Whiting Williams, the Man Who Studied Labor Problems at First Hand
In the Name of Giovanni
Hearts Brought Down with Labor
Work, that No Man Covets
Machinery Aids Men's Self-Respect
AW, you go to hell! Me t’ru. Dees job no goo-od!” It is easy to recall the ashen face of my exhausted buddy, little Giovanni, as, with one and the same breath, he threw down his shovel and his defiance to the boss in charge of the gang of us removing the bricks from the caved-in open-hearth furnace, that first night of my months in search of the causes of industrial unrest.
The new million-dollar automobile speedway at Los Angeles is the greatest track-building feat
Fred Gilman Jopp
RED-BLOODED men have always been interested in contests of speed, stamina, and endurance. Yet most of us have taken as a matter of course the remarkable strides that have marked automobile improvement from the one-cylinder vehicle of only two decades ago to the long, low, rakish, and comfortable high-powered car of today. A large part of this development must be credited to lessons learned on the automobile speedway.
HERE is a boat that is kicked along on the principle of a sky-rocket. Instead of a propeller, an air-screw, or a paddle, this boat is provided with a pump, which sucks in a volume of water and expels it underneath the boat. Water jets pass through the opening, circulate inside the casing of the pump, and are forcefully expelled sternward.
WHANG! Babe Ruth bangs out a fast grounder. As the left fielder picks it up and throws it 240 feet to first base at a speed of 90 miles an hour, Ruth is just half way to his destination, traveling at the rate of 100 yards in 11 seconds. Will he be out or safe?
How the old method of sidewalk loading has been eliminated in modern department-store construction
How Motor-Trucks Save Money
Analyzing Loading Systems
Ramps Built for Loading
A New York Store's System of Loading
"KEEP the truck moving.” That motto ought to be posted in the shipping-room of every company that uses fleets of motor-trucks. Horses and motors differ fundamentally in this: Continuity of operation reduces the efficiency of a living muscle but increases that of an engine.
IT costs from $500 to $3000 a day to keep a steamship idle at its dock. The amount of loss depends on the size and on other characteristics of the ship. Most of this loss could be avoided if it were possible to use the ship while it is loading or unloading.
FIGURATIVELY speaking, Congress may know the weight of President Wilson’s signature when he passes or vetoes a legislative bill, but the United States Bureau of Standards is the one government department that can literally determine the weight of the President’s signature— only one three-hundred-thousandth of an ounce.
Using the Engine Crankshaft of an Airplane as a Gun
IN a recent aircraft exposition was shown an airplane “cannon” which is mounted in the hollow shaft of the engine. It fires a shot of one pound weight. There is no armor that any aircraft could carry which could resist the force of such a shell.
JAPAN and China are great countries for making the punishment fit the crime. In fact, they are keen on punishment in general. In China it is still the custom for criminals to stand in the public market place with a great wooden block around their necks on which is written the history of their crimes.
AT the School of Architecture, Columbia University, New York City, there is an entirely new method of teaching stereotomy, also known as architectural stone-jointing. A drawing is made of a typical joint and then a slide is made from the drawing. This is projected on the blackboard at the front of the classroom, as shown above. The instructor and pupils fill in the various sections with chalk, just as if the drawing were actually made on the blackboard.
HAVE you ever peeled a fat banana and found four complete bananas within? Such a quadruplet is shown herewith. Each banana, naturally, is small, but is completely developed. Just why freaks of nature like this turn up every so often, no one really knows.
IN Switzerland, when the soldiers practise target shooting, they make use of umbrellas to protect their eyes from the sun. Artists, the world over, use umbrellas for the same protection. In hot countries the umbrella is an important part of the day’s equipment.
SOME men cannot resist the desire to run a train. W. Cecil Gage, a broker, took up railroading as a hobby, and built a complete system, from tracks to rolling stock, himself. From second - hand lumber and old wheels he constructed the remarkable little train seen in the illustration below.
MANY thousands of automobiles are sent from the factories to purchasers under their own power. But machines consigned to down-river points from the Michigan manufacturers to St. Louis, Memphis, and localities farther south, are conveniently transported by boat.
THE high cost of wives has hit darkest Africa. This is due to increasing values since the war. Before that a dusky maiden could be purchased for four cows or four spear-heads. But recently natives are complaining that the prices have been doubled.
THE new inflatable linen jacket which one puts on under his bathing-suit makes swimming or floating an easy and safe accomplishment for every one. The round inset in the picture above demonstrates the fine fit of the jacket and the simple method by which it is inflated.
RAY A. Minkler, of Carthage, Missouri, has patented a washer for golf-balls. Brushes are arranged inside a container, with the cleaning fluid in the bottom. The handle holding the ball is plunged into the cleaner, up and down, until the friction of the brushes has restored the ball’s original freshness. The friction of brush against ball turns the ball so that its every face receives a good scrubbing.
"THERE was an old woman who lived in a shoe—” Considering the number of her children, the shoe must have been the mate to the one shown above. This great big shoe is seven and one half feet high and more than fourteen feet long. It weighs five hundred pounds.
PERHAPS you have seen Oriental acrobats on the stage thrilling their audiences with breath-taking stunts. But that’s not surprising when we consider the fact that those same acrobats amused themselves at home when young by climbing flimsy towers like the one shown below.
MILLIONS of hobnailed boots lost their jobs when peace was declared. The German ones, however, are being made over for civilian use. Above you will see a huge stack of them which were collected chiefly from the battle-fields. The nails will be extracted, and the leather will then be made over into peacetime shoes.
IN a Mississippi river town the boys evolved a brandnew “greased” contest that created no end of fun for spectators as well as for the boys themselves. An old telephone-pole was anchored on shore, so that it extended over the river a few feet above the surface.
THE Italians made spaghetti famous and the Chinese are helping to keep it so. In many parts of China spaghetti is eaten as much as rice. The Chinese manufacture it in their own factories, and it is produced in large quantities, Their method of drying the long, thin strands is shown below.
STANDING upon a bank of sliding lava to take pictures of a volcano’s crater is a daring feat. In Costa Rica, among the turbulent volcanic peaks, is a lake that lies below the level of the highest point of Mt. Poas. The lake lies in the bed of a crater. During eruptions it sends up hot water, steam, poison gas, and drifting lava.
ON the New York “curb,” where fortunes are made and lost nearly every day, the action is so intense that no worker stops long enough to eat. If he grows hungry, he sends for coffee and a sandwich, and swallows them as he telephones or signals to the street.
TLL-FATED was the attempt made by Charles G. Stephens, of Bristol, England, to ride the Horseshoe falls, Niagara, in a barrel. “A cool commercial proposition,” he said, before taking the desperate chance. The barrel, instead of riding the surface of the water in its great leap over the brink, evidently dropped upon the rocks below and was dashed to pieces.
AS soon as the price of shoes went up, the price of mending them followed close behind. Perhaps it was the high cost of leather or of labor. At any rate, it led to the invention of a new patent sole which any one can attach to his own worn shoes. The sole needs no sewing or nailing; it is coated with an adhesive waterproof solution, and it is simply glued to the shoe.
WE’VE heard much about people who live in glass houses, but we never saw any of these glass houses until now. Strictly speaking, people don’t live in the glass house to which we refer; they work in it. Some of the people make men’s clothes; others sell them.
ARCHIMEDES is credited with the invention of the screw. Since 236 B.C. metal screws have been made. The shank of the screw has been turned from a bar of metal having the diameter of the screw-head, literally wasting a large percentage of the metal by reducing it to shavings.
A STRANGE - LOOKING creature is this harmless flagellante of the Philippines: which being interpreted means a Filipino whose conscience bids him do penance for his sins. A great many Filipinos spend Easter in this fashion. These penitents hide their faces in a white cloth topped by a circlet of twigs and leaves, probably in emulation of Christ’s “crown of thorns.”
DO you roll your own cigarettes? There is a certain knack in rolling cigarettes that everybody does not possess. But now we have a new cigarette roller— made in London—that does everything for you but lick the edge. You pour tobacco into a small trough, close the top and turn a cap at the end, which rolls the tobacco into shape.
THE man you see in the illustration is using a recently perfected electric tie-tamper. Tie-tampers have been used for many years, but they have depended upon compressed air or human energy for their power. There is now, however, an electric tamper.
IT looks like an oil-well with Great Britain’s Union Jack waving in the breeze. But it isn’t. It is more curious still. It is a flagstaff one hundred and seventy-five feet high located “somewhere in Australia.” What an inspiring sight it must be to see the Union Jack run up one hundred and seventy-five feet and slowly straighten out in the breeze at that great height.
TENEMENT houses in China are very much like tenement houses all over the world. The staircases are narrow, dark, winding, and will not accommodate large boxes— coffins, for an instance. Thus you find on many Chinese houses a coffin chute like the one shown above.
ONE does not need to rely upon the guess of the shoe-clerk to find out what size shoe he should buy. As a matter of actual measurement, the simple device illustrated in the picture below enables one quickly to obtain the right size. The foot is placed on a card, with the heel far up against the stop at one end.
WHEN the famous obelisk in Central Park, New York, began to crumble, Professor R. Ogden Doremus invented a waterproofing process that promptly stopped the decay of the stone. Since then his waterproofing process has been used on many public buildings.
“JUST a minute, I want to stop and clean my pipe,” said the smoker, and he astonished his friend by removing the cap of the valve of a “free air” tube outside the garage. Then he placed the bowl of the pipe over the valve, and, presto! The rush of compressed air blew the pipe clean in a jiffy.
HOW a little girl’s heart would thrill with joy if she were the mistress of the perfectly complete doll’s house shown here! But it is not for any mere child to play with. This most exceptional toy has been borrowed by that most learned and cultured institute, the Victoria and Albert Museum in London.
VERY few people know that the fluid possessing the invigorating odor of camphor is distilled from leaves, twigs, and branches plucked from cultivated trees. A machine has been designed by G. A. Russell of the Bureau of Plant Industry, United States Department of Agriculture, that does away with the tedious method of harvesting camphor leaves and twigs by hand.
DID you ever have to shave by a light so high on the wall that no matter how far back you tilted your head, there was always a strong shadow under your chin? Pretty aggravating, not to say dangerous. There is a way to get around this difficulty. A small mirror laid flat on the dresser before you can be made to reflect the rays of light just where they are needed to illuminate the shadowed side of the face.
IT’S kissing time!” shout the fervent four in the picture above, and a jeweled point records the song on a rotating wax disk. This jeweled point is attached to a lever that is connected with a thin glass diaphragm inside the horn into which they shout.
LOADING a railroad car or a lumber truck with logs or poles from which the branches and the bark have been removed, is a very difficult and often dangerous task. Such logs are comparatively smooth, and when they are piled up in stacks, they have a tendency to roll off, causing the whole stack to slip and roll, and endangering the workmen engaged in loading.
A Look into a Paper-Mill— from Rags to Finished Paper It’s a far cry from papyrus to machine-made paper
THE man who first scratched upon a stone or the wall of a cave the sign or the picture that meant something to his fellow savages, started the market for paper. He established a means of understanding, crude but intelligible; and, once started, the desire of mankind to communicate its thought by writing extended the breadth and width of our planet.
HARD water is water that is not gentle mannered. For instance, it seriously objects to aid in making lather from soap, and for this reason its cleansing value is greatly reduced. In other words, hard water is not a good solvent—it will not dissolve soluble matter.
IF you were an explorer in the wilderness of the mountains of Moupin, eastern Tibet, you might stand one chance in many thousand of being suddenly confronted by a giant panda. If you are a visitor to the American Museum of Natural History, New York City, you will be sure to see one if you look for it.
How engineers in the French army made use of infra-red rays for secret communications
Transmitter Is a Searchlight
Another Receiving System
JUST as one may signal in a dot-and-dash code by snapping a light on and off, so one may telegraph with heat rays. For secret signaling in war the latter system has a decided advantage. How the engineers of the French army accomplished heat-ray telegraphy may be seen from the accompanying illustrations of their apparatus.
"A SWIVELED arm,” developed by the United States Bureau of Standards, is an important factor in holding micrometers for measuring pitched diameters of screw threads. And in the production of thread gages the mechanical swivel arm also supplies a third hand for the operator.
HOW would you like to earn your daily bread in a beautiful grotto? Such is the lot of an Austrian postman. His postoffice is located in the famous Adelsberger grotto and is well within the entrance. As the light shines on the stalactite formations a beautiful rainbow effect is produced.
TAKE your worn-out boiler into the garden and dig a hole. Plant the boiler, and then place a tub of flowers on top of it. The boiler now becomes a pedestal. If you don’t like its appearance, paint it to suit yourself. Except for the beading down the side, the boiler will have lost all trace of its original calling.
ON the coast of Costa Rica, near Cocos bay, the juice of a certain shell-fish, which abounds there, is used for dyeing. The process is laborious, since only a small amount of the liquid dye can be obtained from each fish. The way this is done is by blowing one’s breath into the shell, whereupon a few drops of a greenish liquid ooze out.
IT so happens that telegraph-poles must often be planted in out-of-the-way places. Therefore the new combination tractor and boring-machine, shown at the right, is very useful to pole-planters. The caterpillar wheels enable the machine to climb with ease over rough places.
CHILDREN can make as much noise as grown-ups, and so can little phonographs. Here is one that weighs but four pounds, yet when wound it is ready to pour forth Caruso at his loudest. The secret of this tiny phonograph is a double-action spring that takes the place of the usual motor.
THINGS are not always what they seem. In the earliest days of prohibition in the United States a most respectable-looking carload of wood was torn apart by an inquisitive revenue agent, and inside he found cases and cases of whisky. That smuggler had enclosed six hundred cases in two layers of timber.
OUR latest dreadnought, the Tennessee, is one of the largest war-ships afloat. The vessel is somewhat different from other vessels of her type. Instead of having her boilers grouped under one four-sectioned funnel, they are distributed over a wider area and protected with additional horizontal armor.
"BOOM!” A loud explosion in the midst of the crowd of hilarious people celebrating the election or a holiday. Colored confetti bursts forth, and flutters in the air, falling upon the merry-makers. The confetti “bomb” is a recent invention.
HERE’S a little boat of the “ankle deep” type. It can float in fifteen inches of water. With such a slight draft it can navigate shallow streams where other boats of its size dare not go. The vacuum tunnel method of boat construction was applied to this boat.
A NEW use for an automobile engine has been found by enterprising officials of the Northwestern Pacific Railroad. Hand-cars and power-driven cars are the ordinary conveyances for rapid transit over the rail systems where inspection or repair work is required.
THESE are not hard-working Indian squaws. They are Belgian peasants fishing in an unusual way. The poles they hold are about ten feet long. The nets nailed to the horizontal bar sweep down to a great length and are caught up like a pocket, forming a hollow in which to hold the fish.
"YEARS ago, when you were ill, the doctor ordered pills. Now he may order anything from electricity to compressed air; from an operation to a faith ure. Dr. O. G. Cunningham, of Kansas City, Missouri, is the first man to invent a compressed-air tunnel for his patients.
TO distinguish this hotel one might say that it is not connected with the dry land. It is designed to stay on the water in Lake Erie and will be in use near Detroit. To relieve the crowded city and the scarcity of hotels this floating palace will prove vastly beneficial.
WHEN Harry Hawker was forced to land his airplane in mid-ocean, he knew that if he weren’t rescued immediately he would drown. His airplane not having been built for floating. But now there are air-bags with which an airplane can be equipped when it starts on a trip over water.
THIS little pig—the one shown above—went to market in a very modern motorcycle truck. So did several of his brothers and sisters. Thus the farmer who owned them saved the price of a middleman. Surely one way to cut down prices is to reduce the number of people who make a profit on each transaction that takes place in order to get the product from the producer to the consumer.
IF, while calling on a friend, you should notice a strange blue vase, with a wick coiled up inside, standing on a table, don’t be alarmed. That wick was put there with the purpose of luring cigarette smoke into the vase. To use the vase, remove the cap and light the wick.
THERE are more than one hundred species of petrels scattered in widespread areas of ocean, but among the most interesting are the fulmars. Sailors of British vessels commonly refer to them as “molly-mawks,” a corruption of mallemuck.
INSTEAD of having the magazines scattered helter-skelter all over the place, why not hang them on the wall? A holder can be made by a plain wooden rack attached to the wall of one’s den. It is fixed at a suitable distance from the floor so that even the shortest person can reach it. The top of the rack tilts forward and is wide enough to provide plenty of room for the magazines.
PERHAPS you carry a fountain pen and a pencil in your coat pocket, as is the custom of the American business man. Why not combine the two and carry them as one? Just such a fountain-pen-pencil is shown herewith. The ink cavity extends to about the center and then a wall divides it from the pencil section. There is one cap and it is placed over the pen end. Of course you must tuck it away lead end first to prevent the pen leaking.
WHEN it fails to rain in Germany, farmers get out strange, complicated watering devices—like the one shown above— and sprinkle the ground. In this picture the men are shown winding up cables attached to the sprinklers, thereby drawing them across the field.
BETWEEN railroad ties appears to be most fertile ground for weeds. It is too expensive, however, to have a gang of men remove them by hand. The Germans have recently brought out a machine that is attached to the front of a locomotive. It works on the same principle as the lawn-mower, cutting the weeds off very close to the ground.
IF you wish to buy an airplane, here’s a chance to get one cheap. England has decided to sell more than ten thousand machines, many of them world-war veterans and all of them said to be in excellent condition. The airplanes for sale are stacked up as if they were so many brooms, one against the other.
NOW comes an inventor with a foot-pump to make pumping easy. It is far less painful to work a foot up and down than to distort the whole body in pumping an automobile or a bicycle tire. Charles G. Lillos, of Minneapolis, invented this pump.
SURELY at various times you must have tried to empty the contents of one can into another, and failed. As you mopped up the spilled contents you wished that some one would invent a cantilter. And now somebody has. The tilter is simply made, as the picture below shows, and relies on rounded corners for its power. Place the can in the semicircular holder that naturally inclines at an angle, and tilt it from the rear. A slight touch of the finger will do the trick.
ABOUT the size of a wrist-watch, the ink-container having this new pen attached by a tube is strapped to the wrist. When not in use the pen is “capped.” The flexible tube is wound around the reservoir and the pen is fitted into a small holder at the side of the ink-reservoir.
ORDINARY air turned to liquid is accomplished by pumping it through caustic potash to extract some moisture. Next it is compressed to 3000 pounds to the square inch, at which point it reaches a heat of 220° Fahrenheit. Then it is water-cooled to about 62° and forced through a tank of caustic potash and calcium chloride.
THE old wooden frigate Richmond had outlived her years of usefulness. So the navy decided to get rid of her. She was sold for junk and then towed to Eastport, Maine. She had been in service sixty-two years and had taken part in three wars.
DON’T scrape a pipe when you wish to clean it. Use the simple steaming device shown below. It consists of a metal water-container that can be attached to the hole in the mouthpiece of the pipe-stem by means of a short tube. When the container, filled with water, has been screwed into place, you hold it over a flame. The water boils, steams, and the purifying steam will remove the nicotine. You hold the pipe so that the bowl is upside down while the steaming process goes on.
BELOW is shown the largest relief map of the world in the world in the process of construction. Not only is the map true to form, but every mountain range and every valley is given its proper size and height. When the relief work is finished, air currents, water currents, and every steamship lane will be drawn in.
WHEN a new oil-field is opened and a “gusher” comes in that spouts thousands of barrels a day, the news is given considerable space in the papers. The reports of the opening of the new oil-fields in Oklahoma, Kansas, Texas, and California caused general rejoicing, and every patriotic American was elated when he learned that during the five years of the European war the oil production in the United States increased from 265,762,535 barrels in 1914 to 355,917,716 barrels in 1918, and to nearly 377,000,000 in 1919.
THERE is now a pulp-mill in Greenwood, Mississippi, that turns one hundred and fifty tons of cotton stalk into fifty tons of valuable paper pulp every day. A careful study of the cotton plant has led to the discovery that a certain thin tubular fiber in the plant will make excellent cellulose for durable papers.
AN air-cooler has been invented by Mr. Robert Richardson, of Los Angeles. According to the patent papers it is used on a “sleeping enclosure or space wh ch is constructed, formed, and adapted to receive a bed”—in simple language, a bedroom.
HERE’S a new type of rotary pump that expels liquids by a curious “squeegeeing” device. A disk loosely mounted eccentrically on a shaft rolls around the inside of the pump-casing, the eccentric acting as a bearing. One of the openings, the suction valve, permits the liquid to flow in, and the other opening permits the liquid to be expelled by the rotating disk.
CODLING moths are the bolsheviki of the orchard; they annually destroy millions of dollars’ worth of fruit and trees. Recently, however, one of the expert entomologists of the United States Department of Agriculture invented a trap. The trap coaxes the bugs in and then will not let them escape.
A MOTOR-TRUCK equipped with a shovel is a convenient combination when roads must be built, or when the top soil is to be raised. Here is a large tract of land that must be graded. The usual method is to use a road-scraper to remove the soil, which is then loaded in wagons.
THE openings of the shafts that give access to sewers, to the shut-off valves of water-mains, or to the conduits in which telephone or telegraph wires are housed, are protected by heavy iron manhole-covers laid flush with the road level, and strong enough to bear the weight of the heaviest trucks and other vehicles.
GLASS-BLOWING is an ancient art, but the application of air-pressure to molten metal is quite a recent feat of the experimental foundry. In this case the compressed air is not used to produce fantastic or artistic shapes, but rather to force the pure fluid mass of metal smoothly into a special mold prepared to receive it.
ELECTRIC refrigeration has been a dream of inventors for years. Can we use electricity for refrigeration? Will it ever be done? These are the questions that interest us, while our mind’s eye sees visions of a truly electric age when icemen and their carts, and the overflowing drip-pans of household iceboxes, will be no more.
TANKS are usually associated with rides more sinister than joy rides. But here is a tank that has been equipped to provide space for passengers who desire to travel over smooth and rough places in one of these capable though clumsy vehicles.
These Powerful Searchlights Use Incandescent Bulbs
"FIRELESS fireworks,” the slogan for sane celebrations, have been made possible by a wonderful new incandescent searchlight. The beams of multicolored lights are projected through clouds of steam and the effect is as beautiful as that obtained with bursting rockets.
THAT one half the world does not know how the other half lives becomes pertinent when we think of people in civilization and those in remote jungle countries. Some natives near the Congo set forth for adventure, and ran across a python that had just tried to swallow a pig.
This latest method of preserving food does not destroy the vitamines necessary to health
Latimer J. Wilson
WITH twenty-seven varieties of clear soups, thirty-one cream soups, twenty fish products, twenty-five meat products, and twenty different kinds of vegetables preserved to keep indefinitely, campers, explorers, and army men can be served rations convenient to carry and palatable to eat.
Carefully made models offer an excellent medium between architect and client
H. Vandervoort Walsh
THE Architectural School of Columbia University is using a new method in teaching young architects how to design their buildings so that they will bear a rigid inspection. The old way of learning to design in architecture was to make elaborate plans and elevations, and paint these in such a manner that even the designer could deceive himself into thinking he had a beautiful piece of architecture.
THE wide sweeping handle - bars, the standing support attached to the rear wheel, and the deep frame illustrate how the bicycle is catching up to the motorcycle. In front of the handle-bars is an electric searchlight, served from a dry-cell battery located in a case attached to the cross-bar.
HIGH rents do not bother Vernon Newport, of Cleveland, and his wife and two children. Newport, for fifteen years a cow-puncher in Wyoming and later a hunter and trapper in Nevada, arrived in Cleveland at a time when the house-shortage was acute, and he and his family lived in a tent.
WHEN one of these pistols is discharged, a stream of colored fire shoots out of the barrel for a distance of about fifty feet. Some pistols are loaded with Roman-candle fire-balls, and shoot a stream from one hundred and fifty to two hundred feet.
EIGHTY-NINE years ago the tiny train pictured below was the very latest thing. Yet to-day the entire train, with its baggage and passenger coaches, is no longer than a modern locomotive. The train, known as the De Witt Clinton, was one of the first of its kind.
TNNUMERABLE newly made field desks never got to an army camp before the armistice was declared. And they are still waiting around for some one to use them. Now the government has decided to sell twenty-seven thousand of them. When the partitions are taken out, these desks become strong trunks.
FOR years inhabitants of Salt Lake City, Utah, have accepted the theory that a smeltery, located about seven miles away, has been the source of a disagreeable smoke that has hovered over the city. The people have thought that the smoke from the smelting plant was heavier than coal smoke.
HAVE you ever seen the varnish-nut? If not, look at the picture above. Seven nuts may be seen in the hands of the young lady who is sitting down. Of course, this isn’t the kind of varnish we buy in tin cans; nevertheless it is an excellent substitute, and has been used in China for many years.
TAKING compassion on the dictaphone operator, Miss Alma Zaiss, of Kansas City, Missouri, has invented an error indicator. The dictaphone’s measuring-board is notched, and the operator places the stops to correspond with the corrections on the chart, which indicate where the error begins; not the correction.
DON’T throw away your typewriter ribbon when it becomes pale from loss of ink. There is now a device that will rejuvenate an old ribbon so that you can continue to use it for a long time. You release the ribbon from its central holder—not from the wheels—and then run it through a pair of rollers, part of the device.
To Miss Annie Belew of Del Ray, Virginia, belongs the distinction of being the speediest operator of a graphetype machine in the world. She is an employee of the disbursing division of the War Risk Insurance Bureau, where she recently outdistanced one hundred contestants in spirited rivalry for first place.
FREQUENTLY a tourist will carve his name on the nearest tree every time he stops anywhere. He evidently wants the world to know that a distinguished visitor has been there. Would it not be much simpler and less detrimental to the trees for him to sign a register instead?
VERY much like a washboard is this new surf-coaster. It is made of metal tubes joined together and forming a corrugated surface. The tubes are filled with air and are sufficiently buoyant to ride on top of the waves and breakers. The inventor of this device—H. B. Marshall, of Long Beach, California— calls it a “mattress.”
OWING to the camel’s accommodating back, Arabian women can cross the desert in comfort. A tent is strapped around the camel’s hump and inside it are placed cushioned seats. So the women are protected from the intense heat of the sun. The men walk at the side of the camel to guide him.
CONSTANTLY we are told to swat that fly. Here’s something new to swat it with—a swatter that stuns and then swallows the fly. The handle of this swatter is hollow, and the screen at the top is made in two sections, with a small space between. The center is cut out of one of the sections.
BY the end of the summer your fly-swatter is usually worn out and the joy of killing flies has turned to monotony. The flies have become stupid and they don’t put up a fight; they simply stand still and let you swat them. Then is the time for you to get out your vacuum cleaner.
WHOEVER heard of a pot large enough to have a special house built for it? The inhabitants of Bunzlau, Germany, have. A potter named Gottlieb Joppe labored for months over the molding of the pot displayed in the picture below. It is about twelve feet high and six feet in circumference.
This Battle Cruiser Is Mother to the Mine-Sweepers
SEPLANES have their mother ships, and now mine-sweepers have them too—that is, German mine-sweepers. In the picture below you see the Wittels-bach, an old battle cruiser that has but recently been converted into such a mother ship. She can now accommodate twelve small mine-sweepers on her decks.
EFFICIENCY in the use of trailers behind motor-trucks is sometimes offset if it takes too long to couple and uncouple the trailers from the towing trucks or tractors. With the ordinary type of wagon fifth wheel to connect the forward end of the semitrailer to the tractor, the upper half of the fifth wheel must be placed exactly above the lower half before the kingpin connecting the two can be inserted to hold the two halves together.
B ETTER balance, less valve-warping, and the ability to burn low-grade fuels are the outstanding characteristics of a new type of motor-truck and tractor-engine perfected by T. G. Jackson of Chicago. The engine differs from the conventional type of four-cycle engine in that two pistons, one above the other, are employed in each cylinder.
ONE of the little things and yet one of the refinements that go to make up a high-class automobile are the seemingly insignificant door-hinges. If you have driven an automobile, you know that hinges are an annoyance if they work loose and cause a rattle while the car is in motion.
BY making a motor-truck jump eighteen feet through the air, it has been found that a pneumatic truck tire is four times as resilient as a solid tire. Until a series of such jumping tests was made, no one knew what happened when a loaded truck climbed a curb, dropped off an elevation, or bumped over a railroad track.
PERHAPS few of us would be foolish enough to throw water on a gasoline fire; yet we recently read of just such a case, and the result was that the water spread the flames to such an extent that the automobile soon was enveloped. Every well equipped automobile should be supplied with a fire-extinguisher of the hand-pump variety.
OVERHEAD valves on automobile engines have recently become popular because of the greater engine-power obtainable when the valves are so placed. But, owing to the fact that the valve-rods and rocker-arms are outside of the cylinder block, engines thus equipped have been very noisy.
EVERY motorist has many times taken a tire punctured on the road into the nearest garage to have it repaired, only to fret and fume when the tire man first wrestled with the rim getting it off while lying on the floor and then wasted more time trying to spread the casing with his hands to find the spot where the puncture occurred.
THIS combined food-chest, butler’s pantry, and dining-table may be strapped to the running-board or trunk-rack of an automobile. When open, the flaps are supported on wire braces, forming a table. Two additional table-leaves are hooked on, supported by folding wire brackets.
WITH the elimination of wood in many motor-truck bodies, etc., there is an increasing tendency to eliminate wood wheels and replace them with metal ones. Those who have adopted the metal wheel point out that one disadvantage of the wood wheel for heavy trucks is the ease with which it gets out of round, due to warpage or shrinkage of the spokes after being wet, or due to a continued flatting of the solid tires.
THE new combination excavating and loading machine shown in the accompanying illustrations does with two men the same work that would require twenty men by the old method. The apparatus is designed especially for excavating work, for the removal of materials from one location to another, and for general work where the flexibility of operation is not limited so closely as in the case of the steam-shovel.
ALL manner of saws are used in almost all wood-working plants and shops, and many breaks happen to them in the day’s work. There are many good serviceable saws cast aside from lack of knowledge of how to repair them when teeth are broken out, or have bad cracks and breaks.
THE so-called fireless cooker, although fireless, necessitates some heat. In almost all fireless cookers it is applied by first heating to a definite temperature one or more iron units, which are placed above and below the receptacle containing the food.
A FOLDING and collapsible row-boat for still-water use, built of short lumber and box boards, will be found a serviceable and handy addition to any camp or sportsman’s equipment. It is built of straight pieces, thus requiring no bending or curved sawing, and can be constructed by any one who can handle a hammer and saw and a yardstick.
OPERATIONS can be performed and metal machined and shaped on the milling machine so quickly and accurately that the machine is a valuable member of the machine-shop. In some cases we must depend upon the miller altogether as that is the only machine that will perform the work.
IN case of accident while driving in the country, the homemade towing device illustrated will prove very convenient in keeping the towed car from running into tbs one in front, especially if the brakes have been put out of commission, which is very often the case.
THE next time you stand on the steps to say goodnight to your beloved by the light of the moon, beware lest her watchful and up-to-date parent be observing the proceedings from the room above, by means of the periscope adaptation shown in the cut.
THE ordinary screened porch may be made into a snug, all-weather sleeping-porch by adding canvas curtains to the open side as shown in the illustration. This has been done in a number of instances, but since the method of attaching the curtains in this instance seems to be somewhat novel and is extremely simple and effective, the description of their construction is given below.
THE amateur photographer who does not have a very fast lens often encounters trouble in taking interior photographs, particularly of a living subject, such as a baby or animal. In most cases the flashlight powder or paper is resorted to as a means of sufficient light so that the time for exposure is shortened as much as possible.
WHEN there is a large lawn to be kept watered through the hot dry summer, it is quite a job to cover the whole lawn with a small circular sprinkler. If there are no children about the house to attend to it, the job usually waits until the men have spare time at night, and often then, if the lawn is very large, there is not time to get over the whole of it and give it enough water at the same time.
THE tongs shown in the accompanying illustration will be found handy for removing clothes from the steaming hot water in the boiler. The clothes can be firmly grasped and lifted out without allowing them to slip back and splash the hot water over the user’s hands.
WHEN there is sudden need for a compass for scribing large circles, don’t depend upon a pencil and a piece of string. It is not at all accurate. Take a piece of wire—telegraph wire, for instance—as long as may be necessary, and get it fairly straight.
The Popular Science Monthly will pay ninety dollars for the best answers
Rules Governing the Contest
HOW do you save steps in your home? What arrangements or what appliances have you made that save time and reduce work that would otherwise have to be done by hand? The Popular Science Monthly wants to know just what practical and useful things can be constructed to make every house a step-saving home.
SOMETIMES the automobilist accidentally gets his car in such a position in a mud-hole, over a bank, or in a similar predicament, that the power of the car has no effect in helping itself out. In that case, where the car is not too firmly imbedded or stalled, the wheel-jack can be brought to the rescue.
MANY automobilists allow their rims to become badly rusted. The rough particles of rust and scale act like sandpaper on the inner tube, and a prematurely worn tube or blow-out is the result. An occasional coat of aluminum paint when the tires are removed will act as a rust preventive and greatly prolong the life of the tubes.
THE usual custom of throwing on a little kerosene when a fire will not ignite readily is always accompanied with danger; especially if there are any live coals left in the grate. This danger of a flare-back and possible injury by burning can be over-come in the following way and is as novel as it is simple.
DO you lock your spare tires on? If you do, and use the ordinary chain and padlock, you undoubtedly are disturbed by the rattling of the chain. Y ou have also noticed how it bruises the paint on the parts with which it comes in contact. Perhaps you adopted the common expedient of covering the chain with a piece of hose, and perhaps you have also found the hose so stiff that it is still noisy and still bruises the finish of the car.
THE periodic visit of the gasman to read the meter is accepted as one of those necessary annoyances of the day of which the why and wherefore are taken for granted. It is true that the meter box is familiar enough to all and many have learned to read the dial, possibly to check up the gasman’s readings, but more probably out of pure curiosity.
A TACKLE box that will hold the fisherman’s outfit conveniently for him to carry anywhere may be made from two cigar boxes hinged together, back to back. Use two small brass hinges ½ in. wide and with leaves ¾ in. long, secured to the boxes with small brass screws or rivets.
HOW often have you asked yourself this question? Quite often, we’ll venture. Here is how we got over worrying about the problem. We made a rack as shown in the illustration, and placed the various orders in the order of their urgency. For instance, if an order was in section No. 1, we knew it to be a hurry job.
OWNERS of old-model automobiles are annoyed by a knocking which occurs under light load. This usually sounds like a carbon or advanced spark knock, while as a matter of fact too high compression is the cause. Perhaps the most simple method used to reduce high compression is by removing the cylinders and placing a thick gasket between the cylinders and the crank case.
WHEN the harvest season comes or when many barrels are to be up-ended and transferred from one place to another, the following idea for up-ending will be appreciated: Cut out a piece of 1-in. or even heavier plank about the shape shown. This piece should be the height of the barrel, 10 in. across at the bottom; the top fashioned like a rough handle.
THE needle-valve of a carburetor will often appear tight when tested under the low head of the ordinary gravity-tank installation, but floods or leaks badly if the pressure is increased to several pounds. On the other hand, if it is initially tested under several pounds’ pressure, there will be a greater assurance of its keeping tight in every-day use.
THE Chinese have a way of pounding grain by water power that has been in use in China for centuries. Strange to say, however, it is little known on this side of the world and deserves recognition because of its simplicity. While you perhaps do not care to pound corn, you might utilize this idea to do such work as signaling, by flashing lights or ringing a bell.
MANY owners of hens let their feathered flock out of the pen for a few hours each day. This necessitates two trips to the poultryyard: one to open the gate and a second to close it. If a small gate, hinged at the top, is placed in the fence on the side away from the house, it may be opened and closed from a point in the house, even if it is a hundred or more feet away.
FROM time to time I have had to test all kinds of electrical apparatus for trouble, phase out leads, etc., as well as overcome difficulties in wiring. Of course it is possible to get along without special apparatus if a little ingenuity is employed, but it means a lot of lost time.
TIME spent in unscrewing the dust caps in order to inflate tires may be saved by filing inside of valve cap on two sides with a rat-tail file so that the cap will slide down on the valve stem. When you want to remove cap, just push cap down hard and turn to the left so that the threads on the valve stem will be in the grooves in cap, when cap can be removed without unscrewing.
ASIMPLE shower with an Aprilrain effectiveness was made as shown in the accompanying illustration. The reason for its being was that a number of boys, deprived of the old swimming-hole, and disdaining the conventional tub variety, sought a more primitive type of shower.
VACATIONISTS who have camped out under canvas and been up against a leaky tent without the wherewithal to repair it will be interested in the waterproof cement now obtainable for just such emergencies. When used to stop up a pinhole in a leaky tent, a drop of it will make a water-tight seal, impervious to moisture.
A NOVEL method of operating the call bells in a large factory directly from a high-voltage generator is shown here. The foreman was annoyed by the bell batteries running down every so often, so he proceeded to utilize the power from a large dynamo in a novel way.
CARBON causes more trouble and loss of engine power than any other engine fault. Although many people believe that in order to dislodge carbon from the engine a removal of the pistons or engine head is necessary, the ejection of the carbon may be accomplished simply through the hole left upon the removal of the spark-plug.
IT has been the writer’s lot to design and install many unusual belt drives to accomplish a given end. A few are herewith shown in the illustrations which doubtless will be of interest to many readers who may wish to gain the same ends in power transmission.
IN hospitals where a night light is wanted, or where the noise of an ordinary snap switch will disturb a nervous patient; in bedrooms, or in the hall, for father when he is out late, the switch here illustrated should prove indispensable. It is easily assembled from standard parts that may be bought at any electrical supply store, and is inexpensive.
Fair at ordinary room temperature and under the pressure of the atmosphere above, there are about four hundred million million million molecules in each cubic inch. It would be a poor pump which could not make a partial vacuum by removing some of these molecules, but it would be a most wonderful one which could remove them all.
A SIMPLE circuit for receiving, one that is easy to hook up and manipulate. An ordinary single slide tuneris connected to an audion detector. The aerial connects to the grid of the audion and the ground connection is brought to the filament.
BY the use of a working model, the U. S. Bureau of Standards is enabled to demonstrate the radio fog-signaling system and radio compass as employed by the government. Two lighthouses in miniature are equipped with automatic radio-transmitting apparatus, the compass being located on board ship.
NEARLY every one who experiments with vacuum valve-detectors is interested in the use of these tubes as rectifiers, for changing from alternating to direct current, but the majority do not wish to run the risk of using expensive tubes for this purpose.
SOLID-silver switch-points for loading coils and receiving transformers such as are used with the average radio set are much to be desired, but generally taboo on account of the usual high cost of such parts. In the loading coil shown herewith the contacts are of solid silver.
THE theory of this machine is the same as that of the drum type. In the drawings A is a vertical axial section through the generator. This and the other figures are reproduced from the drawings in my patent. Diagram B is a face view of the rotor and C is a face view of one of the stators.
THE circuit shown in the figure for the reception of undamped waves has also a marked amplifying effect on spark signals. The tuning is simple but very sharp. Any condenser of more than 0.0005 microfarad will do for C1. The usual small variable condenser is C2.
NO doubt many of us have seen reports of seaplanes being forced to alight in the water because of engine trouble or some other causes and having summoned aid by means of wireless. But how many of us know how this is done? We have a hazy idea perhaps that the wireless operator merely has to tap some magic key and the S.O.S. signals are sent forth without further ado, as on the ordinary ship carrying wireless.
THIS interrupter requires only a piece of No. 6 copper wire, two strips of lead, and a block of hard rubber. A small hole is drilled through this block from end to end, and reamed out until the heavy wire fits in it snugly. A similar hole is drilled in the cover.
WHEN a carburetor floods, the usual source of trouble is a leaking needle-valve, perhaps due to dirt getting in between seat and valve; but after considerable service it is caused by a worn needle-valve, valve seat, or both. If not too badly deteriorated, the valve can be ground into its seat to make a gastight contact, provided valve and seat are accessible for manipulation.
A SIMPLE but good oil-feeder can be made of an old oil-can as shown in the illustration. The sections are cut from the bottom of the can, leaving the strip, which is the width of a small nut. The nut is soldered to the center of the strip and a pin threaded part way is screwed through the nut, the unthreaded part being filed to a size a trifle smaller in diameter than the threaded part.
MECHANICS who work upon small machines or other mechanical appliances, such as clocks, phonographs or electrical apparatus, will find this idea of value. Where many screw-heads are to be slotted, some suitable means of holding them is necessary.
NATURALLY a car operates at least expense per mile when it runs in high gear with the spark advanced, although sometimes this is not the case. When the car is running slowly this condition is a most extravagant one, first, because the spark is then too early producing a spark knock, and, second, because the power impulses are further apart and the action is therefore less even, power being consumed in overcoming the inertia of the fly-wheel, which is very great at an uneven torque.
THE threads on an automobile axle are often battered when removing a wheel. If the axle has a castellated nut—and nearly all of them have— the nut can be run on to the axle backwards—castellations first— which will recut the threads. The castellations act as a cleaner for the nut, which is then just as good as a die.
ALWAYS there is a right and a wrong way to do everything. This applies to the folding of an inner tube as well as pitching hay or regulating a watch. And yet so few automobile owners really know or care to know how to put away an innertube so that it will keep in the best condition for future use.
MANY automobilists prefer to keep their automobile tops down in summer, because of sudden rainstorms. How often do we see an open automobile parked beside the curb, the owner in his office, or store, or house, the seats so deluged by a sudden rainfall as to make it impossible to use except at the expense of wet clothing?
ONE of the best methods for keeping the cylinder walls free from carbon is to treat the inside of the cylinders with a mixture of alcohol and kerosene in the proportion of one to three. This must be done when the automobile has come in from a run and the engine is hot.
NEXT time your pocket-knife needs sharpening and you can’t find anything to whet it on, try the scissors. Whet the edge of the knife on the sharp edge of the scissors blade opposite the cutting edge, and you will probably be surprised at the result.
IF a great many barrels have to be stenciled, the task becomes a weary one. A method of applying the stencil rapidly and of lightening the labor is herein shown and will repay the user for the trouble of making it. Erect a solid post in a position where the barrels can be quickly rolled and handled.
WHEN it is desired to cut belting or strips of similar material, the difficulty lies in keeping the strip of uniform width. With the attached device on a pair of common tinner’s shears as a guide, the job can be done easily. Drill a small hole near the top edge of the uppermost blade.
THE efficiency of a small windmill depends largely upon the bearings. For a small windmill there is no better beginning than the hub of an old bicycle wheel. The hub from the rear wheel will answer for a considerably larger windmill than the front hub.
BY connecting several ordinary dry cells to a flashlight, it may be used for long periods without the expense and short life common to the standard flashlight battery. This makes it a good bicycle or carriage light, and it may also be used in place of a miniature lamp on a battery-lighting system.
ONE can buy millions of accessories and tools made for various purposes by inventors who have nothing else to do but sit and plan intricate arrangements for simple things. The writer has tried many different kinds of valve-spring compressing tools, but not until he used his own brains was he satisfied that the problem of compressing springs had been solved.
WHEN a car goes into the repair shop, it is tagged. After the job is finished, the tag goes to the bookkeeper and is used for itemizing the bill to the owner. The bookkeeper is usually a dainty damsel who doesn’t like to soil her pretty pink fingers by handling greasy job-tags.
IT is not always practical for one to replace the main bearings or the caps in an engine which is giving no trouble except for a slight end play in the crankshaft. Although any end play in this member is destructive to both the engine and the transmission, it seems a pity to spend time in fitting new bearing caps, and so the following suggestion is given to obviate the trouble:
IF you were to ask your automobilist friend how much compression he had in his engine, he might remark: “Well, the compression is pretty good in cylinder number one; not so good in number two; poor in number three; and medium in number four.”
MAKING a split-chuck from a bolt is an old and well known affair, and is very useful. But it will hold only one size of drill or rod. To make one that will hold a number of sizes, make the hole as large as the bolt will permit; also make a number of bushings of tubing, all of the same outside diameter, but of different thicknesses, splitting the bushings as the chuck is split.
A FLEXIBLE wrench for light work can be made by utilizing several automobile clevis rods assembled in the form of universal joints. This can be done by any amateur mechanic and at little expense. Such a wrench can be used to work around obscure places in replacing and removing nuts, etc., which cannot be reached easily with the ordinary wrench.
IN a shop where space is at a premium a corner tool-cabinet is a great thing and is easily constructed. The dimensions and proportions may be anything desired. The idea is simply to put a rectangular cabinet in the corner and make the two exposed sides open outward as doors.
WHEN piping or other threaded metal has been set up for a long time, it is oftentimes impossible to start a member with even a large-sized pipe-wrench. Even the addition of a length of pipe to the handle of the wrench to gain greater leverage will not start the threads.