Monsieur Bélin’s remarkable invention will also take its place in the professional and business world
He Is the Inventor of the Telephotograph
The Beginnings of Telephotography
Listening to a Photograph
The Receiving Apparatus
Telegraph Your Handwriting
A. J. Lorraine
A BLOODCURDLING shriek has been heard in the dead of the night, seemingly coming from a ramshackle hut long since abandoned. Then silence over all. The neighbors, either too sleepy or too scared to investigate, presently fall back on their pillows, to be awakened again only by the light of day.
Walter N. Polakov, Student of Industrial Relations
DID you ever stop to think what a fine'piece of mechanism your watch is? A good watch will keep time to within one or two seconds a day. Yet the power that drives it is amazingly small. Supposing that every man, woman, and child in New York city were provided with a watch, all these time-keepers made into one would tower about as high as the Times Square Building.
Walter N. Polakov points a possible solution of the problem
The Real Cause of High Prices
Cost of Idle Machines
How Workmen Check Time Waste
HERE is a two-family house, each family paying to the landlord fifty dollars rent a month. One family moves away, and the landlord demands one hundred dollars rent from the remaining tenant. “But it isn’t worth it!” says the tenant. “You’ve got to pay; it’s my right to get one hundred dollars from this house, and I’m going to get it,” growls the landlord.
ELECTRIC cranes hoist and transport loads that would take many men, tugging and lifting, hours to move. Industrial efficiency depends upon the speed of transportation, outside and inside the factory. The economic importance of the electric crane can not be overestimated.
IN Europe a method has been adopted for selecting school-children of the highest mental ability in order that they should not be held back in their studies by slower minds. The pupils’ powers of concentration and observation are tested by the experiments represented in the photographs below.
NEW YORK, the tallest city in the world, has nearly a hundred buildings twenty or more stories high. If these structures were piled on top of one another, they would reach the clouds, where eternal snow would crown them. The total height of the skyscrapers of Manhattan is more than five miles, or nearly equal to the altitude of Mount Everest, the earth’s most lofty mountain.
Aeronautical experts are attempting to standardize it
The Motor's “Circulation”
The Perfection of Engine Detail
IF the heart of a man is an imperfect organ, refusing to do its work of properly pumping the blood through the body when unusual conditions prevail, such as are met in stunt flying, that particular man can not be an aviator. So it is with the engine of an airplane.
Using colored lights like paints on an artist’s palette
Latimer J. Wilson
IN the electrical effects of the gorgeous Oriental ,play, “Mecca,” at the Century theater, New York, E. Braun, the chief electrician, has made use of colored lights as an artist makes use of colors on a palette. The scenery depends upon light for its effectiveness.
A SMALL and simple machine—so simple that it may be operated by a blind man without risk of injury—has been invented by M. Vollet, a French engineer, for trimming the bristles or vegetable fibers of brushes. Heretofore an experienced workman was able to trim five dozen brushes an hour by hand.
THIS plow is a hard worker. It bites into the deep snow like a hungry demon. Six horses are required to pull it, but the horses do not furnish the motive power that actually removes the snow. A sixty-horsepower gas-engine does that. The engine is mounted upon the steel frame and connected by chain drive with the two fast rotary cutters at each side.
CONCRETE ships are not new. We are familiar, more or less, with the pre-cast plate method, the monolithic hull, and the upside-down boat. But now comes the concrete ship built in units, with a resulting hull lighter than wood and more shipshape in appearance than the earlier concrete types.
FIREFIGHTERS trying to stem the roaring flames of the burning forest dash toward the clearings where the tall grass may be burned ahead of the fire to prevent a new nucleus of a conflagration from being started. In fighting the forest fires and in controlling the areas that are purposely being burned, a type of fire-wagon is employed which conveys a water-tank on the bed of the wagon.
GOOD coal, bad coal, and slate are all mixed together when they come from the mines. Later they have to be separated either by hand or machinery. Slate is heavier, rougher, and flatter than coal; thus it moves more slowly. The sorting machine below takes advantage of this.
IF you don’t like to wear rubbers in rainy weather, perhaps you will wear rubber bands instead—not the ordinary kind with which you fasten packages, but great thick ones that you wrap separately around the toe and heel of each shoe. Mr. Aimer on H. Perry, of Washington, D. C., thought of this idea.
THE price of ice continues to rise with the rest of life’s necessities. This invention will solve the ice problem for those who will go to the trouble of constructing an icehouse. The device is nothing more nor less than a simply constructed form of galvanized iron with provisions made for the expansion of the water as it approaches freezingpoint.
YOU guessed right. This is some kind of a ’scope —an umbrascope. It is used in large cities to see that industries do not discharge more smoke into the atmosphere than is lawful. At one end of the umbrascope there is a small peephole. At the other end a piece of colored glass is in place.
OAT, wheat, and rye straws, when intensely heated in a closed compartment, give off a gas that can be used for illumination as well as power. Six years ago George Harrison, a Canadian engineer, developed this new fuel, which at present is being subjected to experimentation and further development by the United States Department of Agriculture.
AN increasing number of fur-bearing animals must be trapped to supply the demand. Here is the latest way of trapping them. Mr. Raguvald Leland, of Birch Hills, Canada, has invented a luring-machine. Animals will invariably follow footprints made by one of their kind; this machine turns out imitation footprints.
TRACKS seem to approach each other as you look down them, until, at a vanishing point, they seem to touch. Perspective drawing is the art of picturing things on a plane surface as they appear to the eye, and in consequence there must be a left and a right vanishing point.
IN a dark room place a concave mirror upright and opposite it a bright light so screened that it shines only through a pinhole. The distance of the light from the mirror must be the center of the curvature radius, and the eye looking at the mirror must be close beside the source of light.
WILL they wear well? That’s the first question you ask when you find a pair of shoes you like. All sole-leather looks very much alike, and it’s hard to tell the good from the bad by the eye. The government, however, has a new machine for testing it.
SHOULD a fly bite you, you would swat it. But when a fly bites a cow, she can’t retaliate—she hasn’t anything with which to swat it effectually. And so she kicks futilely, swishes her tail, and frequently knocks over the pail of milk. Some lover of animals has thought out a way to save poor old Bossy such constant irritation.
“STOLEN—a seven-passenger touring-car,” is not an uncommon message at Police Headquarters. When the police get a report like this, they watch out, naturally, for a large touring-car. But the thieves may have changed its shape in the meantime.
AT the reduction plant of a California quicksilver mining company an air railway is being used for transporting redhot calcines to the dump. The rotary furnaces from which the calcines are discharged are in a parallel row and spaced about twenty-five feet apart.
THE attachment invented by M. G. Navarre, shown in the accompanying picture, informs you that the last line of your typewritten page is reached. It has a disk with fifty or more ratchet teeth. It is pivoted to a plate that is fastened to the machine.
"AFRICA” has a mysterious and terrible sound to most people. They think of it as populated with wild, unruly savages—a place where white men, and particularly white women, fear to tread. Yet the photograph reproduced above was taken there.
MUCH has been said and written of the need of thrift and economy in every phase of the trivial round and common task. Above is given yet another instance of getting the most out of everything—even of a twisted, tortured old tube of tooth-paste.
WHEN a fourteen-inch shell screeches its way through the air, men stand aghast as it crashes into armor-plate, burying its nose in the fracture. When a super-hard steel drill, revolving at five hundred revolutions a minute, plunges through armor-plate, a keen interest is awakened in the observers.
“Do" not waste the waste paper!” should be posted everywhere. Not only can it be made over again into new paper, but it can be used as packing material. For this purpose there are special stripping machines which cut the paper into small strips.
FEEDING screw caps to a threading machine—that’s what the girl in the picture is doing. One by one, she picks them out of the bin in front of her, and drops them down a small tube at the side of the bin. When they reach the bottom they are grasped by the revolving machine chuck.
AN automatic water-measuring device has been invented to enable the concrete-worker to gage the amount of water required for the various grades of aggregate. With weather conditions known and a known quality of aggregate, a fixed supply of water is required.
EVERY few years the public finds it is being cheated, and a campaign is started for honest scales. In Denver a campaign is now being carried on. Mrs. Jones buys a pound of meat. She then takes it to an “official free city scales” booth, and has it weighed.
ANEW automobile lock has been introduced that cuts off the gasoline at the carburetor, although it is operated by a button on the dashboard. When you wish to lock your car, you pull out the button just as, in some cars, you pull out the ignition button to shut off your engine.
BELOW is pictured a compressed-air tool that is a great help to the riveter. It is nothing more nor less than a piston and a cylinder. It is put in place in a boiler as shown, and air is allowed to enter the cylinder. This forces the piston out, and the tool then acts as a brace inside the boiler.
THIS is a wandering blower. It is ready for duty at all times in any part of the factory or garage. It is necessary only to push it to the place where it is needed and connect it to the electric circuit. A steady flow of high-pressure air is available, which may be used for a multitude of purposes.
IF one desires to remove the walls and ceiling of a house, here is a tool, invented by Edward F. Wilkinson, of Gramercy, Louisiana, that will do away with the bother of erecting a scaffold. The iron bar is sufficiently long to reach to the ceiling of the average room.
WHEN using compressed air or electric drills of the larger size in drilling and tapping out boiler-plate, workmen are sometimes injured if the drill or tap happens to break or catch in the work. Sometimes the drill pulls itself out of the workman’s hands and whirls about with terrific force.
SOME morning in midwinter, when you look out of a window of your comfortable steam-heated room and see the trees glistening in the sunshine, you exclaim: “Isn’t nature wonderful!” An hour later, though, you discover that the north wind that made the world so beautiful has converted the sidewalks into a skating-rink, and walking becomes uncomfortable and dangerous.
HOW long would it take a baker to roll the dough and shape 360 loaves of bread, or how many bakers would it take to make this number of loaves in one hour? Here is a machine that, with scant human aid, can mold sixty loaves a minute! At the rate of a loaf a second, this mechanical “dough-molder” turns out the bread ready to be sent to the ovens and baked.
This Girl Pedaled Almost Across the English Channel
CROSSING the English Channel by airplane has become very popular, chiefly because of the unpleasantness of the rough trip by boat. Yet here is a young girl who calmly decided to pedal her way across. Her bicycle is mounted on a pair of cylindrical pontoons, and the rear wheel is equipped with small paddles instead of a tire.
OF course, side-cars are not new, but they have not been used extensively in connection with bicycles. This man thought it would be practical to make one for his baby girl. He produced the substantial attachment shown. The car itself is suspended on springs, which make it very comfortable to ride in.
IT does not seem so difficult to toss a light ring over a duck’s neck, but try it and see! In Germany this has developed into a sport, “ringing the duck.” For five marks a player has three chances to throw the ring over the duck’s head. If he wins, he gets the duck.
How Dr. Harriss modified the railway blocksignal system and applied it to Fifth avenue
New York's Special Traffic Deputy
Fifth Avenue in a Rush Hour
The Traffic Was Chaotic
What the Towers Have Done
How the Signals Work
One Man Controls All Signals
Traffic Direction Is Scheduled
Suggestions for Improvement
Every One Must Help
Dr. Harriss' Appointment
THE traffic problems of New York city, perhaps the most difficult and complex of any city in the world, and assuredly of any city in the United States, are not solved by a group of heavy-browed experts gathered in solemn conference around piles of maps and charts and blueprints.
Managing the public at one of the world’s busiest corners
CHARING CROSS station in London is one of the busiest spots in the world. It is the main junction of the underground railways, where 2290 trains stop daily. In one day 190,000 ordinary ticket-holders enter and leave the station, together with 32,000 season-ticket holders.
Various methods of keeping within the eighteenth amendment
Are You a Lawbreaker?
Dr. Waldbott’s Alcohol Test
Drinks with an Evil Tendency
Some More Complicated Tests
John Walker Harrington
HOW high does the home brew kick? In these days, the citizen desiring to keep his elixir of malt and hops or his wine within the half per cent limit, can find simple devices by which he can know the amount of alcohol in fluids of his own bottling. All methods for finding the strength of the brewed beverage are based upon the differences between the fermented and the unfermented liquids.
ON account of the scarcity of plastic explosives since the war, liquid oxygen has recently come into extensive use as an explosive. Liquid oxygen in itself, of course, is not an explosive; it must have a carrier in the form of a paper cartridge.
HUGE steel pipes are usually cast, but they can also be bent into shape. Take, for example, the hydraulic gas-mains shown here. They were made from sections of flat steel plate. The sections were very thin—not any more than half an inch in thickness.
THE human body radiates considerable heat. Heat waves are shot outward from it in all directions at terrific speed. An instrument has been perfected that collects and concentrates these heat waves and projects them on a “thermocouple.”
IN the farmers’ war on their enemies the Bureau of Entomology, United States Department of Agriculture, takes an active part. Its experts go out into the fields and analyze the soil, observe the birds, examine the insects, and work industriously to discover exactly what things are beneficial and what are detrimental to the agriculturists’ interests.
New and Better Ways of Loading Live Stock on the Motor-Truck
Unloading Sheep at the Cincinnati Stockyards
A Complicated Segmental Swing Chute
A Simple Portable Inclined Chute
A Simple Expedient to Avoid Broken Legs
Why Motor-Trucks Are Supplanting Railroad Box-Cars
Here Is the Best Plan
2000 Hogs Daily
With the use of the motor-truck for transporting live stock have come many improvements in handling. At the Cincinnati stockyards sheep are unloaded by means of a horizontal chute pulled out from over a permanent inclined runway. The truck does not back up to the chute, but runs up parallel to it, after which the horizontal chute is pulled out directly back of the body.
THE Chinaman of the laundry counts his change on a rack of strung beads. The man behind the counter uses a cashregister. But here is a pocket adding and subtracting device that will enable any one to reckon the amount of figures in addition, division, or subtraction.
"WHY should overalls be loose around the waist and feet?” inquired Elizabeth Maddex, of Terre Haute, Indiana. Whereupon she invented a new kind of overalls. These overalls have a belt that may be loosened or tightened to suit each wearer.
NEARLY two centuries ago the first free balloon drifted its way across the sky, yet today this obsolete type of aircraft still holds such a fascination that men continue the sport of “free balloon” voyages. The usual free balloon consists of a gas-bag composed of light, airtight silk encased in a network of strong cords to which the basket is attached.
LARGE pots of clay, used for palms and other big plants, are almost sure to crack in time, from the strain and weight of the earth. The cracks usually start at the top and gradually extend the length of the pot. To prevent this, wrap a heavy copper wire tightly around the pot, under the shoulder.
A FEW days of zero weather, and you hear a good deal about “frozen pipes.” The plumber comes with his blow-torch, and thaws them out inch by inch. Now, however, there is an attachment for the torch that enables the flame to concentrate on a large section of the pipe at a time.
AN ingenious invention for determining the amount of lime or other alkali in soils has been developed by the Bureau of Soils of the Department of Agriculture. The instrument, known as the electrolytic bridge, is really an improvised Wheatstone bridge.
IF you think the family album does not give your ancestors’ photographs sufficient display, you might try hanging them up on a pole in your parlor. That’s what they’re doing in England now. Such an arrangement is shown above. The picture-frames have loops at the top which fit over hooks attached to a metal rod.
STEERING a vessel by compass at night taxes the eyesight severely. The pilot must have enough light to see the motions of the compass needle, yet must be able also to peer beyond in the darkness to catch the glimmer of a distant beacon. The retina of the eye needs time to accommodate itself to changes in intensity from a bright light to darkness.
HERE is an ice-cutting machine that can be operated by one or two men. It consists of a sled frame on which is mounted a motor that drives a saw trailed along at the rear of the machine. Connected with the arms that support the saw is a lever operated by hand and adapted to raise and lower the saw to cutting position.
OUR amateur wireless telegraphers may now record the messages they receive upon a tape, thanks to a new device developed by Mr. William G. Finch, of Buffalo, New York. Instead of the familiar buzz in the telephone receivers, the dots and dashes will be printed upon the tape, and even the messages sent by the fastest operators will be read at leisure.
WITHIN the crystal hemisphere shown above can be seen a scale of degrees ranging from the negative side of zero to 120 on the positive side. An indicator moves along this scale and accurately indicates the degree of temperature in the room.
A DOORMAT will take the dust and light dirt off your shoes if you shuffle across it, but it will not remove cakes of mud. If you have an old double-runner skate around the house, fasten it upside down on the edge of one of the steps leading up to the door that is most used.
“STOP the train! There’s a cow on the track!” At that the engineer shut off the power, jumped out, and chased the cow. This took place in the year 1829, and the engine in question was the “Rocket;” it was one of the first to be made in England by George Stephenson, the inventor of the first steam-locomotive.
MUST cheese always be made in the conventional square and circular shapes? Not while the artistic Italian has time to mold it differently. Caciocavallo cheese is very plastic and lends itself to the making of weird figures like those shown above.
ONLY forty per cent of our timber is used. The other sixty per cent is in such shape after-the boards have been cut that it represents nothing but waste. This is a startling fact, but nevertheless true. Some attention is being paid to the use of this waste in manufacturing from it such products as alcohol, tanning extracts, turpentine, pine oils, fiber for rugs, linoleums, and carpets.
PREPARE yourself for future toothaches by getting a tiny hot-water bottle like this one. It is so small that it will fit snugly between your gum and your ailing tooth. It holds half an ounce of water, and will give out enough heat to relieve almost any toothache.
THE ship below is complete with everything but a funnel. It is propelled with Diesel engines and therefore it does not need a funnel like coal-burning ships. Diesel engines burn crude oil and the residue gases are exhausted through small pipes.
SHOULD accident bring down a mailcarrying airplane in flames, the loss might be minimized by the use of sacks made of fireproof material. Of course, exposed to the full fury of exploding gasoline, there is nothing that would be an absolutely fireproof device. The heat generated would be so great that the paper enclosed in the asbestos covering would be “distilled” even if it did not actually burn.
“MY kingdom for a horse!” shouts willie, aged five. But Willie’s kingdom isn’t very large, so his chances of getting a real horse are very small. However, if he shouts hard enough and long enough, his parents may buy him a wild wooden one like that shown below.
FOR hanging bird-cages, flower-baskets, and the like from a wall, Allen Burrows, of Los Angeles, California, has devised a hanger that clamps to the wall-molding. The hanger consists of a lower forked member that engages under the molding and a pivoted clamping member that engages over the top of the molding, to secure the device in place.
DURING the repairing of a tramway route in Bradford, England, this observation post was installed for the traffic policeman, so that he could be seen from a distance. His personal comfort was considered as well as his efficiency, for which reason a chair was attached to one of the metal standards.
YOU put in a nickel and pull a lever; out comes a cup of coffee. That’s the system in some of these wait-on-yourself restaurants. And now a London storekeeper has adopted the idea. He sells large quantities of milk to the people in his neighborhood.
BUSTER MURPHY is a much traveled dog, and his master sees that he travels in comfort, housed in a portable conveyance. It is constructed from galvanized metal which is perforated at the top on both ends for circulation of air. A food and water receptacle is placed inside, with an extra supply of food in a drawer below.
BOX-MAKERS and others who use scores of nails usually have to dig with their hands into the keg to get the nails, afterward sorting and arranging them so all the heads are in the same position in order to pick them up rapidly and drive them into the box being made.
SOLID wheels of wood have become so popular on automobiles that now they are being used on bicycles. Below you see a bicycle in which the usual wire spokes have been supplanted by wood. And, what is more, the tires on this bicycle are made of solid rubber; thus punctures become an impossibility and bicycle pumps as obsolete as the dodo.
A MECHANICAL dwarf, less than a yard high and weighing only seventy pounds, yet having strength to hold a drill that bores into solid shafts of steel, is the way one might visualize the new bench drilling-stand equipped with an electric drill.
BEFORE you go up into the atmosphere with the airplane, call up the Weather Bureau and find out whether the wind is favorable or not. Special reports are prepared daily from observation of captive test balloons. The direction o,f the air currents up to four thousand feet, their strength, indicated by the pull on the cable, and other information, are obtained from numerous weather stations.
OFTEN it is desired by the workman that the screws he puts into the wood be permanently set. To prevent the_ removal of the screw with an ordinary screwdriver, the slot into which the screwdriver would fit is held in such a marnier that the screw cannot be removed.
IN the wintertime cows usually live on silage; it is a fodder made up of cornstalks, sunflowers, and various grasses that are stored under pressure in a silo. The problem of compressing the silage to such a point that practically no air can get through led to the invention of the machine shown below.
WHAT do you do with your rubbers when you’re not using them? Throw them in the corner of the closet, most likely, and leave them in a heap until you want them again. Why not make a rubber-holder like the one above and hang it up in some corner? Line a strip of enameled cloth with oilcloth, and punch six holes in it, two in the upper corner to afford means for hanging up the holder.
TMAGINE a building-tile that represents a giant nut, and two strong steel girders representing the jaws of a nut-cracker, with a long steel beam as the lever-handle supporting an automobile at the far end as sliding weight. If your imagination is at all good you will see at a glance how this giant “nutcracker” works in testing the strength of the tile.
THERE is a certain breed of cattle, known as the Galloway, which is quite different from the usual breed. The animals have thick curly hair that can be used as wool. The Galloways grew up in southwest Scotland, where a good overcoat is needed to keep the warmth in and the damp weather out.
A PHONOGRAPH needle has been invented that makes it possible to vary the tone to any desired degree of loudness or softness It consists of a metal cap into which a needle of tungsten is fixed. When this cap is placed on the shank, the loudest tone is produced, because the vibrating medium is shortest.
HAVE you a magnet for use in the house? When unruly phonograph needles fall upon the floor, as they have a bad habit of doing, a magnet with a long handle enables one to pick them up without sticking them into his fingers. It also collects the small steel balls that are used in the modern quill pen-holder.
DURING a strike of power-house men in a large city in Holland, the automobile tractor here pictured was used to pull the street-cars along the tracks. It is about the size of a large limousine and is equipped with standard gage flanged wheels, and has a chain drive.
His great strength estimated in terms of horsepower
Latimer J. Wilson
IN an area, as comparatively small as that included within the limits of New York city, Jack Frost makes use of more power than that which is used to run all of the industries in the whole civilized world. When one steps outdoors in the morning and sees the ice on the pavement, he seldom thinks about any other work being done than that of his own task in removing the slippery sheets from in front of his premises.
Now comes the stage on wheels. In fact, the stage is one big wheel with the scenes of the play arranged around its periphery. When an act is over, the wheel is turned and the next scene comes into place in a fraction of a minute. The rotary stage is the invention of Gustav Dumont, manager of the German Opera, Charlottenburg, near Berlin.
WOULD you draw a polygon, or would you find the length of a line that equals the arc of a circle, or do you desire to draw quickly the flutes in a fluted column? If so, here is a new kind of protractor that will accomplish the work with speed and simplicity.
"GOD has given you one face,” said Hamlet—but he did not mention the fact that the two halves of it are often startlingly different. Perhaps he, like most of us, did not know it. Yet photography has proved that one side of the face is usually more intelligent than the other.
MOVIES! That’s what children cry for to-day. But you don’t like to take your children to the movies unless you are sure that the pictures to be shown are fit for their young eyes. Ah, but here is a picture machine for the home. It is cheap, easy to operate, and won’t catch fire.
William Firth Wells brings the cream separator to the aid of the embryo oyster
Changing the Water a Difficulty
Young Oysters Need Care
Ingenuity Wins the Day
Raymonde G. Doyle
A FEW weeks ago a telephone message was sent to thie New York State Conservation Commission at Albany from a little town down Long Island way—West Sayville, home of the oyster industry on that part of the Atlantic coast. William Firth Wells, biologist and sanitarian for the Commission, was making a brief report on an important experiment.
ENGLAND’S greatest authority on the physics of low temperatures, Sir James Dewar, has shown that some phosphorescent bacteria, obtained from sea water, will resist the temperature of liquid hydrogen 252 degrees below zero (Centigrade).
CARBON-DIOXIDE is a deadly, insidious gas that hais neither color nor odor. When considerable amounts of carbon-dioxide are present, the red corpuscles insist on carrying carbon-dioxide through the lungs in plape of oxygen. Suffocation results.
MUSIC-TEACHER to canaries is the profession of the lady in the picture, strange as it may seem. Canaries can be taught to sing sweetly as well as young ladies. They are taught by a method of comparison. Two large tanks, that fit inside each other, are-filled with water that acts like compressed, air, and with the aid of whistles makes music.
THIS former middleweight wrestling champion, George Bothner, keeps himself in condition by working at an electric vitalizer every morning. While he pulls at the ropes, a current of electricity passes through the handles into his body; the current is supplied by a dry-cell battery.
UNFORTUNATELY, electric wall sockets are not uniform. Some of them are slotted to receive parallel blades; others call for perpendicular blades; a few are made for T-shaped blades; and some call for blades in line with each other. But now there is a new plug the blades of which can be turned to fit any of these sockets.
THE “Bohemian Girl” dreamed that she dwelt in marble halls; and most of us dream either of the beautiful things we want and can’t have, or of the ugly things we fear. There is a man, however, who had a vivid dream about a toothbrush—a strange dual toothbrush unlike anything he had seen before.
A GOAT can eat paper, which is but a form of wood. Not so with cattle. However, if experiments now being carried out prove entirely successful, cattle will add sawdust to their diet. Experiments are being made at the Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin, with a new cattle food prepared by treating sawdust with acid.
EVERY house must have its chimney; so why not make decorative chimneys instead of the usual undecorative ones? Take, for example, the chimney shown at the right. It is located at the side of a plain wooden house and is quite the most startling thing in the neighborhood.
OLD automobile headlight lenses can be used for framing pictures. Cut down the pictures to suit the size of the glass, and enclose the two in the metal frame that formerly held the lense in place on the car. Next put a piece of cardboard behind the picture to hold it in place and prevent slipping.
PARADES and night scenes can be photographed by flashlight only when a large charge of powder is employed. To handle this charge requires special precautions. A photographer has devised a way to meet the difficulty by employing a pole eight feet long, on the top of which a metal powder-holder is arranged.
THIS snake never did anybody any harm. It is made of rubber. It is not used as a joke, either. It is mounted in a tree of a churchyard at Toluco, Mexico, where it constantly reminds the congregation about the temptations of Adam and Eve. No one seems to have thought that it might keep the timid away from church.
A SMALL meteorite—that’s what you might naturally think when you look at the object above. It weighs twelve pounds, and measures four by seven inches. It is not a meteorite, however—but a nugget of pure gold. The nugget, which is worth a small fortune, was discovered recently in the Kilo state mines, which are situated in northeastern Congo.
LET your check-book be worthy of the checks within. If you are a rich man and think nothing of making out four-figure checks, then you should have a check-book of gold trimmed with platinum, like the one shown above. The platinum comes in the form of a name-plate that decorates one corner of the book.
WHAT is oil cake? It is a product composed of flaxseed, cottonseed, hempseed, rapeseed, etc., from which the oil has been pressed out. In the jaws of the powerful presses it is compressed into comparatively thin sheets, and is stacked to be sold as food for stock.
MEN who like to shake dice can buy tiny cubes of silver. They are so small that five of them can be contained easily in a hollow gold bullet. The little gold bullet, with its silver dice, makes an attractive ornament for a watchchain, and if the wearer has heard other bullets whip the air and escaped their sting, perhaps he will have the same good luck with this golden bullet. And that is what a number of players count on—the idea that luck was with them when the greatest stake of all was played for.
THE firemen of San Francisco, California, will not be caught napping when a big fire starts in their city. In a recent test of the efficiency of the city’s fire-fighting apparatus, 32,000 feet of 2¾and 2½-inch hose was used by 110 men of the department in demonstrating just what chance they would have with such an equipment.
TOO old to get a job, the man in this picture became a beggar—but not the ordinary kind. He gives the public something for their money. Every morning he starts out, wheeling before him a baby-carriage on which is mounted a phonograph. When he reaches a crowded corner, he starts his phonograph and dances to the tune of it.
DON’T sell your battered old automobile to the junkman—use the various parts in your home. The gearshift lever, for instance, can be used for shifting logs instead of gears. It is strongly made and easily handled; thus it becomes an excellent substitute for a poker.
How will this man, who has made a somersault from the plank, strike the water? The art of photography has been the means of analyzing motions that are far too swift to be caught by the eye. When a series of motion-pictures is taken of men jumping, diving, or running, a precise record is made of the sequence of movements.
THE wheel in the picture above is made to rotate by means of a stream of air which the statue—a Nereid—blows at it. The ball-bearings, rolling in polished races within the wheel, not only facilitate rotation, but they also reduce the amount of friction usually generated by a rotating wheel.
THE span of the bridge pictured below weighs more than two hundred tons. The engineers had to put on their thinking-caps when it came to getting it into place. They constructed heavy pontoons and placed the span upon them. The Potomac river, over which the bridge is constructed, has a changing water-level due to the ocean tides.
HERE is a device that captures every rivet and holds it until the “rivetcatcher” is full. Machines operated by compressed air rain blows in quick succession under the head of the rivet to be removed. Then it flies into the air, like a shot from a gun.
A LEAD-PENCIL that can be converted into a foot-rule is a convenient thing to have. The owner has only to give a pull at the opposite ends of the pencil, and its telescoped parts are drawn out to twelve inches. The pencil-rule is of sterling silver and is fitted with a clip to hold it in the pocket.
BALL-BEARINGS are manufactured with the greatest precision. Extreme care is taken with all sizes, but the larger and more expensive bearings of the size illustrated are products of a highly perfected science. As a simple test of accuracy, one manufacturer mounted two balls of the same size side by side.
IT is not always possible to clean eyeglasses with the corner of one’s handkerchief when nothing but moisture will remove the particles that have adhered to the glass. The more a man rubs the glass under such conditions, the more likely is he to scratch the lens, and scratches can not be removed without the expense and time for repolishing.
CHICAGO, in the shape of a manufacturer, has come to the relief of the man who loads heavy and clumsy objects on motor-trucks and then tells the boss how he loves his muscle-developing job. By installing the crane shown in the picture, from five hundred to one thousand pounds of material may be loaded quickly by one man.
DON’T throw away your steel phonograph needles. Here is a simple device attached to the top of the talking-machine that repoints the old needles. It is a small metal frame with a small drive wheei that runs by friction upon the rim of the phonograph turntable.
IN some large offices errand-girls skim about on roller-skates. Not only do they save time and make more trips, but the work becomes a form of sport and therefore more interesting. Needless to say, these young ladies on skates would outclass their rivals in a rink, for they have had the abundance of practice that makes perfect.
THE man who has to clean the golf-balls, after they have become unrecognizable, will appreciate this ballcleaning apparatus. It consists of a stand made of metal, with a scrubbingbrush and bucket, and a spouting bucket containing fresh water.
CONCRETEand brick-testing machines are in use at the Bureau of Standards at Washington, D. C. This giant press can be made to exert a crushing pressure of ten million pounds. This would be equivalent to the weight of at least twenty large locomotives with their tenders.
MAN is distinctly a land creature. When he goes into deep water, he must either sink or swim. Now, the duck, on the contrary, is perfectly at home in the water. What is the reason for this difference between man and duck? One reason is the duck’s webbed feet; they open and shut when he swims, and add to his speed.
HERE is an , electric-lighting outfit for country, homes, yachts, or camps. It is placed in a white enameled steel case that hides the unsightly batteries, gasoline engine, generator, and switches. Everything is enclosed, yet the vital parts of the system are accessible should they give trouble in operation.
A MECHANICAL cost-accountant, recording the expenditures for truck operation in terms of material, time, ánd distance, has recently been placed on the market by a manufacturer of fare-registers and taximeters. It weighs seven pounds and is placed on the truck dash.
BRACING together two motorcycles by means of tie-rods coupled behind a similar machine with a side-car attachment, the man shown below made the trip from Springfield, Massachusetts, to Lima, Ohio. The idea was originated by a motorcycle dealer of Lima, Ohio, who used it successfully for delivering three side-car machines to purchasers in Lima.
FOR the convenience of their truck-drivers a large manufacturing concern, running trucks regularly between Akron, Ohio, and Boston, had bunks like that shown here built in their trucks. The run of 1500 miles is made on regular schedule in five days and a half all the year round.
WORKING on the principle of a jack; easy to operate and self-adjustable to any size of tire, the new type of rim tool shown in the accompanying illustrations, will enable an amateur to unlock the rim, remove the tire, substitute a new tire, and lock its rim, in five minutes.
THE machine pictured is drilling fifty-four holes in one operation in the four-cylinder block of a certain make of automobile. In fact, every hole required in the casting is made at the same time. The operator sets the casting on the table of this remarkable drill, clamps it in place, and the machine does the rest.
SOME one with real ingenuity has found a way of utilizing an almost negligible part of the electric energy in the storage battery of the automobile to do a big service for the motorist. He has designed a thin metal piece to go between the manifold flange and the carburetor connection after the manner of a gasket.
HOWARD WILL, of Syracuse, New York, lost his automobile in a recent garage fire. While the flames were raging in the building and destroying its valuable contents, the horn of Mr. Will’s car blew continually as if it were calling its master or summoning the help of the fire department.
WHILE a motor-truck does not eat its head off like a horse when not employed in useful work, the overhead charges of interest on the investment, depreciation, etc., go on just the same. For that reason many road contractors with a comparatively small amount of road oiling to perform have employed horse-drawn equipment.
THIS is a disk-grinder used for large work. The steel disk, covered with abrasive paper or cloth, revolves horizontally, and the objects to be ground rest on the surface. It is not necessary to apply any pressure. A hoist located beside the grinder lifts the work upon the disk.
"WHAT’S up?” you say, as you see a crowd gathering in front of a store window. There you see, besides the usual display of goods, a mirror that reflects charming unseen creatures in the latest creations. Where are the originals? They are up on the floor above.
IN the picture the gentleman is not trying to compete with the ice trust. He is providing a place of abode for the long sunless nights of an arctic winter. Having left his tepee, or skin tent, which he had occupied during the short summer months, along the fringe of the barren lands of the unknown northland of our continent, he is now erecting his house for the winter.
THE man with a home shop often feels the need of a small handor power-driven blower to operate a forge or blowpipe or perhaps to use as an exhaust fan in connection with a woodworking machine or grinding-wheel or to ventilate a room. While such blowers are of simple construction, the making of the housing is the source of some difficulty, for if the bearings are integral with the casing, as is usually the case, this must be a casting of substantial construction to withstand the strain and would require a more or less complicated casting.
THE illustration shows an electric-light fixture which has been used with great success. It is made from odds and ends picked up around the shop or home, and it is so built that it will stand any amount of hard service. It will throw light in any direction and it stays wherever it is put, as the counterweight on the upper end of the piece of tubing just balances the weight of the lamp at the lower end.
WHEN a photographic camera has been in use for several years, it usually begins to give evidence of its old age. The first sign is almost invariably shown by the bellows, which begin to crack at the creases and develop leaks at the corners. The light coming through these cracks and holes causes the films or plates exposed in photographing to become “light-struck.” For a while judiciously applied patches may extend the life of the camera, but eventually the time will come when new bellows must be put in the place of the old.
CHEMISTS and metallurgists often find it extremely difficult to remove burnt-in metal oxides from porcelain crucibles without injuring them. J. Willard Hershey, professor of chemistry at McPherson College, Kansas, recommends the following method: Fill the crucible about half full of aqua regia and add a few drops of hydrofluoric acid.
SOMETIMES it is necessary to knurl the edges of small brass screwheads or nuts when no knurling machine is available. A fairly satisfactory knurl may be put on brass or even soft steel or iron pieces by means of a new sharp file, either straight or cross cut, and some hardwood blocks.
ALTHOUGH about the first thing the machine-shop man learns to do, perhaps a few words to the automobile owner or home mechanic who is installing a small drill-press may not be out of place. Of course it is easy enough to make a dent in a piece of metal with a center punch and drill a hole through the piece, but whether the drill follows the punch mark or runs off a sixteenth of an inch or so, is a question of luck to a great extent, unless the drill is perfectly sharpened and the drill-press in good shape—even so, a large drill will seldom follow the punch mark exactly.
IN testing a lathe for the parallelis of its cut, it is customary to mal up a steel test bar such as shown in the illustration. A very light cut is taken off each end and the ends are then calipered. After considerable usage, the enlarged ends are finally turned down to the diameter of the center portion of the bar and the whole then becomes useless, requiring the scrapping of a piece of good steel.
HERE is a simple yet effective method of separating the punchings from the product in punching washers on a press. Take a wire mesh screen and place it at the rear of the punch press as shown. Place two boxes underneath, one box directly underneath the punch, the other in the position shown.
BECAUSE little has been said about them, one should not suppose that Germany had no inventions of military importance during the war. It was particularly necessary to discover an explosive that would give greater efficiency to her torpedoes.
THE motor-sled shown in one of the pictures and of which details of construction are given, was built by the two boys sitting on the sled, William H. and L. F. Mowery, of Kennett Square, Pennsylvania. This unusual craft was used by them last winter with excellent success and attracted considerable attention.
NUMEROUS as are the clamps that have been designed for compressing the valve-springs of automobile engines, another one of extremely simple construction may be added. It is made of octagonal tool steel, ⅝ in. thick. The steel rod is bent as shown in the accompanying illustration.
WHENEVER you wish to make prints from leaves, take the printing-frame, place the leaf upon the glass, and lay a bromide paper with the sensitized side upon the leaf. Then take a little cotton and place on the back of the paper. This presses the paper gently against the leaf.
HOUSEWIVES and others who have many empty vinegar and soft-drink bottles, and who wish to put up various sorts of fruit-juices, etc., will find this capper to be “just what they have been looking for.” Many have any number of empty bottles, and can purchase the caps at nominal figures, but hesitate to pay the prices asked for capping-machines.
ONE of the problems for the builder of the suburban garage where drainage facilities are not present is that of disposing of oil, dirty water, mud, etc., when the car is washed or the chassis and engine cleaned with kerosene, the radiator drained, etc.
THE clamp principle of this darner is not new, though its details are somewhat improved. The novelty lies in the shape of the ball and its adjustability to the clamp, giving a much greater range of convenience, also allowing the ball to be removed entirely from the clamp.
AMONG the numerous makes of phonographs there are many of the cabinet style which have shelves on which to keep an abundant supply of records. One oftentimes desires to find a certain record, and unless some efficient means of filing and indexing is employed, it is a rather tedious and confusing job.
IT is always a very difficult matter to remove a screw in which one side of the head is broken away. The business may be much simplified by following the plan indicated in the illustration. Here a small block of wood is cut. The screwdriver is then put into the groove and the block pressed well against the tool. As the screwdriver is turned, the block is moved around as well, with the result that the screw is easily loosened, even if it is rusty.
A SIMPLE and reliable electric alarm-clock may be made by taking advantage of the fact that the glass of a common round clock may be revolved but will stay set in any position. A hole is drilled in the glass near the edge and a small machine screw is fastened in it by a nut on either side.
WILL the prospector of the future use a vacuum tube instead of the miner’s pick or the geologist’s hammer? W. L. Carlson and E. C. Hanson of Washington, D. C., seem to think so, for they have patented a means for locating ore bodies by audio-frequency currents.
ONE of the best forms for a calking-tool for boiler-plates is that shown in the accompanying illustration. The edge of the tool has a rounded, projecting rib, with a flat shoulder on each side. This compresses the metal and closes up the seam without making bad edges, and it does the work quickly and easily.
A SIMPLE hinge can easily be made from galvanized or copper wire. Take a wire which is not too thin. Cut off a piece about a foot long. Then take a heavy knitting-needle and, grasping the wire about an inch and a half from one end, begin to wind it carefully about the needle so as to get a perfectly uniform coil.
READING a Vernier scale on any style of machinists’ tool causes a considerable strain on the eyes, as the fine graduations are difficult to decipher. This is especially true of a gage such as shown here. By bending a piece of ordinary wire, fastening it into the tool as shown, and mounting a magnifying-glass on top of the wire, the finest graduations will be seen with satisfactory clearness.
DOES your wife or your mother complain because she has had to go down-cellar and fill the coalhod? Perhaps it is not simply because she had to carry it up the stairs, but because she had to fill it as well. Build her an automatic coalbin, then show her that all she has to do is to take the coalhod down to the foot of the stairs, place it in the proper place and less than a minute afterward it is ready to be carried upstairs.
SINCE the practice of covering automobile bodies with pyroxylincoated fabrics has become quite general, motorists often ask whether the covering of the hood with the heavy waterproof, airtight material does not cause the engine to heat up abnormally.
MOST of us take pleasure in showing a friend some article we ourselves have made, and are delighted with their appreciation of our handiwork. If you will but study the drawings and follow the description, you can make an ash-tray that will be equal to anything bought.
A CELLULOID window in my automobile hood having cracked, I mended it by the following simple method: Take a strip of thin tough paper, coating it on both sides with a solution of Canada balsam dissolved in turpentine to render it transparent.
WHERE a small electric light is used for illumination it is often desirable to use the dry cells during the day for other purposes, especially when the dry cells are used for the operation of different pieces of apparatus. It is a nuisance to disconnect the cells every time they are to be used, and the following will be found a happy solution of the problem.
ANY one who has a felt hat that needs to be made a little larger can bring about the desired result without going to a hat-repair shop and spending money on the job. All that is necessary is an ordinary vise. Make sure the vise is clean. Slip the hat over the jaws and open them out until there is sufficient pull to stretch the felt as much as is required.
SIMPLE and effective is this way of removing paint from iron and steel. Dissolve 1 lb. of concentrated powdered lye in 3 qts. of hot water, adding lime to make the solution thick enough to spread evenly. The solution should be applied as soon as it is mixed by means of a brush and allowed to remain on the surfaces to be cleaned until it is almost dry.
IF you wish to keep your drinking-glass from getting broken on your desk, keep it on a holder such as is shown in the accompanying illustration. To make the holder, drive a large wire nail or a piece of iron or brass rod, into a wood base. To the top of this solder two wires in the form of a cross, with the ends turned up.
A LATHE-CENTER on which work is revolving, should have some means of lubrication, so that the work being cut will not become overheated. Usually the machinist drops a little oil on it now and then, but this is poor practice. By cutting a groove to the point of the center, as shown in the illustration, you provide an excellent method of lubrication.
AN ordinary clothespin can be put to another use, that of cleaning the inside of the bowl of your pipe. As the pin is being rotated it works down and conforms to the shape of the bowl until the bottom is reached, thus removing the carbon from the wall of the pipe.
LADIES motoring over dusty roads generally wear a veil to prevent the wind from taking undue liberties with their hair, and goggles to keep the dust out of their eyes. But those who have tried it know that a veil worn over goggles is not a comfortable arrangement.
PROBABLY the largest waste of gasoline in this country is due to the habit of letting the engine run idle. There are two other items that should receive consideration when attempting to secure fuel economy. They are the carburetor and ignition.
ARCHITECTS, engineers,contractors, linemen, etc., often have occasion to refer to drawings, blueprints, etc., in all kinds of weather, and usually find that before long their prints are in a very dilapidated condition. A simple way of overcoming this trouble is to render them waterproof by saturating them with melted paraffin wax such as is used for sealing fruitjars.
ODDS and ends of steel pipe or cold-drawn tubing are good material for wrenches, the making of which does not present great difficulties. Take a piece of steel pipe or tubing and split it at one end for a distance of a few inches. Hammer the split Dortion out flat as shown in the picture, and then cut out a slot which will fit the particular kind of nut for which you wish to use the wrench.
IT happened on Monday, July fifth, a holiday in celebration of July Fourth, which fell on Sunday. The previous Saturday we purchased six new hacksaw blades to be fully prepared for cutting all the conduits necessary, as we intended to spend our holiday installing the conduits for the wiring of our house.
THROUGH uneven heating and cooling, metal is often warped. Case-hardened pieces cannot be straightened either by pressure or pounding, as this treatment results in cracking the case. The usual treatment of a piece of case-hardened metal is to find the “high” or “bowed” part, then mark this area with chalk.
AMONG various devices that have been used for the purpose of avoiding loss of time in finding workmen who may have gone out on another job, the one here illustrated has several advantages. It is conspicuous; it is so easy to operate that there is no excuse for neglecting to keep it properly set, and it has the feature of being adaptable for the use of two or more different persons, without being confusing in its indications.
THE accompanying illustration shows the simple construction of a device which was fitted to a chemist’s typewriter, and which saved him much time and trouble. In chemical writing, and also in various other classes of work, it is necessary frequently to write figures slightly below the line, as in H2SO4.
WE recently encountered an engine that failed to develop the proper amount of power, and an examination revealed that the breather-pipe a far too small in size, for when it was removed from the crankcase, a distinct rise in power was noticed.
MUCH difficulty is usually experienced in holding thin pieces to be machined in the lathe, shaper, miller, etc. By using beeswax a firm, even contact results. Pieces as thin as 1/16 in. can be held firmly enough for a fairly heavy cut to be made.
EVERY one knows that a train or heavy motor-truck shakes the ground as it passes by. Recently while metal planers were tested in a factory a heavy machine greatly interfered with the testing process. The illustration shows the position of the piece.
THE modern public library has adopted the camera and the photostat as mutual aids to the research worker and patent attorney. One asks for a book, picks out a chapter or illustration, and has photographic copies made of as many pages as desired, for a nominal fee.
STRONG yet light ladders may be made from furring strips, such as are used in building construction for stay-laths or braces. The writer has made many such ladders and found them very satisfactory. The accompanying illustration clearly illustrates the construction of the ladder.
SMALL articles of metal which are to be japanned or enameled are usually coated by the dipping method. This method undoubtedly speeds production, but increases the risk to life and property. Varnishes and enamels are easily inflammable and their use, especially in large quantities, as required in dipping, makes necessary special precautions against fire and explosion.
WITH the greatly increasing use of storage batteries in automobiles the demand for pure or distilled water has increased. It is unnecessary to purchase this water or pay the garage man to put it in the battery. With this simple and inexpensive still any one can distill water for refilling the batteries as the occasion requires.
TWO leaves from an automobile spring form a desirable adjunct to the vise when saw filing or when filing the edges of sheet metal. These may have vise jaw clamps of sheet iron riveted on them to make them hold properly in the vise while arranging the saw for filing or clamping the sheet metal in place.
AN attractive pen-rack that any one would value can be made from an old horseshoe. Get the horseshoe and, if it is dirty, clean it well. Should there be a rusty, uneven surface on it, this must be smoothed down with emery - paper. There is no need, however, to get the horsehoe really bright.
WITH a little mechanical skill and a few carpenter tools a commonplace and unornamental piece of furniture may be remodeled into an attractive and useful object fit for any room. The accompanying illustration shows how an exceedingly plain and unprepossessing bureau was transformed into a handsome and artistic buffet.
I MADE a set of spring oilers that proved very efficient for our Ford car. I took newspapers and cut them about four inches wide and the same length as one side of the spring. Then I cut little slots in the paper where the clips hold the spring together and made the paper fit snugly around the springs.
WHERE considerable work is done in taping up wire, coils, and so on, it is a great convenience and a time-saver to have a holder to carry the tape. The holder shown herewith not only keeps the tape clean and out of the way, but it permits winding with the least possible trouble.
WINDOW-WASHING is not usually considered a pleasant pastime, particularly in winter. It is decidedly unpleasant work. One of its most annoying features is the discomfort caused by the water running down the arm when it is extended for the purpose of washing the upper part of a window-pane.
LITTLE time is wasted in setting the wrench shown in the accompanying illustration to fit nuts or boltheads of different sizes. Pulling out a little knob will release the grip of the jaws of the wrench after you have completed your work.
A NUMBER of large keyways had to be cut in heavy shafts in a shop that had no machine that would do the work, and it was necessary to devise a method on the spot. The problem was solved in the following ingenious way: A steel tool was made the same width as the keyway, with a cutting edge on one side.
A BARREL-STAVE sled fitted with a steering runner can be made by any one skilful with tools and will give much pleasure to the builder. The body of the sled consists of a platform, 45 in. long by 24 in. wide, built of 1-in. boards. Probably at least three boards will be required and these are cleated together by three oak braces the shape and size shown in the detail sketch.
IN order to increase the speed of filtering, a thin glass tubing about a foot long is taken and bent so that a ring is formed near its upper end. This piece of glass tubing is then attached to the funnel with a piece of rubber. Fluids are filtered in the ordinary way, but filtration is rendered more rapid by the fact that the long column of liquid draws the liquid through the filter by producing suction.
ARE you a postage-stamp collector, a collector of geological, botanical, or entomological specimens? Or have you an amateur laboratory or workshop? For any one of these hobbies a magnifying-glass is useful, almost necessary in some cases.
A COUNTER for card games and the like can be made from a few strips of stiff paper. Cut as many strips, about ⅜ in. wide, as there are players. Cut a strip about 1 in. or wider—and rows of slits through which the narrow strips can be passed. The narrow strips are woven through the slits as shown, and the requisite numbers marked on them.
Selecting the prize-winners in the contest was a difficult task
WHEN the Popular Science Monthly in the early part of the year, offered three prizes, aggregating $90, for the neatest mechanical jobs that had ever come under the observation of the contestants, as described by them and illustrated by photographs or drawings, it was not expected by the editors that the selection of the prize-winners would present great difficulty.
THE boy with the sled is jealous of the boy with a toboggan and the one owning a toboggan is apt to feel jealous of the boy with a sled. This combination sled and toboggan is designed to furnish the two in one. One side is planked over with a solid, smooth bottom, while the opposite side, that is, when the contrivance is turned over, is furnished with round iron runners like a sled.
ONE of the most disagreeable features of hot-air furnaces is the dust which arises in clouds and pervades the whole cellar whenever the accumulated ashes are removed from the ash-box under the grate. Auiltin ash-pit under the furnace with a suitable outlet to the yard would remove this feature, but such pits are rarely provided except in private residences built to order.
SAWING wood with a circular saw is a dangerous task unless proper care is taken. By using a wooden finger-guard as shown in the accompanying illustration, much of the danger is eliminated. A represents two small wooden screws with their heads cut off.
THE usual method of cutting castiron or steel plates by drilling is to make a series of holes almost running into each other, then breaking it, leaving an extremely jagged edge to be finished off. An old-time mechanic was observed following a different method of procedure in cutting some cast-iron plates about ¾ in. thick.
HOW often have you, when at work on a roll-top desk, wished for a small drawing-board for making plans? One day, quite by accident, I thought of the plan shown in the illustration. Why not pull out the slide and make a small T-square to fit it? No sooner thought than done, with the result that the little Tsquare, with a small 4-in. triangle, made an ideal sketching outfit, at hand at all times.
AN automobile which has run a year or so usually develops an annoying door rattle. This is because the body has become worn and gives with every jolt from the running gear. Use a piece of 1-in. L-iron 3 in. long, with holes drilled as shown, and rivet on a piece of ½-in. clock spring.
WHILE it is, of course, most advantageous to heat the garage by some means or other during the cold months, there is another extreme that should be avoided. We refer to keeping the garage too warm. If the heat is too intense, the sudden change of temperature when the vehicle is taken out into the cold air, or when it enters the overheated garage after having been in the cold, is apt to cause the varnished panels to check and fine cracks to appear in the finely finished varnish coating of the body.
THE glare of an icy lake becomes very tiresome to one watching the red flags of fish-traps on a sunny day. To relieve this condition, the trap herein described departs from the visual signal and gives warning of a hooked fish by an electric bell.
SHAFT-FILING can be accomplished in more ways than one. The usual hand method is tiresome, to say the least. Having a number of shafts to file we rigged up the device shown in the illustration. We placed a block, A, at the rear end of carriage, and a board, C, in the position shown.
MANY of the incandescent lamps now being manufactured are of the “tipless” variety; that is, they are free from the sharp point on the glass which was necessary in exha usting the air from the globe. Such lamps can be made use of, after the filament is burned out, toformround-bottom flasks for use in the laboratory.
A BENCH-STOP, for holding boards to be planed on the edges, which can be easily made and which does the work better than the kind usually employed, is shown in the illustration. In operation, the board is pushed against the bent ends of the angle-irons.
PAINT in which suitable proportions of zinc oxide are used covers more surface than lead alone, according to leading paint technologists. Zinc oxide also imparts toughness to the film, reduces chalking, gives the coating improved luster, preserves the oil, and lessens the danger of fading.
IF you live in the country or in the suburbs and do not wish to be marooned by every snowstorm, get a snowplow like that shown in the accompanying illustrations, provided, of course, that you are the fortunate possessor of an automobile of some kind to which you can attach the plow.
UNSIGHTLY dents in woodwork of almost every description can be removed easily by the following simple method: First thoroughly sponge the dented part with warm water, allowing it to soak well into the wood. Then take a piece of brown wrapping-paper, fold it into half a dozen thicknesses, and, after soaking well in warm water, lay it over the dent previously sponged.
WHEN cleaning carbon out of an engine with the cylinder head off, carbon will get down into the bolt-holes holding the head unless some precaution is taken to keep it out. Carbon in bolt-holes means a loss of time, especially after the gasket and head are assembled.
HOW often has the china teapot cover fallen off, overturned a cup of steaming tea, and ruined the table-cloth, just because the cover had not been watched? But why watch the cover at all? Chain the cover down and it will not cause any accidents.
TROPICAL fish require a temperature of at least 60° F. If they are kept in an aquarium, they will not thrive unless the water in the tank is constantly held at that temperature. This condition may be maintained by the use of a simple heating apparatus.
VERY often you can identify the fellow who keeps his automobile in his own garage by the condition of the fenders of his automobile. They are bent down somewhat, or dented, and otherwise disfigured, because in driving in or backing out of his garage he has a habit of misjudging the distance between the fender and the doorjamb, and before he can stop moving, the fender has been made to suffer.
RUBBER rings used in canning or preserving may be tested by simple methods. Cut a 6-in. piece out of a ring and, taking hold of the ends so that 4 in. remain between the fingers, stretch the piece along a ruler until the fingers are 10 in. apart. When released, the sample should return to its original length and should not break.
HOW to avoid the necessity of employing an assistant to the truck-driver for loading and unloading heavy and bulky goods is a problem of which the detachable crane shown in the accompanying illustration offers an inexpensive solution.
THE making of templets has been, and always will be difficult, for a templet, to be of any use, must be accurate, expecially when it is made of two pieces, one of which must coincide with the other. Having found it difficult to hold such work to the light to ascertain if everything was as it should be, we constructed the stand as shown in the accompanying sketch.
SOMETIMES it is very difficult to remove the hub-cap, even when a large wrench is used for the purpose. This is usually due to water which found its way to the threads of the cap and formed rust. In that case, make use of the jack as shown in the illustration.
SHOWN in the illustration is a small clamping-vise that can readily be made from a 4or 5-in. butt-hinge, and is serviceable for holding electrical parts, pins, keys, etc., while filing or fitting. The hinge is screwed to the edge of the bench or any projecting beam.
THE tire is one of the weakest features of the automobile. A small puncture may cause a blowout; a sudden stop may produce a weak place in the tread. Usually the shoe that is discarded shows a thin spot 6 to 18 in. long, while aside from this it is in good condition.
MUCH has been written about the difficulties of carburetion under normal conditions, when the engines under consideration are in good shape; but the difficulties are even greater in the case of engines that have been used for a long time. Some of the common complaints are of the so-called “galloping engine’s” inability to throttle to a low speed and an unaccountable missing or skipping.
SUPPOSE you go fishing some cold day and find that you have no matches with which to start a fire— what would you do? If you have a jackknife with you and can find a piece of nice clear ice about 1 in. thick and 4 in. across, you need have no cause for worry.
WHERE a great number of pieces of wire or small rod have to be cut to the same length, the work can be quickly and conveniently done in the lathe. Take a piece of brass or iron that will go into the tool-post and drill a hole through it lengthwise that will just allow the wire to pass through without play.
A GOOD test for the alinement of lathe centers may be made by the disk method. Use a perfectly flat disk of metal about ⅛ in. thick and in the center drill a very small hole— say 1/16in. Make sure that the hole is clean and that it is at right angles to the surface.
ORDINARY building-bricks provide a compact and economical source of heat for cooking. Merely allow the brick to soak up kerosene and the fuel is ready for use. These fuel bricks will burn several hours, and give out a strong heat. Do not re-charge the bricks until they have become quite cold, otherwise there will be waste through evaporation.
THE accompanying picture conveys a valuable suggestion to automobilists who often meet an emergency in which they have to solder the broken wires of their lighting or ignition circuits. The picture shows a simple method which may be easily and quickly improvised, provided the car is equipped with an oil lamp, such as is used in the parking light.
IT is a well known fact that the instant anything breaks is the time you need it most. One of our line-shaft pulleys broke suddenly and we were in a bad plight as we could not secure a pulley from any store in town, because it was 20-in. diameter, 6-in. face, and 15/16-in. bore.
THE accompanying sketch shows an improvement which may be added to benches of all kinds; but more especially to benches used in the laundry. Some washing-machines do not have a swinging wringer, and a bench of this kind will save much lifting, and is so inexpensive to make, that every home laundry should have one.
UNLESS they are carefully handled and properly shaped, clothes-hangers will often become dislodged and slip off the pole or line to which they are hooked. A snap-hook, which you can easily make from a piece of spring metal, strong enough to support the weight of a coat or suit, will prevent the hanger from slipping off from its support.