a rugged canyon can be converted into an open-air theater has been demonstrated in southern California, where an organization of artists and players recently established the “Pilgrim Play” as a permanent institution that will run ten weeks a year.
Facts about the forces that bind the moon to the earth and the earth to the sun
Why the Moon Does Not Fall
A Sixty-Foot Tide
Putting Tides to Work
WHY does rain fall downward? And why does a man who jumps out of a window drop downward? Why, in short, do things always fall to earth when released in air? Sir Isaac Newton asked himself these questions—but not, as is popularly supposed, because an apple bounced off his head.
USUALLY, truing up an inaccurate crankshaft in a lathe is a long and costly job, requiring several hours. By the aid of a new tool the pins on a crankshaft may be turned up true within one hour. The shaft is mounted between centers on a lathe in the usual manner.
THIS huge electric sign or bulletin-board is mounted in the front of a newspaper office in Denmark. It was used to announce the results from outlying districts of a recent election. Each of the candidates in the various districts has a colored light that represents his party.
WHEN a freight-car develops a broken wheel or a bent axle or any other serious ailment, it usually happens far away from home. But the new repair-car below will cover the distance between the two and do the repairing on the spot where the accident occurred.
TEAD-BURNING requires the hand of an expert when a gas flame is used. With the little electrical tools pictured above, however, anybody can make repairs on lead parts. A carbon electrode is used. An arc is drawn between the lead and the carbon electrode.
SOME people demand more thrills in their existence than ordinary living furnishes. That is why an advertisement calling for some one to attempt a trip over Niagara Falls in a houseboat was answered by one hundred and thirty-five men. Below are some of these would-be adventurers posed around the houseboat that is to serve as the vehicle to convey one of them over the falls. The amount of money offered for this dangerous exploit is only one thousand dollars. Who offered the thousand?.
HOW many people walk by the letterbox every day and forget to mail the letter that was supposed to have been mailed at the first opportunity? A postmaster once gave a lecture to a large audience and began by mentioning the letters that people had forgotten to mail and which had brought many inquiries to the department: Many in the audience hurriedly reached into their pockets and brought out their forgotten letters, and every one laughed.
A BUCKET of water may be too heavy to be lifted or carried about the room when the scrubwoman is not physically strong. To help persons who are lacking in normal strength, a roller support for the bucket has been invented by a citizen of Leipzig, Germany.
PROSPERITY is heralded by glass showwindows; the greater the prosperity, the larger the window. But glass has become very expensive in Europe since the war and most of the merchants are not prosperous enough to pay the price. In the picture above you see workmen replacing a large glass window-pane that had been broken.
FIRE-RESISTING chemical solutions are rapidly coming into general use. In time it is possible that everything will be given fire-resisting treatment by sodium silicate or some similar chemical. The picture below shows a man walking calmly through blazing shavings saturated in kerosene.
IN these days of small rooms, collapsible furniture is coming more and more into use. From Germany comes a folding round table. The center part of the table-top is a single piece of wood. But around the outside there is a series of extension sectors that fit together and enlarge the working surface of the table.
THE native women of Orange Free State, South Africa, carry their bundles and their water-jars on their heads, so it is not astonishing that they should carry their babies in like fashion. Baby is deposited in a chihungju—a sort of basket that can be turned upside down and used as a hat when the baby is old enough to walk.
CARRY a tin of marshmallows on long automobile trips. Should a hole develop in any of the gasoline pipes, a marshmallow will fix it. The sugar and gum arabic in the marshmallow will not dissolve when brought in contact with gasoline. Thus the marshmallow can be wrapped around the hole and fastened in place with tape, as shown in the picture below.
THE Japanese politician may still wear flowing robes in preference to trousers, but he is Americanized when it comes to campaigning. He makes speeches on street corners and into a phonograph horn, quite in the manner pursued by candidates for the Presidency in the United States.
ESTIMATES show that to take care efficiently of the cancer cases in the United States one gram of radium element would be required for one million population. This means that there should be available for hospitals about 110 to 120 grams of radium.
ENVELOPED in flames, the airplane crashes to earth, and the villain in the cockpit is burned to a crisp. You utter a sigh of relief as the next reel starts, and then you begin to wonder whether the villain really did make that drop. It seemed so real.
A HUGE iron ball weighing nine thousand pounds was moved until it hung directly over a sheet-metal roll twenty inches in diameter. At a given signal the ball was released by an electromagnet and it fell through the thirty feet that separated it from the roll.
“I’M Dodge’s dog—whose dog are you?” With these words painted on his side, a ferocious iron bulldog challenges the world as he stands outside his master’s store. Passing bulldogs are utterly indifferent to him. Customers, however, remember Dodge and his bulldog whenever they want to buy or sell a sewing-machine, a piano, or any of the things that Dodge deals in.
SHOULD you run out of phonograph needles sometime when it is inconvenient to buy more, try this. File the nail of your forefinger to a slightly sharpened point, and fit it into the groove of a moving record. The record will be reproduced very faintly, though accurately. The best way to hear it will be to lay one ear against the hand. In this position even the words of a song can be heard.
A FOUR-WHEEL motorcycle capable of climbing a grade of nearly thirty per cent to the mile at the rate of sixty miles an hour is no mean machine. The motorcycle that does this is built with steering controls somewhat similar to those of an airplane, with cables and pulleys of great strength.
SINCE eggs contain seventy per cent water, it would be wise to cool the hen’s drinking-water to render it more tempting. More water, more eggs. In the picture below you see a drinkingtank for the chickens that is built on the vacuum-bottle principle.
FRESH water is a big problem on a tropical island, queer as it may seem to us who have plenty of it. The plant shown above is used in distilling sea-water. The distillation, of course, eliminates the salt and makes the water fit for drinking. Four independent stills make up the plant.
ONE of the members of the Manchester Institute of Technology, Mr. S. J. Peachy, has discovered a new way to vulcanize rubber. He exposes it alternately to sulphur dioxide and hydrogen sulphide. This treatment causes the rubber to vulcanize rapidly even at room temperature.
IF you ever grow tired of angel-cake and decide not to bake it any longer, use the specially constructed baking-tin as a feeding-dish for the family puppy. The tin is deep enough to hold plenty of milk without spilling. Drive a long peg into the floor and slip the tin over it.
WHEN one man has the job of pulling against a weight of five thousand pounds with a wire rope seven sixteenths of an inch in diameter, he can truly be said to hold a superman’s job. Yet this is what the man who lays the heavy telephone cables in the street conduit has to manage.
PIPING of all kinds has a great attraction for small boys. If the piping is large enough, the boys try to crawl through it; and if the piping is small, the boys satisfy themselves by hurling stones at it or stuffing all manner of rubbish into it.
"NOWADAYS we all know that it pays to advertise, but it costs money to do so. There are many small German manufacturers who can no longer afford to pay the advertising rates charged by the magazines and newspapers. Yet they wish to tell the rest of the community what they have to sell.
IN the Philippines many of the women do their ironing with their feet. They place a slightly grooved board on the ground, fold one end of the garment to be ironed around a wooden roller, and place it in the groove. Next comes another board and then the woman’s feet.
MOST mechanical workers have tried both mitts and gloves, and found neither highly successful. The mitts are clumsy; the gloves enable them to handle their tools well, but they restrict the action of the fingers. How can the merits of both be combined?.
THE task of tightening the wooden blocks in 7500 square yards of loose pavement was formidable. Taking up the blocks alone would have meant an expense of about $10,000. The job was accomplished economically by a plan devised by John Richards, blockpaving superintendent of St. Louis, Missouri.
ROW in the ordinary way and you can’t see what is ahead of you. This inconvenience is overcome in a new type of oarlock. The ordinary oars are cut in two pieces, and each piece is fastened securely into the special oarlock. When the handle is pulled toward the body, the rower sends the draft forward.
WRITING a letter without the use of his arms is what the man in the picture below is doing. In place of his hands and arms he is using his feet. This is made possible by a carefully arranged system of levers which he manipulates. A man can also draw pictures by the use of this ingenious device.
INSTEAD of cutting fingers and towels in drying the safety-razor blade, use a regular drying-pad. It consists of a brass clip holding at one end a strip of rubber and at the other end a pad of cotton. Razor-blades are run through the rubber strip and then through the opposite cotton pad.
A “METEOR specialist,” W. F. Denning, F.R.A.S., has recently announced some interesting facts about those curious bodies that sometimes fall into our atmosphere and are destroyed. Contrary to former opinion, he asserts that meteors do not become visibly luminous at altitudes above ninety miles, and the average height at which friction with the air sets them aflame is seldom greater than between seventy-five and eighty-five miles.
THE owner of a certain garage wanted to provide his air-tank with wheels to make it portable. Not wishing to go to the expense of having heavy iron wheels fitted to the tank, he decided to buy a boy’s coaster wagon and place the tank on it. In this way he saved about fifty dollars and added to the efficiency of his garage.
VACUUM-CLEANERS are playing just as important a part in the factory today as in the home. Machinery and electrical fixtures collect dust with great rapidity, and they are apt to function improperly if they are not given a thorough cleaning at regular intervals.
THE docking of a Leviathan or an Aquitania is a no more difficult feat than the housing of a great rigid dirigible in its shed after the German fashion. Usually a ship crawls up to a landingparty of about three hundred men. She drops a trail-rope, which is caught and led through a pulley-block fastened to a stake in the ground.
OF the two hundred thousand odd farm tractors sold in the United States last year, more than half were delivered by the local dealer to the farm of the buyer by some means other than their own wheels or creepers. This was the result of two causes: first, it is quicker and therefore cheaper; second, some of the tractors with cleats on their driving wheels cut up the average road.
INVENTORS are always trying to devise some means of bettering the pneumatic tire and increasing its life. Every kind of substitution for air has been tried—springs, fluids, metals, fabrics, and fillers—all without success. While the ordinary pneumatic tire has a life of between five and ten thousand miles, the new type of tire shown herewith has a guaranteed life of twenty thousand miles.
ANEW governor for trucks, directly connected electric-powder sets, or for marine engines is explained here. It can be made to govern more than one half per cent of the power, from no load to full load. The main idea is that it at first governs excessively and then diminishes the governing action gradually, so as to meet easily the engine changes of speed.
MOTOR-TRUCKS are taking the place of conveyor machinery in a coal-yard at Nashville, Tennessee, and fulfilling their ordinary truck duties besides. The Nashville yard is bounded by two streets and by the curving segment of a railroad main line, from which a spur track enters the yard.
THE ever-increasing number of women automobile drivers is noticeable both on country roads and in city streets. Perhaps the war had something to do with it. At any rate, women handle big cars now almost as easily as do their husbands and brothers, and the average man consults his wife before he buys a car.
CRANKING has been eliminated in the newest filling station in which all the pumping is done electrically. At the touch of a button it pumps gasoline at any rate you desire. The electrical pump is connected to the storage tank in the same manner as a hand-operated pump, and may be run on any 110-volt current, either alternating or direct.
A NOVEL spark-plugor radiator-leak finder has been invented by the Rev. Thomas Osborn, of Centerville, Iowa, and is shown in use in the accompanying illustration. The device includes a pump, an air-tube connected with the pump, which in turn is attached to a threaded cap that screws to a long tapered tube, the large end of which is interiorly threaded and adapted to be screwed to the end of a spark-plug or to a detachable radiator cap, when the device is to be used for testing a radiator.
IN the hand-operated type of tire-carrier shown herewith the diameter of the lower or circular part is changed when the tire is put on or taken off. This is accomplished by a twopart lever placed vertically, and hinged at the bottom to the circular part of the carrier and at the top to the horizontal portion.
THERE are eleven distinct places in an automobile where squeaks are liable to occur: lamp-bracket rim; fender to frame pad in front; pad under the radiator; the forward part of the engine hood on the radiator top; the joint between the fender and running-board; the joint between the engine hood and the cowl; the windshield-rest pad; the joint between the frame and body; the joint between the rear fender and body; between the gasoline-tank straps and the metal holding it in place; and between the springs and axle-spring pads.
NEARLY one eighth of all the motortrucks in use in the United States are operated by persons living in New York state, and about one ninth of all the motor-trucks in use in the Union are in New York city, the number registered for 1920 being 42,122.
How to find out whether pulling is the cheapest way to haul loads
Where a Trailer Saves Money
Keep the Tractor Running
How About the Uphill Pull ?
Roads Must Be Studied
Road Surface, Grades, and Speeds
Trailers Not Always Economical
Will It Pay ?
CENTURIES ago man discovered that it is easier to pull than to push. This is the fundamental principle that underlies the motortruck trailer of today. The motor-truck, like any draft animal, can pull more than it can carry; and the trailer is the means whereby the truck can be utilized to pull more than it can carry.
BE sure that the brush is clean. Thoroughly wash it in benzine or turpentine to rid it of any possible dust or grit. During this operation the automobile should be housed in a room as nearly draft and dust proof and as clean as possible. This first coat is the metal primer mentioned above and is procured in form ready for use.
THE game illustrated here can be made at home as a plaything for young and old. The board is made of several widths of ¾-in. stock joined together and then cut with a copingsaw to the proper form. Strips of tin, 2 in. in width, are then nailed around the sides to prevent the balls with which the game is played from jumping off.
HOUSEKEEPERS who live in houses with concrete, brick, or stone walls usually find it very difficult to hang pictures or brackets in their rooms even when they have succeeded in drilling or chiseling a hole in the concrete or brick. Neither nails nor screws will hold in these holes, which necessarily must be made quite large.
AGREAT deal of mischief often results from a ring that is too tight on a finger, the flesh as a rule swelling up around it. This generally leads to attempts at filing it off, which sometimes results in accident. A ring can be removed without the necessity of filing if the following directions are pursued: Wrap a flat rubber binder of ¾-in. width on the finger above the ring, beginning at the tip and working down.
ONE of the few things that are done still in the old way about the average farm is unloading heavy hayracks by hand. As often as the wagon gear is changed from the wagon box to the hayrack and back again, backaches and strained muscles are in evidence, for the shifting of a hayrack of modern dimensions is no one-man task.
WHAT automobile owner has not indulged in, or at least witnessed, the backaching effort required in removing or replacing a tire as the wheel wanders here and there across the garage floor, to the serious detriment of enamel and temper? Even to change a tire with the wheel on the automobile is not a joyful occupation.
DISCARDED phonograph needles are usually considered worthless and are thrown away. These needles may be used for different purposes. Draftsmen and engineers will find that discarded needles for almost any type of phonograph will serve to replace the points in compasses and similar drafting instruments without requiring any special adaptation.
IN shop work it often becomes necessary to fasten a piece of work around a long arbor in such a manner that it may be removed or its position changed quickly. Then a clampingwrench as illustrated will be found extremely useful. The wrench-nut will slip into the threads of the clampingstud anywhere within one quarter of a turn from tight, and upon loosening will come off easily.
THERE is the old baby-carriage, the old stove, the old bureau, the trunk, and the leaky wash-boiler. The attic also contains old phonograph needles, safety-razor blades, carpets, curtains, chairs, tables, picture-frames, hatboxes, etc.
THOSE persons who dread to get up early to let the hens outdoors after cold weather sets in will appreciate an automatic door-opener operated by the fowls themselves. The operation depends upon the movement of the roost when the fowls jump down from it in the morning.
IT is a well known fact that even a tight nut if subject to vibration will work itself loose. This condition often is dangerous and all kinds of locking devices have been tried, some simple, some elaborate, to overcome this loosening. loosening.
WHEN laying flooring, a hand-ax is more useful than a hammer because its greater weight draws the boards together. However, the natural tendency of the ax to strike at an angle throws one corner of the head low, decreasing the chances of hitting the nail and often weakening the blow because of the corner digging into the joist.
THERE is no need to endure the trying glare of an overhead unshaded electric bulb in your hotel room when this pretty lamp can be carried along wherever you go. Taken apart and folded up, the lamp fits into the base of its standard. You can fit the folded-up lamp in your trunk-tray and set it up wherever you wish.
PIANO keys turn yellow because they absorb the grease from the fingers, and to cleanse them it is necessary to remove this. The value of the method here described is further enhanced by the fact that it does not necessitate the removal of the ivory from the keys.
SCREW-CAPS of grease-cups are very frequently loosened and unscrewed by the vibration of the automobile and eventually drop off and are lost on the road. This annoyance may be prevented by placing a piece of coil-spring inside the cap as shown in the illustration.
THE original box came from the Paris Exhibition of 1887 or thereabouts. I have made several since then and only found one person who knew how to open it and that was because he had seen one before and knew about it. The drawings and description will enable any one to make one without any difficulty.
AMOTION-PICTURE engineer of the Western Telephone Company suggests a method of developing films which is of equal interest to amateurs and professionals. Every amateur has had the experience of trying to develop a six-exposure postcard film by the usual method of holding it by the ends and drawing it forward and backward through the developing fluid and having one end or maybe both slip from the fingers, to the detriment of the film.
SIMPLE methods can frequently be applied to correct otherwise difficult tasks, as, for instance, when an axle-shaft of an automobile has become bent by skidding into a curb. The owner of a car that sustained damage to the rear axle in skidding, placed the car in the doorway of the garage and braced the extreme end of the wheel hub with a wood beam against the door-frame.
FOR the convenience of those who are at times compelled to do much writing on loose sheets, boards with permanently attached clips have been placed in the market. The boards offer rest and support for the hand in writing and the clips hold the papers in place.
A DEVICE for applying dressing to overhead belts to prevent them from slipping is made of a piece of wood, 4 in. wide, cut to the shape shown in the picture. The clamp is made of a piece of heavy tin bent as shown, with four holes to correspond with four holes in the board.
THE method usually employed to clean the type on a typewriter is far from satisfactory. Quite by accident the writer found that benzine will clean the type so well that the original brightness is restored, no matter what the previous condition of the type.
THE accompanying illustration shows how to build a simple and efficient ash-tray to fit the cowl-board of any automobile that has a cowl made of wood. The car selected for the experiment had an electric cigarlighter mounted in the cowl, attached to a flexible cord, to be pulled out when neededWhile the cigar-lighter was undoubtedly convenient, the occupants of the rear seat were invariably showered with ashes every time the occupant of the fron:. seat lighted his cigar. For that reason an ash-tray was considered desirable. The tray used was one of the aluminum cups with a bead on the edge that are sold in the ten-cent stores. A beveled dovetail slot was cut in the bottom of the cowl-board to hold the ash-tray in place. The tray fitted snugly into the cut, but could easily be taken out for emptying it. It never rattles and will hold the ashes of many smokes.W. BURR BENNETT.
ONE day, having occasion to use a harness needle, I found that I had lost the needle and could not obtain another that day. I took a key such as is used to open sardine-cans and cut it off below the curved end that serves as the handle. Inserting the tip of a screwdriver into the slot, I hammered the side of the slot near the handle part Until it was quite closed. I filed the cut-off end to a point, curving it a little, and thus obtained a very serviceable needle.
DUCK-HUNTING requires the use of some kind of decoys, preferably live ducks that have been hatched from wild-duck eggs. To keep a pair of live decoys is a great inconvenience, for they must be fed and housed the year round. Hence this mechanical swimming duck proves a boon to the duck-shooter and he may readily build it for himself.
LADDERS that are used in places where they rest on concrete or other smooth floors frequently cause accidents by slipping. Ladders with pointed foot-ends are safe on soft ground, but give no security on smooth and unyielding ground.
To Fasten a Washer on a Spigot without Using a Nut
TO hold a washer on a washer-post that has lost its nut, or the thread of which has become worn, file a slight recess around the post where it joins the seat, then use a washer which has been cut out of an old automobile tube, heat a wire nail of appropriate size, and burn a hole through the rubber. The rubber washer can then be forced on the post without difficulty and will be held in place by being pressed into the recess.
IT is often convenient to ascertain the specific gravity of a liquid by weighing a solid in water and in the given liquid instead of using a specific gravity flask or a hydrometer. A small plummet suitable for this purpose may be made from a glass tube partly filled with mercury and sealed by drawing out the glass and bending into a loop for suspension.
BY following the process described below, a cement may be prepared which completely resists the solvent action of water. The inferiority of the cements on the market for cementing glassware lies in the fact that most of them dissolve in water, making them invaluable to the user for even ordinary purposes.
THE stand shown herewith is a real convenience to one who likes to smoke and read. It is made of ½ stuff and finished in dark oak. After truing your boards, mark the diagram to be followed on a piece of paper and use the latter as a pattern to get your lines on the wood.
SOME time ago we had considerable trouble with a loose pulley in our shop. The pulley ran at high speed and became exceedingly hot because it could not be lubricated properly. The trouble was remedied by enlarging the bore of the hub sufficiently to admit a bronze bushing that was recessed as shown in the illustration to about fiveeighths the length of the hub and to the depth of 3/16 in.
IN making bread the housekeeper often finds it difficult to keep her sponge or dough at the right temperature so that it will rise in the shortest possible time. She will find a spongebox or bread-raiser such as shown in the illustration a great help.
INVARIABLY when an automobile has broken down in the streets or on the road, the owner of a small garage will send the first available car, equipped with a piece of rope or tire chain that he may have on hand, to the scene of the breakdown to tow in the derelict.
AMATEUR carpenters and marquetry workers usually find great difficulty in laying out angles with any degree of accuracy. An adjustable shootboard with which any angle from 1 to 90 degrees may be laid out will be an extremely useful part of their equipment.
TAKING down concrete work after it has had a few years to “set” is a slow job, as a rule. If it is outdoors, and conditions will permit, the quickest way is to blast the mass; but indoors, of course, this cannot be done, and it becomes a question of the most efficient tools.
THE following description of a small grain-thresher which I constructed when I was a mere lad, and which proved to be of service on the farm, may be of interest. For a cylinder I cut one foot off the end of a wooden roller 3 in. in diameter. The teeth were nails driven spirally about the cylinder, in rows that alternated with similar teeth in the concave, the rows of teeth being driven about in. apart.
THE illustration shows a simple and effective mounting for a small mirror. The material used is 2 in. square. The two pieces that form the main part of the base are bevelled at each end. Their length is 8 in. The length of the crosspiece that connects them is governed by the width of the mirror you are using.
A VERY useful emergency reamer can be easily and quickly made from a stick of hard wood, a piece of hacksaw blade, and a short woodscrew. The piece of hard wood (hickory preferred) should be turned down until it will just turn easily in the hole that is to be reamed, and should be long enough to allow one end of it to be inserted into the drill-chuck or carpenter’s brace.
THERE is a large variety of smokers’ stands on the market, some of wood with brass ash-trays, but the majority of them made entirely of metal. Nearly all of these trays have one feature in common, which is extremely inconvenient for the housekeeper—the ash-tray which becomes filled with cigar and cigarette stumps, ashes and burnt matches frequently needs emptying, and this is where the difficulty comes in.
ON my car the front axle was sprung, so I took it out, but not having the proper tools for straightening it, I was up against it until I thought of this plan: I found a part of an old railroad rail and set it up with a block under each end.
IN building motor-boats and canoes, it is necessary to bend the ribs and planking to shape, and very often considerable trouble is experienced in doing this. Soaking the material in water will answer where it is not to be bent to any extent, but in bending ribs for canoes and model hulls, it is necessary to steam them so as to bend them properly.
THE good old-fashioned front seats from an automobile will make a fine swing for the porch if they are arranged as are those shown. The seats were bolted to two hardwood timbers of suitable length 2 in. thick and 4 in. wide. These were provided with bolts at the end which had been bent into the form of eyes at the upper end and a small chain from each runs to a single hook at each end in the ceiling. This swing affords more comfort than many now on the market, and was made at a total cost of about four DOLLARS.
IN every factory, repair-shop, or garage there should be kept at all times an adequate number of fireextinguishers. They are of the utmost importance in case of fire. It is essential that they should be in a place where they can be easily found when the occasion arises for using them.
A BROKEN line shaft in our shop had to be repaired without delay. It was 6 in. in diameter and was driven by an engine of 350 horsepower. The break was directly under a large steel split pulley, doubtless from a flaw in the steel. Had it been possible to change the position of the pulley, the repair could have been made easily by connecting the two broken ends with a split coupler, but the pulley could not be moved to any other position.
IN drafting it is always a loss of time to use a protractor, especially the simple semicircular one, which is usually the only one available for the amateur. It has to be located on the indexing point and at the same time true to the direction of the drawing; after all this shifting the point is made at the proper angle, a straight edge has to be placed to coincide with the two points and finally the line is drawn.
HERE is illustrated a simple and attractive lamp which amateurs can make. Roughly stated, it is a framework or housing of sheet metal, with glass, mica, or transparent paper in the panels. The lamp, candle, or electric fixture to .be used will determine the size of the enclosure.
SETTING a saw, especially a fine one, is usually an awkward operation and particularly trying when working on the left side and you have to hold the saw by its nose with the left hand while working the set with the right. Take a board 6 or 8 in. wide and 2 ft. long and rip 5 or 6 in. into one end. Place the saw into the cut and the other end of the board under you on the chair or bench where you sit. The saw will be held perfectly rigid sideways and can be slid up and down easily.
THE accompanying illustration shows a tool for binding couplings of hose-pipes which I made for my own use and which any one who has need for such a tool may duplicate by following the directions given. A is a hexagonal-head screw, 4 in. long and ½in. in diameter, with the threads filed off at the end.
WITH the advent of the millions of automobiles, trucks, and tractors comes an ever increasing demand for bearings and bearing-stock metal. For this is one part of machinery in general that receives a very great amount of wear, if not in act the greatest amount.
SOME time ago it became necessary for me to make a considerable number of flat keys all fitting the same lock. The number was not great enough to warrant making a blanking die. To expedite the work I used a method of my own. Taking a piece of flat tool steel of the same thickness as that of the keys, I carefully filed the pattern until it worked the lock smoothly.
YOU may make a neat plate-rack by following the description given below. The four corner posts are similar in shape and size. They are ⅞ in. thick, 18 in. long, 3½ in. wide at top, and 2¼ in. wide at bottom. Make them out of yellow pine, and smooth with fine sandpaper.