WHEN the wind blows, you have often seen the sails of a windmill go round. But have you ever seen a windmill with just one big sail which, instead of going round, flapped up and down? Here is one, straight from South America. Yankees and Europeans have been content with the rotating fan which has harnessed the wind to the pump since the darkest days of the dark ages.
THOSE whose business involves lifting radiators, take note. And others also might just as well pay attention to this new radiator-lifter, for in these days you never know when you may be called upon to do your own little job of radiator-lifting.
A LARGE pullman car was run on to the side-track in the factory yard. A dozen laborers filed out of the factory and climbed into the pullman, taking seats along the sides. Going out for their daily airing? Not yet; the pullman was the Red Cross first-aid car that is touring the United States to instruct workmen in how to prevent accidents and how to take care of each other when accidents do happen.
RED, orange, yellow—are the colors from this end of the spectrum easier to look at than those from the other end? Is there anything back of the belief that a yellow light is less trying on the eyes than a bluish white light? A recent issue of “Transactions of the American Illuminating Engineering Society” gives an account of several experiments to help determine whether there is any truth in the yellow theory.
WHEN the large steel ingot comes from the mold it still has a long way to go before it is ready to be manufactured into tools and other finished products. It must first be rolled or forged down into bars or other suitable shapes. The bars so formed are usually too long, and so they in turn must be cut into shorter lengths.
THERE is a small machine that will march bravely up to a large pile of ore, dig right into it, and then fling great shovelfuls over its own head into a dump-car behind. Before very long the pile which looked so formidable will have disappeared. It takes only one man to operate the machine.
A HOUSE, dynamite, and a flame, mixed together in the proper proportions, will make a pile of debris. But what must the proportions be to insure the debris falling into one pile instead of scattering itself over the landscape? This problem was successfully solved by men who were called on to demolish a house as quickly and neatly as possible.
Is It Possible for the Railway Train to Have Airplane Speed?
By cutting down wind resistance, one hundred and fifty miles an hour is possible
Locomotives Built Since 1905
Big Features Already Streamlined
The Dirigible Shows the Way
How Streamlined Trains Will Look
WIND resistance is the big factor in aviation. Not only does it retard airplanes—it also upholds them. It has to be created to make airplanes fly, and it has to be managed with great skill to make them fly well and fast. It is of importance for automobiles at racing speeds.
CORMORANT” and “gourmand” sound very much alike, and they are very much alike — that is, all cormorants are gourmands. The cormorant—a great black bird with webbed feet—swims through the water and swallows all the fish it sees— and it sees them all.
IT is said by anthropologists that straight hair grows the longest and woolly the shortest, while wavy hair holds an intermediate position. However that may be, Miss Ethel Payne, an English girl, boasts of having the longest hair of any woman in the British Isles, although her hair is wavy— either by nature or design.
THE clean, neat white grain-elevator in the picture above resembles a tipsy jack-in-the-box when reflected in the turbulent waters of the Mississippi. The balcony near the top, when seen in the water, looks like an ancient column hit by an earthquake.
WE have all heard some tall fish stories, —and perhaps told a few ourselves,— but it isn’t often that the tale-teller can finish off his yarn with “and it took four men to carry the fish home.” That’s how James N. Haddock (suggestive name) closes his story of how he caught the big fellow in the picture.
AFTER all, a row-boat does not have to • be made of wood. Mr. Swinburne, of Southfields, England, built a collapsible boat of canvas, and he is shown herewith both carrying it in his hand and rowing in it. It is made in four compartments which, when blown up, form a square.
NOWADAYS, when the supply of tobacco is short and the price is long, emdash;so that, as someone recently said, you “can now get an excellent five-cent cigar for twenty-five cents,”—life in the Philippines has its attractions for the smoker. We can’t speak for the quality, but a glance at the picture above leaves no doubt in anybody’s mind as to the quantity of the cigar in question.
THERE are about three thousand different kinds of wood in Canada, and they are all represented in the arch shown below. Some were gathered in the “bush,” others in the arctic tundras, and many more in a dozen different mountain-ranges. The arch is located at the entrance to the exhibition grounds at Ottawa, and is really effective in spite of the many kinds and colors of the woods that make it up.
AFTER the fashion of Abou ben Adhem, William Rutter awoke one night from a deep dream of peace and visioned himself a great sculptor. He was a toolmaker by trade. Early the next morning he went to the public library and borrowed “The Technique of Sculpture,” returned home, and began to model busts with the help of a small penknife, some matches, and clay.
THE seaplane, as its name implies, is a creature of air and water. It is, however, more at home in the lighter element, and often therefore comes to grief when it is forced to alight in the water in rough weather. For this reason, more and more attention is being paid to the construction of the hulls of flying-boats.
UP to the present time the island of Guadaloupe has been a sort of goats’ paradise. The goats had only to graze and bleat and butt to their hearts’ content. Then nature butted into the goats’ paradise. She turned off the rain and the vegetation dried up.
CORRUGATED cardboard!—what’s it used for? Bundles, you say That is its chief job, but it is also used in the gutter, as a spacer for wood block pavement. The corrugated cardboard is cut in strips and placed between the rows of wood blocks to allow for expansion in warm weather, and to act as a dam for the pitch.
"HANDS up!” commands the masked train robber. The hands are still going up when there is a sharp report and the highwayman collapses in the doorway. Who fired the shot? A traveler coming from the West. When the hold-up man gave the command “Hands up!” the traveler pressed his right elbow against his hip.
LOOK at the pictures of the man with the wheelbarrow. In one of the barrows the weight of the load is much nearer the supporting wheel than in the other. This increases the leverage so that with the same effort the man can carry from 100 o 150 pounds more coal each trip than he can when using the ill-balanced barrow.
THE present generation is going to keep its toes warm when it goes skating. A toe-warmer which is a comfortable, snug-fitting toe-piece, made of soft leather. Some are made plain, and some have the natural fur left on. Sheepskin is recommended as an excellent material.
THRIFT stamps practise what they preach. You who have bought them know how they come, in page formation with cross-line perforations separating them from one another. What becomes of the small paper circles that fall out when the perforations are punched?
ON a single day during the recent war, two German soldiers cut down five hundred pine and fir trees of an average diameter of one foot. How did they do it? They used a saw invented in the early part of the war by A. von Westfeld, a German engineer.
“THE pipes have burst!” said one man to another as he pointed to a store window down which torrents of water were running. They rushed across to watch the excitement, but there was no excitement. The storekeeper acted as if nothing unusual were happening.
APPROXIMATELY two million cans are opened, emptied, and thrown away in the United States during a year. This represents eight hundred thousand tons of material—eight thousand tons of which is pure tin. And tin is valued at about sixty cents a pound.
NUMBED fingers need no longer be among your troubles at skating parties. If you adopt the invention of Nathan Sadowsky, of New York, you can walk from your home to the pond with your skates already at ached. The new device is practically an overshoe with a sole sufficiently thick to serve as a guard for the blade of the skate.
IF the insulator is defective, it always means a loss of electric power and, in the case of a high-power circuit, great danger from short-circuiting the current. To prevent, as far as possible, such loss and danger, the insulators of high-power lines must be carefully tested before they are installed, and the tests must be repeated from time to time, especially during extremely hot weather.
THIS new stove-lid lifter consists of two handles with lifting hooks on the ends. The handles are clamped together near the hooks and, in a normal position, the two hooks become as one. These hooks are inserted into the lid and the handles are pressed together.
FRAILTY, thy name is not only woman, but airplane. An expert tells us this: “Today’s airplane is soon fit for the scrap-heap even if it is merely kept in storage. What is the reason? The airplane is a wooden structure of exaggerated size and strength, and yet of minimum weight.
HOW about sending mail across the ocean by airship? Your letter will reach the other side in ever so much less time than it takes for it to travel by ship, but won’t the price be prohibitive? This is the most troublesome question that comes up when mail by air across the sea is discussed.
POSSIBLY there is nothing in the way of garage equipment more necessary to the man doing a general automobile repair business than the automobile ambulance. There is no work, in connection with the repairing of automobiles, that is so irksome as that of getting a disabled car out of a ditch or off a telegraph-pole and transporting it several miles or blocks to the repair shop, unless the man handling the job is properly equipped for that service.
THOUSANDS of automobiles, and even motor-trucks, have been shipped by boat across the Great Lakes to Buffalo, and then driven overland to their destination in New York or New England. Most of such shipments were made under difficulties, because the vehicles were carried on regular passenger vessels.
EVERY reader is familiar with the finger-print method of establishing the identity of criminals and ferreting out clues to obscure crimes. The newest use for this science, which dates back to the days of the ancient mandarins of China, who used their thumb-prints as royal seals over life and death, is to identify stolen cars and protect owners from such thefts.
FOR the car owner, the time lost in attempting to start a cold engine when the gasoline will not vaporize readily is exasperating; but for the motor-truck owner or driver, it is even more than that, since it prevents the truck leaving the garage on time for its day’s work.
A PRODUCE dealer was occasionally n need of power at short notice for hauling freight-cars from the siding near his warehouse. It was his custom to order six horses from a livery stable, but this was expensive. He asked a tractor sale man to help him out, but warned him that one tractor had tried and failed.
IT used to be common for motorists to open their muffler cut-outs instead of blowing their horns. While this is unlawful, cut-outs may be used in testing the engine. One motor-testing valve designed for this purpose is shown above. It is made of cast iron and is placed somewhere in the exhaust line ahead of the muffler.
“SOUND your horn!” “Dangerous curve ahead!” The roads are well fortified with these bright red warnings. But you can’t see signs by the roadside at night, and you surely don’t want to toot your horn continually, waking sleepers in the houses you pass.
“I CARE nothing for style; I can wear the suit I have on indefinitely,” said Miss Fanny Harley—just before she stepped into a taxicab. That, presumably, is why she wears trousers instead of skirts. We will admit that she isn’t stylish, but can she wear her costume indefinitely?
THE bone-dry amendment forbids alcoholic drinks, but says nothing whatever about solids, Is this an oversight? Whether that is the case or not, jellied alcoholics eaten with a spoon are perfectly legal. And so we have the solid cocktail shown in the picture below.
CARL E. Akeley took up taxidermy as a career when he was a small boy in Rochester, N. Y. His first position was with Ward’s Natural Science Establishment at the princely salary of $3.50 a week. Today he is known as the man who lifted taxidermy out of the upholstery trade and developed it into an art.
A REAL laborand money-saving device for moving barrels in warehouses or at freight stations is a high-wheeled hand truck which picks up the barrel and sets it down again, with very little help from the workman. In operation, the apparatus is set up vertically alongside of the barrel to be moved, as shown in the illustration.
A NEW heating boiler which presents many interesting and unusual features is of the sectional type and made entirely of cast-iron. The picture below shows the compactness of its design. It is provided with water grates which offer a large heating surface.
PERHAPS the coming of the great thirst inspired the United States Department of Agriculture to take up the matter of cider in a serious way. It has found a way to keep cider sweet indefinitely. First, the fresh apple juice must be frozen; then the mass is crushed and whirled about rapidly to separate the frozen water from the mother liquor containing the solid matter of the apple juice.
A bit of science applied each Monday will add weeks to the life of your linen
I. Newton Kugelmass
DIRT is matter in the wrong place. The business of the laundress is to remove it. The business of the chemist is to tell her how to do it. The life of clothes may be prolonged twenty-five per cent by scientific laundering. The laundering process is started with soaking to loosen the dirt and save rubbing and thereby the goods, time, and energy.
DOES an automobile ever have five wheels? This is not a joke but a sensible question, which is answered in the picture below. The car shown there certainly has five wheels, one at each corner and one in a most unexpected part of the car —under the hood.
THE old rag doll has a rival— the new straw doll. Its arms and legs are made of straw braids and its body is a continuation of its legs, with the braids left open. Just above the place where the arms join the body, a cord is wound around and tied. That is his neck.
A SHIP on the rocks usually means tragedy, but not so the ship shown here. It was built on the rock by a restaurateur, and its deck is a dining-room. To board it you cross a regular gang-plank. If you would like to dine at sea but are afraid of seasickness, you will find this ship always calm, regardless of what the sea below is doing.
TO most of us the buffalo is a wild and woolly animal caged up in the zoo and coming originally from the wild and woolly West. A tame and gentle buffalo is a thing quite outside of our experience. And yet, they have been tamed — have even been used instead of horses to draw wagons in some parts of the West.
WHY does this Japanese street player hide his head while he plays? Is it due to excessive bashfulness? The basket must be most uncomfortable. It cuts off the air supply almost entirely, and yet it is a wind instrument this artist is playing!
A WESTERN rancher was cutting down the giant fir trees on his land; one alone was left. As soon as he finished the job he intended to build a windmill. And then the idea occurred to him that he might use this last tree as a base for his windmill. He chopped it off fifty feet from the ground, stripped the tall stump of its branches, and shaved off the bark.
WHEN directly above the spot where the Queen Dowager Alexandra of England was standing, Professor Newell jumped out of an airplane. No, he didn’t land on her head; he wore a parachute that opened up and carried him gently to earth several feet away from her.
THAT comfortable little thought about “lightning never striking twice in the same place” has all gone glimmering to the scrap-heap. The belfry of the Congregational Church of Poughkeepsie, N. Y., did it. This long-suffering church has been struck three times: in the summer of 1872, in 1914, and again in 1918.
BOLSHEVIK propaganda—here’s the way it is spread in Russia. A freight-car is loaded with Bolshevik pamphlets and books and a few Bolshevists thrown in. On the outside of the car the Bolshevik platform is painted in large letters. A train of these cars starts out, and one car is dropped at each town, where it stays for several weeks.
IF you sympathize with those who get the coal out of the ground, put at the head of your list the Chinese miners. They have no machinery to help them and must work their mines entirely by hand. There are no elevators to carry them down into the mines, so they climb up and down, aided by a wooden ladder that is laid flat on the ground.
"GO for a ride in one of our airplanes—price only $15; this includes life insurance.” The last two words of that advertisement—life insurance suggest why flying has not become a popular sport. It is too dangerous for the average man to enjoy.
WHERE hydro-electric power for making calcium carbide on a large scale is abundant, as for instance in Switzerland and the United States, acetylene may be substituted for gasoline in automobile and power-boat engines. Careful investigations show that by diluting the acetylene with from twenty to twenty-five per cent of alcohol, gasoline, light tar oils, naphthalene, or a mixture of light tar oil and alcohol in equal parts, the explosive power of acetylene is sufficiently diminished, and if enough air is admitted to the carburetor, the clogging of the engine by unconsumed carbon can be prevented.
AN airplane’s wings must be tough and light. Varnished linen has filled the bill heretofore, but today the Government Forest Products Laboratory is experimenting with plywood—thin sheets of wood placed one on top of another with the grain crossing alternately, glued, and then dried under pressure.
IN many modern lighter ships the old-fashioned donkey engines and clumsy winches that used to clutter the limited deck-space have been supplanted by electric hoists with an increase of about fifty per cent in efficiency. The steam plant for driving the generators and the motors is below deck.
Thereby causing an old art to become almost extinct
The Central Burglar Alarm
A Safe that Whirls
Helping Out the Watchman
What It Was that Happened
REMEMBER Jimmy Valentine, the tender-hearted, nimble-fingered safe-cracker? Had he existed today, chances are he would never have become famous, but would have been, nabbed on his first job. For invention has helped to make safes safe.
APARTMENT dwellers in big cities, accustomed to hot and cold water, electric lights, gas ranges, and other modern conveniences, sometimes forget how much comfort these conveniences mean to them and how much less fortunate are people who live in the country, where conditions are comparatively primitive.
MORE and more are concrete roads being built, and with them come new steel forms of many kinds for supporting the concrete while the roads are under construction. The pictures above show two different kinds of steel rails that are being used by large road construction company.
WHIR-R-R! Bang! Bang! Missed again. As you reload, your eye falls on an empty shell and it occurs to you that the grooves in the brass cap seem to be rather flattened out. On comparison with a loaded shell this proves to be true. Do you know why the grooves are made in the cap?
WITH hands clasped before her, the lady in the picture below and at the left leans over the machine on the floor, a joyful smile flooding her face. You really can’t blame her, for, right before her eyes, her dirty carpet is being washed as if by magic.
WHEN an airplane’s flying days are over and it is pronounced unfit for service, must it die in the scrap-heap? Not necessarily; it can shed its wings and become a boat without much trouble. All it needs is a cast-off pontoon of a hydro-airplane on which its bow end is pivoted.
RECENTLY an English naturalist rigged up screens of very fine silk and wire threads, and with this contrivance he was able to record the speed of birds flying through the screens in exactly the same way that the speed of a bullet is measured.
BERLIN and New York have one thing in common-the lack of proper housing facilities for their thousands of workers. New York’s excuse is, chiefly, high cost of labor and material; Berlin’s excuse seems to be lack of material. And the outcome?
A NEW electrical divining-rod, if we may use the term, for locating buried iron, has been invented by a French scientist. Its object is to discover unexploded shells buried in the fields of Flanders, that constitute a source of danger to agriculturists.
“WELL, Jim,” said the boss to the foreman of the machine-shop, “here’s a power unit that will work all the old hand threaders—no alterations, either—and do the job in just one eighth of the time it takes us to do it now.” He indicated a one and one half horsepower electric motor that he was trundling along.
THE comfort of suspenders and the beauty of a belt—how can you combine these two so that the fat man in the office may take off his coat in hot weather? A Canadian manufacturer has solved the problem by making suspenders that may be quickly and easily turned into a kind of double belt.
THE electric furnace is the magic crucible in which modern alchemists perform their wonders. The one shown in the picture above is of the “tube” type. It is often necessary to know the temperature of the contents of the furnace, and for this purpose an instrument called an optical pyrometer is used.
“IF you want to be healthy, eat plenty of carrots, spinach, asparagus, and lettuce.” Your pale, thin, anemic, cranky school-teacher told you that many years ago and, as usual, you paid no atten ion to her. But if a clown had danced into your class-room, carrying on his arm a basket of vegetables which he placed on the desk, and had taken out of it a carrot, some spinach, asparagus, and lettuce, you would have been all attention.
LOOK at the pictures. Just a nurse and a spiritstove? Yes; but this stove will burn liquid fuel without any danger of explosion, and can be carried in your bag or pocket without leaking. There are only three parts: the reservoir, which carries a tin collar, the burner, and the boiling-pan.
“SAY, what’s the boss looking at?” remarked one of the construction men who were erecting a cotton-mill up in New Hampshire. “He’s been standing there chewing his stogie and staring at that oak tree for the last ten minutes.” Next day they found out the trend of the “supe’s” thoughts when he announced that the oak tree was to form the mast for a derrick.
EVERY morning Mr. Tyvald Christensen, of Staten Island, N. Y., motors down the street on his bicycle. There’s nothing unusual about a motor-driven bicycle, but this one of Mr. Christensen’s is different from all others. He made it himself.
CLIP, clip! Off come the shoe buttons one after another. In less than a minute you can strip a pair of shoes if you use the button-remover invented by John Bald-win, of Grand Rapids, Mich. You slip the button into a slot in the base of the device and press the handles together.
Perhaps this will put an end to the constantly rising price of milk
Repeated Handling Adds to Cost
The Tank Can Be Put on a Truck
And Why Not a Tank-Car?
DID it ever occur to you that the cost of milk delivery is approximately twelve per cent of the cost of that milk to the final consumer? Milk is one of our basic food products. Its price is steadily rising higher and higher, and with it the high cost of living.
WHEN another train is running beside the train are riding in at the same rate of speed, you have the sensation of standing still. This principle is used in one of the tests held by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for determining the rate of a motor’s rotation.
NO more agonizing over cold notes! A machine has recently been invented on which stenographers can take down shorthand in unmistakable and legible printed form. The machine uses ordinary letters singly and in various combinations. The keyboard is arranged so that any or all the keys can be struck at one time, for the operator will frequently use three or six or eight or more keys at a time.
CLINK, clink, clink—every time the wheels of your train cross a rail-joint you hear that clink. If you have nothing else to do you take out your watch, note the time between clinks and figure the speed of your train. But you won’t be able to do it long, for they have taken to welding rail joints instead of leaving them open, thus safeguarding the lives of rails, wheels, and passengers.
PERHAPS it was the bottle of mineral water—we don’t know — but anyway the Penguin didn’t even try to stand up when she was launched. She toppled right over. You see, it is quite possible that such a great disappointment at the moment of her debut was too much for her.
WHEN the modern yeggman is ready to start on a job, does he take stock of his kit to make sure that he has incorporated the latest ideas in tools? ’Twould seem so. His most recent addition appears to be the oxyacetylene blowpipe. At a recent safe-cracking operation the burglars cut through the side of a perfectly good burglar-proof safe in a most nonchalant manner with the aid of this tool.
MOST of the so-called tortoise-shell rims that are put around eye-glasses never had anything to do with a tortoise. What are they made from? Cotton! In fact, many umbrella handles, hairpins, combs, buttons, buckles, bracelets, and covering for French heels are also made from cotton.
SNAP! You turn on your flash-lamp and nothing happens. The battery’s dead again. It always seems to go dead when you need it the most. Can a flash-lamp be made that needs no bothersome battery? It can. The flash-lamp herewith is one; it makes its own electricity.
A STATELY pine, with a little fixing, can be made quite grotesque. If you doubt it, observe the pine here. Yes, it is a pine, though it looks more like a starving, weak-kneed deer. The body, legs, and tail are one slice of the pine tree, and the head and horns another.
THERE are many drilling, grinding, and polishing operations that could be done much more economically by taking the machine to the work instead of the work to the machine. A portable power unit has been devised to cope with just such situations.
YOU'VE seen beribboned dolls tied to automobile radiators and dancing dolls bouncing up and down on talking-machine records, so you won’t be surprised if you see athletic dolls fastened to typewriters and flinging their arms wide every time a key is struck.
JUNKER’S coat of many pockets has just as interesting a tale connected with it as Joseph’s coat of many colors. William Junker, a Russian explorer, designed the coat for a trip in which he tried to trace the course of the River Welle in Africa.
IF you never got a shave and hair-cut you would look like the man above. You don’t want to, and so you shave. He doesn’t want to, but he can’t shave; the law won’t let him. For years he, Henry Francis Koser, earned a living by playing caveman in the movies.
THE average weight of a motorcycle is three or four hundred pounds—not an easy weight to propel by foot, as becomes necessary when the engine stops. A new motorcycle has been placed in the market which weighs only one hundred and ten pounds, develops a speed of from twenty-five to thirty miles an hour, and is said to run one hundred and forty miles on one gallon of gasoline, under ideal conditions.
FOR several hundred years— in fact, ever since the invention of steel—leaf springs have been made by rolling or hammering steel to the form of a band or ribbon of the desired width and thickness, cutting it into the required lengths, bending each piece to the desired form, and finally reheating and tempering it in oil or water to give it the necessary degree of hardness and elasticity.
A KISS, says Webster’s Dictionary, is a sweetmeat made of the beaten whites of eggs and sugar, baked; a drop of sealing wax; or pressure with the lips (compressed on contact and then separated) as a mark of affection, greeting, reverence, forgiveness.
THE extent to which the United States government during the war engaged in experimental and research work in steel rolling and forging problems is probably not fully realized. The illustration shows a large forging press in the metallurgical department in the building of the Bureau of Standards at Washington which was extensively used during the war by various interests to try out a number of ideas on forging certain alloy, carbon and special steels.
THE toucan is an ugly bird with an enormous beak and a grotesque body. And his new born child is worse. Did you ever see anything quite as ugly as the creature in the picture above? It is a baby toucan. He rests on his elbows, which are fortified by spiked pads, waves his claws in the air, and cries all day for food.
DRILLING holes and wheeling baby carriages become kindred jobs when you use the portable drilling machine shown in the illustration below. The drill is mounted on wheels and you push it around by means of a pair of long handles. When you come to a spot that needs drilling, you slow up to a stop, turn on the power, and press down on the handles to keep the drill in place.
Harry Piel and his horse furnish thrills for the German movie fans; their latest thrill is dropping from a dirigible by parachute from an altitude of eight hundred and fifty feet; here you see Mr. Piel and his bewildered horse just leaving the ground Ready for the drop.
HERE you see the latest thing in the tractor world. It consists of the usual hub, steel spokes, and a rim, upon which, at alternate spokes, are mounted iron grips. These grips are pivoted so that they are always flat on the ground at the point of contact of the wheel with the ground and thus serve in the place of a metal track.
WHAT is the hardest wood? If by “hard” you mean enduring, lignum-vitæ, the “vital wood,” is at the top of its class. Lignum-vitæ is the only wood ever discovered that can be used for the bearings at the stern end of the propeller shafts of steamships, and practically every large steamship in the world is dependent upon a block of Lignum-vitæ for a smooth running screw.
One way of staving off the exhaustion of the coal supply
Pulverized Coal as Fuel
Showing How the “Crumbs”—Pulverized Coal—May Be Used
MANY years ago a French writer and philosopher was asked what he considered the most striking difference between human beings and animals. “Animals,” was his terse reply, “are always wasteful; human beings only in times of plenty.” The American coal industry furnishes a typical illustration of the truth of this epigram.
THE usefulness of concrete depends principally on the degree to which it resists the crushing effect of pressure, and this, in turn, depends on the quality of the cement, the proportion of the crushed stone, slag, or other material, the proper mixing and “setting,” and the proportion and character of the water employed in its making.
THE expression “like a fish out of water” has become, in our everyday speech, a simile for awkwardness and strangeness. It stands for the acme of helplessness. But a dreadnought out of water looks less like a floating fort and more like a ship, as the picture of the U.S.S. Mississippi in drydock at Hunter’s Point, San Francisco, shows.
WHEN you have been out in the country in the summertime you have noticed the cows, as they graze, switching their tails and tossing their heads, and sometimes rubbing themselves against trees and fences. Why do they do this? The flies are bothering them, you say, and probably you think that fighting flies is one of the inevitable penalties of being a cow.
And now it turns rough logs into finished lumber at the rate of one million feet a day
IT is probable that the first sawmill in the United States was erected at Jamestown in 1607. It was crude, and an improvement mechanically over the then common method, pit-sawing, only in that the work was done by simple machinery instead of, as formerly, by hand.
DID you ever hear of an automobile garage made up of elevators? Well, it’s the very last word in garage design, and is likely to revolutionize garage construction in our large cities because it will hold six times the number of cars that can be stored in the same floor area in an ordinary garage building.
WHEN horse-wagons are pulled as trailers behind any kind of motor tractor, it is generally necessary to remove the horse shafts and introduce a form of special drawbar. This often requires a change on the wagon which makes it impossible for a horse to pull it again until the shafts are replaced.
WHEN trouble develops in the average automobile engine, it may be due to many different ailments, the most common of which are leaky piston rings; improperly acting valves; loose bearings; piston slap, etc. Any or all of these troubles can be very quickly located by a new motor tester which looks somewhat like the ordinary tirepump.
EVERY garageman who has much lifting to do or many wrecking jobs to handle will be interested in the new type of crane shown in the accompanying illustrations. The apparatus is really half a dozen tools combined and its uses are almost limitless.
WHAT’S an alligator good for anyway, before he’s made up into attractive pocket-books and bags? Well, for one thing, if you muzzle him and hitch him to a small wagon he will drag it around. But be sure about the muzzle or he may open his mouth, swallow the wagon and, before you can say Jack Robinson, a part of you.
IN China you will find the dinner peddler; he wanders through the streets carrying his kitchen on his shoulder and shouting “Dinner!” as he goes. You hear him, hail him, and he serves you a meal on the spot. This sounds like an ideal plan for eliminating the work of cooking meals, but it has one drawback: you never know when the peddler will show up.
JOSEPHUS DANIELS is Secretary of the Navy and he is always being reminded of it. He was asked to a dinner recently, and after he had eaten everything from soup to roast, the dessert was brought on. It was a huge cake battleship with turrets, smokestacks, life-boats, and guns all in place.
"WHO put the Irish in potato?” asked Dr. M. Luckiesh of the Nela Research Laboratory of Cleveland, when he came across a potato that had a truly Irish face. By photographing it in different lights he gave it many characters. Witness the grouchy old man on the left and, on the right, the fighter with one eye completely closed.
THERE are see-saws in the playgrounds of the schools of Japan. It is quite possible that the Japanese children don’t call them by that name and we are sure they don’t sing about Marjorie Daw while they tip up and down, but they enjoy themselves just as much as American children.
BUFFALOES are very strong and useful when tamed and many countries are loath to see them die out. Canada has taken to breeding buffaloes with cows— which are plentiful. The result is called a “cattalo.” One of them is shown in the picture below.
TIME is valuable, particularly to Miss Belleville of Greenwich, England, since it is her means of livelihood. In fact, she sells it to watchmakers. Every morning she goes to the Greenwich observatory, has her chronometer checked up, and receives a document telling just how many seconds and fractions of a second her chronometer differs from mean time.
CAN a small boy drive a tank, equipped with a gasoline engine and regular accessories? One boy did. The tank was not the famous Britannia, however, nor one of its cousins, but a distant relation made to a miniature scale. The little machine was made for advertising purposes by a magneto manufacturing firm.
FOR ten blocks a great column of smoke can be seen. With bell clanging and siren shrieking, the fire-fighting apparatus swings around the corner. The men swiftly get out a hose-line and start the stream. After the smoke dies down, an investigation is made for the purpose of fixing the cause and the damage.
CHUG, chug, chug! Miss Peggy Kurton, an English society belle, chugs to the golf links on her strange motorcycle. And all her fellow golfers are jealous, for they are unable to get machines like it. Fifteen thousand people have ordered them, but few have been delivered.
THE thought of riding in an airplane fills the general public with great excitement; but the veteran aviator who is constantly flying often finds himself distinctly bored when up in the air. Airplanes are so well made now that there is little chance of adventure.
The metamorphosis is accomplished simply by accordion-pleating its wings
The Airplane’s Awkwardness
The Folding Wing
The Strength of the Wing
Chief Difficulty of the Scheme
WHERE you ever impressed with the beauty of a large stuffed bird—a hawk, for instance— posed in the very act of jumping off into space? Didn’t you want to see the thing come to life? But how would you feel if the outspread wings remained “stuffed ” and you saw the creature walk, eat, and sleep in that same exaggerated pose?
RAILROAD ties are usually made of wood, and constant attention is necessary to prevent them from rotting. One of the most fruitful causes of trouble is the stone filling or ballast between the rails. Around the ends of the ties, as a result of the constant dropping of dirt and grease from the trains, the ballast becomes mixed with dirt.
SCRATCH, scratch! No light! Scratch, scratch—what’s the matter with these matches, anyway? As a matter of fact, the matches are all right. It’s the striking surface on your box that’s at fault, and the war is to blame, of course! It caused a shortage in antimony, which is one of the ingredients used in coating safety-match boxes.
WHAT exciting lives German hens must lead! Throughout the harvest-time they never know, on going to roost at night, where they will be in the morning. Why? Because they live in traveling hen-houses. Each night, when the hens have turned in, the hen-house is carted to a near-by field from which the grain has recently been harvested.
TRUING of work in a lathe and finding out whether the centers of the lathe are in alinement is made easy and certain by a new indicatorgage. The gage is simplicity itself. It has only four parts, which are a Z-shaped rod, a long pointer, a plate carrying an indicating scale, and a small metallic body having on one side a recess to receive the dead center of the lathe and on the other side a centering point adapted to enter the center recess in the work.
It is an awkward moment that science has heretofore neglected
“HOW like a bird!” you murmur soulfully as you watch an airplane glide swiftly through the air. But if you saw the ugly, mechanical way in which its motor was started back there on the field, you’d change your tune to “How like a flivver!” For the airplane’s motor is cranked; and this cranking is no easy flivverish job either, since the dangerous sharp-edged propeller is right on the spot all the time.
WHAT are these men doing with this complicated apparatus that ranges all the way from a vacuum flask to pipe covering? The pipe-covering explains it. It is assembled for the purpose of measuring the efficiency of different pipe-covering compositions, and is used by the students at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
CLANG! You jump with surprise as the bell sounds, for it seems to come directly from the chest of the man you are talking to. As a matter of fact, you discover that it does. He is wearing what is known as the incorrect-position indicator, and every time his chest caves in a bell sounds, warning him to throw his chest out again.
A GOOD work-bench is necessary for good workmanship; it must be light and strong and rigid and altogether carefully planned if it is to give first-class service. Such a work-bench is shown below. The legs are made of U-shaped pressed steel, and have wide base-plates that are screwed to the floor.
THIS mule gets a daily shower-bath, and so do all her sisters who work with her in the mine. The shower is equipped with three large nozzles that shoot a continuous spray of water down on the mule’s head, body, and tail. Perforated pipes along the sides of the shower-bath help to clean the day’s accumulation of dirt from the mule’s tired body.
ADVERTISING billboards and moving-picture screens grow larger and larger. Which of the two is the monster shown here? Since it’s outdoors, one would naturally call it a billboard, but it proves to be a movingpicture screen, one hundred feet square—the largest in the world.
WHEN you stop to think of it, isn’t the most popular kettle cover in your kitchen the one that has a wooden knob on the top? No matter how hot the tin or agate or aluminum may get, you can always lift it off by the wooden knob without burning your fingers.
ROCK-A-BY baby, on the tree top, when the wind blows the cradle will rock”—uncertain rhyme and an uncertain way of putting the baby to sleep; the wind may not blow. Luther P. Jones, of Russelville, Ala., has invented a cradle that will swing constantly, regularly, and automatically, needing neither wind nor hand to rock it.
MAGNETIC pulleys in themselves are not new, but the older types carried a heavy laminated belt, while the one pictured above carries a light, single-thickness band. The new pulley is made with a pair of close spiral grooves, technically known as helical grooves, which run parallel to each other around circumference.
"WHERE’S my shaving soap?” you ask.“ Baby’s fed it to the cat,” you are told. If the soap and brush were one there would be no chance of losing one half without the other, and lathering would become much simpler. Below you see a shaving-brush having a hollow handle, so that a stick of soap can be passed through it to a point within the bristles.
IF you strum a guitar, or tinkle a mandolin, either learnedly from music, or irresponsibly by ear, you have probably tried to play a harmony on the bass strings, while carrying the air on the treble strings. After spraining two fingers and tying the rest in knots, you have given it up in despair.
“ A MASS of twisted sheet-iron and pipes from which rivulets of oil, gasoline, and naphtha continue to burn is all that remains of the great oil plant. The blaze gave the fire department the hardest twenty-five-hour fight in its history, but there is no longer danger of the flames spreading, as all the damage that could be done has been accomplished.
It combines the principles of the ship railway with those of the basin lock
Ship Railway and Basin Lock
Supported by Air-Tight Cylinders
Through in Twenty Minutes
WHEN two navigable rivers are to be connected by a ship-canal, one end of which is considerably higher than the other, locks must be constructed between the two rivers. Otherwise the river on the higher level would lose a great amount of water which would flow through the connecting canal into the lower river.
IF by scrapping five machines and buying one you could save space worth hundreds of dollars, would you do it? Space is valuable. A recent article in the POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY estimated the cost of the space for two ordinary desks in New York (a space covering some fifty by sixty-four inches), as thirteen thousand dollars.
MATTED beds of fiber, seven feet thick in some places and several square miles in extent, have recently been discovered on the seashore of South Australia in the region of Posidonia. This is a valuable find, for the fiber is excellent material for insulating steam-pipes and refrigerator plants.
POLES carrying 66,000-volt wires, 2,300-volt wires, and telephone wires, followed a country road. The course of the road was changed, and the poles had to follow. The pole to be shifted was supported with guy-ropes at right angles to the line of posts, and a pole-jack was used to uproot it.
THE earth weighs 6,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 tons. Can you pronounce it? We suspect that Professor Louis E. Dorr, head of the department of physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, who weighed the patient, speaks of it lightly as “six and twenty-one ciphers tons.”
LUNCH pails mean lunch-time, and lunch-time means noon to most of us; but not to Clarence M. O’Neel of Eagle Creek, Ore. He eats his lunch at night—or at least the lunch pail that he has recently invented would seem to indicate that he does.
WHERE are the blacksmiths of yesterday? Still hammering, most likely; but few of them are working on horseshoes. For example, James Cran, of New York, hammers iron into roses and sells them to an admiring public. Below you see a bouquet of iron roses tied with an iron ribbon.
HAPPILY the day is past when most of us feel that winter is a shut-in season, that the open air means colds, tonsillitis, or pneumonia. With proper clothing and equipment, we may even stay out overnight, or plan a protracted camping trip. Perhaps even as you read this page the snow is falling.
WHEN trouble occurs either with the under side of the automobile motor or the rear end of the car, it is somewhat inconvenient to work without a pit. To partially overcome this condition a garage man built a sort of runway, as illustrated, by which the end of a car could be quickly elevated about two feet off the floor, thus allowing fairly easy access to the parts.
WHEN there is a wash hanging on the back porch or in the yard, it is almost impossible for a person to pass without being slapped in the face by the wet clothes. The drawing shows a simple method of avoiding this discomfort. Two pulleys made of 8 in. wooden disks having bevelled edges are bolted to each post used to support the wash line, one pulley at the top, and one about 3 ft. above the ground or floor.
A HAIRPIN is very useful in cleaning dirt and grit from screw threads of small diameter. It should first be bent into the shape indicated in the diagram so that the distance between the ends of the pin is slightly greater than the diameter of the threaded hole.
IT was during a picnic party. ’Twas a lovely day, and a gay crowd. The inevitable camera bug was there too. Not to be left out of the last film, the photographer decided to use a hairpin to help him out. The camera was focussed on the crowd and a suitable place conscientiously reserved for the camera man.
WHEN asked the above question, the tendency would be to answer in the negative; but look at the illustration accompanying this article and see how one of the readers of POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY actually accomplished the seemingly impossible feat.
WHEN you want to put up a small battery lamp and can’t find a socket, here’s the way to make one in a hurry. Use a piece of soft wood about three inches square for a base. Then drive five or six small wire nails with wide heads in the center of this base and incline them towards each other so they will form a section of a cone —t hat is, driven in a circular position with their heads nearer together than the bottoms.
THE poisonous gases that issue from the exhaust of an automobile very often cause the rapid deterioration of the spare tire. These fumes curl about the tire, eat away the live ingredients of the carcass, and when the tire is placed upon the wheel, the rotten fabric explodes with a loud “plop”.
AN easily constructed and inexpensive window ventilator can be made from three tobacco tins and a board. The board 8 in. high is cut so as to fit across the window frame closely. Three rectangular holes, 2½ in. long by 2 in. high, are cut in the board.
HOW many times have you watched the clothes-pole, accelerated by the wind, slide down the line and drop the newly washed clothes into the mud? Many times we will warrant, but here’s a way to eliminate that trouble. Use the ordinary 7 ft. pole that has a notch cut in one end.
A GOOD driver is a born driver. He possesses intuition that can possesses can never be acquired; it is almost an extra sense. He is born with a keen sense of sound, so that he knows the purr of his engine, and the slightest variation will strike him at once.
THE accompanying illustration shows a simple but efficient foot-warmer that may be used a carriage or automobile. It is constructed on the principle of the fireless cooker. A brick is used as the carrier of the heat, and torn paper as the non-conducting material between the metal brick-container and the sides of the box.
A GREAT many broken band-saws may be traced to lack of concentricity in the wheels of the machine. A rubber band about ¼ in. thick is glued to the periphery of the upper and lower wheels. If this band were always of an exact thickness and perfectly set, its outer surface would run true provided the wheels themselves are true.
A SIMPLE drying rack for the kitchen hot water heater was made in the following way. A length of strap iron, long enough to reach around the tank, was procured and at intervals of 8 in. the edges were bent outward towards each other at right angles to the surface of the strap iron.
IN the amateur’s electrical den and the shop of the small electrical contractor or repairman, standard lighting current is often needed at an outlet and under a means of control without the disadvantages and inconvenience entailed by the usual plug-and-cord connection to a lamp-socket.
IF a switch with contacts at each side were connected to the alternating-current mains as indicated in Fig. 1, direct current could be secured provided it were physically possible to throw the switch from one side to the other one hundred and twenty times a second.
ONE of the most novel weather tellers is that known as the chameleon barometer. It is a very reliable device for indicating coming changes in the weather, and is very easy to make. Obtain a piece of stout cardboard. If it is round the effect is all the better.
HOME-MADE push-pins are just as good as those you buy and even better, for they can be made in a variety of colors. As nearly every home is fitted with a phonograph you probably have an abundance of used needles which you have heretofore thrown away.
IT is convenient to know your own tools when you see them; yet if they are not marked with your name or initials they are often very difficult to identify. The best place to set your name is on the steel portion of the tool where it is exceedingly difficult to remove it.
EVERY garage owner has to contend with a shrinkage in his lubricating oil which is always attempting to make inroads in his profits. This is largely due to waste and loss in handling. A few drops here and there as it is being transferred from the supply tank to the customer’s car; now and then a loss of a pint or so as the faucet is left open too long and the measure overflows—this is how losses are apt to occur.
HEAT is one of the worst enemies a tire is called upon to face, especially friction heat. The winter air lessens this heat and makes it possible for a tire to last longer in spite of the extra pounding it gets when snow and ice are on the ground. This rule applies, of course, where the tire is confronted only with the ordinary bad roads conditions arising from frozen highways.
Be a pipe mechanic and repair your own smoking apparatus
Albert E. Jones
A SHORT time ago the stem of one of my favorite pipes became clogged and no effort of mine could dislodge the obstruction, even though I used wire. After a little thought I took a steel knitting needle and flattened one end a little and with a file sharpened it as one would a drill.
THE method of using a hairpin in an emergency, described in the following paragraphs, is very useful to the motorist. By twisting the hairpin as shown in the various figures in the illustration you can make a practical cotter key for screw-heads or bolt-ends.
BY an extremely simple device a small electric fan can be converted for drying photographic plates rapidly, and with a little care no dust will settle on them. Construct a wooden box of such a size as to accommodate the size of the plates to be used.
A LITTLE chamois lined pouch like those usually supplied with watches, makes a much better spectacle cleaner than a handkerchief. A handkerchief has a certain roughness and always leaves lint upon the lens, whereas the chamois is soft and really cleans when used in the manner shown.
ELECTRICIANS and other mechanics who have use for friction tape in their work generally experience trouble due to the unraveling of the outer edges of the tape when it is being unrolled for use. This annoyance can be easily overcome by scoring each side of the roll in radial lines with a sharp blade, as shown in the accompanying sketch.
SMALL soldering jobs which must be done in cramped quarters can be quickly and easily accomplished with this home-made gas blow torch. The torch is made from discarded pipes and fittings, the illustration showing plainly how it is assembled.
Surface Grinder Lathe Attachment That Does Good Work
H. H. Parker
THIS small lathe attachment will be found extremely useful for grinding various flat and cylindrical or disk-shaped articles; also, the grinding wheel and sleeve may be removed and a sleeve containing a drill chuck and pulley used in its place, or a plate holding one or two small vises may be clamped in place of the sleeve, in which case the device becomes a milling attachment, the mills being held in the live center of the lathe.
EVERY draftsman knows how often the ink is upset while he is working. A stand to keep the ink-bottle steady may be made from two small pieces of hard wood. The base is a block of hard wood 4 in. by 4 in. thick. The hole to receive the bottle in the base is bored a little bit larger than the diameter of the bottle; this is done with an expansive auger wood-bit.
EVERY farm has several old wagon wheels lying about. They can be used to make round corners for picket fences and this will greatly improve the appearance of the fence. The wheel is first sawed at one point, then the spokes and hub removed. The felloe is next measured on the contemplated corner and the surplus material removed.
IT is not a difficult task to straighten a bent chassis framing, and very few tools are required. The necessary force can be provided with an ordinary turnbuckle, as indicated in the illustration. Various forms of jacks can also be used for the purpose, but the turnbuckle is the favorite of at least one repairman, who has applied it on so many occasions that he has become an expert.
A MINIATURE steam engine that will give the builder a great deal of satisfaction can be made by using a bicycle pump as a cylinder and constructing the parts mostly of wood. On a base of wood three upright posts are secured by means of screws. Each of these posts is 18 in. long and 2 in. wide by 1 in. thick.
IN almost every household there are knives that have lost their handles and yet are beloved of the housekeeper because of some peculiarity in the shape of the blade or other feature. Also in every household there are clothespins. An ingenious housewife has found that by cutting off the prongs of a clothes pin about an eighth of an inch shorter than the tang of the knife-blade, winding over the slotted part with cord or, better yet, wire, and filling the space around the tang with melted sealing-wax or melted rosin, the good old blade can be given a new lease of life.
WHEN a rubber tube gets a hole or two in it, don’t throw it away. Buy a piece of glass tube at the drug store. Cut the rubber at the spot where it leaks and insert a small piece of the glass tube, and, presto!— your tubing is as good as new. The glass tube may be easily broken into sections by cutting notches in it with an old knife and then snapping the tube between the fingers.
Tool for Handling Fuses for Heavy Voltage Currents
LINEMEN and electricians who have occasion to remove or install fuses in high tension lines will appreciate the little tool described below. This tool is simple and may be the means of preventing a severe burn or shock as a result of coming in contact with live wiring.
THE greatest difficulty the trouble locater has to face is taking things for granted. All of you know that it is impossible to start a car with the switch in the “off” position, and yet it is a daily occurrence to see men try to crank a car without first throwing on the switch.
THE accompanying sketch illustrates a combination feed hopper and nest boxes which have proved an ideal combination. The feed trough was built of wood with a metal partition, as indicated, suspended from between the cover boards to within about 3 in. of the bottom of the trough.
KEEPING the light at exactly the right height, whatever the nature of the work, is an easy matter for a certain clever mechanic. Overhead he has fastened a curtain roller to which is attached a string with a loop at the free end. Through this loop the cord with the electric light is passed.
TO make the lap a lead casting is required about the proportions shown in the drawing, cast in a wooden or plaster-of-paris mold. This may either be drilled out afterwards or a steel rod about five thousandths of an inch smaller than the required shaft diameter may be placed in the mold and the lead run around it, after which it may be driven out and the hole reamed.
THIS vulcanizer is designed for 110 volts A.C. or D.C., and has an automatic heat-controlling thermostat. It consists properly of three units: the heating unit, the control unit, and the clamping unit, all of which can be made for a very small cash outlay plus a little spare time.
AS a rule, in places where there are no ice-chests or cooling devices, milk bottles and the like are placed on the floor near the door to keep them cool. They are thus often in the way and consequently are apt to become broken or spilled. One suburbanite solved the problem by attaching a little shelf, as illustrated, to the inside of the storm door.
AS an inexpensive though efficient substitute for the portable heaters now on the market to keep the water from freezing in watering tanks for farm stock, the following idea will prove of value. Procure an old but tight hot water boiler and cut it down to a height which will allow it to project at least a foot above the maximum water level in the tank.
What Radio Experimenter Couldn’t Find a Use for These?
H. J. van der Bijl
THE vacuum valve or thermionic detector has made it possible to detect, with a simple outfit, electromagnetic waves coming from considerable distances. It consists simply of an evacuated glass bulb containing a filament which can be heated to incandescence, a pair of metallic plates and a pair of metallic grids placed between the filament and the plates.
IN any circuit containing capacity and inductance (that is, a condenser and a coil of wire of some form), it is usually very difficult to find the wave-length and natural frequency involved—the formulas for this being numerous. Here, however, is a chart by which the values may be obtained almost at a glance.
THE essentials for this rheostat are: One empty spool about 1½ in. long; a ⅛-in. brass rod about 2½ in. long, threaded with 8/32 thread; two dry-battery binding-post caps with internal threads; a piece of 1/16-in. sheet brass, some binding-posts, a knob, a pointer, and a scale.
THE great wireless masts, which sometimes rise to a height of 300 feet and more, present many mechanical difficulties. Although constructed of open steel latticework, they are swayed back and forth by the wind, frequently swinging as much as eighteen inches from the perpendicular.
IN every radio installation there should be a ground switch installed at the point where the aerial enters the building. This may consist simply of a heavy single-pole, double-throw knife switch, the knife of which is connected to the aerial.
THESE vacuum tube pictures we are able to present through the courtesy of Commander Hooper of the Navy. The collection was tested by Lieutenant W. A. Eaton, and Radio Aide Horle during the war. The radio student will find a study of the different types of great interest
EVERY work-bench needs a good light, one which is adjustable and capable of being moved about from one end of the bench to the other. Swinging lights are usually in the way, and those upon tracks are liable to get out of adjustment. Two folding brackets like those illustrated are used to advantage about the bench,for they fold back out of the way and be raised or permit the light to lowered at will.
THE most difficult garments to dispose of conveniently in the closet are the trousers. The illustrations accompanying this article illustrate an ample home-made trouser hanger which will keep all the extra pairs of trousers in one place and at the same time will preserve the creases and keep the garment hanging smooth and flat.
THE regulation lineman’s climbers or spurs are somewhat expensive, but any boy may easily make a pair just as strong and equally as serviceable for about one third the cost. Procure two pieces of common tire iron 27 in. long and in. wide—such as is used for buggy tires.
KNIFE edges are associated in our mind with scales, and roller bearings with fast running machinery of the lighter variety. But such antifriction construction is proving a great aid in heavy machinery, as for instance in steam engine governor parts whose regulating ability must be of the most sensitive kind, though the parts themselves may weigh a ton or two and the engine develop hundreds or thousands of horsepower.
IT is impossible to be too careful about how ignition and other wires are run on an automobile, and if wiring is carefully done you will be much easier in your mind on theroad. Wires carrying lowtension current are not heavily insulated. Ordinarily it is not necessary that they should be, so far as carrying the current is concerned.
IF there is an old spark coil about, it may be transformed into an effective spark-plug tester, which is a very good thing to have about the garage or house. The old coil is attached to the wall, and directly beneath it a sheet of asbestos is fastened with tacks.
A STRONG and handy adjustable book-stand may be made from four pieces of board picked up around the work-shop. The dimensions given in the diagram are for a book of ordinary size, but may easily be increased for larger books. The drawing shows plainly how the stand may be tilted back to an angle to suit the reader.
SAND may be stored in a wooden receptacle similar to that shown in the illustration, and is best applied to the fire by means of a long-handled shovel. The sand should be fairly dry and mixed with sodium bicarbonate, ten parts sand to one part sodium bicarbonate for the best results.
WHO would think that a 10 ft. camera could take pictures perfect in every detail? That such is the case is proved by the accompanying illustrations. The camera consists of two 5 ft. parts fitted with light-tight joints. An excellent double anastigmat lens with a 2 in. aperture, suitable for a 4 by 5 camera is used, the lens being attached to one end the camera and a ground glass to the other.
TO keep storage batteries in a healthy condition for maximum service pure water must be added at stated intervals, usually about once a week. By pure water is meant water reasonably free from mineral impurities which in time would accumulate in the bottom of the cells and impair the action of the battery.