Showing how lack of oxygen produces aviators’ brain fag
Brain Fag Breeds Indifference
The Value of the Oxygen Tank.
ACROSS-EYED, one-legged man of sixty may be a good sea-captain; but a twenty-five-year-old dyspeptic will be a failure as an airpilot. Because a man has flown a few times he is no more fitted to be an air-pilot than a fourteen-year-old girl who has taken a few piano lessons is justified in competing with Hofmann.
How I drilled through steel for eight hours to save the crew of the S-5
An Inverted Submarine
How the Submarine Sank
How They Saved the Trapped Crew of the S-5
Trying to Drill to Daylight
Could It Have Been Avoided?
The “Alanthus” to the Rescue
We Break Through
William G. Grace
THE bell in the engineroom rang with the signal to stand by, which meant that I was wanted on deck. When I got there, I found the captain looking hard at a ship that was standing off on our starboard side. To men familiar with the sea, a ship is just a ship, but this one had something strange about her.
ANEAT little gun, weighing onlyseven pounds altogether and measuring two feet in length, is the latest acquisition of New York’s police department. The little terror spouts forth huge .45-caliber bullets at the rate of fifteen hundred a minute as long as the magazine holds out.
Heredity, which plays a very important part in our lives, also affects our birth
HAS environment or heredity the controlling interest in the lives of twins? Let us consider twins in general. There are two kinds—identical twins and fraternal twins. Identical twins come from one single cell, which in the process of development happened to break in two and continued to develop in two separate halves.
GRADE crossings of railway lines and automobile roads are dangerous enough in daytime and clear weather, but at night and in foggy weather the customary means of protection (bars and light signals) are often insufficient to prevent serious accidents caused by human carelessness.
WERE you ever lost in an airplane, at sea, in a forest, or on the streets of a strange city? If so, you know there are just two ways of finding out where you are. One is to figure it out for yourself by noting the direction of two landmarks, and the other is to ask somebody else to tell you.
Working on automobiles in comfort means better repairing
NO longer is it necessary to get out and crawl under the automobile to repair it. With one hand you can turn your automobile over! Here is a device that has a track and a small windlass to pull the automobile from the floor to the track. It is equipped with simple appliances to hold the machine so firmly that when it is overturned there will be no strain on the chassis.
UNTIL I talked with Frank B. Gilbreth, I never suspected that the ordinary motions we make in going about our every-day affairs could become a subject of fascinating interest. “All human activity,” says Gilbreth, “is a matter of motions and decisions.”
HERE’S a new fountain brush which feeds like a fountain pen. It can be used for cleaning clothes, blacking and oiling shoes, blacking stoves, cleaning typewriters and typeforms, veneering furniture, and many other uses also fall within the scope of this serviceable fountain brush, the handle of which is filled with the polishing liquid.
NO longer need the driver of a restive horse carry a heavy weight around with him to fasten to the bridle when he leaves his horse standing. The photograph below shows a method of hitching which is both simple and effective. A strap of the right length is attached to the shafts or tongue of the vehicle and is snapped to a shorter strap, which passes around one of the front legs of the horse.
SOMETIMES airplanes have been employed to fly over industrial plants to obtain suitable bird’s-eye views; remarkable kites have been built to take a camera up over a factory for the purpose of getting the “whole thing” in the picture; but this is a tall tower erected to permit a photographer to mount his camera in such an elevated position that just the desired point of view of a certain group of manufacturing buildings can be pictured.
AN invention for cleaning the keys of a typewriter, adding-machine, and other forms of key-actuated machines, has been patented by James W. Pennewill, of Silver City, New Mexico. It consists of a piece of heavy cloth cut lengthwise through the middle portion into eight strips, each about a half inch in width, and separated from each other by a space of about a quarter inch.
FRANCE has produced an ingenious inventor who decided to make use of the railroad-tracks when strikes put the trains out of commission. With the aid of a specially contrived frame and three small wheels he has converted his bicycle into a vehicle that will run on the smooth steel rails, thus giving him the advantages of considerable speed and small expenditure of energy.
A FTER a summer of hard rain the paint on most automobiles looks dull and dead; whereupon the owners often send them to the factory to be repainted. But, before a new coat of paint is baked on, the old one must be removed. Until recently this has been a long, tedious job.
THE workman who releases the heavy drop-bottom door of a freight-car with an ordinary wrench is always in danger of having the wrench swing back at him and break his wrist. But there is now a new wrench — shown above — in which this dangerous feature has been eliminated.
IN the days of plenty, before the war, even Pullman cars were numerous. Between the years 1905 and 1915 there was an increase of seventy-six per cent in their number, with a smaller increase of forty-four per cent in the number of passengers carried.
MOST of our power is obtained from fuel today. But fuel—coal, gasoline, wood, alcohol—is becoming scarce. A French inventor has suggested that we return to the use of wind for motive power. He has invented a new type of windmill for the purpose.
“BREAKFAST is ready!” You grow very tired of saying that, year after year, to the various members of your family. Why not let the talking-machine say it for you? There is now a clock that, instead of ringing an alarm bell when it is set, will release the phonograph lever.
CRANKING up is all that is needed in order to tighten wire fences when posts like the one above are used. Ten holes are drilled in the post and the fence wire is run through them. The post can turn, but it is held fast by means of a ratchet. Should the wire sag in the course of time, the post can be cranked up to the next notch at one jerk.
HUGE volumes weighing several hundred pounds each are here shown. They are filled with nothing but names. Names of what, you ask? Names of people who visit Los Angeles every year. The Chamber of Commerce of that city claims that over five hundred thousand tourists visit their city every year.
RECOURSE to illuminated graphs as a means of presenting its case to the public was taken by a Chicago electric-light company. On a big electric sign over the entrance to its officebuilding, the changes in cost of food and clothing, fuel, taxes, and electricity since 1896 are compared, to the great advantage of the last named commodity.
THIS man lives high, but he has defeated the high cost of renting. There was an old water-tower that had not been in use for years near the farm on which he lived. He decided to buy the place and fix it up to live in. The picture shows what a good job he made of it.
IT is necessary to wade through this pool before you can walk up the stairs. People who bathe in the ocean always carry part of the beach with them into the bathing-house. A Western bathhouse owner had trouble keeping his place clean, and he hit upon the idea of placing a small pool outside the door in which the bathhouse patrons could take a final wash before entering to dress.
AN operator at the power house of the Hetch-Hetchy water supply, in California had an opportunity not ordinarily afforded a photographer. He had his camera ready just at the right moment to catch a deer climbing up the ladder installed across the aqueduct which carries the water to the intake power house.
WHY sit on board a ship and fish blindly for hours? Perhaps there are some fish in your vicinity and perhaps there are not. In a blimp, however, you are able to see into the water and you can spot a school of fish without any trouble. Above you see some men blimp-fishing in San Pedro harbor, near San Diego, California.
EVEN in the matter of dyes, American manufacturers are cutting in on German monopolies. Phthalic anhydride, an important dye intermediate, is now made in America by a new process which enables manufacturers to sell it for forty-five cents a pound; Germany charges seven dollars a pound.
THE crown bottle-cap, used by home brewers, has a rough, corrugated edge that will cut into the hardest ice. Nail a bottle-cap to the heel of each shoe, as shown below. When you reach your destination, you pull the cap off.
GO outdoors and take your camera. Place a mirror with its back to the sun and stand in front of it. Focus the camera on your image and pull the trigger. You will then have taken a picture of yourself at your best. Of course the camera will show, too.
PADLOCKS are not exciting things to make, so it is not surprising that an English locksmith—for the sake of variety—made a padlock in the shape of a fish. The keyhole is located just below the gills, and the jaws do the locking. When the fish gets lockjaw, nothing will cure it but the proper key.
CHICAGO’S famous Field Museum is changing its locality. Dummies, dinosaurs, butterflies, and sea-dragons were carted away in box cars, motor-trucks, and wagons. A special track connecting the old museum with the main line of the railroad was constructed so that the heavier articles could be hauled away.
SOME parts of the bottom of the sea are very beautiful, as the picture below will tell you. This picture represents a small section of a sea model that has been constructed in the American Museum of Natural History, New York. The model, wonderfully made of blown glass and wax, is fifteen thousand times as large as the original small section from which it was constructed.
UP-TO-DATE cities are careful about their sewage systems. They do not let sewage pipes empty directly into the rivers—at least not in Germany. The city of Dresden has a system by which the sewage water is strained first, so that no particles larger than two millimeters are allowed to escape.
Hinged Sides and Peaked Floor Quicken Car-Unloading
FREIGHT-TRAINS promptly unloaded would relieve the congestion in many of our large cities and would increase the number of working hours of the trains themselves. But can the work of unloading coal-trains, for instance, be speeded up? Germany has found a way—her coaltrains unload themselves.
MANY rooms are equipped with but a single electric-light socket—bathrooms and bedrooms, for instance. Thus you are unable to do two electrical things in the room at the same time. The lady who wishes to curl her hair at night must perform this unattractive operation in some more unsuitable place than the bathroom or her bedroom.
A MODERN King Midas, by making use of chemistry, might amass a huge fortune from the waste products of our cities. In Washington, the garbage is collected in demountable wagon-bodies and conveyed by train to the place of disposal. Chemists are studying the value of recoverable products from garbage, not only fats being recovered, but also fertilizer.
THE locomotive below has neither anengineer nor a fireman; nor does it indulge in the use of coal. It contains a sixcylinder two-hundred-horsepower gasoline engine, and is one of many gasoline coaches used where traffic is light. It can be run by any automobile driver.
BELOW the bend in the river is heard the roar of a gasoline engine working at high power. In an instant a curious object leaps into sight, and the fishermen along the river-bank are amazed to see a large boat, that resembles a whale in shape, traveling at great speed, and apparently just skimming the surface of the water.
A GERMAN inventor has conceived a method for preventing milk from boiling over. A metal plate, slightly convex, is placed on the bottom of the pan in which the milk is heated, with the convex side up. A chain, connecting the handle of the container with the metal plate, facilitates the removal of the disk.
DOES the color of your new silk dress endure the test of sunlight? If so, the probability is that the silk was tested for the fastness of its dye before it was put upon the store counter to be sold. Science has discovered that the short light-waves carry the greater part of the energy that is transmitted with light.
ENTERED in the recent GordonBennett Aviation Cup Race, in Paris, was a little monoplane whose wings are exceedingly strong. It was the Dayton-Wright entry. It carried a 250-horsepower motor with which a speed of more than two hundred miles an hour was attained.
THIS is a clever idea—very clever. Guess again—you are wrong. It is not simply a device with which to copy one line at a time. It is an attachment for such a device that illuminates each line. This attachment does not reflect the light directly into the stenographer’s eyes.
Connecting Manhattan Island with the United States
Gustav Lindenthal’s splendid bridge to span the Hudson promises to bring to reality a vision of thirty long years
The Man with the Vision
Railway Tracks on a Double Deck
A Monument to Our Age
How the Project Is to Be Financed
PUT two million eight hundred thousand people on an island, give them houses, subways, surface cars, factories, stores, and all the equipment of a city—but fail to provide a means of reaching these people with the materials with which their factories can work, fail to give them fuel and food—and the vast population of the isolated island will perish.
SET before a blindfolded man a basin of icewater; tell him that the water is very hot, and that he must quickly dip his finger-tips in and out. He will actually believe that he has plunged his hand into hot instead of cold water. Place two needles about one-quarter of an inch apart in a piece of cardboard and lightly touch his exposed skin without permitting him to see how it is done.
THE hailstones shown in the accompanying photograph did not break any records, and neither, so far as we can learn, did they break any heads. This leads us to propound a question that has fretted us for many a year: Why don’t these aerial bullets kill people?
An adventure that might have been disastrous but for quick thinking
Outside the Window
The End of the Adventure
C. B. Horsley
IT was a small power plant hidden away in the foothills of the western range of the Rockies. Three men ran the plant, Edwin Green, Robert Egerton, and William O’Day. O’Day was away repairing the line. Egerton had gone to a town six miles away for fresh supplies, leaving Green alone.
JUST thik eighteen straining horses a row, and you will get some idea of the power carried by this boat. It is the Maple Leaf, one of the English contestants in the recent international motor boat races.
MODERN stucco-workers discard the old method of laboriously putting on the stucco by hand. They make use of a recently devised machine, that weighs only thirty pounds, but that has a capable motor, and that can be connected with any light-socket.
THE floor-sweeper in this machine-shop has an easy job. When he sweeps up the valuable metal scraps left by the boring-mills, lathes, and grinders, he does not have to stoop to scoop them up. He sweeps them directly into this huge bucket, which is placed in the shop floor.
A SMALL crane that can be rolled around a shop to pick up heavy pieces of metal or other objects has recently been invented. It gets its power from a storage battery that it carries around with it. A chain is placed around the object to be moved; then two hook-blocks, attached to the crane by cables, are hooked to the chains.
INSTEAD of running the risk of setting your house afire with a blowtorch when the pipes freeze, it is now possible to thaw them with electric power. Here is a device as simple as an electric iron, which uses just about as much current. By merely attaching it to the frozen section it soon heats the pipe sufficiently to start the flow of water.
NO, this is not a bomb, although it may look like one. It is a protective case used to. transport radium. The radium is placed in a hole in the center of a thick lead crucible. Why lead? Because dead does not permit the passage of the radium rays, and in this way the person in charge of the transportation of the substance is protected from injury.
A SHOTGUN would be much easier to carry if it could be folded. And why not fold it? The picture shows one method of doing it. The barrel and stock are hinged together and may be doubled up so that the muzzle rests against the butt-plate. The gun remains in a fixed position, however, unless a side lever is pressed.
THE giant horns arranged around the top of this speaker’s stand have loudspeaking telephone receivers at their small ends. The voice of the speaker below is directed into a special transmitter. From this point it passes through an amplifying apparatus before it reaches the receivers at the top of the stand, where the articulation is flung far and wide to the great crowd.
EVERY time you hit the space-bar on a typewriter you have written.a word. The little counter shown in the. picture below records the number of times you hit the space-bar, and in this way counts the number of words that you write. It is claimed that the little device never makes a mistake.
HAVE you ever tried to put an electric plug in the socket with a small glass shade attached to it? If you have, you will certainly be able to appreciate the usefulness of this little device which has recently made its appearance on the market.
SINCE nothing is to be gained by crying over spilt milk, care should be taken not to spill it at all. But if your milk is in a vacuum bottle, it is very apt to spill. That is why H. C. Downey, of Springfield, Ohio, has invented a stand for vacuum bottles.
A HARVESTER will start across a field of wheat and in a short time leave behind it a trail of wheat stalks bound neatly in sheaves. It clips them, stacks them, binds them, and drops off the finished bundles. For the binding process the best quality of twine must be used.
WHEN the fair heroine of a motionpicture looks out of her window in the play that is being screened, she may be looking at a giant photograph instead of at a real scene. It is often less trouble and expense to obtain a photographic enlargement from a small “still” negative than to travel a distance to get a suitable background, or to have a background painted.
THE superintendent’s wanted on the ’phone!” What’s the best and quickest way to spread this news when the “old man” has lost himself in the factory? In England signaling by lights is favored; it is more “refined” than the noise system used generally in American factories.
IF you can slice a loaf of bread so that you don’t end up with a triangular knob, then perhaps you don’t need a bread-slicer. But most of us are not expert in the art of cutting bread. It is for the inexpert that Mr. W. H. Garlock, of Seattle, Washington, has invented the breadslicer shown above.
HANDS up or I’ll shoot!” You level your pistol at the astonished burglar. But suppose he failed to hold up his hands and made a dash for safety—would you really shoot him? Most people are filled with horror at the thought of killing a human being; they would rather let him escape.
TWO rooms and kitchenetter— you pay dearly for that kitchenette these days. Why hot supply your own? Here is one that comes in the form of a handsome cabinet, adding to the appearance of any diningroom. When you open it—top and front—you find on the top shelf a fireless cooker and two plain cookers, all operated by electricity supplied from a regular houseplug.
MAKING a tiny circus, complete in every detail, is the hobby of Arthur Thorpe, of St. Louis, Missouri. He is shown below in the midst of some miniature animal wagons that he has already completed. At present there are sixty of these pieces, but he intends to raise the number to eighty-five before the year 1921 is past.
GERMAN marks have so depreciated in value that the silver in them is practically worth more than the coins themselves. In consequence of this, the Germans are considering the use of porcelain in future mark-making. A five-, a three-, and a two-mark porcelain coin, submitted to the German government, are shown above.
DURING the war, the geophone, a listening instrument, made it possible for our men to determine the exact position of German mine-workers. The instrument has been used in coalmines for locating entombed miners. It can also be used for getting the exact location of a diamond bit when deep holes are drilled. When the bit has reached a depth of a few hundred feet, it is hard to tell whether it is following the exact path laid out for it.
THE barbers' strike and the subsequent high cost of haircutting need not worry you if you can get an electric hair-cutter. No great amount of skill is needed to operate the machine, and your wife could cut your hair for you. Unfortunately, the machine was invented in Germany, and it may be hard to get.
A FIRE that had all the earmarks of a volcano was raging recently in New York city. It erupted in some filled-in land near Van Cortlandt Park. Half burned coal and ashes were used as the filler and the accumulated gases underneath exploded. In spite of heavy rains, the fire continued to burn for weeks, giving off strong sulphur fumes all the time, to the mystification and alarm of passers-by and near-by flatdwellers.
A STOVE almost completely submerged in ice is a strange sight. How would you feel if you visited your summer home in winter and found your stove in such a plight? That was the experience of some people who had a cottage near Old Orchard Beach, Maine.
THERE is a certain exclusive suburb which does not approve of newsboys. They’re too noisy, you know—might disturb the baby or the cat. So the exclusive residents buy their papers from slot machines placed on various corners. The required number of pennies are dropped into a slot at the side of the particular paper wanted, as is shown below.
ONCE a Los Angeles man bought a new Colonial house with a small garage at the rear. There was neither a driveway leading to the garage nor steps leading to the house entrance. The house was so new that only the lawn in front had been finished. It was up to the owner to finish the job.
“DO your share to preserve our forests,” says Mr. A. Kraft, of Oakland, California. And then he tells one way to do it —by using the combination Christmas tree, hat-rack, and clothes-rack that he has invented. Just one tree-trunk is needed for all three and it may be used for years.
FIRST aid to dusty shoes may now be found in vanity bags. Possessed of such aid, a woman, after crossing a dusty road, presses a button at the side of her vanity bag and out jumps a felt pad at the end of a wire spring. By bending over slightly she is able to brush off her shoes, and proceed on her way reshined.
HERE is a deodorizer designed to hang on the wall. In it is placed a sweetsmelling volatile liquid that continually evaporates, filling the air of the room with a pleasant odor. The liquid lasts for several days. When it is exhausted, the supply can be replenished from a bottle furnished with the deodorizer.
A LEVER is shown at A in diagram 7.” When you read it, you start looking through the book for diagram 7. It may or it may not be on the same page. How much simpler it would be if diagrams and reading matter were always in front of you at the same time. In the new double book shown below, invented by a German engineer, this is the case.
THE Botanical Gardens in Rio de Janeiro are the finest in the world. Not only are they very beautiful, but in them there are many strange growths of great interest to scientists. Among these interesting phenomena is a remarkable arch of bamboos.
SWIMMING champion C. J. Cooke, of Washington, D. C., wished to time his daily swims in order to see how his speed improved. But nearly every time he swam, there was no one around to hold a stop-watch. He couldn’t very well take it with him, so he invented a clock that would serve his purpose.
CHESS-PLAYERS aren’t the least bit sociable. If one were in Berlin and the other in The Hague, they could conduct their game just as well, provided that each knew the other’s moves. By means of a new device, two champion players tried this recently.
THE steam-locomotive boilers of the country generate, all told, 50,000,000 horsepower. One quarter of all the coal mined in the United States is thus consumed. This total horsepower is just about equal to the water-power that is going to waste.
INSTEAD, of traveling around the earth in eighty days, it will be possible, soon to make the trip in eighty hours if airplanes are built according to the latest discovery. The practical result of the discovery that F. Handley Page has made by means of windtunnel experiments concerns the “aerofoils,” the wings and, air-surfaces of the machine, showing that these can be driven through the air more than twice as easily as heretofore with only one third the horsepower.
LOOK at the sky on a moonless night. There arches the Milky Way, a broad, phosphorescent ribbon that encircles the whole sky. In the telescope it appears as an accumulation of stars that defies our imagination. But, even with the naked eye, it is easy to distinguish what seems to have escaped the ancients— that the number of stars in the heavens increases as we approach the Milky Way.
The grain, robbed of its husk, is made directly into dough
How the Grain Becomes Dough
It Took Twenty Years to Perfect
Dr. Alfred Gradenwitz
BREAD has been the staff of life for thousands of years, as the Bible testifies. But in the passage of centuries no one has attempted to change the general process of bread-making. The grain has been ground to flour and the flour has then been turned into dough.
THIS compressed-air forge is capable of doing the work of several blacksmiths and their helpers. The new machine is largely used in sharpening bits used in rock drilling. A short time ago this work was done by hand. Where large excavations or tunnels were being made, several blacksmiths had to be on hand to keep the bits sharp.
PAINT-GUNS and paint-sprayers are constantly being invented, and yet we continue to see the hand painter on the job, complacently drawing his large wages each fair day. Why is it that the sprayers and guns do not flourish more rapidly? One reason is loss of paint; another is the spattering on surfaces not to be painted; and, besides, the paint is apt to get a chalky consistency due to the evaporation of oils while still in the air.
MANY of the thousands of women who went into factory work during the war are remaining because of the good wages. One look at the picture above will explain why some form of cap is necessary for every woman factory-worker. The girl in the lower picture did not wear her cap.
IN order to keep the customers’ memory informed of the rising cost of milk some dealers are now using a clever device. The information is printed on a strip of cardboard in which a hole is cut at one end. When a bottle of milk is left at a house, one of the cards is slipped over the neck of the bottle. The customers have no excuse for claiming that they did not see the notice, for they must remove it from the bottle when they take it into the house.
WHILE trying to get into the air after a stop at Omaha, Nebraska, the tall weeds in the field through which a metal airplane was “taxi-ing” acted as a brake. When the machine otherwise would have been high enough in the air to clear all near-by obstructions, a series of telephone wires and a house loomed just ahead.
ANY man who walks along a dark country road at night needs both a stick and a flash-lamp. The man who rides in taxicabs or on the top of buses needs a light when he looks for change to pay his fare. Here is a walking-stick that combines its natural advantages with those of a light.
HERE is a gate that swings on a central post which has a short iron rod inserted at top and bottom, the top rod passing through the lintel of the gateway, the bottom rod working freely in a block set in the ground. The gate is hung by two chains to the lintel, the fastenings being on each side of the center post of the gate.
MAKING the round of inspecting fire hydrants, the policeman who has to cover a long beat may find himself slipping on his job when the streets are covered with ice. A policeman in Columbus, Ohio, got around the difficulty by directing his slipping to a purpose.
THE air-screw or propeller of the airplane, while far from being in an experimental stage, is still subject to scrutiny by inventors. Not only are improved methods of manufacture being studied, but the shape and power of the propellers are also being examined and tested, in the hope of reaching greater efficiency.
HERE you see a penholder support that teaches you the proper way to hold a pen. It is made of spring wire and has a loop at each end. One loop fits over the little finger which rests on the table, and the other fits over the holder. The length of the wire between them is sufficient to keep your fingers from becoming cramped.
DAMASCUS, one of the oldest cities in the world, is far behind the smallest American desert town in the matter of irrigation. Instead of using a pump for raising the water from the river, a team of horses aided by a windlass does the work. A leather bag is lowered into the river, where it takes on a load of water.
Down Comes the Steeple to Thrill “Movie Audiences”
LIGHTNING has always been a great enemy of church steeples. A glance at this picture would tend to make one believe that the airplane will also do its share in destroying steeples. Not so, however, since this picture is of another “movie” thriller.
MORE and more do men wear soft collars the year round. The soft ones are comfortable, easy to put on—but they do not look as well as the stiff ones. Some people object to buttons and buttonholes that hold down the ends. There is now a slip-on fastener that clasps both ends firmly and holds them down close to the neckband.
STAND a hatbox on its side and it looks not unlike one of the disk wheels with which some cars are adorned. Then there is the trunk with the curved top; does it not resemble the hood of an automobile? The proprietor of a Berlin leather goods store noticed these similarities, and decided to build an automobile out of his wares.
EVERY one is familiar with the small gasoline - engine lawn - mower as it speedily travels around the large lawns of city parks in summer. We may wonder why such a device has not before been adapted as a snow-plow to clear the sidewalks after a winter storm.
AN Airedale will make a very capable caddie if he is trained to carry the golf-sticks and to “stick” around. Golf is such a leisurely played game at times that one’s caddie may stray away and not be at hand when most needed. A dog is more likely to stay close to his master, and as the burden of sticks is not a heavy one, the animal will not be inhumanely treated if he is required to make himself useful instead of merely lazily present.
CARRIER pigeons won distinction by heroic service in the great war. Some of the bird members of the pigeon section of the Signal Corps were killed or wounded. In charge of the twelve thousand pigeons were twenty officers and 542 enlisted men.
THE principal cause of the present paper shortage is the fact that no satisfactory substitute has ever been found for spruce wood. It is said that one great New York newspaper devastates ninety acres of spruce timber every day. Ten years ago the United States produced all its paper pulp.
LAKE PLACID, in the Adirondacks, holds a peculiar charm for the winter sportsman. The hills afford an opportunity for skiing and skijoring, while the smooth surface of the frozen lake invites such games as curling and hockey. But skating meets the all-round popular demand, and to Lake Placid in midwinter come the world’s champion ice-skaters.
DID you ever try to get a barrel-top off without making kindling-wood of the barrel? It is a trick that most people cannot do with an ordinary barrel. With the barrel shown below it is different. It is not necessary to use a sledgehammer on a barrel with a wedge top.
WHEN it is necessary to use a magnifying-glass to see distinctly the tiny jewels that every good watch contains, one is naturally curious to know how such minute objects are set properly in their places. These tiny jewels must be ground in precise geometrical forms and exactly set, to be useful.
DURING the cold weather a water-main broke and sent up a spout of water about eighty feet in the air. Of course, the water had to come down. It fell and quickly froze in beautiful festoons along the limbs and branches of the trees in the neighborhood, making grotesque shapes of silvery whiteness.
HAVING studied the matter for sixteen months, Vincent Pinto and his son Joseph, of Philadelphia, invented a clock that talks. The old saying that “time will tell” is now a reality. The clock speaks the time instead of striking the time at certain intervals.
MAKE your own rubber heels and toes from tire patches. All you have to do is cut down the patches to fit, and glue them firmly to your shoe, and they are all ready for service. You will probably never want to use the patches on your inner tubes, anyway —it is so much easier to pay a quarter or a half dollar to have a tube patched at a garage than to do the job yourself.
A TRESTLE carrying a device similar to a lawn-sprinkler, so that the water is sprayed across its top, makes a satisfactory midwinter ice-machine. The water will freeze in successive layers as it trickles over. When ice may be properly stored, there is no better way to take advantage of winter to obtain a fresh, clean supply of it.
THE man who would punch holes in a steel bar, or who would bend strips of metal, needs a machine that has great strength of construction, and that can be easily manipulated. Here is a steel punch and bender that can be changed from one to the other without loss of time.
IN some parts of Europe farmers use spikes to provide a means of motive power for crude sleds. The spikes are dug into the ice and thus a man can propel himself over the smooth surface of the ice. The device is a simple application of that now employed by arctic explorers in motor-driven sleds.
DID you ever hear about the man who tried to oil machinery while it was running, and who stood upon the top of a stepladder to do it? Well, the ambulance got him first, and then the undertaker came for him. The ladder slipped on the oily floor and the machinery did the rest of a disastrous job.
A COAL-STOVE should be as plain as possible. Isinglass windows and nickel-plated trimmings simply admit air through the joints. As the air seeps through the joints and cracks, the heat within the stove is decreased. A coal-stove, chosen at random, was tested by one of the members of the American Society of Heating and Ventilating Engineers for the amount of carbondioxide directly over the flame and in the chimney.
A NEW metal clothes-hanger upon which one can quickly dispose of the garments in a closet has been invented by John L. Lyman, of Easthampton, Massachusetts. This hanger differs from the ordinary clothes-hook in that it embodies a device by which the article placed upon it is held in a spring grip.
IN Switzerland many people have put wheels on their sleds and enjoy all the thrills of coasting down hills even though no snow has fallen. In fact, many sleds are made originally with wheels instead of runners. The chief objection to snowless coasting is the danger of spilling.
"AN odd-looking locomotive,” you will say. It is a locomotive without a fire. How does it run? By steam, of course. The steam is not generated on the locomotive, but in a separate boiler located, in the yard. The boiler of the little locomotive is used only in storing steam.
WHEN locomotives are repaired, it is no longer a case of getting out and getting under. That is too much trouble. The modern method is to raise the locomotive. Hydraulic pressure is used in lifting the locomotive from the floor of the shop.
A New Tower for the Man Who Repairs Overhead Wires
HERE is a new way to get into the air to repair overhead wires for trolleycars. This tower is comparatively light in weight, but it is so constructed that several men may work on the platform without danger of it collapsing. It is trussed in the manner of a bridge.
LOOK above and you will see the world’s fastest typist. She has copied one hundred and fifty-one words in one minute. This is a speed of more than two and one half words a second. Attention must be given to details to attain such a record. For instance, the typewriter should be fastened securely to the desk without the drop-bed feature. The drop-bed tends to increase vibration, and this interferes with high speed.
THE car pictured below is used in a great chemical plant. It is kept busy measuring out large quantities of the different ingredients that enter into the process. It is driven electrically and runs about the yard measuring out so much of this and so much of that.
To make the motor-truck serve your business efficiently make a study of the handling and transportation problem
A Truck Must Give Double Service
The Difference between HorseWagons and Motor-Trucks
Study the Loading Problem First
Various Ways to Speed Up -Loading
Where the Motor-Truck Is Valuable
Truck Bodies in Fishing-Smacks Save Time in Handling
Carrying Fish from the Sea to the Housewife
MOTOR-TRUCK transportation is so new, as compared to the other forms of rail and water transportation, that the prudent business man will do well to make a thorough study of his transportation problem before he installs trucks in place of horses, or substitutes highway for rail or water shipments.
A Pulverizer Plant More than One Hundred Feet High
ACID phosphate fertilizer is one of the essentials of modern agriculture. The designers of the gigantic mill shown in the picture below decided to employ gravity to convey the pulverized phosphate rock through the last step in the process of producing acid phosphate by lifting the powdered rock up through the pipes to the “cyclone collector,” which is more than one hundred feet above the ground.
JERSEY CITY’S water-pipe line lies twentysix feet below the surface of the Passaic river. The submerged pipe has an inside diameter of six feet and is more than four hundred and fifty feet long. It weighs about a ton a foot. How did it get there?
THE newest foiler of burglars is the “telephonic eye,” invented by Dr. Oscar Hannach. What makes the telephonic eye so sensitive and efficient is the fact that no mechanical agency is required to operate the apparatus. The faintest beam of light is sufficient to set it working.
WHEN an airman ascends to heights greater than twenty thousand feet, he is sure to use oxygen. He carries it in liquid form in a vacuum tank provided with a mechanism to control the evaporation. The liquid may be electrically heated to accelerate evaporation; or a heated rod of copper or aluminum in the liquid may be used; or the liquid may be siphoned out into an evaporating chamber from which the gas is conducted through tubes to the airman’s mouth.
EVERY automobile repairman has a demand for a portable tool with which crankshaft bearings may be trued up in an emergency in the car or on the bench. Truing up a set of crankshaft bearings by turning on a lathe is a more costly and slower method.
AMONG the newest innovations in the marking of automobiles for identification is a “watermarked” radiator. The process by which the watermarking is accomplished was invented and patented by L. G. Hanmer, of New York city. The watermarking is done by increasing the size of certain predetermined cells in the radiator by an expansion process after the cell structure has been assembled ready to be dipped into solder.
IN the four-wheeled trailer the entire trailer load is carried on the four trailer wheels, with none of the trailer load supported on the framework of the pulling vehicle, as is the case with the two-wheeled semi-trailer. The loss of time in connecting the four-wheeled trailer has occurred in backing the truck up to the trailer, so that the bolt or jaws of the connecting drawbar might fall or lock into place.
ONE of the latest designs in oil-cups is automatic in operation and yet occupies no more space than the ordinary greaseor oil-cup. The cap is hinged, not to the side of the cup, as might be expected, but to a central valve inserted in a cup-shaped piston.
THE latest adaptation of the caterpillar type of creeping tread to a commercial product is on a streetpaving machine. Because the creeping tread is interchangeable with the ordinary wheel traction, the machine takes on a dual purpose in that it can be used in countries having alternate dry and wet periods.
A PROMINENT English aviation expert has developed a unique type of convertible automobile body. This body is simplicity itself. Aside from a folding top, the rear quarters of which are closed, it has a three-section glass part that completely encloses the sides of the body, when unfolded.
SOMETIMES, when a motorist has put his anti-skid chains on the tires of his car, he finds it a most difficult matter to close the two ends of the chain without getting out every screwdriver or pair of pliers he has in his toolbox. This is because the chain must be stretched evenly around the tire and fitted fairly snugly before the snap fastener can be closed.
AGES ago primitive man worshiped fire. In the world to-day there are the remnants of a fireworshiping race, but to the civilized world fire is both a blessing and a curse. When it gets beyond the control of man, it is a demon of destruction. Ten thousand lives and $250,000,000 in property are annually sacrificed to the fire demon in the United States.
AN insulator is a substance that will not permit the passage of an appreciable amount of electric current. A few substances are perfect insulators in the dark, but when light falls upon them, their electrical resistance changes rapidly.
IF you are a trolley-car traveler, you will appreciate the hardships and risks of a conductor’s lot. He must climb around a step full of people to collect his fares, hold on by one hand, and constantly run the risk of being thrown off. But John Udall, of Weston, Ontario, has invented a protective harness that should do away with the dangers of a conductor’s job.
Make your iceboat independent of the fitful power of the wind
Engine-Bed and Power Plant
L. B. Robbins
THE ice-yacht is in its element in a brisk wind; when the air is calm it has to remain at a standstill. That is the one disadvantage of sail-propelled boats operating upon either water or ice. But for the man who can procure a small engine, the freakishness of the elements can be discounted, and high speed attained upon the ice—“blow high, blow low.”
A SELF-FILLING fountain-pen is often filled with ink that is not absolutely free from sediment. An occasional rinsing of the reservoir will aid in preventing the clogging of the feed duct to the pen, but the small duct into the barrel of the pen very often becomes clogged.
THE illustration shows a simple and very satisfactory way of compressing piston-rings so that they will enter an engine cylinder easily. The piston is slipped into the cylinder as far as the first ring. Some sashcord is fastened to one of the cylinder head studs, wrapped around the piston-ring, and pulled up tight.
WHEN the time has come to remove the accumulation of carbon from the cylinders of the automobile engine and to grind in the valves, particular attention should be paid to the valve-stems. These, too, should be carefully freed from carbon and other foreign matter that would interfere with the free movement of the valvestems in the guides.
IF the storage battery requires a new solution, it should be mixed outside and then poured in the battery tank. Chemically pure sulphuric acid has a gravity around 1.84, and to obtain the required gravity, 1.300, before putting it into the cells, it has to be mixed with water.
IT is often very convenient to have an automatic siphon that will remove liquids to a certain level and maintain that level although more liquids should subsequently be added. Such a siphon consists of a lead tube about 10 in. long bent as shown in the illustration.
THIS experiment requires practically no apparatus and gives immediate and startling results. It is simply short-circuiting the 110-volt house current with a piece of No. 36 wire. This does not blow a fuse, because the current blows the smallest wire in the entire circuit.
THERE are many cases where it is desirable to tap a machine screw into thin sheet metal with some assurance that the screw will hold, though the metal is too thin to take sufficient thread to be of any practical use. The desired end is easily accomplished.
How some readers of the Popular Science Monthly sought to solve the vexing problem
IT is highly significant that the overwhelming majority of the answers received from readers of the Popular Science Monthly in the prize contest “How to Beat the H. C. of L.,” launched early in the year described mechanical appliances for heating the air in rooms, shops, or houses, or for providing hot water for domestic purposes.
THERE is no use worrying about the small discrepancies in the inflation pressure tables of the different tire manufacturers. They are all near enough for all practical purposes. Some of the manufacturers will tell you to put 60 pounds in a 30-by-3½inch tire, whereas others will vary this to 55 or even 50 pounds in some instances.
MOST designers of machinery find that to lay out the movement of the device is to invite a good deal of work with a considerable loss of time. This is true of all classes of designing, whether the device is just ordinarily complex or very intricate, or whether it is a monster engine to be used on an ocean greyhound, or merely a small model of such an engine.
MOTORISTS who use their cars all winter should be careful to see that their batteries are kept properly charged. A battery that is allowed to deteriorate or become even partially discharged is far more likely to freeze than one that is kept in good condition, as may be readily realized by comparing the following freezingpoints:
IT is believed that at least one automobile out of every dozen manufactured and sold is stolen. How many stolen machines are ever recovered by their rightful owners, is another question. Good locking devices, or thief signals, are not to be despised.
THE common practice of attaching a pointed sweep to the spindle of a drill-press or lathe to test the trueness of the table or faceplate has the disadvantage that it is rather difficult to see by eye whether the point is actually touching; in fact, it may be just clearing or pressing with considerable force.
DOES your wash-boiler leak? Close the leak with solder. Small soldering sets are sold for a trifle and are very useful in the house. A solution of sal ammoniac and borax makes a good soldering fluid, particularly for copper and brass. For tin the resinous flux supplied with the solderingset may be used.
IF you are at home and any one attempts to turn the knob of your front or back door, a bell will ring. If you come home late in the evening, turn the knob yourself and a flashlight appears from the interior, displaying brightly the location of the keyhole.
THIS extemporized door attachment was quickly rigged up by a mechanic and applied to a lockless inner door. The form of the spring permitted it to slide past the door-frame and move forward again, holding the door closed by pressure against the strip as shown in the illustration.
A SMALL tractor that can be built in the farm shop is shown in the illustrations. It can be constructed mostly of parts of old farm machinery and other scrap material. It is driven by a 12-hp. motorcycle engine. It can do all the work that could be done by one horse, such as plowing with one plow, harrowing, cultivating, and pulling fairly heavy loads.
WINTER-TIME is a hard period for automobile tires. Because of changing temperatures, standing in the freezing cold part of the time and kept in a warm garage at others, even tiny cuts in the tread are more apt to develop into big holes than in summer.
ASIMPLE and effective overflow which removes the lower bad water without discharging the upper fresh water can easily be installed. It consists of the usual drainpipe reaching to the level at which it is desired to keep the water. Over this pipe a larger pipe is fitted which extends a short distance above the overflow.
SMALL articles, like expander pins, etc., can be quickly case-hardened by plunging them, at bright-cherry heat, into a box containing cyanide of potassium crystals, and then quenching the pieces at a dull-red heat. Cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison and should be handled with great caution.
THE illustration shows a novel arrangement for holding a small mirror securely. It is designed to be carried in the pocket and is invaluable for shop use. The handle is made of a piece of ordinary brass tubing. A small pin clamps the mirror at the top as shown.
DIVIDING a disk into a number of rings all having equal areas can be accomplished by a long and tedious mathematical process—if one knows how. But it can be done just as accurately and a great deal faster with a ruler and a pair of compasses. Lay out the circle and draw a radius line— that is, a line from the center to the circumference.
WHEN animals are kept in a saltwater aquarium it is absolutely essential to aerate the water thoroughly, to make it possible for the fish to live in it. For this purpose some kind of an apparatus must be procured. But these devices are all expensive and quite intricate in design.
IN drafting or engineering drawing, the process of section lining is very tiresome, especially as care must be taken that the lines are equally spaced. For the beginner especially is this a difficult task. A very simple yet efficient method of maintaining accuracy in the spacing of section lines is to graduate the upper edge of the T-square to correspond with the desired spacing, as shown in the illustration.
OFTEN a rough leveling of some surface is needed when a large level is not available. The writer has often used the following scheme for leveling and found it to be as accurate as that obtained with a spirit level. Take two pieces of wood about 4 ft. long and nail to a short piece of plank, such as the two pieces D and E, and nail to the piece G. Nail a crosspiece F between the two legs as shown.
THE man who made the forge shown below uses it often on his ranch, where he does all his own blacksmithing. The forge is made entirely of old materials. The fire-pan was made from the bottom of an old cookstove. Two legs 30 in. long, made of 2 by 2 in. lumber (rescued from the kindlingpile), and two legs 42 in. long, made from 2 by 4 in. stuff, are securely braced.
VARIOUS makes of phonographs on the market are so built that the reproducer cannot, be turned around and up so the operator can see to put in a new needle. Instead, he has to feel underneath for the needle socket and put the new one in by that means.
ANEW device for holding sacks during filling should save backs and a lot of useless adjectives for one compelled to work alone. It consists of half a pickle barrel with the end knocked out, and attached to the side of the bin or granary where most convenient with a small block of wood.
IT is possible to prolong the life of automobile tires if the car is jacked up as often as possible when not in use. During the night, and at other times when the car is in the garage, which usually represents more than half of the time, the car might just as well be raised from the floor, saving that much weight on the tires.
RECENTLY, in line construction, workmen had occasion to get a very small line over high wires. The line which was to be sent over was, of necessity, very light, and some means was necessary to get it over without breaking. The thread attached to a stone, if thrown over, might injure the glass windows on either side, and so the job was done in the following fashion:
HOW often has the motorist carried his spare plugs in the tool-box rolled loosely in an old cloth, only to find in an emergency on the road that the spark-plugs have shifted about in the tool-box with wrenches, etc., and every one has a broken porcelain insulator?
THE common 50-lb. lard-can, which may be bought at almost any grocery for forty cents, can with a very little work be converted into a cookstove evaporator for the drying of fruits and vegetables. With three circular trays that fit inside, it has a capacity of 10 lbs. or more at one filling, and when a steady fire is kept in the stove, the drying will be completed in five or six hours.
IT is common practice for the mechanic who undertakes the job of tightening a loose flywheel, in instances where the flange of the crankshaft is bolted to the flywheel web, to ream holes in the flange and fit larger bolts. Instead, he could save time by reaming this flange with a quick taper reamer, trimming a bushing for each bolt, and boring to fit the old bolt with the outside of the same taper as the reamer.
WHAT is the use of carrying a long ladder on your shoulder or dragging it through the streets when two small wheels fastened to the legs near the base will make it a wheelbarrow? The illustration shows how a painter put to further use the rear wheels of a worn-out express wagon, originally belonging to his young son.
THE automobile tire and its accompanying inner tube are the vital parts to be considered on a long tour or in the usual day’s run. To keep them for use in emergency cases on the road is a thing to be appreciated by all owners and drivers. A few suggestions are well worth considering, inasmuch as they are offered from practical experience.
FOR quickly scouring and polishing and, at the same time, weatherproofing brass a preparation is recommended, which is composed of three parts of oxalic acid dissolved in forty parts of hot water, to which are added 100 parts of powdered pumice-stone, two parts of oil of turpentine, twelve parts of soft soap, and twelve parts of fat oil.
WHEN the “boxed” toes of shoes get scratched or scuffed so that the ordinary polishing will not restore the original appearance, a great improvement can be made by applying shellac. Rub the shellac on with a rag and rub it off again, so that there will not be a thick coat.
IN making patterns for castings an important point is to make all inside angles rounded or “filleted” in order to avoid the tendency to start a break at a sharp angle. An excellent way to make these fillets is to use a mixture of putty and shellac pressed into the corners and smoothed off to the required radius.
THERE are some very simple devices that one may make at home that greatly simplify the locating of short circuits, open circuits, “grounds” in the various wires on the automobile. The device here with consists of a pair of ordinary awls, a wire loop, and a test lamp.
MEDICINE that is disagreeable to take can be swallowed with a minimu of unpleasantness by using the simple apparatus shown in the accompanying illustration. A piece of glass tubing, corked at one end, is suspended by a wire in an ordinary glass.
WITH a tramp, tramp, like the footfalls of a regiment of soldiers, a fly goes walking along; with a roar like the shouting of some mighty giant, the faint murmur of a human voice is reproduced; far away from the scene a person listens to the plans of a secret conference.
TIME can be saved when large holes have to be cut in metal plates by using a very large drill. The usual method of drilling a large number of small holes along the outline and then cutting away with a chisel entails the loss of too much time in the drilling.
AN exceedingly fine adjustment is often required in working with a surface gage, and it is not always easy to obtain just the right setting in the usual way. There is a very simple method, however, that is as satisfactory as it is easy. The scriber is slightly bent.
HOW many times have you carried your spectacle-case in an outside pocket, only to have it fall out and break the glasses when you bent over? This is a very costly habit and one that can easily be avoided if you will adopt the following idea: Obtain a pencil clip, one of the ordinary kind will do, and flatten it out with a hammer.
A LOCAL automobile dealer utilized the angle-iron on the edge of his garage door to form part of the locking arrangement. The hasp was fastened . on the inside of the door and in locking was pushed through a slot in the angle-iron. The padlock was then secured as shown in the illustration.
WHEN using the gage shown in the illustration, the mechanic need not know the dimensions to which he is working, and often does not. He is told to make his work sufficiently small to pass one of the limits and too large to pass the other. He may not care what the real value of the dimensions is, and yet the system of gaging has proved remarkably accurate and resulted in greater speed of production than when the attempt is made to work to a single known dimension.
LADIES are attracted to the beautiful imitation ivory toiletware now sold extensively for toilettable accessories. Unfortunately, perfumes have their place also on toilet-tables. Perfumes contain a high percentage of alcohol, In order to avoid mental anguish over the marring of her beautiful hairbrushes, mirror-backs, combs, hairreceivers, and so on, she should understand that alcohol is destructive to the surface of her “ivory” toiletware.
The Popular Science Monthly will pay ninety dollars for the best answers
Rules Governing the Contest
HOW do you save steps in your home? What arrangements or what appliances have you made that save time and reduce work that would otherwise have to be done by hand? The Popular Science Monthly wants to know just what practical and useful things can be constructed to make every house a step-saving house.
WHEN a reflector is wanted in a hurry for use with an incandescent light, one that will serve the purpose very well can be made from an old tomato can. In fact, the result is rather surprisingly good if the can is bright and clean inside. Simply split the can down one side, cut out one end, and in the other end make a hole into which the lamp socket will fit tightly.
SOME time ago I was put to the daily necessity of using two latch keys to reach and enter my room. It happened that there was no light near either door, and as there was but little difference in the keys it was very annoying at times to find after infinite trouble that the wrong key had been inserted in the fugitive keyhole.
IF the cage of a canary is supplied with thin resting-sticks, the birds will often develop various infections of the foot. Such sticks do not give the bird a safe resting-place. They should be removed and replaced by larger, oval, not rounded, twigs which the bird cannot encircle with its claws.
A STOCK authorization order called for about 1000 whitewood boards from 6 to 10 in. wide and about 2 ft. long, but only ¼ in. thick. These boards had to have a ⅛in. slot all the way around the edge and be about ¼ in. deep. At first it was a problem, as many of the boards were green or warped, and many, as the slot was cut, had a tendency to curve a trifle and break off or cut through the remaining 1/16-in. side wall.
AN ingenious arrangement for electric dashand tail-lights, for which current is delivered from the magneto, is shown in the illustration. It is important to use lamps of the correct voltage. Examine the headlight bulbs and use lamps of the same voltage for the dashand tail-lights.
A DRILL for the purpose of drilling holes in plate or window glass is made in a very short time from an old three-cornered file. The file, which may be 4 in. long, or of any suitable size, is ground down on the flat surfaces on an emery-wheel so that it has a rounded head and a blunt point in the center.
A FLEXIBLE tube or hose for conducting water can be made of an inner tube with the aid of a piece of spring wire wound into a spiral. Wind the wire about a spindle a trifle larger than the inside of the tube. It should take the form of a large spiral spring.
THERE are hundreds of moving parts on an automobile or motortruck, but none works so hard and so efficiently as a universal joint. Such a joint is necessary on the propeller shaft extending from the clutch to transmission and from the transmission to the rear axle, as the case may be.
AN emergency repair for a lug broken in tightening up an outlet water connection for an automobile, is shown in the accompanying illustration. These connections are usually cast iron, and in putting in the bolts an extra twist will frequently crack them.
THE writer had a lot of machine pieces given him to center punch. The holes were all the same distance apart, so to save laying them all out, and probably making them inaccurately, he invented the double punch shown in the illustration.
WHEN the rubber on the windshield wears off or is lost, you will find it very convenient to replace it with a piece of rubber tubing about ⅜in. diameter with as heavy a wall as you can purchase. As shown in the illustration, it will be necessary to cut it down the length of the tube to open it.
APATRIOTIC and ingenious merchant decided to make the flagpole in front of his establishment serve a triple purpose. The pole was a length of iron pipe that ran down into the cement walk which served to hold it securely. The merchant cut this pole in half with a hacksaw, threaded the cut portions, and screwed on a pipe-T.
IHAD occasion to scrape the carbon out of my automobile cylinders recently, and discovered a way to speed up a tiresome piece of work. I connected a vacuum cleaner to one of the sockets in the garage, bent a piece of 1-in. pipe at an angle of about thirty degrees, and inserted the pipe in one of the valve-caps while I scraped through the other.
WHERE the mechanical draftsman has been given a job which necessitates ruling many evenly spaced lines in a hurry, the little cardboard attachment shown in the illustration will be found to expedite the work. First cut a piece of cardboard the shape shown and attach it to the end of the T-square with thumbtacks.
THE most difficult thing to finish in the lathe is a tube. To do the work right, a mandrel should be fitted, but this takes time and the mandrel costs more than the job is worth in the end. The writer has found that it pays to keep a goodly supply of threadspools on hand.
CAN you drill a hole iarger at the bottom than at the top? In answer to this question we say “Yes,” provided you use the ingenious device illustrated here. The shank of the tool has a slot cut in it to which is attached a slanting blade. This blade is about ⅛ in. thick and is pivoted with a pin to the shank of the tool.
BEFORE the advent of the automobile this type of wrench was very common. It fitted two sizes of nuts, and there its use ended. I find that a few cuts of a hacksaw will extend its sphere of usefulness. Two sections are cut out of the end, as in Fig. 1.
HAVING a 5-by-7 camera and desiring to make full-sized copies of a batch of old 5-by-7 prints, nothing seemed easier than to set up and shoot. But right then my troubles started—the camera was fitted with a lens of 8½-in. focal length, while the bellows extension was only 12 in.
WHEN a nut becomes rusted, it is a very difficult job getting it off the bolt or stud on which it is set. To use a hammer and chisel usually results in the nut being made worthless. Being up against such a proposition and wishing to save the nut, which was a special thread, we made a novel wrench as shown in the illustration.
THERE is one bit of carelessness of which nearly all motorists are guilty at times, and which, unfortunately, is almost a habit with many. That is the practice of driving the tires against street curbs—most commonly in backing the car—so that the side walls and the fabric are bent.
PATTERNS for castings are varnished all over with shellac varnish. The parts that are to be reproduced in metal are finished with black shellac and the coreprints, which make the recesses in which the cores are placed, are finished in orange shellac.
THE wooden handle on your coffee percolator can easily be protected from burning off at the bottom by attaching this small protector, which deflects the heat from the bottom of the handle. A small piece of aluminum, brass, or copper will answer the purpose if bent into the shape shown in the illustration.
IN the summer hot air is apt to arise from around the pedals of an automobile, and in the winter it it is liable to be decidedly chilly. To be able to exclude these disagreeable gusts of air may not seem easy, but here’s the way to do it. Cut out a section of old inner tube and make a slit down the middle long enough to allow the pedal to be worked its full distance.
WHEN you change from normal size to oversize tires, it will be necessary to change the speedometer gear if you want the instrument to read absolutely accurately. The rule to follow is that the number of teeth in the large speedometer gear—the one attached to the road wheel—must be twice the diameter of the tire in inches.
THE amateur sometimes is unable to finish small parts of his homebuilt apparatus in a workmanlike manner because he lacks the proper equipment to knurl the edges of small adjusting screws and nuts, the handles of tools and other pieces of brass or steel.