The cost of milk can be reduced by transporting it in tank-cars heated by live steam from the engine
How the Present System Began
Temperature and Handling Economies
He Would Transport Milk in Heated Tank-Cars
Gravity Saves Mart-Power
How the Price is Lowered
UNDER average conditions, the quart of milk for which the farmer receives eight cents costs the housewife sixteen. In other words, the handling charges, plus the milk-dealer’s profits, is equal to the first cost of the product. Under present conditions the rail freight per quart of milk is one cent when the milk is collected within four hundred miles of the city where it is ultimately sold.
SIX thousand dollars’ worth of radium was thrown into a furnace. It came out in the ashes. How it was found and recovered makes an interesting story. A nurse was removing ten tubes of radium from a patient. She lost one in doing so. Six thousand dollars’ worth of radium in a tube the size of your little finger!
What the scientists have discovered about the secret of perpetual youth
Our Lease on Life
Why We Die
Are We Wound Up Like Clocks?
Nature's Reason for Limiting Life
Parts of Us Are Immortal
Our Body Cells Never Die
The Battle Waged within Us
Repairing Bodies Like Clocks
Experiments on Animals
No Way Yet to Beat Nature
ANY one of us can get from an insurance company an estimate of how long he may expect to live. He will be told that the average American white man lives sixty years and the average woman sixtyfour. That is to say, of all white children born in America, the average age at death will be sixty for males and sixty-four for females.
THE Kilmore was a British gunboat during the war; now she is a merchantman. She was converted from one to the other in two months! The picture in the upper righthand corner shows the Kilmore in her war paint. She had a stern-shaped bow, which made it difficult for the Germans to know whether she was coming of going.
The Peary of the future will explore the frigid zone in a floating laboratory
The “Admiral Peary”
To the Pole in a Week
To the North Pole by Dirigible Airship
Lieutenant Clifford A. Tinker
NEWSPAPERS have always referred to the last desperate effort of .a Nansen, a Scott, or a Peary to reach his geographical goal as a “dash for the pole.” And a “dash” it is. A few dogs hauling a few sledges, one or two instruments, barely enough food to keep body and soul together —such is the equipment of the daring expedition that makes the supreme effort.
THE Wakamba dentist does not look for cavities—he makes them. He chisels and then files his patients’ teeth until each tooth ends in a sharp point. Why? So that his patients can tear raw meat with neatness and despatch. The Wakamba tribe is one of the least civilized tribes of Africa.
FOR a long time inventors have been designing machines for getting hay into the hay-loft, but none of them have worried about getting it out again. George Chromy, on the contrary, has felt the need of such a mechanical hay-puller and has therefore invented one.
THERE is a coal-mine burning under one of Pittsburgh’s most exclusive residential sections. The fire started in 1914. A few months later it spread rapidly and became a source of great danger to the community. To know that a fire is burning under the street you live on, with the possibility that it may actually extend under your home, would not add anything to your feeling of comfort and security.
How motor-truck failures became successes when loading and unloading time was reduced
A Saving of $16,500 a Year
Making the Motor-Truck Pay
Reducing Traffic Congestion
Double Loading Capacity
Easy Transference of Bodies
Bodies on Rollers and Nesting Bodies
The Demountable Trailer
AMONG the 900,000odd motor-trucks now in use there are some that do not save money in comparison with horses, if the cost per unit moved alone is considered. There are countless instances where horses are still employed because the truck apnarently cannot compete.
YOU can look down upon a city in miniature and see moving street-cars, automobiles, crowds of people, and all phases of metropolitan life reproduced in a passing show before you. This is not a freak, but an actual toy, which can be used to demonstrate the interesting inventions of the day.
DRINK a cup of coffee, smoke a cigarette, find a hundred-dollar bill, and your heartbeats will quicken. All of these irregular actions of the heart can now be recorded upon a moving photographic film by the electrocardiograph. It has been found that the heart, upon contraction of certain of its muscles, generates a small electric current.
THE Crow is one of the world’s smallest airplanes. It dots the blue sky of England. It can carry you at a speed of sixty-five miles an hour. The British Crow weighs 220 pounds and has a wing spread of but sixteen feet. Its motor is a forty-horsepower engine, twin-cylinder, air-cooled, mounted on the front of the plane.
TWO Englishmen, Captain A. R. Mangnall and Captain Irving, have invented a machine that will revolutionize presentday pipe and cable laying. The portable apparatus weighs only thirteen hundred pounds, and consists of a hydraulic cylinder carried on trunnions in a carriage, and capable of being turned from a horizontal to a vertical position.
VACUUM cleaners will fill pillowcasings with feathers! This kink was discovered by a husband who one day found his wife filling with feathers both a pillow-casing and the workroom. The husband took an embroidery-ring, placed it over the open end of the casing, attached the casing to the back of the cleaner, and when the cleaner was set in operation over the feathers, it sucked them into the casing.
MANY’S the time you’ve pushed a cork into a bottle when trying to pull it out. Can it be fished out? Try this: Grease the inside of the bottle’s neck with vaseline and hold the bottle under the cold water for a few minutes. Spear the cork with a hatpin and draw it up into the neck of the bottle.
A CHIPPED wheel-flange or a broken axle will hold up a freight-train and perhaps several others. But there has been invented a skid shoe that will enable any train with broken wheels to limp to a siding for repairs. The skid shoe shown below fits in front of the wheel.
IT is no wonder that the eleven-year-old boy in the picture has a broad grin on his face. Farm work to him is as easy as driving a horse and buggy. He sits on a small seat at the rear of a combination tractor and eight-foot wheat-binder, holding a pair of ropes in his hands, and feels that he is lord of all he surveys.
SEEDING cantaloups is an art deftly performed by the natives of the regions in which they grow. The two halves of the melon are turned quickly around a stiff piece of rind, or other suitable object held between them. This motion dislodges the seeds, and they are collected in a vessel for future planting.
A GOOD advertising man is this dealer. He sells abrasive materials and he believes in advertising the fact. To do this he has put a large grinding-wheel on the front of his shop where the passers-by can stop and sharpen their pocketknives.
THE horses are not sitting down to take a rest. They are trying very hard to get up. Their hind legs are under the ground, not on it. The potato-field in which the horses were working was very boggy, and, without warning, their hind legs sank. The more they try to get out, the further in they sink.
THE .cheery glow of the fire is quite unable to rouse the listless moving-picture heroine pictured above. Perhaps it is because that cheery glow is just the concentrated effort of several powerful electric lights operated by an electrician behind the scenes.
IN spite of the cool weather, the chief bather in the picture above carries her sunshade with her. But she does not put it between herself and the sun. It is the latest thing in sunshades and must not be left at home. When the sunshade is closed, it becomes a handbag!
HENS are so scarce in Germany that they are never allowed to run around loose any more. They are closely watched and kept in captivity. Every day they are taken out for a walk, but they travel at the end of a string all the time. At night various members of the family to which they belong take turns at playing watchman.
PAINTING traffic lines is a quick and easy job when you use a painting machine like this one. The machine resembles the whitewashing machines used for marking lines on a tennis-court, but its action is entirely different. The paint does not drip upon the pavement
EVERY little while you hear of a rat jumping off the stairs and breaking its neck or leaping into a pail of water and drowning. Here is the sad case of a rat that electrocuted itself in true Sing Sing style. It stepped unknowingly on the electrical terminals of a high-powered English car, short-circuiting the current through its body.
AT the present price of grain, a camel is an expensive pet to keep. He will eat three dollars’ worth of food a day, whereas a boa constrictor is satisfied with one rabbit a month. When two exhibitors exchanged pets, the new camel-owner couldn’t stand the expense.
LONGER life for telegraph-poles is made possible by alternating hot and cold baths. The number of poles that can be treated at one time varies with the size of the treatment tanks. The fibrous inner bark is removed from the end of the pole that goes into the ground; then the end is lowered into a tank filled with creosote heated to a temperature of 212° Fahrenheit.
IT is no longer necessary to shell peanuts before they can be salted. They are now soaked in a strong brine, drained, and placed in this special roaster. Before the process of roasting, an air pressure is applied that forces the brine through the fibrous shell of the nut, imparting a delicate flavor to the kernel.
A NOVEL seed-separator divides round seed from those that are egg-shaped, elongated, flat, three-cornered, or whatever shape a seed may be. It consists of two series of spiral channels through which the seeds are passed. The inner spirals are lower than the outer series.
KNOWING the fascinating power that brass buttons have on the gentler sex, it behooves all officers to make their buttons shine brightly. But how can brass polish be applied to buttons without the risk of getting it on the cloth beneath? A New York patrolman’s wife solved the problem by inventing a glass shield that is placed around the button.
WITH coal at fourteen dollars a ton, the use of sawdust as fuel will interest many people who have to heat homes this winter. An officer in the British army has invented a small stove that uses sawdust as fuel. He claims that it will keep two rooms comfortably heated in the coldest weather.
TAKE a seat in a chair behind the painted airplane shown in the photograph. You will appear to be suspended in the air in flight. To make the picture more humorous, the proportions of passengers and airplane can be disregarded. Thus the photograph will show a large-sized image of yourself and friends and the flying-machine will appear ridiculously small.
WHEN a lot of prints are placed in a flat tray to be washed, great care must be taken to prevent them from sticking together in such a way that some are imperfectly cleared of hypo. Here is a device that assures perfect wáshing, and chapped hands are avoided.
SINCE there is no coin between the nickel and the dime, railway companies that have raised their fare to an intermediate amount are constantly troubled with making change. It is not only difficult to obtain enough pennies to go round, but the conductors find their work more complicated.
THREE surgeons sometimes find it necessary to brace branches together with bolts and chains to give them strength to withstand the ravages of storms. It is unusual to find a tree that performs this feat itself. The illustration shows a red maple in which two separate branches grew into one, forming a natural brace.
ALMOST every one likes cheese— especially good sharp cheese. Roquefort cheese is a delicacy that has heretofore been manufactured only in parts of Europe where it was asserted the proper conditions for ripening existed. It was also asserted that goat’s milk was necessary for its manufacture.
EXPERT workmen can practically complete the operation of driving a screw with one hand. Most amateurs need both hands and even then they do not get the screw in straight. For the benefit of amateurs and those who have but one arm the new screwdriver has been invented.
A SUMP hole in a mill building was drained by a siphon located in the engine-room. The engineer was a forgetful chap and often neglected to stop the siphon. As a result, the basement of the mill was continually flooded. The trouble was overcome by making an automatic system.
HYDROGEN is extensively used for filling balloons as well as for other scientific and commercial purposes. It is true that helium, being incombustible and inexplosible, offers a distinct advantage over hydrogen, but it is a great deal more expensive and difficult to obtain in large quantities.
CHINA that is not hand painted— how does it get its pattern? In an oven, we find; the pattern is baked on. An electric furnace that can be used for this purpose is shown herewith. It is small, but very strongly built. The oven is mounted on steel casing, and its walls and door are thoroughly insulated, thus preventing loss of heat from radiation.
THE optophone enables blind people to read directly from printed matter. It was invented by E. Fournier d’Albe. A thin beam of light is projected upon a letter of a word to be read. This beam is broken into five smaller beams by a revolving perforated disk, which also interrupts the individual beams.
GIVE US the old discarded battleships,” say the people who live in the coast cities of England. Why do they want them? Of what use is a ship whose days as a fighter are past? From the war-ships that are no longer serviceable on the sea, all of the equipment is removed that might be still of service.
THREE desperate criminals escaped from the Charlestown State Prison at Boston, a few months ago, by means of an ingenious contrivance that they had manufactured in the prison shops. One of the escaping prisoners was a mulatto, and it was afterward discovered that this man possessed an almost diabolical cleverness in the handling of tools.
RAILROAD accidents are usually due to improper signaling —flagging, for instance. The flag is often mounted on a stick thrust into the ground beside the tracks. The wind blows it down, and the engineer is unwarned. Alexander Currie, of Sorel, Canada, has invented a flagging signal that can’t possibly go astray.
It will eliminate all valve-grinding and many valve troubles
Stanley Yale Beach
WHEN casting about for something interesting with which to busy himself after perfecting his process of acetylene welding, Mr. Eugene Bournonville, a Belgian, conceived the idea of using rotary valves on automobile engines. At the time, James W. Tygard was the only one, so far as the writer is aware, who had successfully applied a valve of this type to a gasoline engine, and he used a special tapered valve in a freak motor.
What Washington thought of O’Hara is told in this true story of two naval radio operators
John W. Kean
WHILE Davis was melting ice on the wireless antenna, Zeider was having a chat over the signal wire with Hoke Fitzsimmons in Washington. O’Hara, the fun-maker of the trio, was telling Davis how to do his job. “Zeider,” Davis said, “I believe our bold shipmate thinks he knows something.
WHEN the United States joined the great fight, millions of gunstocks, thousands of artillery wheels and transport wagons, as well as the proposed super-fleet of airplanes, called immediately for lumber; and not lumber merely, but dry lumber.
NOW there is a vacuum cleaner that not only does your sweeping for you but dusts as well, without the need of any special attachments. The handle is equipped with a suction device; thus when you wish to draw the dust out of corners or from upholstered furniture, you hold the cleaner upside down and let the handle do the work, as shown in the picture above.
UNLESS some one has been willing to drag you around, you haven’t been able to do much sledding in flat country. But now that the motor wheel has made good on bicycles and small boys’ express wagons, it is being tried out on sleds. Above you see a motorsled chugging its way across the smooth hard snow.
DON’T hang your old trench helmet in a closet where no one can see it; hang it rather from the ceiling and use it as an inverted-light fixture. You can buy a reflector that will fit inside when the lining is taken out. In place of the chin-strap you attach chains with which to fasten the hat to the ceiling.
CAN we judge the direction of lojad and soft sounds of different pitch with equal accuracy? Experiments have shown that we can not. Blindfold a man and mark off a circle in ten-degree divisions around him. Start a sound in a certain part of this circle, but vary its intensity.
A Pair of Trouble Gloves for the Automobile Driver
YOU wear high rubber boots when you wish to plow through heavy snow, why not wear long gloves when you have to dig through the mud and grease that accumulate on your car? You never know when you may have to change a tire, or adjust your carburetor, or tend to any other of the many ills that cars are heir to.
SPEED—that’s the secret of many sports. Take skiing, for instance. Even though skis carry you across the snow at a terrific rate of speed, many skiers are not satisfied. They want to go faster. How can it be done? By wearing a sail. Above you see some people starting on a ski-sail in Norway.
THERE is a razor whose blade moves from side to side as you draw it across your face. This double motion doubles the speed and accuracy with which each individual hair is chopped off. Thus it should not be necessary to scrape your face more than once when you shave.
Providing a Street-Car with Stilts to Keep People Dry
WHEN the floods from the Ohio river inundated some of the streets of Cincinnati, a unique arrangement was made to keep the high water from reaching the exposed parts of the street-car motors. The car which held the motive apparatus was mounted higher above the wheels, thus elevating the motor out of reach of the water.
BAD boys in Sunday supplements and movie villains are always building fires under other people’s chairs. But none of them had anything to do with the two lighted lanterns that blaze away beneath the ticket-chopper at the Times Square, New York, subway station, whose picture is shown here.
OLD Black Joe has a namesake—a German-born goldfish that has been living in this country seventeen years. He was given that name because of his coal black color; but, strange to relate, when the United States entered the war with Germany, his color changed to red, white, and blue.
SKIING is a thrilling sport at the least attempt, but when it is connected with various other motive sports it surpasses the mere sensation of thrills and enters the realm of real danger. One of the least dangerous is the celebrated sport of the hills of Sweden and Norway.
THE bottom of the sea is undiscovered country to most of us who are not deepsea divers. Now, however, there is a sea telescope that makes it possible for us to see clearly from the deck of a boat, objects a hundred feet below in clear water. It was invented specially for fishermen and salvage workers.
BANANA skin has a bad name, owing to its unpleasant habit of making people slip. But it is really quite useful. For example, it will clean and polish your shoes just as effectively as a regular shoe-polish. You rub the inside of the skin on your shoe and the sticky substance there will absorb all the dirt.
THE legs of cotter-pins are often hard to open and close; but there is now a tool to attend to this. There are two handles, pivoted together as in the case of a pair of scissors. One handle has a hole grooved out near the end, and the other terminates in a pyramid-shaped point that fits in the hole.
SAFETY curtains, fire-doors, and all other devices for preventing the spread of fire, should be made to work automatically. In the confusion and excitement that accompany fires these devices are often overlooked. In the picture below is shown a new automatic release attached to a fire-door in a factory.
REMOVING old paint with a gasoline blow-torch is a tiresome job. Such work is made more pleasant and rapid with this new torch that burns acetylene gas. The gas is supplied from the dissolvedacetylene tank which rests on the ground. It is connected with the blowpipe by means of a flexible hose of sufficient length to allow the operator freedom in his work.
NO matter how well your low shoes fit, they are likely to slip up and down on your heel when you walk. It isn’t the shoes’ fault; they simply are not as flexible as your feet. What will give then this flexibility? A strip of elastic. Y ou fit it inside the shoe and fasten it at each side of your heel.
SHOULD you see what looks like a speedometer attached to the axle of a buggy, like as not the vehicle is being employed by the Soil Bureau of the United States Department of Agriculture. When thus employed, the principle of the speedometer is converted into an “odometer.”
AN engine which can push a steel-chisel ice-cutter serves well to keep open winter transportation. The sharp-pointed chisel-teeth dig deeply into the hard surface of ice, or the compact coating of frozen snow, and shove aside the broken pieces to clear the right of way.
GET up into the air with your camera if you wish to take a photograph of merchandise for catalogue use. This camera “tripod” was built especially for this purpose. Pictures can be taken quickly without the trouble of pinning the objects to the wall.
MINERS, structural steel-workers, and others who jeopardize their heads by working in places where rock, coal, or pieces of iron frequently fall, can find protection in the new “hard-boiled” cap which serves the purpose of a helmet.
WHEN one’s tractor or gas engine is in use a mile or so from the house, and the “gas” gives out, it is not always easy to carry the supply across the plowed fields. To meet this need of farmers a new form of tender has been placed on the market. On two light but strong metal wheels are mounted steel drums in which to store gasoline, water, lubricating oil, etc.
IF you think this little tank is a toy, you are mistaken. It is a real worker—a hard worker. It is well constructed, has plenty of power, and, although a little slow, like the snail it finally gets there, even though pulling a heavy load. It has a gasoline motor, tractors, and everything.
EVEN in their sign-posts the Germans display their love of elaborateness. Instead of having plain wooden or metal posts with arrows pointing to the various towns, highly carved tree-stumps are used. They are fashioned to represent human beings with extended arms— the arms pointing to the various towns, and having the distances written on them.
BABY must have plenty of good fresh air. In the wintertime a mother’s hands get very cold on the handle of the perambulator. A humane inventor—very probably an experienced father—has invented a handle which will accommodate a muff so that the hands may be kept comfortably warm while little son or daughter is enjoying the fresh air.
THERE is no better advertisement for milk than a healthy one-year-old consumer. That’s why a London dairyman put four strapping young milk-drinkers in his show-window. If people will stop to look at puppies in a window, surely they will look at babies with a much greater interest.
PHILADELPHIA comes to the front with a humane device to protect traffic policemen. Exposed to the bitter winds of winter, the traffic regulator has to keep a sharp lookout for offenders who do not obey his orders. When the wind, full of ice-crystals, cuts into the corners of his eyelids, it is not an easy matter to keep a clear vision.
WHERE is that cork?” you ask, after you open a bottle and the cork slips out of your hands. The little wire handcuff on this cork keeps it where it belongs—attached to the bottle. It is very simple. A single piece of smallgage wire which has several bends does the trick.
THERE is always a great trunk mystery raging as the history of crime goes on. One of the recent trunk affairs involves a burglar who had himself locked in a trunk by his confederates and shipped to a vault in a large storage company. In the dead of night he planned to creep out and take his pick of the valuable jewels and furs around him.
BEFORE the war, when you could tour Europe for a few hundred dollars, your guide would invariably lead you to the entrance of the church of St. Mark in Venice and point grandly at the four bronze horses at the entrance. But during the war the famous four disappeared—they were removed to Rome for safekeeping.
DON’T open your umbrella in a heavy thunderstorm, even though it will mean ruining a new hat. Umbrellas attract lightning and may lead to injury or sudden death. Above you see a mutilated pair of gloves that were worn by a woman who was holding an umbrella when lightning came her way.
AN ostrich-egg omelet was prepared especially for the thirty-two guests of a film star at a luncheon recently given by her at a fashionable hotel in Santa Barbara, California. In arranging the menu, it was decided to have something in the way of a novelty to offer the guests.
THE appearance of “rainbow” sugar has brought about an investigation by the United States Bureau of Chemistry. Harmless dyes were found to have been used in producing the various tints. But the Department of Agriculture intends to keep a sharp lookout for the appearance of other than harmless colors.
FROM towns within a radius of five hundred miles of St. Louis, Missouri, five thousand homing pigeons were released in one of the most remarkable races of its kind ever held in this country. At the speed of a mile a minute these feathered lettercarriers competed for prizes, the winners being the pigeons that first arrived home and registered inside their loft compartment.
THE average American feels very important when he goes into the election booth to cast his vote, understanding, as he does, that he is discharging one of his most sacred duties as a citizen. Yet while an election officer is unfolding the ballots, he may “accidentally” tear a few.
THE superintendent of a large American electrical plant was called into a Conference. While waiting for it to start, he gazed out of the window at the busy yards a Short distance away. Suddenly he noticed a load of material coming down the track.
DETACHED and disjointed, the sections of a gigantic fish-trap can be put together in half an hour. When complete, it measures 60 feet in diameter. The hoops which hold the net are 15 feet apart and 10 feet deep. Though the dimensions of the trap are large, it is easily manipulated, a crew of only six men being sufficient to handle it.
THERE is a new automatic power limiting and indicating system for electric railroads. The system is based on the desire to prevent excessive peak loads which might cause serious voltage variations. It accurately records at one place and on one meter the total power supplied to the railroad’s transmission lines at a number of points.
The atom has a skeleton and the. X-rays show its structure
WHEN the X-rays were first discovered, scientists were not quite certain whether or not they were light. Light, as every one knows, is a wave motion of the ether. X-rays have waves ten thousand times smaller than ordinary light waves. The ordinary prism or diffraction grating could not resolve an X-ray into a spectrum.
FROM France there comes a new quickaction wine-bottling machine. Frenchmen have plenty of use for it. They drink a bottle of wine with nearly every meal! The machine interests us only theoretically. The wine is poured into a tank which looks like our orangeade tanks.
WOULD you like to know a new way to crack nuts? This is not a joke, but a serious question. If you are out in the woods gathering nuts some day, and have no nutcracker with you, make one. You take a stick and cut a notch in it. The notch should be about two thirds as deep as the average nut, and a little wider.
A NEW folding table has been invented by Vernon M. Gay, of Danbury, Connecticut. Opened up, it has an attractive circular top whose leaves barely give a hint that they are not built to be permanently spread. Presto! The sliding clamp along the main support is moved, and down come certain sections of the leaves, making the table-top a perfect Maltese cross.
THE silkworm has no taste for color, for which reason its silk is drab and must be dyed before it is woven. By feeding the worm certain leaves it can be made to spin its silk in various beautiful colors. Dr. Vartan K. Osigian, an Armenian, has developed this process, and the silkworms spin silk in eighteen different shades.
ON each hand there are four fingers and a thumb; and on each foot there are five toes. We Americans do not usually put our big toes in a class by themselves, as we do our thumbs. Thus the toe of our stocking is all in one, and so is the toe of our shoe.
FREE balloons of small size are used by the United States Weather Bureau to help in determining the conditions of the atmosphere and to aid the forecasts which are so valuable to aviation. The drift of free balloons and the motion of the clouds are the weather-vanes of the upper levels.
LONG-HAIRED breeds of cattle, such as Hereford, Galloway, or Angus, are carefully “frizzed up” before they are taken into the show ring of the exhibition. Sponge baths and daily scrubbings with soap and water, and much brushing, get the hair in condition for final treatment.
IF machines like this one are used, the “bump, bump, bump” of the pile-driver will no longer be necessary. This driver screws steel piles into the earth. It works silently but efficiently, putting a steel pile in place as quickly as the ordinary pile-driver.
EVER try to roll an umbrella smoothly so it will not bag in the center? The man who knows takes from his pocket a small aluminum cylinder lined with leather and having upon it a gold monogram. Into the end of the cylinder he places the point of the umbrella, holding the cylinder in his left hand.
WHAT is the quality of your lot of grain?” is a question that must be answered. The mass must be probed and a sample taken out to be graded. It is necessary to obtain equal portions of this sample. The Department of Agriculture has put forth an invention which any one can make.
THOUSANDS of dollars’ worth of damage has been done by moths spotting the films during the making of movingpictures at night. A special trap has been invented by F. S. Mills and Clyde Ewing of the Hollywood Lasky Film Studio. The device consists of a wide box opening, a carbon arc, two 100-candlepower lamps, a funnel made of an ordinary milk-can, a suction fan, and a large net receptacle in which the moths are trapped.
WITH one of these little hand-warmers in your pocket, you need not fear the biting winter cold which threatens to benumb your fingers. Take the hand-warmer, a cylindrical box of nickel, out of your pocket, remove the cover, strike a match, and light the wick soaked with the benzine with which the box is filled.
IN the early days of the automobile, each new type was larger and more complicated than its predecessor. Electric-lighting systems, new kinds of steering devices, ammeters, oil-gages—one by one, they were added. And now, after twenty years of automobiling, we find the small, simple car in vogue again.
THE Brude is the latest approach to an unsinkable lifeboat which combines the capacity advantage of a raft. Forty-four people, twenty on the deck and twenty-four on the continuous seat running around its sides, can be accommodated. In a compartment beneath the deck water ballast is carried, while buoyancy tanks are arranged around the boat under the continuous seat.
HAVE you ever wondered how you would manage if you had only one arm? The accompanying picture shows a German invention. It is a washingblock for the one-armed. It may be fastened to the wall of the washroom or clamped to any convenient piece of furniture when traveling.
ANY place is home-sweet-home to this fence. There has always been a great need for a fence of this nature and at last an enterprising inventor of Palo Alto, California, set about the task of developing one. The result of his labors is shown.
HERE is a street-car that looks something like the monkey-cage at the zoo. In fact, this car would make a very suitable vehicle in which to transport monkeys. Few changes in its construction would be necessary. This car is one of many equipped in the same way for protective purposes.
THERE is a new danger-signal that warns you whether a monkey-wrench may fall upon you from above, or a manhole cover blow up and hit you from below. The signal is provided with an arm that points either up or down toward the source of possible danger.
I SCENT which pays the best, an’ then, go into it bald-headed.” So saith the poet, James Russell Lowell. The same sentiment was held by the bald-headed man above; he scented advertising. Whereupon the words, “Venez ce soir au Café du Nord” (Come this evening to the Café du Nord), were painted on his bald head and he sat every evening on a boulevard in Paris near the café.
YOU who let the water drip for days because you are too lazy, or busy, to repair a broken washer, take note. In Constantinople folks must pay five cents for a glass of water! Above you see an army officer getting his nickel’s worth. The water supply in Constantinople, however, is gradually being increased.
PLAIN and simple as this clock looks, it is really very complicated. Not only does it tell the time of its own home town, Aurora, Illinois, but upon request will tell the time of places all over the world. It also gives astronomical and atmospherical readings, and has thermometer and micrometer attachments.
IF boiler tubes are made to vibrate at a high frequency, they will shed their scale as a duck’s back sheds water. This little tool climbs into a boiler tube, carrying its flexible feed-pipe after it. It obtains its power from steam or compressed air.
A KNIFE and fork that folds up like a jackknife has been invented by Rudolf Stroppel of West Branch, Iowa. The inventor tells us that it is intended for people with one hand and “campers, or others in like situation.” By this, we judge, he means travelers of all kinds who may desire a quick meal on the road.
RONTGEN rays penetrate wood with the. greatest ease, and it is possible to detect imperfections so small that they ordinarily would escape notice. Samples of wood from which airplane spars are to be made are planed perfectly smooth, and the grain is seen to be straight and even.
HOW can potatoes be shipped by railroad in cold weather without their freezing? Experts in the Department of Agriculture’s Bureau of Markets considered the subject and came to the conclusion that paper would do the job as well as anything.
WHY not combine the hoe and shovel into one tool? The hoe digs down and the shovel digs up; thus one blade will serve both purposes if its direction can be adjusted and its shape can be modified to suit both operations. Mr. Joseph Szabo of Newcastle, Pennsylvania, has invented just such a tool.
AS the high cost of clothing is due largely to the high cost of labor, any laborsaving machine is welcome. Above you see an electric pattern-marking machine that does the work of many skilled men. When a certain pattern is decided upon and laid out so that the least possible amount of goods will be used, the new marking-machine traces this pattern on a sheet of chemically prepared paper.
SOME cement is waterproof, and some is not. But you can’t tell by looking at them which is which. If you wish to find out, sprinkle some of the cement on top of a glass of water and then thrust your finger into the water. If the cement contains the proper amount of waterproofing material, your finger will be dry when you pull it out of the water.
BARIUM sulphate, like many other things, is very scarce. It has always been used as a filler in paint and now a substitute must be found. Many paint manufacturers have decided to try using a talc which belongs remotely to the same family as the talcum powder you use.
WHENEVER you have an irresistible desire to go up in the air, try kiting; that is, ascending by the aid of manbearing kites. You will be sure to find it a decidedly exciting and exhilarating sport. Kiting of that kind is a favorite pastime in France and there are numerous clubs devoted to this sport, which have formed a general organization, known as Union Cerfvoliste de France, the headquarters of which are at Issy les Moulineaux, on the outskirts of Paris.
GREIG’S “Morning Mood.” That’s the name you see on the box. You take out the music-roll, adjust it in place in the player-piano, and start working the pedals. But the first bar or two tells you that “you’ve come to the end of a perfect day.” Of course it’s a mistake.
IF you brush your teeth regularly three times a day and do it thoroughly, you need not fear the dentist’s chair. But what kind of brush is best for teeth? Owing to their peculiar irregular formation, it is difficult to construct a brush that will reach all the hidden corners and crevices.
THE problem of mounting and dismounting heavy motor-truck wheels has become more and more serious to the motor-truck owner as the size of his fleet increased, making the operation more often necessary for re-tiring the wheels or greasing the bearings.
BECAUSE all motorists are human, and therefore often negligent about coiling up an air hose so that it will not be run over by other motor vehicles, walked upon, and eventually made to leak, the Standard Oil Company of California has developed an underground counterweight system of hose protection at one of its service stations in San Diego, California.
HERE is a truck that is not used in the country of prohibition, but that marks a new step in highway transportation in France, where it has displaced the hand-cart, the oxteam, and the small wagon for collecting wine from the vineyards and carrying it to the bottling-plants.
A NEW principle in the construction of automobile radiators shows the air passing through the radiator core shredded or broken up into a multiplicity of small currents. The purpose of this division of the air-stream passing through the radiator is to bring the greatest possible volume of air into contact with some portion of the core and thereby absorb a greater amount of heat from the water to be cooled.
WHEN Gaston Chevrolet swept across the finish-line, winner of the five-hundred-mile International Sweepstakes automobile race at Indianapolis last May, the spectators cheered wildly and marveled at the endurance of the plucky little driver who had sat at the wheel for six solid hours.
IT is not every day that a motortruck can act the role of a goatgetter, although this is exactly what the truck shown in the accompanying illustration does. Just how this came about dates way back to the early days of the eighteenth century when the old Spanish Mission padres searched the Pacific coast for converts.
ALASKA has been greatly in need of railroads. It was unable to build its own roads, owing to lack of facilities in the shape of steel-mills, car-shops, etc. But now the railroad system of Alaska is being gradually built up. The rolling stock and other materials are manufactured in the United States and sent north by water.
PROGIN, a Swiss military aviator, decided to try to break the world’s altitude record. He rose higher and higher, until finally his airplane was no longer visible to the people watching him from below. When he had reached a height of twenty-seven thousand feet, and had been forced to use his oxygen tank, one of the connections suddenly broke.
ONE man with a pull of only eighty pounds can lift this oneton block two feet from the ground in half a minute. One man can do the work of five in moving heavy weights, and he need not be a “strong man.” He pulls upon a chain attached to a new “spur-geared” chain-block, and lifts the weight.
IN the Uyeno Park Museum, in Tokio, Japan, there are three fowls with tail-feathers from thirteen to fifteen feet long. Only the cocks have feathers of such startling length. The hens are rather commonplace in appearance. The long-tailed fowls settled in Japan before the Christian era.
WHAT makes your motor “knock”? If you know, you are unique among men. There is more misinformation current among the owners of automobiles regarding the causes of this very common ailment than of all other motor ills combined. The carbon knock, recognized by a regular succession of distinct, almost metallic, sounds, as of blows on an anvil, is by far the most important knock that afflicts the gasoline motor.
TWO valuable old stand-tables, heirlooms, with very heavy marble tops, were brought to me to be repaired. The work was to be done without showing any marks of repair. The heavy tops had caused the legs to give way, allowing the solid walnut center to touch the floor.
WHETHER equipped with an abrasive cloth disk for surfacing small metal parts or with a sandpaper disk for finishing wood patterns, mitered frames, and other articles, the small disk-grinder is an extremely useful piece of apparatus in the hands of the small-shop or home-shop man.
HERE is the United States Government’s standard recipe for whitewash. Slack one half bushel of unslacked lime in boiling water, keeping it covered during the process. Strain, and add a peck of salt dissolved in warm water. Add also three pounds of ground rice boiled to a thin paste and one pound of Spanish whiting.
TO set an inside caliper to size is not as easy as one would imagine, especially by the regular method. Here is the way I overcame the trouble. I made two blocks, as shown in the illustration, to fit my scale. Through each block I placed a binding-screw.
A TEETER-BOARD is probably one of the oldest amusement devices known and is always popular with children. The rocker teeter is a great improvement over the old device, as it is smoother in action and prevents the jar as the child’s feet touch the ground.
WITH a few odds and ends of gaspipe, an old iron box bell, and a mica insulating-j oint such as electricians use on combination gas and electric fixtures, I have constructed a very serviceable homemade arclamp. The accompanying illustration shows in detail the ½-in.
A DEVICE for the removal of furnace ashes is shown in the two illustrations. A car with an ashcan is drawn up an enclosed incline from beneath the furnace to a point outside the building. A trapdoor in the floor of the ashpit and over the can is opened by means of a rod at the side of the furnace.
BEFORE descending a steep hill, it is a common practice to lock a rear wheel of a heavily loaded wagon which is not provided with the usual service brakes. This protects the wagon and its load, and also prevents the wagon running over the animals.
MOST flow-heaters for automobiles seem to be designed for the rear compartment and not for the front seat. The heater shown in the illustration is designed for runabouts, roadsters, and particularly the type of automobile that affords no protection for the driver against cold, such as taxicabs, town cars and limousines.
THE good old-fashioned way to paint small buildings is to get the ladder and hang thereon the pail of paint while the brush is shifted from one hand to the other, as the arms tire. But the nail sometimes bends under its load of lead, and spills its two or three dollars’ worth of contents upon the ground.
THE removal of bearing-shims to compensate for wear in connectingrods of an engine that has not seen much service is not difficult, even with those of limited experience in this line. With an old engine this is not so simple. The connecting-rod bearings are provided with a thick metal shim and some smaller ones, and in the old engine it is advisable to file down this thick shim slightly after the bearings have worn down farther than is provided for by the removal of these thinner shims.
A CENTERING-DRILL that makes a beautifully smooth seat for the lathe center is made from a piece of steel with the end formed exactly like a lathe center. A slit is cut, as in the drawing. The length of the slit is about twice the length of the tapered portion of the tool.
AFTER considerable use the wooden handle of a solderingiron becomes charred and burnt from continued contact with heat. A nonburning handle can be made in the following way: Remove the ferrule and handle and raise several sharp barbs along the end of the shank with a cold chisel.
OFTENTIMES the dishpan is too small, so we decide to fill the kitchen sink with water. This we cannot do because there is no way to stop the outlet. A convenient way to do this is to use a lead weight. To make this weight, select a can lid slightly smaller in diameter than the metallic colander outlet of the sink.
WHEN jacking up the car in the mud or sand, it is the usual thing for the bottom of the jack to sink gradually out of sight and subsequently lower the wheel until it again touches the ground. To do away with this annoyance why not carry a supplementary base to support the jack in such soft foundation?
A MUFFLER that gives good results, is easily made, and costs very little, can be put together from the commonest kind of pipe-fittings, nothing being required but seven tees and six short nipples. Screw a tee on the end of the exhaust pipe, and in each branch screw a nipple. Put on two tees, one on each end of the first, screwing them on the nipples.
A SMALL set of V-blocks can be easily made for bench use by utilizing pipe fittings in the manner shown. First get a sufficiently large flange and bolt it to the bench in a convenient position. Then thread a short other. File away any unevenness and try to get the cuts the same size and shape, so a round rod, reaching across, will fit in the cuts without any chance of wabbling.
A DEALER in photographic supplies was often asked for the loan of his darkroom, and several times people had opened the door, not knowing the room was in use. Of course this spoiled the plates and films then being developed. The photographer was exceedingly annoyed by this, so he figured a way by which it couldn’t happen again.
ANY instrument maker, addingmachine assembler, typewriter repairman, etc., will appreciate this expanding screwdriver, which is very efficient and practical. When you have to replace a screw in an almost enclosed corner, where you cannot use your fingers, all you have to do with this improved screwdriver is to pinch the tongues together and press it into the slot of screw, which it will hold firmly and not drop, as would be the case with a magnetized screwdriver.
THE production of draft in a chimney and the satisfactory operation of the boiler connected with the chimney depend upon the pressure difference between the heated gases in the chimney and the outside air pressure. To operate the boiler to its maximum advantage, especially in house-heating (for which this article is intended), it is necessary that there be some visible means of knowing this pressure difference or draft.
IF working at a vise, it is not only necessary to have enough light, but also to have it where it is wanted. The usual type of electric lamp gives sufficient light, but is unsatisfactory because if too high, it throws a shadow of the worker on his work, and if too low, it is a hindrance.
WHEN typing multiple copies of a letter the stenographer is usually annoyed by the sheets and carbon paper curling up. Try as she will she cannot keep them flat. Whenever this occurs in our office we attach a paper clip to the end of the top sheet, which weights the other copies down and permits us to continue the work without further trouble.
SHOULD a number of keys have to be made all alike, they can be made on the milling machine, using a thin cutter or a metal slitting-saw. The tapers can be set off on the dividing scale of the machine, so that they all will be alike. By arranging the cuts so that the keys will come “heads and tails,” there will be a minimum of waste material.
EVERY man who shaves himself has his own particular make of soap. I have been using the twentyfive-cent size shaving-stick, and when I finished with the box I always gave it to the baby to play with. The other day I found one on the floor and, putting it in his box of toys, noticed that he had eight similar boxes.
IN spite of every precaution, gasoline is sometimes spilled in the garage or shed in which an automobile is housed and it is not always due to carelessness that the spilled gasoline is ignited. An extinguisher of the squirt-gun type, and filled with carbon tetrachloride or trichlorethylene, should be in every garage.
MANY more owners of automobiles would equip their cars with storage batteries for lighting purposes if it were not for the expense and trouble necessary in taking the battery out of the car and having it recharged at the service station. This is particularly true of Ford cars not provided with a storage battery for lighting, and the following method of making a device that may be used in the cellar of the house, or garage, will help solve this trouble for many owners.
A TOOTHED sector is easily notched out on an ordinary lathe, Mark off the tooth positions on the edge of the sector. Mount a milling cutter of the desired form on a mandrel in the usual way. Bolt the sector to the tool carriage, using a bolt that passes snugly through the hole in the hub with the head in the tool-post slot.
THE “gentleman from the audience” being shown an apparently empty envelope, is asked to place a message inside it, then seal the envelope. This he does, and is amazed to see the performer immediately tear open the envelope and draw .out a return message which has, in some mysterious manner, replaced the original note.
IN an emergency, a very respectable machine screw can be made from a round-headed rivet, either brass or iron. All that is necessary is to thread the shank with the stock and die, and with the hacksaw make a slot in the head. A convenie nt way to hold a short rivet for threading is to place it between two blocks of wood and put the blocks in the vise, pressing the rivet head into the wood with as much force as is necessary to prevent it from turning.
CORN is one of America’s big crops, and its magnitude alone would suggest the difficulty -of the task in harvesting the immense acreage. Moreover, corn-harvesting is limited to a few days if the feeding value of the fodder is to be completely realized.
AVERY simple and satisfactory boring-bar can be made from a piece of steel tubing, 2 plugs, a long bolt, and a piece of steel for the cutter. A slot is cut at any desired place in the tube to hold the cutter, the slot being just large enough to allow the steel to pass through.
WHEN a certain cylinder misses regularly, it is an easy thing to locate, but when every cylinder misses, then one is very apt to use harsh language. The illustration shows how to make a cheap spark-gap which can be applied to each of the spark-plugs.
IF the rays from a single source of light are allowed to fall upon screens as indicated in the illustration, the amount of light which the first screen receives would cover the surface of four screens of the same size placed at double the distance.
THERE are times when one wishes to square a timber and has no square at hand. To take chances on squaring by the eye alone is risky, but here is a way that it may be squared by the eye and still run a good chance of making the cut square enough for all practical purposes.
WHEN one is in most urgent need of an emergency light, it often happens that the old flashlight is “dead.” The following first-aid treatment has often saved such a situation : Remove the battery and slip the individual cells out of the cardboard tube.
A PIECE of wood can be planed with a surface curved lengthwise, using a straight plane, if the trick is known, and if the wood is thin enough to be somewhat flexible. Simply fasten the wood down to the bench with a support under it so that the under side will have the curve that is required on the top.
EARLY fall is the time that the lawn-mower should be cleaned, sharpened, and oiled to be put away for the coming season. At this time, too, the average small machinist is crowded with work along that line and perhaps finds it hard to keep up with the demand, especially at the fag end of the summer season.
AN egg can be electrically fried and other small cooking done with the aid of an ordinary lightingbulb—the bigger the better—and a tin can. Put the bulb in the can, as shown in the illustration, and set the cooking utensil on top, and wait for the result.
IT takes two men to stretch a tapeline when measuring land, but one man can do the job quicker and better with an old buggy wheel rigged up properly. Make two shafts out of 3-in. scantling about 6 ft. long. They are attached to the wheel-hub with an axle made of a long bolt.
TO make sure that wires are absolutely “dead” before working upon them a Rochester, New York, railroad and lighting company is using a cable-tester. This instrument consists of. a condenser and a Geisler tube mounted on a long rod.
ONE of the large manufacturing concerns uses old band-saws, which were formerly thrown on the scrap-pile, for lining flumes for sand and gravel. The old blades have been found so well adapted to this use, owing to their hardness, that the manufacturers referred to not only use up their own old saws, but purchase blades discarded by other concerns. They last three or four times as long as bands of the average structural steel.
FOR inspecting the condition of inverted lights, high shafting, house gutters, or any object at considerable height which is in such a position that it cannot be viewed from the ground, the mirror herein described will be found useful. Procure a round automobile mirror of the style shown.
WHEN it rains against the windshield the view of the road is uncertain and chances of accident are increased. Windshield cleaners are good, but they keep one working. This visor has been devised to prevent the elements from striking the glass at all and is a great help to drivers in stormy weather.
THE electric iron used by the housewife is like the electric fan—it has many other valuable uses than that for which it was intended. The writer, returning from an automobile trip, found a large gap the size of a silver dollar cut in one of the tires.
HOW often have you wished that you could get fairly accurately the circumference of a circle quickly without a lot of figuring? The following short cut is especially valuable to the sheet-metal worker and to others as well. Suppose we were laying out a sheet-metal duct of circular construction and had drawn a circle to denote the cross-section.
COUNTING my flock of chickens every night for a week I found that fifty had utterly disappeared from the henyard in that time. This yard had a five-foot fence all around it, but I noticed that it was slightly bent down on the side away from the house.
A MACHINIST recently showed me a trick with a reamer that may be useful to others. He desired to ream out a hole in steel to a certain diameter, but the reamer nearest the size desired fell short a small fraction of an inch. To make chis reamer sufficiently oversize to meet the situation, he resorted to the following expedient:
THOUSANDS of car-owners take their cars to the garage and pay for little jobs that they themselves could do at home. But the thought of sliding under a chassis with a twelveinch clearance and attempting to make satisfactory repairs keeps them from trying it.
CUTTING large holes in sheet metal is sometimes quite a problem when the metal is too heavy to work with shears, or the hole is not large enough. A highly satisfactory tool can be made for the purpose in the following way: Take a piece of brass or steel tubing of a diameter about 1/16 in.
A CABINET-MAKER’S clamp suitable for the amateur’s workbench can be made of a section of channel iron and a discarded bolt as follows: Cut out a section of heavy channel iron about 1 in. wide. The width of the iron between sides should be enough to furnish jaws of sufficient opening.
A PART of an old discarded crankshaft used in conjunction witn an old face-plate and square, is a reliable means of checking up the connectingrod alinement of a motor vehicle. The crankshaft must be cut just forward of the connecting-rod bearing, and the flywheel flange used as a base to bolt the dummy crank thus formed to the faceplate.
THE amateur machinist is not always aware that belting can be arranged to drive a wheel or countershaft in any other way than by the direct method employed in all ordinary power transmission. A man having his own little power plant in the basement, attic, or in any small, confined quarters, can, by clever manipulation of belting, greatly increase the machine capacity of his limited space.
IT is a well known fact that if a milling cutter is well lubricated while it is cutting, it will perform quicker and better work. Acting on that assumption, here is what the writer did: In place of the ordinary single pipe which fed the lubricant to the cutter, a long pipe was made with a series of holes in it similar to those in the illustration.
ALMOST every man who owns or has run an automobile has noticed that his engine actually runs better in the very early morning or late at night, just after the dew has fallen. This is due to the amount of moisture in the air. Why contend with the frequent skipping of the engine and the loss of power due to the hot dry air of a summer day, when with a few hours’ time and a little expense you can manufacture an apparatus which will give you the moist cold air that gives life to your engine?
FIREWOOD is becoming scarce and expensive. This has made the burning of lime more costly than in former years. It requires about 30 cords of wood to fire a kiln containing about 1500 bushels of lime. Owing to the increased value of the wood, we see very few of the old limekilns in operation nowadays.
THIS idea, which illustrates how one drafting-room eliminates waste of time, is so adaptable to other lines as to merit attention. In order to speed up the work of passing various reference tables from one draftsman to another, a trolleywire was erected as shown in the illustration.
The Popular Science Monthly will pay ninety dollars for the best answers
Rules Governing the Contest
HOW do you save steps in your home? What arrangements or what appliances have you made that save time and reduce work that would otherwise have to be done by hand? The Popular Science Monthly wants to know just what practical and useful things can be constructed to make every house a step-saving house.
A CURRENT of cool air can be made to circulate through the shelves of a kitchen closet by cutting holes at the top and bottom through the flooring and walls and by using “icebox” shelves made of perforated iron. The air can be kept cooler and cleaner if a length of sheet-iron furnace pipe is run from the hole in the closet floor down into the cellar below, so that the open end of the pipe is but a few inches from the cellar floor.
WHILE patented gold leaf is the handiest to apply to flat, even surfaces, it is not so easy to use on depressed or uneven surfaces, especially if the depressions are of some little depth. Nevertheless it sometimes happens that it is the only kind on hand.
MOST of the difficulty with cement fence-posts comes in supplying a suitable method of tacking the wires to them. This is easily overcome by the method described. A strip of wood, wider on one side than the other, is embedded in each concrete post, in the casting, with the narrower side flush with the surface of the post.
OF course Miss Chicken may object to being roped in, as it were; but by using a lasso you are absolutely sure of having her for dinner. Scatter the corn as you always do when feeding the chickens, placing a cord lasso in a loop about it. Have plenty of slack to the end of the twine so as to stand back far enough in order not to frighten the fowl that you have your eye upon.
THE thread-picker as shown in the illustration was found to be very useful in picking thread or hair from the floor. If this is done before you use your vacuum cleaner or carpetsweeper, it will prevent the brushes from becoming entangled with the thread or hair.
IN heavy line-shading—as in a Patent Office drawing—there is a tendency for the ink to flow under the triangle and cause a blot. The accompanying illustration shows a device useful in such cases. On the triangle B (Fig. 1) small triangular lugs are cemented on each corner.
PARTS of machines such as spindle bushings are often difficult to drive out. With a tool like the one herein described, however, the job becomes much easier. Get a piece of round tool steel a trifle smaller than the spindle’s inside diameter.
A COLLAPSIBLE trestle is easily constructed and can be conveniently stored when not in use, or easily transferred from place to place, as occasion may require. It can be made from as heavy material as the work requires. The legs, instead of being nailed permanently to the heavy timber used to hold them together, are attached by hinges. The legs may also be spliced by gate-hinges.
MANY women sprinkle their clothes by hand, and many more go to the trouble of purchasing a clothes-sprinkler when they could easily make one at home. Here is a way of making your own clothessprinkler that will do the work as efficiently as any factory-made article.
HAVING occasion to use my telephone downstairs during the day and upstairs during the night, but believing the convenience thereby obtained did not warrant the rental required by the telephone company to install and maintain a second instrument, I purchased two telephone jacks and a plug.
COMPARATIVELY few owners and drivers of automobiles are aware of the value of soap for sealing leaky joints in the gasoline system. Very frequently gasoline oozes out around the filler cap, especially when the tank is nearly full. Such a leak is objectionable because the gasoline spreads over the outside of the tank, which nowadays is usually carried at the rear of the car, collects dust and impairs the finish.
TEST tubes are frequently broken because they are left lying about the bench. Why not have a holder for them? That old discarded poker-chip holder so popular years ago can be utilized to good advantage for holding the extra test-tubes, as shown.
A SATISFACTORY universal joint for light work is made as shown in the accompanying illustration, and it has the advantage of running in absolute silence. It requires no lubrication, and will not wear, provided it is not overloaded. Split the ends of the shafts to be jointed, heat the split ends to a low red, and bend the two parts in opposite directions at right angles, being careful to have them exactly at right angles.
IT is surprising to learn of the small number of mechanics who can boast of knowing how to sharpen a drill. To those who would like to learn the proper method of grinding we offer this advice: The mechanic should bear in mind the following factors:
OFTENTIMES a grooved wheel of fairly large diameter is wanted for temporary or rough use. Such a pulley, built of wood, can be constructed of two barrel-heads and a third wooden disk with a flat edge. Cut the disk out of stock, the thickness of which is as wide or wider than used.
TAKE six empty match - boxes. Glue them together as shown in the illustration and glue stout wrapping-paper around the whole. You now have a cabinet with six drawers that will fit comfortably in the coat pocket. Further improvements can be added in the way of index labels pasted on the front of the drawers and little knobs for pulling them out.
NEARLY all gas-stoves will occasionally back-fire, or burn back in the opening where the gas is admitted, and some stoves have the habit so badly that it is a positive nuisance. This can be cured, however, by inserting a piece of fine brass or copper wire gauze in the pipe leading to the burner — between tap and burner.
SHAFTING in a machine-shop, which has been allowed to accumulate rust through neglect, can be kept in a clean condition by the use of the polishers shown in the sketch. Cut out several disks of heavy cardboard, felt or leather, and slip them on the shaft by spreading a cut through one side.
WHEN birds hop from branch to branch it can always be noticed that the twig gives slightly to the weight of the bird. For this reason bird-cages should be provided with springy sticks. These are attached to a piece of wire which firmly loops the stick.
YOU can easily make all your pliers open automatically and stay open at all times by attaching a piece of rubber tubing or hose as shown in the illustration. It is found to be very useful for instrument makers and electricians and at the same time it makes a soft handle and a non-conductive one where live wires are to be cut.
SOME little time is required to edge and trim walks and flower-beds even if the person doing it is experienced. A gardener who had charge of a public park equipped his men with edging tools which he made himself. Wheels were procured from worn-out lawn-mowers, a hardwood stick four feet long, and a blade from an old carving-knife.
WHEN the alarm goes off in the darkness of a cold morning, why not have the furnace drafts automatically opened so that by the time you have had a couple of extra naps and finally get dressed the fire will be burning briskly and heat coming into the rooms?
WHEN the brakes squeak it is usually due to dirt forced into the lining fabric when pressed against the drum. Often this dirt can be washed out with kerosene. When the lining is thoroughly impregnated with dirt, however, kerosene will not prove adequate.
IN these days, when our daily papers are so full of the activities of the house-breaker, many will be interested, no doubt, in anything that will insure their home against a visitor of this kind. Nothing will drive a burglar away quicker than an unusual noise of any kind while he is at work.
WHEN several sections of a clothesline have to be connected, or when a broken section has to be repaired, here is a simple way to do it that will prove strong: Cut off the end of the line clean and bind each one with several turns of tightly wound twine.
WE are constantly upsetting topheavy ornaments, lamps, pedestals, etc. A great many of these accidents can be remedied easily, if the bases on which these lamps or ornaments rest are made heavier. This may be done in many different ways and does not require exceptional skill.
RESIDENTS near public garages are often annoyed by motorists blowing their horns late at night when seeking admittance, and the night man is usually busy washing cars and fails to pay immediate attention to the request. A method of calling the attendant automatically is shown in the illustration.
THE sketch illustrates a fine adjustment attachment to a surface gage when a direct longitudinal movement of the pointer is required. It is intended to fit into the regular clamp body in place of the regular needle and consists of a steel sleeve the diameter of the original needle, made either of small sized tubing or of a piece of rod drilled out with a long drill of small diameter and then turned on the outside to the pointer diameter.
THE three most essential requirements of the smoker are, first, something to smoke; second, a match; and, lastly, some place to scratch the match. As nearly all smokers carry a pocket-knife, the difficulty may be overcome by placing the knife in a vise and with a hard file make a senes of notches across the back of the knife (as shown in the illustration).