The queer and sickening sensations that a flyer experiences when he commits himself to a life-preserver of the air
Major T. Orde Lees
THE memory of Lufberry’s tragic death still lives. Who can forget how the most daring of American fighting flyers vaulted into the air to destroy a heavy German armored machine that had been wreaking havoc for days, how Lufberry in vain poured in a hail of machine-gun bullets at his adversary, how his machine was itself struck, how he fell in flames, how he unbelted himself and leaped to his death from a height of eight hundred feet, preferring to commit suicide rather than to be broiled alive?
FOR years, Louis J. Brotton, of Alameda, Cal., was an engineer; then for years more he earned his living sawing driftwood and selling it. At eighty-three he had grown too feeble to work the saw all day. Did he give up? Certainly not. He rigged up an eight-foot windmill and made it do the sawing through a belt.
WITH a grinding of brakes the train comes to a sudden stop. The conductor explains: “Nothing wrong. Just a signal set against us.” Did you ever stop to think that it costs money to stop and start a train? A series of experiments in order to determine this cost were made in 1905 by J. A. Peabody, a signal engineer on the Chicago and Northwestern, and, although labor and material costs have jumped about a hundred per cent since the time this estimate was made, the figures are still very interesting.
The Bank Messenger and His Wallet Chained Together
GONE! The wallet full of bonds has been stolen! Imagine the feelings of a bank messenger when he finds his pocket empty. He betrayed himself when he first left the bank by unconsciously patting the prize pocket, and the watchful pickpocket followed this cue when they were caught in a crowd together.
SINCE the lineman who inspects electric cables from his airy perch cannot very well get out and get under, he has had to combine the feats of the contortionist and gymnast in order to see the under side of the wires. At least, that is the way he has been in the habit of doing his inspecting until lately.
SUPPOSE you were the manager of a large packing-house and had in your employ several hundred employees who had to stand all day on the cold, damp floors of a refrigerating-room. What would you do? Mr. Alonzo Newton Benn, of Chicago, was confronted with this problem, and the result was the invention of a foot-warmer.
YOU may expect to find a burglar under the bed, but certainly not coffee percolators, toasters, and bureau drawers. Yet these things can be put there, as our illustration below shows. The bed is what is known as a cabinet bed and is used for a multitude of purposes.
PRACTICE on the dummy—that is the instruction given to the student dentist in the State University of Iowa. He learns to fill, cap, make inlays, and otherwise repair a pair of dummy jaws hinged together and mounted on a stand that may be adjusted to any angle.
THE boss walks up to the department manager’s desk. “Is Mr. Harris around?” he asks the office-boy. “Yes, sir, he’s around the place somewhere; I’ll get him,” replies the boy. He takes up the telephone and asks the operator to get in touch with Mr. Harris.
"THE crowds gathered round to watch, when Hattie was given her semiannual bath." Be not alarmed; Hattie is an elephant and looks no different when prepared for a bath than she does ordinarily. Her home is in Central Park, New York city, where she is immensely popular.
ONCE upon a time the “scissors man” used to tramp wearily down the street, his heavy grinding wheel slung over his shoulder; or else he rode in a little cart behind an old horse. It remained for a Frenchman to rise to still greater heights. We present him here enthroned upon his auto-grinder.
IF you were building a canal that had to cut across a river, what would you do? Let the canal run into the river and station a traffic policeman at the watery cross-roads? The people of Chaumont, France, asked themselves this same question when a canal they were building reached the banks of the Marne river.
NO, this is not a movie still of “Stranded on a Desert Island,” but a photograph of William Pester in his customary suit sitting outside of his town house at Palm Canyon, Cal. He has gone “back to nature.” He lets his hair and beard grow to suit themselves, wears a cheap and simple apron, and forages for his food.
IN some parts of the South and West the prosaic cellar is replaced by a romantic cave in a hillside. The old-style, half-recumbent cave door makes it unnecessary to construct a vestibule to the cave, but its weight must be lifted every time the door is opened.
HE is wearing the latest in Parisian hair-cuts,— we have it on the word of our Paris correspondent,— but he doesn’t look happy over the distinction. Doubtless his name is Toto and he is a gay dog at heart, but saddened by the names that ordinary street pups hurl at him when they meet him.
IF you suffocate and are most uncomfortable in an ordinary telephone-booth, how would you feel if they cut it in half? Twice as bad, say some; it couldn’t be worse no matter what they did, say others. Well, anyway, the picture below shows a half-sized booth, so you can judge for yourself.
LIKE to be a movie star, wouldn’t you? Nothing to do but dress up, smoke cigarettes, and register emotions. Ah, but suppose you were told some day to jump from the top of a fast moving train and catch hold of a few dangling ropes? That alters the case.
HEAD, feet, and a fan are all you see on the surface of the water in the picture at the left. Mr. Keishimoto, of Japan, is floating and at the same time fanning himself— holding the fan between his toes. But why should he fan himself when he is almost entirely submerged in clear, cold water?
AS you sit in a small country church, silent except for the birds outside, you suddenly hear a great creaking and wheezing. Ah! The organ is being tuned— or rather blown up. And the man who does the blowing? One of them is shown herewith, blowing up his organ with a foot-pedal.
IN cases of disease of the lungs, the bronchial tubes, the larynx, and the nasal passages, it is often desirable to apply medicines directly to the diseased mucous membranes. The nasal passages and the upper parts of the larynx are comparatively easily accessible for local treatment by douches or spraying; but the lower parts of the larynx, the bronchial tubes, and the lungs cannot thus be reached.
In the Cellar of this Brewery Now the Mushrooms Grow
ALAS, poor cellar! We knew it once when it was full of tubs— copper ones for making beer. Now it is used for growing mushrooms! That is how the owners of one brewery decided to make use of their idle building. Mushroom culture is a very profitable business.
THE Bureau of Commercial Economics, of Washington, D. C., has launched an educational campaign in which moving pictures are to be used as textbooks. At the head of the movement is Dr. Francis Holley, who was blind for eighteen years. The free display of motion pictures is his method of keeping his vow that if he ever regained his sight he would devote the remainder of his life to teaching the rest of the world how wonderful a gift sight is.
"WHY build giant engines if several smaller ones will do?" This question is often asked of aeronautical engineers when they express the opinion that the very large and powerful engine is one of the necessary requirements for the great passenger machines of the future.
ALL the joys of ice-skating—without any ice—are provided for in a skate invented by Harry Paulsen, of New York. It has rollers all along the bottom and a hard rubber knob clamped to the point. The knob is used for pirouetting, and the rollers allow a flexibility of motion that is not possible with the ordinary roller-skate.
IN order to do away with the roustabouts who are a familiar sight along our Southern rivers, Gustave A. Hansen has invented a loading and unloading system. He believes that his invention will do away entirely with tedious hand trucking.
THE glass sphere in the picture, containing what look like cartridges, is not some new weapon of war. It is a lottery jar, and was made for a French bank, the Credit Foncier. A lottery jar four times the size of this one, to contain millions of cartridges, is being built for the city of Paris, and $60,000,000 will be given out in bonuses to holders of lucky-number French victory bonds.
How A. S. Gattie, an English engineer, would reduce the high cost of living by loading and unloading ships with automatic machinery
How Gattie Would Solve the Problem
How the Plan Works
The Clearing-House for Freight
The Clearing-House for Freight
Traveling Cranes and Sorting Floors
This Is Merely a Typical Case
WHAT shall we do to reduce the cost of living? There are two solutions, economists tell us. Produce more—that is the first solution. Distribute more efficiently—that is the second solution. Increased production means the speeding up of existing machinery and the invention of new and better machinery.
A WIND-STORM tore a huge smokestack from its foundation and dropped it fifty feet away. As it plunged into the ground the top end flattened out. Later the owners came to view the remains. They decided that, if the broken end were cut off and the remainder straightened out, the stack could be used again.
WHERE do oats, peas, beans, and barley grow? Well, some of them grow in the back yard of George K. Caviness, in Seymour, Iowa. And they grow very well, for he constantly weeds and cultivates his ground. He does this with a special tool of his own invention — a three-pronged hoe which can be attached to a wheel and pushed.
AN extremely valuable part of the boiler-room equipment is the boiler control board. This contains indicating and recording instruments for each boiler and the switches and levers for controlling the working conditions of the boiler plant.
There are more than 6,000,000 cars and trucks in use today. If each one was of two-ton capacity and traveled only 50 miles a day, the daily saving in gasoline over concrete roads, as compared with earth roads, would be 26,430,000 gallons, worth, at 25 cents a gallon, the tremendous sum of $6,607,500—and that for only one day in the year.
FEW people at the opera or any musical performance where choruses are engaged realize the mechanical difficulties of an orchestra leader. It is obvious that every musician and singer must be at the instant command of his baton. The delay of a fraction of a second in obeying his signal may spell disaster.
HERE’S a new invention for the semi-invalid who is not strong enough to use crutches and not weak enough to need a wheel-chair; it is a combination of both. The upper part of his body is supported by crutches that terminate just below his waist in the frame of a wheelchair.
LIE face downward, with your forehead resting on a ledge, and you will surely go to sleep. So says Alice O. Darling, of Lebanon, N. H. She discovered this in her insomnia days, and promptly patented it. Her invention calls for a two-pieced mattress.
A TYPEWRITER small enough to be carried in your coat pocket and light enough to be held in your hand, if necessary, while you are writing your letter with it, has been invented in France and placed in the market by a French manufacturer. It consists of two separate parts: the typewriting mechanism, which is enclosed in a small metal box; and the carriage, which holds the paper in writing.
WE have concentrated soup, powdered eggs, and condensed milk— water being extracted from almost everything these days in order to save space and labor. The latest is concentrated ink. It comes in tubes —like tooth paste—and you squeeze it out drop by drop, mixing it with water at the well known ratio of sixteen to one.
ADAM and Eve in the Garden of Eden—how we envy them their care-free life in that charming spot. One of us, S. P. Dinsmoor of Lucas, Kan., has gone so far as to build a concrete “Garden of Eden” around his house. But what a strange, ugly garden it is—not the least bit enchanting.
Why is one man better than another at a drill-press? And why is one golf-player better than another?
Finding a Unit of Measurement
How the Motion Is Recorded
We Can't Judge Our Motions
Golfers' Axioms Are Not Facts
Fundamental Rhythm of Motion
IF you want to learn how to play the violin, the best teacher ought to be the greatest violinist. To learn how to play tennis, golf, or even croquet, avoid the average player; he will never make a champion of you. To become a champion yourself you must learn from a champion.
GLANCE at this picture of a pelican flying, and you will understand that, while the bird may stand for the limericks that are written about it, it prefers to sit for its portrait. Our bird is one of the colony at the United States Bird Reservation at the mouth of the Mississippi, where fifty thousand pelicans have been counted on the “Mud Lumps.” As soon as the young are able to paddle about, their parents are kept busy fishing to satisfy their appetites.
AFTER reading in one of the newspapers that a few railroad workers have larger salaries than the Governor of New York State and that many of them earn more than majors in the United States Army, the wise mother of the boy shown in the picture below bought him a “kiddie-car” and let him play locomotive engineer to a train of wagon trailers.
STEEL and still more steel is the rallying cry of both the peace and war battalions, whether it’s cannon and shells or railroad tracks, girders, and rivets that are in special demand; but it is not often that we get so dramatic a view of steel in the making as the photographer caught at a rolling-mill in Coatesville, Pa.
EVEN the trees of the field offer striking examples of the retentive power of heredity and the influence of environment, as is evidenced by this tale of two trees. In a field near Mont Alto, Pa., stand two trees of the same age which developed in an identical environment.
DO you find nurse-girls hard to get? Then buy a dog, stand him on his hind legs, and back the baby carriage into him. He will clutch at the handle with his front toes in order to balance himself. Do this several times and he will grow attached to the handle.
"OH, if I only had an opera-glass!" sighs the bird enthusiast, as he glimpses a feathered unknown in the branches above; and his wish is often echoed by other folk who may not be amateur ornithologists, but who long for a nearer and clearer view of something that has caught their eye.
LAUGH no longer at the ladies who have turned their lockets into powder-boxes; here is a man who uses his empty watch-case as an ash-tray. He carries it in his watch pocket and takes it out whenever he wishes to smoke in houses where no ash-trays are provided.
IF, by chance, you should go some day to Calgary, Canada, remember this: you will not need to hire an automobile or pay a high price for a seat in a bus in order to see the town. Why not? Because the street-car railway owns an elaborate sight-seeing car that makes regular trips each day in the course of which it covers all the trolley tracks in the city.
YOU are here introduced to Peter, the giant tortoise of the London Zoo. Since his birth was not registered, we are unable to tell his exact age; but experts assure us that he is considerably older than any of us, the day of his birth dating back two or three centuries.
ONCE a year the Chinaman below takes a day off and manicures his finger-nails, and he is busy all day; for three of his nails are very long and likely to be dirty, even though they are encased in bamboo stalks all the year round. You see, this Chinaman has the longest nails in existence, and he is very proud of them.
As a result of lighting a match to discover a bit of wood in a gasoline tank, Max Lieberman, a chauffeur, nineteen of No. 51 Varet Street, Brooklyn, is dying in the Cumberland Street Hospital with burns on the head, face and lders.
HOW to reduce the numerous fatalities and injuries caused by reckless automobile driving is a problem that is causing considerable thought throughout the country. An invention brought out by Otto Gropper, of Long Island City, N. Y., ameliorates to a decided degree the present existing conditions.
THE craziest machine known to the automotive world is in the possession of the engineering department of the Kansas City Agricultural College at Manhattan, where it is known as the “mechanical mascot.” Every bolt, nut, pin, and beam that went into the machine was made in the college shops.
A MOTOR-TRUCK manufacturer has produced a unique vehicle that has practically enabled him to take his “hotel” with him when he journeys long distances by motor, as he did recently, with his wife and a party of friends. This was a long trip from the city of Marion, Ind., to California, and back, a distance of four thousand miles.
A FORGE for use in a small repair shop may be made out of half of an old Ford rear axle housing. It may be used for straightening bent frames or other pieces of metal, and for beating them into different shapes. In manufacturing the forge only the outside housing of one half of the axle is used.
THE speed with which sound travels through space depends in some measure on the temperature of the medium through which the sound waves pass. But what is the exact relation? Professor T. R. Watson, of the University of Illinois, used in his investigations the apparatus shown in the picture, which was devised by him and his assistant, Mr. H. T. Booth.
WHEN you wish to shave, how can you make “each particular hair to stand on end like quills upon the fretful porcupine”? By means of a faradic current, says Frank White, of Missouri; and he has invented a razor that will supply it. Faradic current causes muscular contraction at each make and break.
"DO you dance?" "No." “Why not?” “Can’t.” Such conversations are heard time and time again. “Ah, but anyone can learn to dance,” says Max Rothkugel, of New York city, “if he uses my dancing chart.” The chart dissects each dance step into its individual foot movements, and matches them to the notes of the music.
GR-R-R-R-R—the dentist tunes up his drill and grinds a great hole in your tooth. Next he hacks at it, picks at it, drills it again, and tells you to come back tomorrow for more. No wonder everybody hates the dentist! But dentistry is progressing rapidly: pain is being eliminated, and so are the unbecoming metal fillings and gold teeth that formerly disfigured people’s mouths.
WHY does the owner of the hands in the picture persist in chipping pieces from a brand-new strip of roofing? He’s not destructive — just demonstrative; he chips in order to show you the four layers that make up this new waterproof, corrosion-proof material.
DO you pride yourself on your ability to shoot, and do you carefully polish the sharpshooting medals you have won? Then think of the perfect cartridges that made your record shots possible. In order to perfect cartridges the manufacturers must carry on an extensive amount of very careful testing.
“JACK and Jill went up the hill to fetch a pail of water”—you are familiar with the tragedy that followed. It might never have happened if an automatic electric pump like the one shown above had been attached to the well. You see, they would not have had to go up the hill, but could have gone to the faucet in the kitchen for their pail of water.
SEAWEED—what’s it good for? The only thing most of us do with it is snap the blister to hear it “pop.” But seaweed has a real commercial value. It may be turned into a hard, tough substance and used for making ash-trays, baskets, and even dolls.
GOLFERS may practise their strokes indoors in the winter by substituting for the regular ball a recently invented cardboard golf-ball. The cardboard ball is not a ball at all, since it is shaped like a triangular prism. On each of two sides of the prism is a white spot having a circumference like that of a regular golf-ball.
HOW long have sawing, hammering, and chopping wood been deadly deeds? You will naturally ask that question when you notice that all the woodmen in the picture above wear gas-masks. The reason for the masks is that the room is filled with formaldehyde gas.
FOR many years steel-plated safes and vaults gave ample protection against the predatory knights of the jimmy. Then the invention of nitroglycerine gave the criminal element the advantage for a while, until science taught how to make steel so hard as to defy the cracksman’s drill.
SHOWERS—not the kind that come from the sky, but from the water faucet—furnish the most thorough kind of bath. The force of the water beating on the body thoroughly cleanses the skin. Believing this, a large steel company recently decided to install small shower attachments on all the wash-basins throughout its plant.
How steam came to be used to shoot concrete into place
Harold P. Brown
"LOOK at this," said the manager of an electric railway company in Easton, Pa., to me one day in the spring of 1911. He pointed to the reenforced concrete columns, girders, and beams of a large packing-house. From cellar to garret, wide cracks followed the lines of the buried steel.
"KH—Smith—9" looks mysterious, doesn’t it? It might easily be an important message in code, but as a matter of fact it is no more than a workman’s time record. Smith is the man’s name; 9 stands for the number of minutes he was late. What does the KH stand for? The time at which he arrived.
WHILE they crowded into the entrance of a moving-picture show in Cincinnati awaiting their turn to attend the second performance, fifty-four people were suddenly dropped fifteen feet into the basement of the theater when the flooring upon which they stood gave way.
NO longer can the motor-truck driver sit idly on the seat and smoke cigarettes while men in the railway car behind him shovel on his load. The men will simply pull a lever, and down will come the sand or gravel or coal out of a metal bin, or “loader skip,” attached to the side of the car.
WILL the supply of coal give out? Will the supply of wood last long? You needn’t worry, for both of them will outlive you. Your great-grandchildren will begin to feel the wood shortage, but coal will be plentiful for several hundred years. The National Lumber Manufacturers’ Association has estimated that there is enough standing timber in the country to supply the lumber industry with raw material for at least one hundred and fifty years.
The Popular Science Monthly offers three prizes for new uses for it
Rules Governing the Contest
Making Climate to Order at Home
OF course you use an electric fan to keep cool. But look at these pictures. Here is a method of using an electric fan to keep warm! The fan may be used to increase the draft of the cellar furnace; or it may be used to blow the hot air rising from a steam radiator into the room.
THE ordinary two-, three-, or four-wheeled truck was displaced by the lift-truck invented a few years ago. This is so constructed that it may be pushed under a suitable platform loaded with goods. After the truck is placed in position its platform is raised by a lever or a worm gear until it has lifted the loaded platform off the ground or floor.
TAKE heart! About sixty years ago prohibition and eight-cent carfares went into effect in New York State; they lasted only a very short time! William A. Darling, grandson of a one-time president of the Third Avenue Railroad, unearthed two mementos of those dark days.
"DON’T let me catch you on that sliding pond!" says the mother of today—thinking of the high price of shoes. How can one slide economically? George Bascomb Weldon, of Pittsburgh, has solved the problem by inventing a “slider,” to be attached to the shoe.
WHAT is so rare as a rotten egg? Yet not so many years ago you were constantly breaking into one. Perhaps the reason is that poultrymen now have ways for testing eggs in order to determine their age. Most of these methods must be carried out in a dark room.
A PROTECTIVE mask for the fireman, the miner , or the soldier in the trenches has recently been placed in the market. The mask, of rubber and rubber-coated fabric, consists of a hood covering the entire face, and a muzzle-shaped rubber cup that covers the mouth and nose of the wearer, fitting against the nose, cheek, and chin in such a manner as to be airtight.
HE presses a button, grasps a handle, pulls it back and forward—and the new, simple sawing-machine is in action, cutting off blocks of wood. It will swing from any overhead post or beam and thus takes up very little floor space. It is designed particularly for firms with a large amount of crating or boxing to do, and will cut lumber up to a thickness of two inches.
THE pleased looking young man in the picture above is Captain Grosvenor L. Wotkyns, of the Ordnance Department of the Army, in civil life a Pasadena, Cal., rifleman. He is receiving the POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY Trophy, which he won in the National Rifle Association Small-Bore Tournament at Caldwell, N. J., last August.
THE skin is not merely a covering for animals. It is an essential part of the organism. It produces claws, talons, nails, the rattlesnake’s rattles, spurs, hair, the scales of fishes and reptiles, spines, whalebone, beaks, and feathers. So claims Mr. Beebe in his book on “The Bird.”
DID you ever see a gigantic arum plant? It grows in the East Indies, so the chances are you haven’t. But a perfect life-sized model of one may be found in an English garden. A picture of it is shown herewith, and beside it stands the modeler. His name is H. E. H. Smedley, and he lives near the town of Brighton, England.
WHEN a spider moves from place to place to spin her web, she runs a drag line to mark the course. This is composed, not of a multiplicity of tiny threads from the spinnerets, but of a comparatively small number, perhaps only two. If you will watch a spider running along an object and spinning a drag line, you will notice that at frequent intervals she fastens the line.
SUPPOSE you were a soft, wormlike larva at the bottom of a stream, and a school of hungry fish swimming by spotted you. You’d give up without a struggle, wouldn’t you? Generations and generations of larvae have gone through this harrowing experience, but a few wise ones have managed to escape.
CAN you balance yourself on one foot while the other one paws the ground? If so, you can use this new rubber-remover. It is mounted on a wooden base. Two clamps like those on an ice-skate grip the rubber. The clamps are operated by a pedal and a lever worked by your idle foot.
THEY are sending dogs to college now and graduating them with a purchase price of $1,000 and more on their heads. They are trained from puppyhood up to rescue drowning persons, and to track down criminals and meet attack from an armed thug who may carry a knife, revolver, club, or other weapon.
"I’LL see you in the woodshed after tea." Thus spake the fathers of yesterday; and when the time came there was a brief application of switch or slipper. Now all is changed, or about to be, since the recent Electrical Show at Madison Square Garden in New York city.
CLAP! You’ve squashed another mosquito. Ah, but your hands are smeared with his blood. Would it not be considerably neater to use the wasp-gun shown above? Though it specializes on wasps, it will kill any other insect with equal vim. It is called a gun, but the trigger is the only thing it has in common with an ordinary gun.
LOS ANGELES is the capital of the kingdom of flowers as well as of movie queens. Any public event there is the excuse for floral decoration, artful and artistic. So it followed, naturally, that when Captain Eddie Rickenbacker, first ace of our fighting airmen in France, came that way, the biggest bouquet yet was handed to him—and he’d been on the receiving end of the bouquet game ever since he got home from the war.
TURNING the street lamp-posts into things of beauty is the object of the authorities of Allentown, Pa. In that city every lamp-post wears a hanging-garden effect from spring until late autumn. The flowers and decorative leaf-bearing plants are planted in urn-shaped globes which encircle the lamp-posts some distance below the light.
ONCE upon a time a pocket-knife with a corkscrew attached was looked upon with favor; but what’s the use of a corkscrew now? Probably corkscrew knives will be a drug on the market even in the ketchup and horseradish belt. But smoking is still numbered among the permitted delights, and so, as the corkscrew steps down and out of the knife-handle, in comes the cigar-cutter.
EACH new second is heralded by a flash of light and the ring of a bell in the factory of an electrical firm in Providence—not to remind the workers that the dire day of doom approaches, but to help them in their work. Often men must count seconds accurately for certain operations while they watch their work closely. This concentrating on two things at one time is very difficult. It is simplified by the new second-announcer shown below. As the pendulum of the clock swings to the right it touches a wire, thus making a contact that causes the light to flash and the bell to ring.
ONE of the twins was born in Virginia and the other in Turkey. What’s that? We are talking about the twin cigarettes in the picture below. Many smokers like a cigarette in which Virginian and Turkish tobacco are blended, but they are seldom satisfied with the quantity of each used.
MERRY Christmas! Judging from their happy smiles, it certainly is a merry one for the children in the picture below. Each child is laden with a box of animal crackers, a large red apple, and a Christmas stocking full of good things. Behind the children there are hundreds of similar stockings stacked up against the wall to be given to hundreds of other children.
THE intrepid photographer who brought in this picture informs us that the woman in the studio hosiery department is a Berlin girl who has “decided to adopt the fad of New York and London and have her stockings painted on.” We shall have to take his word for it; if this “fad” has made headway in New York we have overlooked it. We fear, however, that the colors may not be fast, and so we cannot recommend the method to those seeking for a way to reduce the high cost of stockings.
AN up-to-date jewelry thief does her shoplifting with her feet—not by brazenly kicking over a tray of jewels, but gently pushing the jewel she wants from the counter and then stepping on it with her heel. A layer of soft leather is tacked to her heel and the jewel sinks into it.
"YOU’RE too tall," said the doctor, when Mr. R. E. Madson tried to enlist in the Marines. Harsh words, but true; Mr. Madson measures seven feet six inches with his shoes off. What chance could he stand of dodging bullets, shrapnel bits, and other things that fly around above battlefields?
ASIDE from embodying non-heatconducting blocks, a new retreading machine consists of a hollow segmental mold with a space for water below and a gas-burner for heating the water and steam-curing the retread rubber, which is first of all built up on the tire itself.
MOST farm tractors roll on wheels or crawl over the ground on track-laying units like those on the war tanks. The tractor shown here walks! This is made possible by providing sharp-pointed lugs on the bearing surfaces of the rear wheels, so that the wheel looks something like a rising sun, with the pointed lugs corresponding to the rays.
ENGLAND’S winter climate makes it especially hard to start big truck engines, so it fell to the lot of an Englishman to invent a simple cold-weather engine starter. It consists of a conical bottle from the apex of which is sweated a cylindrical tin chamber that extends half way down to the bottom of the can.
ONE of the newest forms of farm tractors of the creeper or track-laying type has water wheels. Of course, the wheels are not made of water, nor does the machine run on water. The expression simply means that the two main idler wheels and the two driving wheels over which the creeper treads operate may be filled with water to within two inches of the top.
IT is difficult for us to believe that a quarter of a century ago an automobile was a curiosity. Elwood Haynes, of Kokomo, Ind., produced what is said to be America’s first successful automobile. In 1895 Mr. Haynes took his creation to Chicago, and was driving the “horseless carriage” down Michigan avenue when he was stopped by a policeman on a bicycle.
THE bikemobile herewith is capable of a speed of twenty-five miles an hour with the motor wheel attached. Fred Harley, a fifteen-year-old genius, of Joplin, Mo., is responsible for its creation. Harley constructed his tri-car from scraps and raw ends of nearly everything he could lay his hands on.
MISALINEMENT of connecting rods is generally due to heat warping the metal of the rod and twisting one end of it, so that the crankpin and wrist-pin bearings are out of line. The apparatus of the alining-machine shown above consists of a flat bed-plate on which is set a test-plate carrying three sets of lugs.
Running downhill it generates power to help you up the next grade
Motor on the Rear Axle
No Need for Differential
Both Armature and Field Revolve
Portable Charging Station
Lloyd E. Darling
MOST recent of the many steps taken by electrical engineers in making the electrical vehicle cheap and of wholesale general utility, is the automobile that Harry E. Dey, of Jersey City, N. J., has patented. So simple, so efficient, and so economical is this machine that Dr. Charles P. Steinmetz, of Schenectady, N. Y., one of the country’s leading electrical engineers, said some time ago that Mr. Dey has apparently solved the problem of the five-hundred-dollar electric automobile.
A TABLE that will conveniently turn into a truck is shown herewith as a table, as a truck, and on its way from one to the other. It is piled high with coats and vests, for it is used in a large clothing manufacturing plant. Thus the necessity of transferring merchandise from tables to trucks is entirely obviated.
"BEGOB, your fortune is made!" So said Jack Downey, a boss mason, to Mr. N. T. Fuller, of New Bedford, Mass., when he tried out his brick-cleaning machine. In the picture below Mr. Fuller himself is shown holding the brick in place while a saw-toothed blade comes down and scrapes off the mortar; the blade continues to rise and fall until the brick is scraped clean.
Cleaning Up the Bright Lights of the Great White Way
EVERY week or two a wagon draws up in front of an Indianapolis lamp-post, and two men jump out, carrying a ladder. They place the ladder against the post, and one man climbs up, takes off the globe, and hands it to the other man. He carries it back to the wagon, where a third man is stationed in front of a wash-tub in the wagon; the globe is duly washed and replaced.
TAP, tap, tap; the blind man feels around with his cane. Is he near the curbstone? He cannot tell until he is quite close to it, for his cane covers but a small area. Private Alexander McMillin, of the A. E. F., saw many of his blinded comrades groping around, and he suggested a remedy: he would lengthen the cane about eight inches, and attach to the end a small rubber-tired wheel that will turn in any direction.
BUMP, bump! One of the wheels of the passenger coach had worn flat. As a matter of fact, both trucks needed repair. To tackle the job properly the body of the coach had to be removed. How was it done? By means of jacks. The coach was run along the track until the truck at one end was directly in front of a stationary pair of jacks; then two movable jacks were placed in line with the truck at the opposite end of the coach.
ANKLES that have become stiff from sprains, fractures, or as the result of rheumatism or gout, may be limbered up and restored to mobility by properly regulated exercise. The simple apparatus shown in the picture was invented by a German early in the war, and was used with success by thousands of soldiers.
EVERY cloud has a silver lining, but this uniformity does not hold true for overcoats. In fact, some overcoats have several different linings—one for each season of the year. Such an overcoat is shown herewith, lined with silk for summer wear in one picture, and lined with fur in the other.
“I WAS sitting in a smoking-car, puffing a cigar, when a quantity of ashes fell down and soiled my shirtfront; a spark burned a hole in my coat,” Mr. B. W. Dedrick, of State College, Pennsylvania, tells us. There is nothing unusual about that; you have had the same experience many times.
WHAT must the pilot know about his airplane during flight? He must know the direction and velocity of the wind, the altitude, direction and speed of his flight, the position relatively to the horizon of the airplane in space, the cylinder pressure and performance of the engine or engines, the quantity of fuel in the tank, and the temperature of the cooling water.
INSTEAD of cleaning your comb, let the comb clean you —that is, your hair. Antonio di Salvio, of Washington, Pa., invented the hair-cleaning comb shown below. The comb is hollow, and has perforations above the teeth through which the dirt in your hair is sucked.
"PLEASE turn out the lights when you leave the room" —the walls of hotels are plastered with signs like this. But since many folks are careless about other people’s electric light bills, the plea is frequently ignored. How can this be remedied?
THE ambulance clanged through the streets and drove in at the entrance of a large machine-shop; another workman had been caught in a machine. Not so many years ago this was happening every day. Then employers began to build guards around the dangerous parts of machines.
"WHILE riding on a trolley car, I was sitting opposite a salesman who was writing with a fountainpen; when he finished the sheet he waved it in the air till it had dried. This gave me an idea, and I worked out a revolving blotter to be made with the fountain-pen clip, all in one."
TELEPHONE and telegraph wires must be insulated to prevent loss of electric current. The insulators in common use are of glass, porcelain, or some other non-conductor. The wires are fastened to these insulators by tying them to the non-conducting knobs with loops of wire.
How I planned and worked for the altitude record and how I felt when I really made it
When the Clouds Turn Over
Could I Break a Record?
A High Climb
I Had Struck It at Last
The “Temperature Lid”
I Call My Witnesses
Would the Gasoline Hold Out?
No One Knew But Me !
NOW that it is all over, and I look back on the number of high flights I made and the thrilling experiences I passed through, I wonder how I ever got up courage to go on after my first real taste of the danger. It was on one of my first flights that, on reaching 26,000 feet, I experienced a dull headache.
Airships borrow a device from their sea sisters to help them find the way
THE recent more or less successful attempts to cross the Atlantic by airplane have taught some highly important practical lessons and have contributed to science extremely valuable information. They have taught, among other things, that fog, combined with thick weather and rain, makes the usual method of land flying at an altitude of from 4,000 to 5,000 feet impracticable for crossing the ocean.
This new harbor-entering system may do away with the shipping delays now caused by fogs
Self-Defense by Whistling
How the System Works
Use of Amplifier
Lloyd E. Darling
If you live inland, it will be difficult for you to imagine the great orchestra of whistles that sound out over the waters of a busy harbor on a foggy morning. Every ship is saying, in effect, with its whistle: “Here I am. For the love of all that is good, move carefully with your old tub, and don’t bump into me.
GEOGRAPHY, mechanics, economics—how can you interest the unwilling schoolboy in these subjects? To answer this question, you must discover first why he is unwilling. It is chiefly because he must constantly curb his naturally active nature while in the class-room.
THE butcher, the baker, and the candlestick-maker use wrapping-paper roll racks. Without doubt you have seen one in operation, and you may have noticed that every time the storekeeper tears off a piece he must lift the cutting knife in order to grasp the edge of the paper before he pulls.
TO shut out noise, put your fingers to your ears—that is the age-old rule. But suppose you wish to use your fingers—to write with, for instance—what then? Mr. Gabino Jauregui, of Argentina, has just patented an ear-closing device that covers this case and others similar.
BEHOLD the self-dumping dump-car. Credit for this should be given, not to the dump-car, but to the mechanical device that makes it possible. A train of cars comes down the track until it is within a few feet of the dumping device, whereupon a brake stops it.
TO start an automobile engine in zero weather is a problem the exact difficulty of which depends upon the construction and size of the engine, the quality of fuel used, the strength of the spark, and, of course, the height of the mercury in the thermometer at that particular time.
A little study of your automobile will help you to make a smooth getaway
Inside the Gear Box
Don’t be Impatient
MR. MOTORIST, have you ever envied the automobile driver who pulls away from the curb with never a clash of the car’s gears? Who knows exactly when to shift the gear lever and who does it so quietly that it seems to you, sitting beside him, that his car hasn’t any gears at all.
ELECTRIC drive for great ships became a fact with the successful trials of the New Mexico, flagship of the Pacific Fleet, the first battleship to be propelled by electricity. "This engineering feat," says Secretary Daniels, “holds a peculiar interest to the people of the nation, especially when they realize that in this achievement the American Navy stands, preeminent among the nations of the world. It marks an epoch in naval progress.”
THE majority of us will remember the happy days passed in our childhood fashioning pieces of wood into pigs, small boats, and the like; and at fete times in the winter having hollowed out a large turnip, carved out the eyes, made a hole for the nose and stuck a lighted candle inside.
THE man who knows how to handle tools can save his wife from tiring her hands and wrists by building an extension handle for the eggbeater. Everyone knows how awkward an article an egg-beater is to operate, and this appliance should be welcome in every kitchen.
WINTER is a good time of the year to look over the rims of your car and see that the various parts are not rusted together. Inspect the rims carefully and scrape the rusty parts. Give the rims a coat of aluminum or rim paint which will prevent permanent rust.
THE shank of an umbrella was accidentally broken off about 5 in. above the handle, and the owner decided to mend it himself. He took a block of fairly hard wood, about 5 in. long and 1½ in. in diameter, and with a 3-16 in. wood-drill bored a hole through this block lengthwise.
VERY small pieces of wood are hard to work to exact dimensions with any kind of a plane. It is very difficult to plane the short and narrow edges of such pieces without getting the edges either rounded or out of true, for the reason that the weight and size of the plane, no matter how small, is entirely out of proportion to the size of the piece worked.
FOR the mechanical draftsman comes this device by which it is easy to find the center of tangent circles. It consists of a circular disk of transparent celluloid about 1-16 in. thick. A plunger with a needle-point and spring is fitted into a tube riveted to the center of the disk.
A WINTER kitchen garden supplies the home with all kinds of soup-greens and herbs, and since it is not dependent upon weather conditions the plants will not be killed by the frost. The garden consists of a number of flower-pots placed on the sill of the window, and kept from falling by a lath nailed two or three inches above the sill.
To Test for Intake Leaks in the Automobile Manifold
SOMETIMES the automobile driver is troubled with poor carburetion, and, not knowing the real cause, invariably places the blame on the carburetor, which usually is functioning properly. In engines which have the intake manifold bolted to the cylinders, a leak in the joints may occur, due either to a defective washer or a loose bolt.
VERY little ingenuity is necessary to make a combination ironing-board and table from an ordinary kitchen table. After securing four small hinges, remove the top of the table and screw the hinges in place, as shown in the illustration. This will allow the top of the table to swing back.
HERE is a wrinkle that will prove a great time-saver to draftsmen who have to connect up a number of points with short lines, such as in drawing a highway cross-section. It is usually necessary to allow one line to dry before another is drawn, in order to avoid smearing the wet lines of the drawing.
A RADIATOR hose that has collapsed because of excessive heat or other conditions is very simple to repair, provided you know how. Secure a piece of stiff wire, and clamp one end of it together with a piece of shafting in a vise. Twist the wire tightly around the shaft, pushing each turn down firmly on the preceding one.
SUPERIOR to the two-piece cardboard box now in use is this one-piece folding box invented by H. E. Cole for the department-store trade. On a box of this design measuring 11 by 17½ by 2½ in. there would be a saving of one square foot of cardboard.
IT is provoking to get up on a cold winter morning and find that the milk left by the milkman in the early hours has either frozen solid or is extending an inch beyond the neck of the bottle. This has been overcome by a Chicago man, who has constructed a milk-container that will keep the milk at the proper temperature for the breakfast table.
BEING the “Weather Man” in my city, people often call me up and ask, “Will my car freeze up in my garage tonight?” Of course I can tell what the outdoor temperature is likely to be; but the difference between that and the temperature of the interior of a garage depends on the construction of the building in question.
TO prevent evaporation from moisture entering wide-necked screw-top bottles, such as show-card colors and library paste are sold in the following remedy is suggested: Cut a rubber disk out of an old hot-water bottle, rubber shoe, or other piece of scrap rubber, and insert it in place of the cardboard disk that comes in the cover of the container.
A PROGRESSIVE and energetic tire dealer in a Middle Western town made a special effort to attract the attention of the public to his line of goods. On a display stand in his window he rigged up an automobile wheel carrying on its rim the tire he sold.
FOR household use solid alcohol is fast replacing the liquid article, as it can be handled without danger in an open container. At present there are numerous brands on the market; yet none of these are better than that which can be made in the home at a cost much less than that of the commercial article.
THE duck-hunter who has spent weary hours unsnarling the wet, perhaps icy, anchor lines of his decoys at the end of a day of sport will have his labors lightened by the device suggested herein Instead of the usual sheet of lead tacked to the bottom of the decoy to make it float upright on an even keel, screw on a large galvanized iron cleat, such as can be bought at any hardware store.
HOW many times have you gone to the already overflowing clothes-hamper with your arms full of pieces of linen, and tried to stuff them down into it, finally throwing them down behind the hamper? To eliminate this annoyance the writer provided a chute, which was ingeniously concealed by a wall seat, and he passes the idea along so that others may benefit by it.
AN idle truck earns no dividends. That is a very clear proposition, thoroughly understood by anybody engaged in transportation. Hence the mad rush to keep the trucks in motion. Any plan for increasing the number of trips is valuable. Of such a nature is the saw-tooth platform shown in the accompanying illustration.
A PLUMBER, on arriving at an important job, found that he had forgotten his stillson wrench and that the work necessitated removing a pipe to get at the seat of the trouble. Being an ingenious young man, he immediately hit upon a solution. Asking the house-owner for a bolt, he sawed it lengthwise and inserted the halves between the jaws of his monkey-wrench.
FEW people, especially busy housekeepers, seem to accord the electric lighting system a proper amount of respect. The writer has heard of instances of death, and a number of serious burns, resulting from carelessness in hurried attempts to pull the main switch in the dark.
THE lock shown in the illustration consists of a small piece of thin fiber, two brass collar buttons placed in the holes made in the fiber strip and used as binding-posts, and a hairpin utilized as the socket switch. An automobile equipped with this switch is burglar-proof (in so far as the switch is concerned) and the contrivance takes only a few minutes to make.
THE conversion of a kitchen into a dining-room frequently leaves openings not easily filled in the readjustment. A Washington, D. C., woman, while making such a transformation, discovered an unsightly aperture in the wall where formerly a bricked-in cooking range had been located.
IF it is located near a windmill or a storage-tank, this homemade heater can easily be filled with water. The water is heated quickly with fuel such as cornstalks, straw, corncobs, or brushwood. Pumpkins and potatoes help to fatten the stock, and ground feed may be cooked by pouring scalding hot water on the meal in barrels and then covering the barrels with old blankets or carpets to keep the steam in and to cook the feed slowly and thoroughly.
ONE of the most useful things that can be included in the equipment of a live-stock farm is a portable loading-chute. A serviceable chute of this kind may be built on the front bolster of an old farm-wagon. If it is framed with strong timbers and floored with 2-inch plank, it will be strong enough for any purpose; yet the large wheels make it easily portable from one place to another.
OFTENTIMES wash hung out on the line to dry s thoroughly wet all over again by an unexpected rainstorm. A contrivance to prevent this and similar occurrences may be easily constructed from board, a piece of cloth, some copper wire, and a bell and battery.
THERE are several methods of preserving blossoms in their natural form and color. If attention is given to details, very good results can be secured. One method is carried out with the use of sand. For this purpose a wooden framework is needed.
BY the following method a Ford crankcase arm, which has been broken, may be repaired in an hour’s time without removing the engine from the car. Hoist the car up to an angle of 45 degrees by means of blocks attached to the wheels on one side. Pack the fracture and surrounding parts with asbestos packing to prevent their being damaged by the excessive heat, and weld the arm with an oxyacetylene torch.
SUPPOSE that you wish to provide babbitt bearings for a vertical shaft which is to extend between and above the bed-plates of a machine. Holes E E are bored through the wooden bed-plates A. The diameter of these holes may be ½ in. or more greater than that of the shaft.
THE illustration shows how a simple guard can be constructed for an emery wheel. The improvement of this design over the regular style is that it can be adjusted for the kind of work to be performed and also reduced as the size of the wheel diminishes.
IT sometimes happens that a mechanic desires to cut a round groove in the surface of some metal such as brass, aluminum, or other alloy. This may be done quite readily with the simple device here illustrated, if there is no special machine at hand to do this work.
BUILDING a fire in the furnace was a difficult task for a certain resident of Elkhart, Ind., until he hit upon a novel, yet extremely simple, expedient. He hired a plumber to insert a three-way knuckle in the gaspipe, which ran under the floor and above the furnace.
IT is quite possible that radio may soon be called in to make motor-truck haulage even more efficient than it is. Many factors point in this direction. Direction-finders, electronrelay sending and receiving apparatus, and all the related appliances have been marvelously improved within the last two or three years.
VACUUM tubes usually last about a year and a half. Even after this good service they need not be thrown away, for there is a use for them that opens up a wide field for experiment. The idea is to make them into a sort of Geissler tube by connecting any two leads from the bulb (except both filament leads at the same time) to the secondary of a spark-coil, small or large.
A WIRE rheostat of ten or more ohms resistance is ordinarily used to control the temperature of the filament in an electron relay or vacuum valve. If one is not readily available, however, a rheostat may readily be made of a test-tube, some salt water, and odds and ends of wire.
THE writer’s theory of static might be summed up as follows: According to the assumed character and location of the discharging masses, static waves may be expected to come in on the receiving stations from all angles in altitude and azimuth, with a maximum individual intensity from above, and a maximum frequency in the neighborhood of the horizon.
HE is an unusual radio enthusiast who isn’t always trying one hook-up after another. But this wears binding-posts, and in time destroys them. By transferring all the hooking-up operations to a central board, however, all this trouble and loss may be avoided.
ONE line of experimentation that the average radio student has not gone into thoroughly is the getting of music from elctron relays—or, to call them by their older name, vacuum tubes. The field is wide, and many interesting results can be secured.
IN winding inductance coils for wireless use, the amateur is usually at a loss to find suitable cardboard tubes. These should be saved, so that a number will be on hand when needed. Ordinary dry-cell covers make good tubes. Being 2½ in. in diameter, they serve almost as well as purchased tubes.
"THE coil fell in the water, and for an instant I still heard signals." In this simple manner does J. A. Willoughby, a young investigator in the Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C., record the making of a discovery which practically revolutionized all submarine radio during the war.
THE Secretary of the Navy has removed all restrictions on amateurs and amateur radio stations. In the wording of the Secretary’s order, the lifting of the ban .... applies to amateur stations, technical and experimental stations at schools and colleges, and to all other stations except those used for the purpose of transmitting or receiving commercial traffic of any character, including the business of the owners of the stations.
FOR the amateur photographer who wishes to dry a film in a hurry, or the professional finisher who has large batches of film that have to be dried and printed in specified periods, the film-drying closet here described will be found a great time-saver.
Improving the Soldering-Iron for Open-End Splicing
PETER J. M. CLUTE
A USEFUL improvement that can be made on any soldering iron is shown in the accompanying illustration. A hole about ¼ in. in diameter and ⅝ in. deep is drilled in the side of the iron and filled with solder. It is a time-saver for rapidly soldering twisted-wire joints.
WHEN erasing large drawings the fingers often become cramped, especially if one is using a short or small eraser. A holder, which you can make, will allow the user to get a firm grip upon the erasing material. This holder will also take small and otherwise assorted pieces that would otherwise be thrown away.
IT is very inconvenient when you are using the glue-pot, suddenly to find that the glue has grown cold and congealed. By making and using a glue-warmer like the one shown in theillustration, you can eliminate this trouble. Two ordinary tin cans, a piece of wire netting, and a candle are the only materials necessaiy.
A CALIFORNIA rancher devised a wagon seat from one end of a kerosene barrel, which is placed on the projecting ends of the 2 by 4 in. strips of wood that form the detachable floor of his dirt-wagon. The barrel is sawed off just below the center, while a second cut is made just above the third hoop, and a third cut just above the first hoop, leaving the bottom intact.
THERE is a right and a wrong way to do everything. A rafter, for instance, can be mortised into a timber in such a way that it will weaken the structure instead of strengthening it. In Fig. 1 the mortise is shown cut at right angles to the surface of the timber.
NEXT time you see an automobilist driving along the street in the middle of the day with his headlights turned on, do not yell at him because you think him either stupid or careless. Perhaps he knows what he is doing and is trying to increase the life of his storage battery.
WITH only a little transformation a small hand bicycle pump may be pressed into service as a door-check. A thin, narrow strip of strap-iron or brass is soldered to the bottom of the pump, and bent as shown in the illustration. This is then punched for a length of tengage wire.
THE growth of spray irrigation in the past ten years has been phenomenal. Hence, any device that will aid a system that has developed from the lawn-sprinkler of the city dweller to overhead irrigation machinery for supplying water to entire fields of growing crops merits consideration.
COVERING steam-pipes with a specially prepared coating or sleeve to prevent the waste of heat where it is not wanted is a precaution observed by many plumbers. The method here illustrated was adopted in a case where a steam-pipe was run in the open to heat a shed for temporary work.
Attachment for Holding Taper Shank-Drills in a Lathe
H. H. BARKER
THE illustration shows a steel sleeve bored and internally threaded to fit the spindle of a lathe at one end and the other end bored out to take taper shank-drills. A slot is cut for the insertion of a drift the same as in a drill-press sleeve. This allows the use of taper shank-drills on a live spindle of the lathe.
VERY often a circular saw will become cracked, and if it is not taken care of it is apt to break while in use. Such neglect has Caused many a fatal accident. When a saw is found to be cracked it should be repaired immediately. First find the extreme end of the crack by the-following method: place several drops of oil on the saw near the crack, thoroughly rub it around, and wipe off all the oil that is on the surface.
WHEN a weeping birch died, its owner decided that the white bark would look well made over into a rustic flower-tub for the lawn. He cut the tree off about 18 in. from the ground, and mounted a small tub on the stump. A large pail would have answered the purpose equally as well.
Old Files Make Good Ice-Picks for the Refrigerator
H. F. NEFF
WORN-OUT files are discarded by the thousands every year; and yet, there are countless ways in which they might be used. On account of the fine steel used in a file, an ice-pick can be made that will be as good as any manufactured product. If you have an old 8-in. three-cornered file, grind it smooth on an emery wheel, at the same time rounding off the sharp corners and bringing out a good point on its end.