THE resistance that the human system offers to the passage of an electric current varies according to the emotional condition of a subject. As mental disturbance increases, this resistance is reduced and permits of the passage of an increased current.
BEFORE they retreated from the Lens district in France, the Germans flooded the coal-mines. Because France was thus deprived of one of her most important coal-beds, it was provided in the Peace Treaty that an adequate amount of coal must be turned over by the Germans to France.
Perfect Airplanes Are the Result of Wind-Tunnel Tests
THE airplane model is placed in a chamber in a long tube through which air is drawn in parallel currents. Instead of moving the models in the air, the air itself is in motion, which amounts to the same thing, as it is the relative motion that sustains a body heavier than air in flight.
SOME of our transcontinental express trains carry powerful searchlights to entertain the passengers on the observation-car platform. The powerful beam plays over the interesting parts of the passing scenery. Great fan-shaped beams of light flickering over the Panama-Pacific Exposition grounds amused the crowds.
WHEREVER electric power is available, be it in a shop or on a farm, the transportable electrically driven circular saw shown here will prove very valuable. A small electric motor, which may be attached to any plug, furnishes power for the circular saw, which is large enough to cut four-inch planks.
A PILOT landing a DN4 airplane at high speed encountered muddy ground. The wheels sank into the mud and the machine nosed over, the propeller making a number of turns in the mud. If this vital part of the airplane had been made of wood, it would have splintered into match-sticks.
PICK up almost any fiction magazine today and you will see the name “Benda” in the corner of many of the illustrations. Mr. Wladyslaw T. Benda comes from Poland and he gives to the men and women of his pictures the high cheekbones, the slanting eyes, and the delicate chins peculiar to the people of Slavic origin.
English designers are making renewed and effective efforts to rival the birds in the air
Greater Wing-Lift Attained
The Alula Wing
What the Flaps Accomplish
P. J. Risdon
ONE of the many difficulties encountered by aviators is to land in a reasonably short distance at a reasonable speed, especially in the case of forced landings. Another is to rise in a short distance. It is obvious that in the case of large machines carrying heavy loads this difficulty is enhanced, for the simple reason that the heavier the machine the greater the power and speed requisite to maintain it in the air.
“The inventor can’t do it all,” says Edison; “you’ve got to change people”
Employers and employees are equally concerned in this question about which Mr. Edison has some decided ideas
What High Wages Cost
Meeting the “Wizard”
The Unpaid Bill
A Government School
James H. Collins
UPON every factory payroll there are two competitors in keen rivalry to see who can work the cheaper. One is Wages, and the other Interest. Interest has certain advantages over Wages. An automobile factory, say, requires three hundred fenders a day.
PEOPLE are wearing paper clothing and even paper boots, in Argentina, Austria, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, and Turkey. The style originated in Austria and Germany, where one can buy a workman’s suit for 58 cents or a regular suit, machine-tailored, at from 29 cents to $2.50, an overcoat for 51 cents, a pair of boots for a quarter, and a hat for a dime.
THIS is not the famous raven that perched itself on Edgar Allan Poe’s door and quoth “Nevermore.” It is a less famous raven that is perched on the floor of a glass case in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York city, and says nothing. There is a very good reason: the raven is of iron.
WEIRS are placed in rivers, canals, and other natural or artificial water-courses to regulate the waterlevel in accordance with requirements. Emergencies like floods, freshets, and ice blockades call for an immediate change of water-level.
DURING the world war, which disorganized all branches of public service in the belligerent countries, it became impossible, among numerous other things, to continue the warfare against the rats theretofore mercilessly conducted in all civilized countries of Europe.
AN inventive singing teacher has finally given to the world a mechanism that will perform the most trying labor of singing lessons. Not only singers but public speakers will be benefitted by this new invention, while the number of cases of pneumonia, influenza, consumption, and other diseases brought about by incorrect breathing will be reduced to a minimum.
TAKE a sharp pencil, place the point between the two parallel lines in the lower left-hand corner of the “maze” above, and draw, as rapidly as you can, a third line. This line must not touch either of the original lines, nor must you shift the position of the magazine or lift your pencil while you work.
CHICAGO packers boast that they use every part of the pig but the squeal. California walnut-growers burn the nut-shells for the charcoal produced and they also make use of the smoke. Thousands of tons of nut-shells are produced every day and their disposition became a knotty problem.
"THE Hold-Up at Night in the Desert” flashes on the screen, and then you see your favorites lose all in a real, true desert. If you are not too much affected by the touching scene, you may wonder how the proper electrical effects are accomplished in that spot in obvious darkness.
WHEN a wild-eyed bronchobuster dashed through the streets of a Western city in the early days, the inhabitants scurried to safety. Now comes a man dashing through Omaha in an airplane. For more than an hour he rushed down between buildings, and as a diversion did nose dives and tail spins at points only a few feet above the trolley-wires.
STANDARD arrangement of landing-fields would be an advantage to the itinerant airman who flies at night and who comes down in a strange region. For instance, if the pilot knows where the radio tower is placed with relation to the airdrome, he would know at once how to avoid a possible crash in approaching the field in thick weather.
IN Japanese schools the physical development of a child is given as much attention as his mental development. On warm days he strips to the waist and his teacher watches him closely as he works. If he breathes improperly, he is corrected; if he is round-shouldered or flat-chested, he is given special exercises; if he is too thin for his height, a special diet is recommended.
WE have indoor swimming and tennis in winter, so why not indoor canoeing? In most winter pools there is nothing to do but swim. You can’t lay yourself out for a sunburn, and if you try to play ball you will surely slip on the wet pavement around the pool.
ACCIDENTS will happen to phonograph records, no matter how carefully one handles them. Oftentimes a record is badly injured while being removed from the machine. This happens through the hand slipping and one of the fingernails digging into the soft surface of the record.
THE ghostly garments that surgeons wear when they operate are usually buttoned from neck to waist. The buttons are very apt to fall off at the wrong time and even at best they are annoying when a surgeon is in a hurry to get in or out. A new type of operating garment has been invented recently by Mrs. T. H. Hinman, of Atlanta, Georgia.
LARGE rigid airships, such as the R-34, which crossed and recrossed the Atlantic ocean in 1919, contain nearly a score of gas-bags filled with hydrogen. Each gasbag is lined with goldbeater’s skin, taken from a certain part of the intestines of a cow or ox.
ONE of the daily events in the life of a chef in any of the large New York hotels is his morning manicure. Before he touches food, his hands are carefully washed and his nails are cleaned, cut, and polished. The job is not given to a sweet girl manicurist, but to one of the hotel physicians.
HERE is a rotating wire brush that can tear up the weeds and grass. Bermuda grass is a tough tropical grass that grows along the railroads in Texas. It grows rapidly and it costs much to remove it. One of the engineers on the road hit upon the happy idea of attaching a wire brush to a number of ( ars.
IT is a simple device that enables the photographer to adapt his camera so that it will take two sizes of pictures. A stiff paper mask is fitted inside the camera, between the lens and the film, while a small mask of the same proportions and covering the same field is fitted over the finder.
NEW and mysterious is the glass bottle that is shaped like an hourglass but that contains something much more energetic than sand. The contents are in liquid form, and when dumped into a bowl containing sweetened water will form the concoction known as orange punch!
This Ship Traveled to Its Destination in Instalments
THE Canadian Runner was constructed inland for use on the seas. After she was put together at Port Arthur, Canada, the engineers were confronted with the problem of floating her to the ocean, since the locks along the Lachine canal, which parallels the St. Lawrence river, could not accommodate such a large boat.
WE'VE had so many parades in the past few years that a parade must now be very unusual to attract attention. Thus when the boys’ clubs of San Francisco had a parade recently, they provided plenty of entertainment for the watchers. Two picked teams played basketball throughout the entire line of march.
VERY often the assistance of an extra man besides the operator is required to load a hand-truck. To avoid this, a truck has been invented that permits the loading of any reasonable weight by one man. The truck is placed upright close beside the article to be loaded.
YOU want a loaf of bread, and you want it in a hurry. But when you enter the bakery, there are several people before you and you must wait impatiently till your turn arrives, or even longer, if the autocrat behind the counter happens not to like your looks.
IF you have wire to wind or unreel, this tilting reel will solve your problem. Every one who has had occasion to handle wire knows how easy it gets tangled up into a hopeless mess. This reel is double-jointed throughout, and it can be placed in any position.
COMPARED with the tiny car in which Miss Ula Sharon, a New York actress, travels up and down Broadway, the “flivver” is a monster. When she arrives at the theater she doesn’t park her “roadster” outside. Not at all; she drives it right into her dressing-room.
THE implement shown below is a jitney in every sense of the word. It costs only five cents an hour to operate, and it will do many different jobs—plow snow, pull logs, and haul wagons around the yard of a factory. It will also saw wood, run an electric generator to light a farmhouse, or pull a cultivator through a truck-garden.
A TYPIST who prefers to use his foot instead of his hand in drawing back the typewriter carriage at the end of a line can use the invention of Edward A. Pfefferle, of Burley, Idaho. A telescopic rod on top of the desk connects with the typewriter carriage and operates without springs.
SINCE the great concrete ship Faith was constructed several years ago, a number of experimental vessels have been produced. Here is one of the latest, made in Denmark. The good ship Bartels may be seaworthy and staunch, but she has very ugly lines, as a glance at the photograph will show.
EVERY city has its network of wires, and it keeps many linemen busy the year around to maintain the service. Toll lines often have an earning power ranging from thirty to one hundred dollars an hour, which means a big loss for every minute the line is unnecessarily out of order.
THE factory worker is coming into her own at last. Rest-rooms and lunch-rooms have made her life easier; and now Mr. William J. Koch, of La Crosse, Wisconsin, has invented for her an adjustable back-rest that will make her chair as comfortable as any.
BEFORE logs are ground for wood-pulp, the bark must be removed. In large paper-mills, where thousands of logs are handled daily, a very efficient process is used in the removal of the bark. The giant machine here pictured is used for that purpose.
“SILVER threads among the gold” has a new meaning. The silver remains the same, but the gold is represented by a comb with a gold back that fits in a gold case. And the case hangs at the end of a watch-chain. The fit is a close one, and there is no chance of the comb’s slipping out of its case, thus revealing its identity.
A HORSE will often neigh with joy when it sees one of its kind; but an automobile is not credited with any such emotions. Yet here we have a car that started to roll down hill when its brakes were accidentally released; it was traveling at a terrific speed and it suddenly swung round, leaped the curb, hurdled a two-foot show-window wall, and came to an abrupt stop directly alongside of another automobile.
WHERE there is no running water and where the old-style rural pump was required to draw up the water from the well, this new type of pump has been installed. In a clear glass tube from which the air has been extracted, the water is forced into the vacuum by the pressure of the atmosphere.
THE spectacular Babe Ruth has many namesakes in all walks of life. One of them is a white Leghorn hen! But she didn’t receive that name for any “home run” proclivities; on the contrary, she remained close to the chicken “run” and laid eggs.
IF you are one of the lucky mortals who can “go South” in the winter-time, why not get a light, comfortable caravan like the one below and live in it? The caravan is built on an axle and two wheels that were meant for an airplane. Many of these extra wheels and axles were left over when peace was declared, and such a caravan as this offers one way of using them up.
WE have been assured that “a rose by any other name would smell as sweet,” and a lampshade by any other name would not only work as well, but would probably cost considerably less. For lampshades have never lost the charm of high price unless they were made at home.
TO push a boat from the back while riding in it is a feat accomplished by the novel device shown in the picture below. The oarsman works a set of paddles that are attached to the stern of the boat and connected with a hand lever inside the boat. The working backward and forward of this lever manipulates the paddles and furnishes beneficial exercise for the back and arms of the oarsman.
SONGS have been written about Lincoln’s gunboats, but not about his own boots. Surely they are worthy of comment; they are quite the most uncomfortable-looking boots imaginable. Leather was cheap in Lincoln’s time, and the shoemakers were very generous with it.
YOU will find that this little attachment to an electric meter will allow you to purchase a quarter’s worth of current at a time. Quarter gas-meters have been in use for a number of years, but this is the first attempt to develop an electric meter to operate on this principle.
A ERIAL policemen in San Francisco are thus far the first to make use of the airplane to conduct a prisoner to jail, via the automobile patrol. The sky route offers the most direct passage between two places, and in this instance the prisoner was transferred from the Alexandra county jail across the bay of San Francisco to the locality where an automobile patrol was waiting to continue the journey through the city.
Our sun may some day be a “new star” for the universe
Latimer J. Wilson
ABLAZE of light flashes in the sky where perhaps no star was seen before, and a “new star” is heralded throughout the world. What does it mean? According to the generally accepted opinion of astronomers, nothing else than the end of a distant solar system, a cataclysm that has, at least temporarily, terminated the existence of a sun and its planets.
YOU don’t have to be an expert pianist to make music rolls for player-pianos. Any one who understands time and rests can, by using the machine pictured, make his own rolls. There is a note scale, on which treble and bass notes are recorded. This scale extends the full width of the machine.
WE have wondered at the skill of surgeons in grafting pieces of skin from a frog’s leg or from a human body upon the skinless injury caused by a burn or other accident. But the marvels of modern surgery do not end there. “Bone” grafting is an art that demands the skill of a specialist in the most remarkable kind of “carpentry.”
The old “Iowa” is first to be made the subject of wireless-control experiments and then shot to pieces
THE most famous veteran in the United States Navy, the predreadnought type battleship Iowa, now coast battleship Number 4, is slated for some experiments in wireless control, and then to be shot to pieces by the guns of the fleet. At Santiago, under the command of “Fighting Bob” Evans, the Iowa played a conspicuous part, giving the mortal blows to the Cristobal Colon with her forward pair of twelve-inch guns.
MOST road -building materials are expensive. The people of Utah had millions of tons of good road material in their state, and did not know it. The Great Salt Lake washes upon its shores tremendous quantities of decayed salt. This substance was formerly considered a nuisance until a progressive contractor discovered its value as a road-building material.
WHEN a New York company engaged in electric welding operations decided to erect a new building, its engineers suggested that the structural parts of the steel framework be joined autogenously by welding instead of by bolts or rivets.
THE new automatic arc welder will weld away for hours without attention. It will mend broken seams, plates, joints, and fractures. It is shown welding a steel wire to a shaft that was turned below size by mistake. The shaft is turned slowly and the wire welded to its surface.
NICKNAMED the “snow-tank,” because it looks somewhat like a combination of giant farming harvester, war tank, and tractor, this huge vehicle picks up snow and ice at the front and unloads it at the rear into wagons or trucks running alongside in the same direction.
Long pincers reach out from the boat and bring them in
Construction of This Submarine
How Sponges Are Gathered
HITHERTO submarines have been invented and constructed for purposes of destruction. Their record in the great war, as every one knows, proved them an extremely dangerous weapon. But the submarine shown below, an invention of M. Raoul, a French abbé, is intended to be used for gathering sponges from the bottom of the ocean.
IN building the New York state barge canal much damming was necessary. Between Schenectady and Rome on the Erie branch there are eight huge dams of the so-called bridge type. They look like steel truss bridges except that there are no approaches.
A CHINOOK salmon was tagged by mistake on August 13, 1918, at Whidbey Island, Washington. Two years later it was caught in a shore trap in the Skeena river, British Columbia. You will undoubtedly remember that Prohibition went into effect between those dates.
IF you want to make use of the discarded piston of an automobile engine, here is one way to do it. On the desk it serves as a paperweight, a pencil-holder, and a cigarette-holder, all in one. The small hole in the side of the piston, which was used to pin the piston-rod to the head, is just the right size to accommodate one’s cigarette, though there is no place for the ash.
REMARKABLE progress in the construction of roads in Siam is evidenced by the photograph reproduced above. The big dry dredger is thoroughly modern and up to date. The endless chain of scoops digs up the loose ground or soil at railroad cuts.
WINDOWDRESSERS who wish to introduce theatrical, lighting effects can easily do so with the gelatine slide that fits across the reflector holding an electric bulb. The device consists of a metal frame that fits over the rim of the reflector.
THERE are two kinds of skeletonmenders—the bone surgeon and the skeleton-assembler. Art schools, medical colleges, and students of anatomy require an accurately constructed skeleton to aid in their work. All the bones must be properly assorted and carefully put together.
CRACKING walnuts is the job of this mechanical giant with its two “hands” having fourteen fingers on each. These metallic hands constitute two units, each of which can be used separately. The walnuts are dumped into a hopper at the top of the machine and are admitted to the pairs of open metallic fingers through metal channels.
THE flexible covering which encloses the shaft of your speedometer becomes a valuable aid when you want to make a lamp for the typewriter. If there is not a discarded shaft-casing out in the garage, it is an easy matter to get one from the repairman.
RAILROAD ties of special design have been developed to facilitate the erection of small-gage railroads on large construction jobs. The secret of the method lies in the new tie, which is made of cast iron. Each tie is made in two parts and these lock together in the manner illustrated when the rails are laid.
PHOTOGRAPHS taken from the air by aerial travelers show the ugly spots on the beautiful landscape made by man’s artificialities. Houses resemble confetti scattered on a green rug; fields look like a crazy-patch quilt. Roads and paths are puzzles for Sherlock Holmes to solve.
SOME automobile factories assemble their motors on an upper floor, and then have them conveyed to the first floor or basement to be tested in the dynamometer. A quick way to get the motor downstairs is to “coast” it down on a conveyor controlled by an air-operated device.
A FLOWER-POT will cut your coal-bill in half! That seems rather strange, doesn’t it? Yet many fellow sufferers from the shortage of coal in England have put flower-pots in their stoves and grates and are using half as much coal as they used formerly.
TN using the new pay-roll machine, the cashier first lists all of the salary amounts. When the last amount is listed, there is available, automatically added by the machine, not only the total amount of the pay-roll, but the exact number of each denomination of coin required for the payroll.
SEVERAL dogs chasing one small rabbit—that was too much for the humane societies of Oakland, California. They protested against the inhumanities of coursing, and the result was the mechanical rabbit shown above. It is made of steel and wire, covered with a real rabbit’s skin.
BEES are usually employed as manufacturers of honey, which is everywhere considered a delicious food, but there are places where the bees themselves serve as a food. The negroes of Guiana, when stung by a bee, proceed to catch as many as they can and in revenge eat them.
NOW that electricity has been installed in most city houses and has done away with lighting inconveniences, people are clamoring for candles! Gloomy candle-light when given off by artistic candles is preferred to the efficient glow of electric light.
THE man who took this photograph was a patient fellow. He waited several years before the event happened. He was on the job, however, and snapped this picture when the youngsters were a few hours old. Here they are, a couple of young alligators just out of their shells.
“HELLO, what is your great hurry?” says one native of Hamburg, Germany, to another. “I want to catch a mail-box,” replies the other, dashing off down the street at great speed. Mail-boxes are in the habit of standing still in the United States, and the above conversation would sound strange to us.
ARABS catch locusts, roast them, pulverize them, and eat them as a pudding. To prepare them for food, they dig a deep hole in the sand and build a fire in it. On top of this fire they throw bags of live locusts, cover them with sand, and build another fire on top. When they have roasted thus for a suitable time, the Arabs take out the locusts and grind them into a powder, which they mix with water and eat as a pudding.
CONCEALED in the base of this fountain a small electric motor keeps the water in circulation. No water connection is needed, and the fountain, with the charm it lends to its surroundings, can be added to any dining-table, sick-room, or living-room by merely inserting the plug in the electric-light socket.
IN the Steen, an old castle in Antwerp, said to have been built in the ninth century, is a pump that dates from the sixteenth century. The water comes from a Roman well as old as the castle itself. It was from this well that water was drawn for the purpose of giving the “water cure,” the “drop by drop,” and other fiendish methods of torture employed upon the unfortunate prisoners confined in the dark dungeons under the building in the dreadful days of the dark ages.
MORE than sixty per cent of the population of Japan is engaged in the pursuit of agriculture, but there is room for improvement in their methods. One of these is shown in the illustration. It consists of an old bellows fan which is worked to blow the chaff from the wheat.
DISPOSING of waste from the table and the kitchen is sometimes a problem that must be met by the individual instead of by the community. When one lives outside the city limits and has not the benefit of garbage collection, he must get rid of waste products as best he can and with as little delay as possible.
Starting an Exciting Hoople Race on the Ice at Lake Placid
TWENTY years ago every city child had a hoople, and chased it for blocks and blocks with a stick. But to-day you see very few; the danger of running into automobiles is undoubtedly the reason. The children of yesterday, however, are grown up today, and many of them still cling to their hooples.
IF all people were as ambitious and persistent when they grow up as they were when they were babies, this would be a great world. Long before a baby’s feet are strong enough to hold him, he tries to stand. Then, when he has finally learned how to stand and the newness of it wears off, he tries to climb.
Do you play golf? Then you know how difficult it is to remember the exact number of strokes in which you made each of the eighteen holes of an exciting match. The counter in the accompanying illustration enables the golfer who carries it to keep track of his record, hole by hole, with the least possible inconvenience.
RAT-TRAPS are common, but imagine a cat-trap! Such a device, for ensnaring vagrant cats, has been designed and constructed by Ned Dearborn, of the United States Biological Survey. The trap is so pivoted as to pull the prop under the edge of the box when the latter is raised.
OUR legs are stronger than our arms. Why not use them instead of our arms whenever possible? That is the idea that occurred to the man who designed and constructed the boat shown below. He drives it with a pedal arrangement similar to that on a bicycle.
CUSHIONS that helped make your car an easy-riding one in its day should not be junked when the car is given up as lost by automobile doctors. Keep them; if necessary, re-cover them, then place them in front of an open fireplace. If you wish to toast marshmallows or roast popcorn, you will have an excellent seat.
BUSINESS men of the future will probably own summer cottages in Alaska. The families will enjoy the delights of an arctic summer, and the husbands will take a “fly” up there to spend the week-end with them, making the trip from New York in the Alaska Flying Express!
ON this new keyboard the keys have depressions in them. The inventor believes that these depressions will help piano students to develop better technique with less practice than is generally necessary to produce a good player. The depression in the center of the key trains the finger to strike the center of the key while playing.
LONDON’S “Underground” is a scene of rushing crowds and swift trains. The scramble to get aboard at the station platforms necessitates having a man whose duty it is to prevent a train from stopping longer than its fixed time at any station.
IF city houses were equipped with an automatic device to cut off the gas as soon as fire reached the spot, probably many big fires would be prevented. Even a small fire that reaches the system of gaspipes in a building can gain momentum by the burst of flame that follows.
THE modern chef has created a fine art in making cakes, and for these delicious products of his art the public is willing to pay high prices. The chef in a prominent New York hotel uses a “bag” funnel in spreading whipped cream over a cake creation.
CHINESE women have not yet learned to ask for fur coats in winter-time. In fact, they wear practically the same clothes in winter as in summer. In the most severe weather, however, they wear heating baskets under their cloaks. These baskets are plain wicker ones, such as we use for trash.
THE days of drudgery for the scrubwoman are numbered owing to the perfection of a new automatic scrubbingmachine. It is portable, and is easy to operate. Attach the machine to any electric-light circuit and it is ready to use. A large machine with three operators has cleaned 5600 square feet in one hour—work equivalent to that performed by fourteen handscrubbers.
NO longer is it necessary to get out the big touringcar when only one member of the family wishes to ride. In the garage, or in the basement is a little vehicle that will convey a single passenger in comfort. In a small space the complete mechanical equipment of an average automobile—the engine, gear-box, flywheel, clutch, and shaft-drive—is arranged.
IMAGINE a streamlined body of an airplane running on three wheels, two in front and one in the rear, propelled by an airplane propeller placed at the front. During the war the Germans employed airplane propellers for the propulsion of freight-cars.
With burnt hands he plugged the roaring, leaking boiler
A Leak in the Pump
“She’s Near Dry"
Edward J. Veronda
JACK HARDING glanced at every piece of machinery as he passed it —he had the born engineer’s unconscious habit of taking in every detail. Nearing the switchboard, he noted the readings of the meters, then paused in the doorway of the fireroom.
THE use of oil fuel on ships is, of course, not new, but the conversion of the Aquitania into an oilburning steamship is a matter of universal interest. It comprised the removal from boiler-rooms of ash-expellers, furnace fronts, fire-bars, etc., weighing 300 tons.
A NOVEL but very effective stage setting first used in the production of French plays in New York city, was based entirely on a system of angles. When the stage director for the French Players in New York is ready to plan a scene, he goes to his drawing-board and draws a diagram of the stage.
IN the interests of aviation, Professor Barcroft of Cambridge University spent six days in a hermetically sealed glass case. Nitrogen and oxygen were constantly pumped into the case, but the amount of nitrogen was increased while the oxygen was decreased.
“HANDS up! Quick!” A flash of light envelops the would-be burglar and blinds him. “Drop that gun!” Dazed by the light, he drops it. His captor, in the meanwhile, is perfectly calm and sure of himself. The light that is blinding the burglar is a flashlight attached to his gun parallel to the barrel.
PERHAPS, at first glance, one would think that this was a device for pulling a pig apart limb by limb. It is not, however. It is merely used to keep the animal quiet while it is inoculated with an anticholera serum by experts of the United States Department of Agriculture.
YOU don’t need hills for bob-sledding if you are willing to “peg away.” Grasp a sharply pointed peg in each hand and dig them alternately in the ice. You and your sled will start to move slowly, but gradually you will gain momentum. The faster you peg, the faster you will go.
A DOUBLE chin is the deciding factor that places its owner in the heavyweight class. It is the one thing most feared by women who have reached the stage known as “pleasingly plump.” Now, however, there is a double-chin remover which can be operated by the owner of the chin in the privacy of the home.
ONE crooked picture will make a room look untidy. There is a new picture-hook that is supposed to prevent this. It is made of strong, flexible wire arranged in a series of loops, with a sharp point at one end. The point is driven into the wall and the loops are adjusted until the picture is perfectly straight in its place.
PEAT is now being used for the production of gas in especially designed producers. The yield compares favorably with that of coal, and many valuable byproducts are produced. This method of using peat has been found to be the most effective, since it is not necessary thoroughly to dry the crude material.
THE easily attached doorcheck shown in the illustration will prevent the banging of doors. It consists of an arm bearing a spring coil ending in a soft cushion. This arm is pivoted to a base screwed to the lock side of the door. The arm moves horizontally only, and is held in position by a tension spring that can be regulated by turning a set screw.
NOW there is a moving-picture device to teach people dancing, step by step. An expert dancer performs in front of a moving-picture machine, the action being so timed that he does a complete movement in exactly fortytwo pictures. The pictures are enlarged and printed on paper.
SHORTLY after Lincoln’s death a monument to him was erected in front of the district courthouse building in Washington. For fifty years this tall monument with its life-sized statue of Lincoln on top, has adorned the vicinity of the old courthouse building.
A BELT like this is used in conveying materials from one part of a large factory to another. It is the largest belt ever made for this purpose. It is one thousand feet long and fortyeight inches wide, and contains twentynine thousand feet of rubberized fabric.
EVERYTHING has a time and a place—especially canes. Therefore why not use a collapsible cane that, when shut, will fit in your pocket? Such a cane has been invented by Frank Kutwicz of Regina, Saskatchewan. You will always be able to carry it with you and take it out when circumstances permit.
THE coal-dealer must give full weight if his customer uses one of these coal-meters. The coal passes through a chute in the center of which is a rotating vane that is moved by the passing coal. A dial records how much coal has been thrown down the chute.
ELECTRIC wires can be protected from any possibility of becoming grounded or from being short-circuited. This is usually done with tape as an insulator, but sometimes the tape is stretched until it becomes dangerously thin and, in time, more or less worn.
SHOWN below are drill-presses that represent a radical departure from the ordinary type. The bushing-plates are attached to the drill so that they may be adjusted vertically. The jig, which holds the casting to be drilled, rolls on V-shaped rails from machine to machine.
THESE men are not drilling a well as you might think. No; they are obtaining a sample of pavement so that they may take it to a laboratory to put it under tests. This machine displaces several men working with pickaxes and chisels. The drill is made of chilled steel and has steel shot as its cutting medium.
IF you go into a house where smoking is permitted but not indulged in by the members of the family, you are not apt to find an ash-tray on which to park your cigarette. But if you carry in your pocket the small cigarettestand shown above, you need not depend on the ash-trays of others.
LIKE a regular mule, this mechanical mule is driven by reins. The “reins" are really control cables that are connected with the electric motor that drives the mule. Instead of saying “Giddap,” the driver merely operates a switch and the mechanical mule, unlike its namesake, starts off without any delay.
THIS looks like a cross between a Chinaman’s junk and a seaplane. The electrical engineer who designed this mysterious craft refuses to tell the public just what it is all about. He has christened it the What-Is-It. Everybody who has seen it is interested in knowing just what it is to be used for.
MANY advances have been made in the methods of forming metals by coldswaging processes, but the hot process has been developed to be used principally on heavy work where a great deal of reduction is desired without annealing. A new machine handles tubes as large as five and a half inches in diameter and solid rod of two and a half inches in diameter.
GLASS-BLOWING as an art goes back to ancient times, but its application in making artificial eyes belongs to modern times. The art is delicate, especially in the matter of obtaining the right tint of color for the iris. Eyes that do not match are worse than none at all as far as appearance is concerned.
DON’T get excited. The diamond market is not wrecked yet. It will probably be some time before it even begins to totter. If movie-men really knew a process for the manufacture of diamonds, the production of movies would no longer interest them.
IN place of the ordinary table, this little drill-press has a revolving member carrying on it different forms for the various classes of work. There is a V-block, a cup, a point, an angle, and a flat table. Any one of these may be brought into position by merely turning the casting which is mounted on a shaft.
WITH the fall of the Manchu dynasty came the wholesale barbering of queues. The barbers of China were very busy people, and their art is now developing to that of the normal tonsorial stage. In the early part of the seventeenth century, when the Manchu Tartars invaded the country, they found the men wearing long hair tied in a knot upon their heads.
Picking Up Marbles with the Toes to Cure Flat Feet
ARE you flat-footed? If you don’t know, the next time you take a bath, observe the impressions that your wet feet make. If your feet are normal, there will be a narrow line from heel to toe on the outside; if they are flat, the entire bottom of the foot will show.
THERE are several famous rocks in various parts of the country that are shaped like the human head; but you must go to the Rocky Mountains if you wish to see a rock that is shaped like a skull. “Skull Rock,” as it is called, is located near Canyon City, Colorado.
IF the electrical end of your automobile horn is irreparably broken, find new uses for the various parts. Take, for instance, the cone-shaped horn proper. It may be used as a funnel. Your car is apt to run dry when you are miles from a garage. The nearest farmer will give you a pail of water, and the hornfunnel will guide the water into the radiator.
PUT her in gear and push. That’s one of the remedies for a car that won’t start —and a good old-fashioned remedy, too. For that’s how the first automobiles ever made had to be started. Above you see a Peugeot automobile that was built in 1894. It is still in existence and is occasionally exhibited, at the French automobile shows.
ONCE there was a woman who hated the thought of passing out of this world without leaving some concrete image of herself behind. And as she had plenty of money to satisfy her whim, she had the concrete image made. It was dressed concretely in clothes that were stylish at the time—a tight-fitting coat and a wide skirt.
EVERY one knows that the flavor and color of tea-leaves will percolate through any perforated container, regardless of its shape, although heretofore a ball has been the usual shape. A tiny teapot, for instance, if properly punctured, will serve the purpose.
WEIGHING only 220 pounds and costing only $1200, the Pischof airplane is said to be the smallest flying-machine. It travels the aerial highway at a speed of 62 miles an hour and consumes but 11.2 gallons of gasoline an hour. A machine of this type might appropriately be called a “runabout” of the air.
HAVING a population of nearly three million people and with houses of generally flimsy construction, the city of Tokyo, Japan, requires a well drilled and efficient fire department. Because there are no skyscrapers, the fire-fighting apparatus is remarkably simple compared with that of American cities.
INVESTIGATION has shown that eyestrain in moving-pictures is often caused when one has to raise his head at an angle greater than thirty-five degrees to see the top of the screen. He should not have to turn his head sideways more than twentyfive degrees.
LOOK closely at the picture below and you will notice a sign entitled “Bor es Sör,” and above these words a picture of seven foaming glasses of beer, and a tray on which are seven beer bottles! This store is located in Budapest—a long way from the United States.
THIS is not an amphibious automobile, as you might think. It is merely an automobile chassis fitted with a canoe-body. The owner wanted something that looked different, so he bought an old canoe and fitted it over the chassis of his car in the manner shown.
TN the islands of the southern seas, the coconut palm supplies all of the needs of the members of society. It supplies the natives with lumber to build their homes, their boats, and their utensils. When the leaves of the tree are young, they are eaten.
THE first truck to be employed in carrying ink in bulk is shown in the illustration below. It is used by a Hoboken, New Jersey, ink manufacturer to deliver ink to several of the New York city daily newspaper plants. While the carrying of ink in a truck tank at first would seem comparatively simple, it presented two problems which had to be solved before the method was made practicable.
SOMETHING new in the way of self-loading motor-truck bodies has recently been invented by Frederick Wengraf. The body of the truck is mounted on rollers, which run in special tracks on the truck chassis frame and permit the body to be pulled backward off the chassis on to the ground by means of a cable and drum operated from power taken from the regular truck engine.
AUTOMOBILE thieves have been more and more reckless in the past year or so. Among the many devices that have been invented to combat their depredations, one of the most effective is a veritable handcuff which is fitted around the vertical pin of the steering knuckle and locked in place so that the front wheels can turn neither to the left nor to the right.
IF, while using your automobile on a very cold night, you discovered that, during a short stop which you were obliged to make, your radiator had become “froze up,” what could you do to thaw it out so that you could safely run the engine and get home?
HOW would you like to have a suite of rooms on wheels, so that, if you wished to take a long trip, you would be able to take your hotel accommodations along with you? That, in effect, is what a Mid-West-erner proposes to do. He has had built for him a motor-truck and trailer combination that has all the comforts of a stationary home—and with almost as much actual room in it as many a modern city apartment.
LOADING mechanism has recently been placed on the market which may be applied to any make of motor-truck. The apparatus is particularly adapted to loading big logs on motortrucks or trailers. Furthermore, the same mechanism may be used to pull the logs from the place where they are cut to length to the side of the truck or trailer on which they are to be loaded.
WHILE most engineers have attacked the problem of eliminating automobile headlight glare by the use of some form of diffusing lens, Mr. A. A. Tirrill, of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, solved the problem by an automatic regulator of the current strength or intensity.
THE “Flying Peanut” is the nickname given to what is said to be the smallest practicable automobile. Seven feet long over all, it is hardly a foot and a half longer than the average man is tall. Yet it is so well proportioned that it would be difficult to distinguish it in a picture from a fullfledged racing-car were it not for the comparison in size of the car and its driver.
DURING a series of tests undertaken for the purpose of ascertaining the volume of carbon monoxide discharged from the exhaust of running-trucks and pleasure automobiles under average working conditions, Dr. A. C. Fieldner, supervising chemist of the United States Bureau of Mines Experiment Station at Pittsburgh, found that 30 per cent of the gasoline now used by automobiles in the United States is wasted through improper adjustment of the carburetors, causing incomplete combustion.
DESIGNED to overcome the temperamental non-functioning periods of the vacuum systems fitted on most automobiles, the new system here shown uses the compression in the engine cylinders to feed the gasoline from the tank to the carburetor.
THE putty-knife and the oldfashioned hot-water tank, when used to open the cells of an automobile storage battery, are expensive in time, money, and labor to the battery repairman and his customer. If only one cell needs to be opened, all have to be opened when the old hot-water-tank method is employed.
ABILITY to push as well as pull, and to run twentyfour hours a day if necessary, distinguishes this new industrial tractor from other forms. The machine will tow or push standard trucks or load-carry-ing vehicles or skids about plants, and do the work more quickly and cheaply than it can be done by manual power.
ONE of the newest mechanical hoists differs from others of the same type in that the body is lifted in two distinct operations instead of one. This method, while adding to the parts forming the hoist, serves better to distribute the lifting strains and makes it possible to raise the body to a greater angle.
WATER is not an explosive in the usual sense of the term. Any gas or liquid will explode if it is cramped into a small space under high pressure. Compressed-air tanks often explode when the pressure reaches a high point. Water is made to “explode” by placing it under a pressure of several thousand pounds to the square inch.
WHAT is claimed to be the most revolutionary step in the advancement of horse haulage, since the first horse was harnessed to a wagon centuries ago, is a collarless harness tried out on the veldts of South Africa and now being introduced in the United States.
"LEND me your ‘Aida’ thread.” This request may sound strange to you now, but it is quite possible that before long you may be saying those very words yourself. For Mr. E. Steiger, a Swiss, has invented a soundrecording instrument in which thread is used for the records, instead of hard rubber.
THE new drawer bed is an invention introduced by J. G. Stickley, of New York. A comfortable bed of normal size is so arranged that it disappears into the wall when not in use. The bed operates on ball bearings on a track built under the dressing-table in the adjoining dressingroom.
ONE more machine to replace human labor! This time the services of an analytical chemist are dispensed with. Philip E. Edelman, an electrical engineer of New York city, has devised an apparatus that will stand watch over a chemical process and act more efficiently than a welltrained chemist.
A LOCOMOTIVE can be no more efficient than its boiler-tubes. When they are leaky the locomotive loses its power rapidly, and it must either be repaired at considerable expense and loss of time, or run with low efficiency. When a locomotive stands idle in the repair-shop, the railroad it works for is minus just that much of its equipment and whatever it is capable of earning in hauling freight or passengers.
WHEN empty coal-cars are returned to the mines in the winter-time, the hoppers on the bottoms are often frozen up. In stubborn cases, several men must work half a day or more to pick the ice away. One man can do the trick in a few minutes if he is provided with this large gasoline torch.
THERE has always been a great deal of controversy about the ouija-board. Its most zealous supporters contend that the messages which are spelled out by the little triangular table are in reality communications from the dead, while the skeptics have held all along that if the operator does not knowingly manipulate the board, he at least does so subconsciously.
ELECTRIC welding has reached a point of development where its application is growing daily. All of the rails on electrical railway systems are held together not only with bolts and fish plates, but with a permanent weld that is an added security against accident and deterioration.
BANG! You drive over a hole in the road, get shaken up, break a spring on your car, and say things about state roads. The road materials are usually at fault; they should have been thoroughly tested before they were put down. That’s what the government is doing to-day—testing forty-nine different kinds of road composition by heavyweight methods.
YOU pay so dearly for coal these days that none of the heat it gives off should be wasted. Watch the temperature in the smokestack closely and you will be able to tell whether your furnace is delivering your money’s worth in heat. But how can you watch this temperature?
THE public in general Save has the impression that an old automobile cannot be properly refinished outside of an automobile paint shop. Nothing can be farther from the truth if this work is taken up in a systematic, workmanlike, and thorough manner.
By W. S. Standiford IN every mechanic’s life emergencies will arise that call for rapid thinking and original work on his part in order to keep the wheels of industry running smoothly. In this article the writer tells how he made an emergency repair on a broken roll that lasted until the roll was worn out.
By Edward H. Crussell ONE day the boss took me up to the attic floor of an old-fashioned office-building to do some work on the skylight. This upper floor had originally not been intended for use and was only partly finished, the wooden roof trusses showing in all their nakedness.
BREEDERS of rabbits, especially of Flemish Giants, Belgians, French Silver, Beveren, New Zealand, and other breeds of which the skins are used for making high priced imitation furs, like French seal, mole, beaver, cony, etc., will find it to their advantage to save and properly prepare the skins of their rabbits.
IF he will change tires around in the manner described below, a motorist can make them last far beyond the usual mileage. This is done by reducing the strain on the tires as they wear away so that the newest tire is placed at the point of greatest strain and the oldest one at the point where the strain is least.
DON’T condemn a spark-plug unless it is at fault. To determine this, first find out which cylinder is missing explosions. Short-circuit each spark-plug with a screwdriver. If the engine slows down, it is a live plug. If it doesn’t, that cylinder is not firing.
THE little device shown in the illustration is called a grip machine because it is intended to develop the strength of the wrist and fingers. It is used by squeezing the movable crosspiece until it reaches the other crosspiece. This operation practised with both hands each day for fifteen or twenty minutes, will strengthen your grip and enable you to do gymnastic stunts with greater ease.
WITH the advent of the automobile came the wide use of alloysteels and of the term “alloy steel” in the nomenclature of the machine trades. And as the automobile has become a necessity, people who never knew and never cared about things mechanical have become interested to the extent that a great deal of general information that was heretofore trade talk is today part of the man-in-the-street’s vocabulary.
TO bind hose with tight wired connections a tool can readily be made from an old pair of pliers, even a pair with the ends broken. Saw or grind the ends flush and drill with two holes as shown in the sketch. A U-shaped piece of wire is cut and the ends are placed through the holes after surrounding the hose.
An Adjustable Light Fixture for the Drafting-Table
G. A. LUERS
FOR use above the drawing-table or over the desk an adjustable light fixture that is simple in construction, positive in the setting, is shown in the illustration. This consists of an ordinary half-round reflector secured about the lamp socket.
A PAPER-PERFORATOR is easily made from an old clock-wheel. Bevel the wheel on both sides until quite sharp. Now get a ¾-in. brassheaded screw, two small brass washers such as are used in clockwork mechanism, and a piece of wood to form the handle.
IT is necessary for toolmakers to case-harden many tools and tool ends, such as wrenches of the S shape and straight-end styles, in order to prevent serious wear. There are many other tools which would last longer without becoming misshapen were they case-hardened after being dressed up and before use.
A GOOD way of utilizing broken hacksaw blades is to make a holder, or haft, similar to a pocketknife. Take a 4-in. length of ½-in.-diameter brass gaspipe, cut down on one side lengthways, and then flatten with hammer until a turn cap U shape is formed, just of sufficient width to receive two thicknesses of the sawblades.
SOMETIMES a small compass becomes reversed through carelessness in using it near a strong magnet. As it is almost useless in this condition, it must be restored to its original polarity, but how to do this without removing it is usually a puzzle.
THE pocket in the bib described here catches the crumbs and food particles which the baby drops from mouth and fingers, and prevents them from falling on the clothing or floor. The bib is made, like a majority of baby bibs, preferably of rubberized or other waterproof fabric.
IN such places as printing-shops and other places of business where conveyors are used, the need of a small flexible fastener for connecting the ends of small belts together often arises. The writer was recently confronted with the task of equipping a large blueprinting machine with new elastic bands.
A DETACHABLE headlight fixture as shown in the accompanying illustration affords a convenient feature for tire repairing and roadside or garage repair work on the engine or transmission. The lamp support is cut and a detachable joint made as shown.
THE section of the rear axle-housing for an automobile enclosing the driving-gears is in a large number of axles only provided with an aperture for putting in the lubricant. No means of draining is provided and in consequence the casing is not cleaned or emptied until the axle is overhauled. By adding a ¼-in. drilled hole and a tapped-in plug to this case, periodical cleaning and draining is readily done, in consequence of which the life of the gears and bearings is extended.
AN emergency water-bucket can be made from an 18-in. piece of a discarded inner tube; the 4½or 5-in. sizes are preferable. If possible, use the place where the tube has been set together as the top of the bucket. The lower 3 in. is slit in four places, then turned under and cut so that the edges fit perfectly and form a nearly flat bottom.
VARIOUS pieces of wrought-iron pipe and pipe-fittings as shown provide, in conjunction with an electric hand drill, a substantial bench type of drill-press from which the hand drill can be removed readily when desired. This will apply to practically any type of electric drill with a detachable or screwed handle. With a drill of the rigid-handle type a bohing fixture to attach to the handle can be made when desired.
VERY good rain-pipes or leaders can be made of tin cans. The first step is to remove the top and the bottom of each can. The solder can be melted away by putting the cans on a hot stove. After the tops and bottoms have been removed one end of each can is expanded slightly so as to receive the end of the next can.
YOU don’t have to purchase a highpriced tapping-machine if you adopt the idea shown in the accompanying sketch. Rig up on a bench a piece of iron of the shape shown, place through this a shaft with a handle and you have a tapping-machine. The square end of the tap fits into a square hole of the tap-holder sleeve.
IN the small repair-shop it is not always convenient or practical to have a work-pit or a permanent elevated platform for removing the automobile far enough above the floor to give free and easy access underneath. A stand that is portable and on which an automobile can be placed in an elevated position is shown in the accompanying illustration.
MANY draftsmen, when they have occasion to show the grain of wood in their drawings, like to have the grain more uniform than they can draw it freehand. This is especially desirable in patent and other technical or conventional drawings. The accompanying illustration shows how a triangle may be shaped to imitate wood grain.
POSSESSING a grindstone which was soft and had deteriorated with age, I hardened it as follows: Take 22 parts of rock crystal and an equal quantity of minium to 60 parts of powdered glass, 1 part arsenic, 5 parts of saltpetre and 15 parts of calcined borax.
IN the absence of ice, the common method of cooling bottles of milk and other foods is to set them so that the water flowing from the faucet falls upon the top. If it is a bottle of milk, the water spatters and but little flows down the sides of the bottle.
AUTOMOBILE generators and magnetos are driven by coupling from the water-pump shaft. When the coupling is new and all its surfaces are fitted tightly together, it works quietly and efficiently; but after being used some time, it makes a chattering or squeaking noise.
SHOULD you need to mark, or graduate any flat metal surface, look at the illustration and you will discover about as simple a method as can be found, yet accurate in every way. Grind your chisel point to the shape shown, then fasten an ordinary scale to the portion of the piece you want marked.
IT is always desirable to flare the ends of copper or brass tubing when fitting it for attachment to carburetors, etc. Many motorists, however, are not so fortunate as to possess any of the special tools on the market for flaring tubes and fear to damage the end of the tube by trying to do the job with ordinary tools at hand.
THE usual means provided for making magneto adjustments on most old types of gas-engines still in service —and on many present types—is by two adjustable flanges on the driveshaft. One of these flanges has two or three bolt-holes drilled through it, and the other has corresponding elongated slots.
AS is well known, the “glowing lure” is one of the deadliest forms of artificial minnows that one uses on bass and other fish. These phosphorescent baits are used at night, for it is from six o’clock in the evening to very near midnight that the bass are striking the lure at the best.
EVERY one who has tried to photograph a blueprint is familiar with the unsatisfactory results that are obtained by the usual apparatus, regardless of the detail in the original. The following method will be of interest, as remarkable results can be obtained.
THE illustrations herewith show a very easily built sectional garage which will be appreciated by those who have tried to get a contractor to build one for less than two or three hundred dollars. The drawings give all of the information to frame this building, but the exterior sheathing has been omitted purposely.
WHEN a snapshot is made of a group, some one has always to be omitted from the group in order that he may operate the camera. The following arrangement makes it possible to include every member of the party without pulling a string. The camera is prepared as follows: A piece of string is tied to the lever of the shutter release, and slipped over the camera handle or some convenient projection, thus holding the lever up securely.
IT is frequently desirable to provide a compartment under the workbench for tools and equipment too large for the bench drawer. When this is done and it is desired to lock the compartment for safeguarding the tools, a method that does not involve the purchase and installation of a special or extra lock consists of having an extended metal plate attached to the under side of the drawer that will butt against the compartment door as is shown in the illustration.
GARAGE doors have a habit of sagging after a time, making it difficult to close them properly or else necessitating their removal and planing off the bottom. Unless the door is small or exceptionally well made, planing the bottom affords only temporary relief.
HERE is a simple method for carrying extra suitcases or other baggage on an automobile when equipment is not provided for the purpose. On the front end of the runningboard six small strap loops may be fastened by wood screws. Two loops are set in at the rear edge of the board about 20 in.
WHERE a regular grinder tool for rotating a valve of a Ford or similar type of automobile is not available, an improvised tool can be made in a few minutes from a 5-in. section of a hoeor broom-handle and 2 nails or 3/32-in. drill-rods. Drive the steel pins into the handle firmly, cut off evenly, and bend the points out to correspond with the holes in _ the valve-head.
DISCOVERING that the jerky action of my automobile was caused by a broken valve-spring, I immediately decided I must tie the valve-stem to prevent it from falling into the cylinder. While preparing to tie the stem, it occurred to me that a strong rubber band might do the work of the coil-spring, at least temporarily. The rubber band R, as shown in the illustration, was attached to the tie-rod directly above the cylinder block and the lower end of it was attached to the notched end of the valve-stem.
SEVERAL years ago I was making quite a number of photographic blueprints. Hearing of a way to change them from blue to brown or sepia color, I tried it with splendid success, and the prints are still as bright and clear as when first made. Get an ounce of tannic-acid powder or crystals.
CRASH! What was that? Just the hired man running the automobile into the back end of the garage. Another case of the brakes refusing to take quickly enough. The bumper, which is easily made and will prevent such happenings, is shown in the drawing.
NO Smoking! The order was given aboard the Leviathan and most members of the crew observed it. A few, however, went quietly down to one of the lower holds and began to smoke. Two minutes later an officer walked in on them. How did he find out? The men puzzled over this while they went through a round of extra duty for their offense.
THE handle of this eraser-holder consists of a section of bamboo cut at the joint to insure strength. The diameter of the butt is about 1 in. The slot is cut deep to allow the use of a full length new rubber. The slot is tapered from the thickness of the rubber at the bottom to approximately one and a half the thickness of the rubber at the points.
WHEN you are on a hunting expedition or an automobile trip, there will often be an occasion when you are in need of light. Matches can be carried in any pocket or matchbox and can be made absolutely waterproof if they are dipped in melted paraffin.
THE panel described here will be found very useful for a small garage or for private use. It is easily made and portable, but the electrical fittings must be bought from a reliable house so as to cover underwriters’ requirements. This apparatus cannot be used on alternating current.
IF you like xylophone music, it will pay you to make such an instrument in view of their present high cost. The frames must be made first. Use hardwood strips 5/8 in. thick and cut to the dimensions given in the detail diagram. One of the frames is 2½ in.
DURING the winter season, especially when there is heavy snowfall, a steam-heated sidewalk will save a great deal of time, labor, and expense which would otherwise be necessary for removing the snow. As shown in the illustration, the steam-pipes are laid in the cindey-bed of the sidewalk before the concrete is put on.
AUTOMOBILE owners may gain a valuable suggestion from the description of the method I used in correcting a defect in the coupling of an automobile. The car was equipped with plain disk couplings with leather insert, which connected the generator with the pump on one hand and the magneto on the other.
WHERE electrical connections must be made and remade in wires carrying relatively small currents, the ends of the wires may be slipped through the loop or eye of the cotter-pin—soldered and twisted to make good contact, and taped. Wire ends thus equipped may be quickly attached to other wires, to bindingposts, or to each other by simply slipping the fork of the cotter-pin over the wire and sliding the washer forward to lock it.
RECENTLY a large manufacturing concern had occasion to dismantle a heavy gas-engine, having a flywheel some 30 ft. in diameter. The tearing down of the engines proceeded without unusual difficulty until the flywheel was reached. The sections of which the wheel was formed were separated, after some little difficulty, by heating the large keys which joined them until they expanded sufficiently to be driven out.
A CONVENIENT method for rendering ordinary drawing-paper transparent for the purpose of making tracings, and of removing its transparency so as to restore its former appearance when the drawing is completed, consists in dissolving a given quantity of castor-oil in one, two, or three volumes of absolute alcohol, according to the thickness of the paper; and applying it to the sheet by means of a sponge.
SOME time ago a serious accident in the engine-room of one of our local cotton-mills caused the stoppage of the machinery and temporarily made the three thousand employees of the mills idle. The crosshead pin became obstructed and this caused the buckling of a large steel connectingrod of great weight.
HERE is a good method for mending a torn automobile top. Sew the torn edges of the tear together with stout thread. Then take several strips of surgeon’s tape and lay them over the joints, pressing the tape down solidly and warming it by the heat of the hand.
THE construction of an electrical automatic recording target for a rifle-range is detailed in the accompanying illustrations. In operation, the spot where a bullet strikes is instantly indicated by the lighting of a lamp in a corresponding position on a signal-board, making it easy to correct the aim and keep account of the score at ranges at which the target cannot be easily seen.
IT is sometimes desirable, especially in a laboratory, to cut off the bottom of a bottle and to do so with a clean-cut fracture. The accompanying diagram shows a very effective method. Tightly draw about the bottom of the bottle a piece of No. 30 iron wire, carrying one end to one pole of a battery and the other end to one binding-post of a knife-switch.
OFTEN the amateur mechanic finds that when a piece of turning is finished it is not as accurate as it should be, though the lathe may be of a good make, the tools in good order, and the actual turning carefully done. Perhaps the commonest fault found is that, in the case of a shaft or other somewhat long piece, the diameter at the tailstock end will be greater than at the headstock end.
THE usefulness of a triangle such as is used by draftsmen may be increased by a simple method without marring it in any way. Drill 3 small holes as indicated in the accompanying drawing about ½ in. from the edge the longer right-angle side.
IN small workshops where no millwright is employed, line-shafting is quite frequently neglected and allowed to go without proper lubrication. If the bearings are equipped with grease-cups, as shown in the illustration, they will run for a considerable length of time without attention.
THE apparatus shown in the illustration comprises the horizontal bar, flying rings, trapeze, and a child’s swing, while rope-climbing can also be practised upon it. The uprights are two scantlings 2 in. thick by 4 in. in width and 15 ft. long.
A SATISFACTORY spy-glass can be made of two mailing-tubes and two lenses in a short time. Procure two ordinary mailing-tubes about 1½ in. in diameter and 15 in. long, that will slide, one within the other, fairly snugly. In one end of each tube, about 1 in. back from the edge, put a shoulder of thick cardboard around on the inside, fastening with glue.
EVERY one using a storage battery in his automobile will, have to lift it in or out occasionally. This invariably necessitates the use of both hands and considerable exertion, as the battery case is bulky, heavy, and hard to handle. A very useful device for lifting the battery can be made by fastening a harness snap with rivets to each end of a stout leather strap of sufficient strength to support the weight of the battery.
A SOCKET-WRENCH is always a handy tool about a shop or garage, and at times it is indispensable. One that fulfills all the requirements of the purchased tool can be made easily. The wrench shown in the illustration was made to fit the head of a 3/8in.
TO prevent running the automobile through the back of a closed garage, a cement bumper can be built either when building the drive and cement floor or years later. This is done by making a hill of cement about 16 in. high and starting the incline about 3 ft. from the wall.
DO you want to make an easily renewable and cheap battery for the plate circuit of your audion? This tells how the writer constructed drycells to deliver 32 volts, at a total cost of about 50 cents. The container was made from a cigar-box partitioned off into 24 compartments by means of hardwood strips 5/16 in. thick and 7/8 and 1¾ in. wide, respectively.
EVERY fisherman takes particular pride in his pole with agate lineguides, etc., if he is fortunate enough to own one. But a pole so equipped costs considerable money. The illustration clearly illustrates how a cheap fishing-pole, equipped with only simple wire guides, may be converted into an efficient and satisfactory pole with guides that are every bit as good and work just as well as the expensive pole.
THE fungus is a form of plant life with the uses of which comparatively few people are acquainted. One class, popularly called shelf or bracket fungus, may be used for decorative purposes. Pictures may be drawn on its flat surface. The bracket fungus is found most often in the shape of a semicircular bracket, varying in size from 1 in. to 2 ft. in diameter and attached to dead stumps and fallen logs—beech-trees particularly.