It’s a case where “Water, water, quench fire,” doesn’t work
Smothering the Flames
An Ounce of Prevention
SUDDENLY, without warning, there was a loud crash, and a flaming automobile shot up into the air. This happened as the automobile was crossing a bridge over a creek in Drumright, Oklahoma. What caused the accident? Near the creek was a flowing oil-well.
WHAT happens to the murmuring pine and the hemlock when war is declared? Many of them cease murmuring, for they are chopped down and sent off to help make ships, airplanes, and the many temporary structures that the work of war demands. When the chopped-down trees have been turned into logs they are sent down the river in huge rafts of their own making.
ON March 16, 1918, the French destroyer Dunois, under the command of Lieutenant Terreaux, was zigzagging in the Channel between France and Great Britain, searching for German submarines. Shortly before one o’clock in the afternoon, a British hydro-airplane, flying over the Dunois, signaled that a hostile submarine was in close proximity.
ON the eastern shore of Salton Sea, California, a field of mud geysers recently came into existence. The field spreads over a little more than two acres. The geysers are various-sized caldrons of hot mud. Until fifteen years ago this sea was a dry, salt-incrusted area with a maximum elevation of 265 feet below sea-level. In the year 1904 the Colorado river ran over its banks, and the water entered into the basin, making a lake of 400 square miles. This inflow was stopped in 1906, and since then the Salton Sea has been shrinking.
THE man in black is the editor of the Bano daily newspaper of Bano, Africa. At his left squats his first assistant, and at his right the office-boy. This African editor does not have to worry about circulation, printers’ strikes, the high cost of paper, and similar editoral troubles.
IN our picture the R-33 is about to make her début. The signal has been given, the doors are being opened, and she will presently step forth. It takes fifty men twenty minutes to open these doors by means of winches, for the doors are very large.
THE Sixty-fifth Congress filibustered to death a bill for street-cleaning Washington. Now, though Congress doesn’t object to dirty streets, the Washingtonians do. When the waste papers began to pile up in the streets, the natives were dismayed until one of them thought of using the wire protector of a tree as a scrap-basket.
HE who stands on the ladder with an oil-can in his hand once owned a saloon where he sold champagne. As the “empties” increased too swiftly for his cellar’s capacity, he started to build a monument of them. Each circular layer contains eighteen bottles, arranged bottoms out, with lights in the center. Recently the champagne-seller wisely decided to sell gasoline, and turned his saloon into a garage. He uses the monument as a pump.
AN Irish plumber had to climb a 30-foot ladder to dig a ditch, and, to be sure, he’s talking about it yet. The explanation of the feat is simple. The ditch was dug for a sewer-pipe which was to run from a house on a hill to the street forty feet below.
THIS smiling fellow who is all dressed up in a pair of trousers and a piece of padding is not the tramp he looks. He is a Chinese manufacturer—a maker of toys. He made all the toys on his stand, carving them out and painting them by hand. Besides being a manufacturer, he is a salesman.
HERE is our story of a totem-pole. The knock-kneed fellow at the foot of the pole is the chief. But how about the dangling child? He is undoubtedly the chief’s son (note the resemblance), and he has died. But why this special notice? Perhaps his father killed him—hanged him or scalped him! There we have it.
ONCE the stacks of this cruiser were striped and blotched to make her hard for an enemy to look at. Camouflage was one of the most picturesque things the war brought, but already the word is slipping from the common speech and our warships are putting off their weird motley for new spring coats of peace paint.
GO to the blacksmith with your rundown heels and get shod like a horse. Horseshoes are both strong and lucky. Of course they are made of iron and are consequently noisy, but they last much longer than the very poor leather of today. The blacksmith will treat you just as if you were a horse, hammer the shoe into shape, and then nail it on while you hold up your foot.
A Plan to Extend New York to Make a Great Airplane Port
Dr. T. Kennard Thomson
THE problem of the automobile is roads; that of the airplane, landing-places. And, just as good roads have followed the invention of the automobile and the automobile has multiplied with good roads in a never-ending succession, so airplanes in commercial use will multiply with properly laid out chains of landingplaces and the landing-places will multiply with the demand of the airplane.
CRACK! You rise from your seat in the grand-stand. You feel certain that the ball is going into the bleachers, at least. Instead of that, you see the horsehide pop up in a measly little fly right in the short-stop’s hands! The batter broke his bat—that was why it sounded so loud.
THE long arm of the law reaches everything— even apple-trees. There was a man who owned a garden in which there was a tree that overlooked a ball-field. Every time a game was played, the man who owned the tree brought out eight chairs and a ladder.
WHEN one room has a cupboard, the space for it is often stolen from the room next door. The result is that the cupboard’s back, having at least one sharp corner, is bound to protrude. The corner is bumped and often broken. To prevent this it should be strongly made.
A BRUSH that carries liquid soap in its handle is the latest help for the man who shaves himself. The bristles, which are rubber-set, may easily be removed for sterilization, and a wet-proof ventilated cap keeps the damp bristles from soiling clean clothes when the outfit is carried in a traveling bag.
HERE is a five-pieced emergency coat designed by Mr. Felberbaum, a Baltimore tailor, as a safety garment for injured soldiers or civilians. Its distinguishing characteristic is that the various parts of the coat are pieced together by metal eyelets and shoestrings.
THE barnacle, pest of the sea, has been revealed in a new light which may be the occasion for a long blast on the horn of plenty. Marine chefs at Long Beach, Cal., have found that it is delicious and nutritious, and are converting it into a soup declared to be as good as clam chowder.
Some authenticated cases of a much doubted phenomenon
Turning Sleep into Money
She Hid Her Ring from Herself
A Sleeping Novelist
Her Mind Saw Another Room
Edwin F. Bowers
THE impossible is the thing we don’t believe; the incredible the thing we have not yet seen. Both are states of mind common to the average human being. That is why any account dealing with manifestations of the subliminal mind—that mind which works while we sleep and at all other times, and which so few understand— must always be bolstered up with affidavits and attestations if it is to carry conviction.
KER-CHOO! sneezed the sailor lustily; yet not one of his fellows complained, for he was surrounded by a screen erected for the purpose of foiling the plans of germs. The screens are made of unbleached muslin. Each screen is tacked to three poles four feet long.
SAFETY razors are made so that dull blades may be taken out and newer, sharper ones inserted. But in the old-fashioned kind the bare blade has to serve throughout the razor’s lifetime. Nathaniel Orr and George Snyder, both of Virginia, have patented a plain razor in which the blades work in shifts.
THOSE who imagine a railway mail clerk has nothing to do except to kick off the bags of mail at way stations and “use the hook” to pick up bags while going at fifty miles an hour may see the error of their ways from the accompanying photograph showing one of the tests that the railway mail clerks in Canada undergo—and their brethren in the United States pass through much the same ordeal.
A CANDLE and an iron near each other usually means cleaning day for the iron. Not so with the candle and iron shown here. They are waterproofing a tent. Every time rain poured down on this tent, it trickled through the leaky edges and wet the things within.
FIRST thought: how charming she looks; second thought: what is she pulling? A cord to summon the nurse. The cord is attached to a switch designed for hospital call service, and therein lies its superiority. All the live parts terminate in the wall, so there is no chance of the patient adding electric shock to her other ailments. One pull on the cord closes the switch, and so rings a bell or lights a light or drops a signal in the nurses’ room. It also causes a push button located above the cord to jut out.
"DID you study your chops last night?” “No, steaks,” they whisper to each other. They are sitting in Slaughter-House Hall of the Iowa State College of Agriculture, where they are learning to be butchers. Iowa College has an Animal Husbandry Department in which men learn to be expert ranchmen and farmers.
FOWL have the right of way in air, warns the director of military aeronautics. This is justice indeed, since birds flew first. But this is not all. Recently many towns along the Atlantic coast have been visited with dead-bird showers. Aviators flying by a town would see a flock of wild fowl coming their way.
A STOVEPIPE, a little black box, and a combined transmitter and receiver are all you need for a wireless telephone of your own. The stovepipe is the aerial, and the little black box hides the mysterious secret of its success, which is known only to the inventor, W. W. MacFarlane of Philadelphia.
SPECIALLY equipped laboratories have lately been established in which light measurements and tests and a great deal of experimental work in the field of artificial illumination are conducted by experts. An important branch of this work is the measuring of light from automobile head-lights; for the laws in most States prescribe certain requirements concerning the illuminating power of head-lights.
THE old-fashioned wireless used to send and receive its messages from an umbrella-like aerial or from some allied type. The result was that the electromagnetic waves it sent out traveled broadcast, so that any operator who happened to be listening might hear; and, since there was no concentration of energy, the wireless waves were not very powerful in any one direction, nor well governed taking them as a whole.
Bringing the game nearer with grandfather’s old telescope
Captain Edward C. Crossman
DARKNESS was creeping into the grove. Forty feet overhead, in a crotch of a huge limb, something seemed to be snuggled that did not fit in with the usual outline of a black-walnut limb. Vainly the hunter tried to see it. Hastily he drew from a leather case by his side a thin steel tube, possibly a foot long and not much thicker than a man’s thumb.
IF a cat may look at a king, apparently a rat may—and in our nicture does—look at a cannon. This particular rat is stepping down gently from one of the recoil cylinders to have a peep at the barrel of a powerful mortar which once did its part to make the world unsafe for the Allies.
ONE of the reasons why our marines shot so well at Chateau Thierry and Belleau Wood is shown below. It is a section of the naval rifle-range at Great Piece Meadows, N. J., displaying a rear view of a few of the hundred targets, with the mechanism for raising and lowering them in plain view.
WHEN the bough breaks the tearoom will fall, and down will come teatotalers, tea-room, and all. But that thought does not worry the folks who are merrily drinking tea in the tree-tops. This is the village of Robinson, situ ated just outside Paris.
DON'T hold a baby responsible for his bottle. If he is very young he will loose his grip on it and go without a meal. If he is old enough he will throw it away and smash it when he's had enough. A bottle-holder like the one shown below will keep the bottle aimed directly at the baby's lips until you come and get it.
A RADIO-TELEPHONE outfit that travels in a trunk makes it possible to set up a sending station anywhere and chat with a passing airplane thousands of feet overhead, providing, of course, the airplane has a wireless telephone on board. The radio-telephone came just too late to be tried out in battle. It is an adaptation of the principle of the wire telephone to wireless conditions. As in the familiar telephone, there is a diaphragm and a capsule of carbon granules; but, instead of varying the intensity of a current passing over a wire, the radio transmitter varies the strength of a stream of electro-magnetic waves.
DID you ever hunt truffles? Not unless you lived in France and had a truffle hound —which isn't a dog at all, but a pig with a nose for truffles. In two country places about thirty miles from Paris the owners have pigs trained for the truffle hunt.
WHEN the radio-telephone, adapted for airplane uses, was added to the other war-born marvels, the question of how to rig the aerials was a bothersome one. At first a long, single cable was tried out. It was kept from fly ing up and entangling itself in the machine by a heavy weight, and swung 300 feet or so below the airplane. These long dangling cables were a menace to machines flying in formation. They were raised and lowered by a reel attached to the side of the airplane within easy reach of the pilot's hand.
ONE rudder is not enough for a submarine; it must have horizontal as well as lateral steering machinery to assist in keeping on an even keel when running submerged. In the early under-water boats the horizontal bow rudders—hydroplanes as they are called—showed above the water when the boat was running on the surface instead of below.
A BATTLE SHIP on his thumb! Surely he must be Guiliver and the battleship must belong to the small people of his travels. No; the thumb is anyone's thumb, and looks just as yours would look if we took a picture of it. The battleship is a ¾-ineh reproduction of the German dreadnought Koenig.
“BUT, man, it’s impossible with those roads a foot deep with mud.” My friend stepped into his garage, returning with two objects that looked like miniature tractor wheels, which he fastened to the hind wheels of his heavy car. A few minutes later we were literally “paddling” through a lake of gumbo, emerging with the radiator as cool as when we started.
WHEN your tires, guaranteed for a certain mileage, start rim-cutting and blowing out before their time, you think hardly of the manufacturer who tells you that it is due to your own carelessness, but that he will make an adjustment—at his price—with which you have to be satisfied.
MANY people will appreciate the advantages of this ingenious tire rim. In case of a blow-out in a rain-storm, you quickly unbolt the rim, take it inside the car, repair it, and then slip it back upon the wheel, spending only five minutes in the rain.
SINCE time immemorial the wheels of vehicles have been of wood. No doubt the first wheels were sections cut from the trunks of trees, these being handy and obviously round. After a time, however, our forefathers discovered that solid wheels had their drawbacks.
“ALL right, back her up—little more.” With a rattling slide and a mighty roar, out falls the load of coal or stone. You’ve seen it done many a time where building operations are in progress, and have perhaps been rather interested to see such a big load so easily dumped.
A TRACTOR conversion unit for large automobiles is in big demand by farmers who own cars of antiquated models. The original front wheels, with the tires, are still used. Two steel disk wheels 48 in. in diameter are provided with internal gear rings.
DOES peace offer opportunity? Will America do her best? When do trees grow most luxuriantly, bud and shoot, leaf and bloom? It is in the spring, after the killing and destroying frosts of winter. When are wild animals thinnest? When do bears emerge, lean and gaunt, from their lairs?
A SNAIL may not be a very rapid animal, but he can walk along the business edge of a razor-blade without cutting his feet. But if you want to see the trick done you must load up a supply of patience. Here’s what Dr. Edward F. Bigelow, who, at the suggestion of the editor, took the pictures for the POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY says about it:
EUGENICS enthusiasts have lately turned their efforts toward the unprotesting trees. The Douglas fir tree has been selected for experimentation by Forest Service departments both here and in Europe. Cones have been gathered from old firs, young ones; sound firs, diseased firs; trees growing in the open, trees growing close together; trees growing on high ground, on low ground; in cold places, in warm ones.
“IF all the eggs of a seventy-five-pound cod should hatch and grow to maturity, the ocean would soon become packed solid with codfish.” There is, however, a loss owing to the peculiar manner in which the eggs are laid, the dangers which they must encounter, the fact that many of them are never fertilized, while great numbers are thrown on the shore by the waves.
SPEED, power, and capacity are fundamental qualities of the motor-truck. Without them it would fail in its mission as a useful servant of man. The same reasoning applies to the development and use of the huge freight locomotives on our railroads; but in the case of the locomotive there is a coordinated development of rail and tie and ballast.
NEXT time you “light up,” think of this: About 10,000 matches are scratched in this country every second that passes, and of these 95 per cent are used by smokers to fire pipe, cigar, or cigarette. The man whose head for figures turned out that information also estimates that the time lost by the smokers in lighting matches—not in smoking—is worth $513,024 each eighthour working day.
THIS inventor, John Queen Slye, must have been a brother little girl who asked that immortal question, “Mother, may I go out to swim?” for when he decided to invent he reasoned as that mother did. He built a first - class canoe and then put it on wheels.
AS you stand on the railway platform, waiting for your train, an express train flies by. Suddenly a man standing in front of you ducks, and something whizzes past your head and lands in a puddle six feet away. It is a bag of mail. As the station agent drags the dirty, heavy bag away, you thank the god of chance for your narrow escape and wonder doubtfully if that method of delivery is the best.
ARE you annoyed at the very poor . mail service we are getting now? Then join the Navy. Write your letters on board ship, and a seaplane will come along, grab them up, and rush them to port at the rate of sixty miles an hour. That is -the Navy’s latest plan and it has been tried out successfully.
The tide rises and falls, but the train speeds along at an even level
AS you ride through Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, you hear your fellow passengers talking about the pontoon bridge you soon will cross. At the word “pontoon” you automatically mumble something about Xerxes crossing the Hellespont and try to remember what you once learned about that pontoon bridge he used.
Up the Incline, Over the Top, Down to the Wood-Pile
WHEN you “dip the dip” on a scenic railway, you are first carried slowly up an inclined track to the top, and then you are unceremoniously dropped. That is just the sort of treatment these logs are getting. They have come on freight trains to the paper-mill, and they are being unloaded.
STRAWBERRIES, dewberries, blackberries, must all be gathered by hand —usually one hand, for the picker needs his other one to hold the berry tray. If he could pick with both hands he’d do twice as much work. But what shall he do with his tray?
HERE’S one way of making hay while the sun shines which necessitates no pitchforks, elbow grease, and sunburn. The hay-rack has a revolvable circular body which is connected by a series of pulleys to the hub of one of the wheels. Then, when the wagon moves and the wheels go round, the body revolves.
WHEAT will be harvested next fall from one of the world’s largest farms, comprising about 200,000 acres of Indian lands in Montana and Wyoming. The land is located on the Crow, Blackfeet, and Fort Peck reservations in Montana and Wyoming.
HE doesn’t know anything about “dead centers” —the little boy in the picture below—but he does know that he likes his new pushmobile better than his old one; for his old one often stopped short when he was moving slowly, refusing to go until he got out and gave it a push.
THE father of this invention called it a “swing,” but it is really a car that runs up and down on curved tracks, giving to its occupants the sickening feeling associated with swings. The tracks terminate rather abruptly, so that if the passengers get too frisky they are apt to topple out when the car hits the high spots.
CHORUS girls have worked out a single sentence which bursts with philosophy. Here is that summation of stage experience: “The smarter they are, the quicker they fall.” Inelegant and ungrammatical, to be sure, but the truth. Johann Karl Friedrich ZÖllner, in the foremost ranks of Germany’s astronomers and physicists, watching a simple sleight-of-hand performance in which knotted ropes figured, was entranced.
YOU are milking a cow. A fly bites her and she switches her tail around to chase it; but instead she unwittingly hits you in the eye. You grow angry and sit on her tail, whereupon she grows angry and kicks. Over goes the pail, out pours the milk—a day’s labor lost— tragedy!
ON October 1, 1918, William Preston Grace patented a “device for drying rubber boots.” Whereupon winter decided perversely to be mild and snowless so that nobody would want rubber boots or driers for them. But it will not e’er be so and Mr. Grace’s drier will come into its own.
ARANGER walking through the forest smelled smoke. Just ahead of him he saw the thin clouds rising. A fire! He rushed to the nearest telephone line, attached his telephone, and rang. No answer. The men at the station had walked off and did not hear the bell.
TABLE leaves are useful things to have when you feed a multitude of friends, but when your friends have gone the leaves once more become a nuisance. You want to hide them, but if you live in an apartment you can’t. Your only hiding-place is your cellar “bin,” and no padlock will hold itself responsible for the things that go in it; besides, table leaves would be cumbersome to get to and from the cellar on the dumb-waiter.
HERE is a new “three-in-one”— cradle, bath-tub, shopping-bag— made out of poles, ropes, and a cretonne bag. The object of all “three-in-ones” is efficiency. Observe! Your child is sleeping peacefully in its cradle while you read the paper alongside.
LOTS of things happen to a chicken between the time it “clucks” around the barn-yard and the moment when you chew on its tender leg. Before cooking it the chicken must be picked—heretofore a long, tedious job, for a chicken has many feathers, which were pulled out one by one.
BOYS are constantly getting themselves in trouble by slinging stones at bald heads and window-panes. If it is simply a desire to shoot that prompts them, the airplane slinger shown here will cause them as much pleasure and fewer spankings.
REMEMBER the excruciating pain which even a slight burn causes you, and then try to imagine the suffering resulting from a severe burn by which a considerable area of skin is scorched and destroyed. Such severe burns occur sometimes in factories, foundries, and mines, and are classed among the most serious injuries to which workers are exposed.
DURING the intensive military operations along the Flanders front it was a matter of the greatest importance to keep the enormous technical fighting apparatus, the wonderfully efficient war machinery, in good condition. Repairs were constantly needed, and time was too precious to permit the delay that would have been caused by long transportation over difficult roads.
HELP! I’m drowning!” You jump up at the cry, throw off your coat and vest, and dive in. Being a good swimmer, you are quite confident that you can save a life. But live-saving is dangerous business. It is not sufficient to grab a drowning man with one hand and start swimming to shore with your other hand and your feet.
They were employed in setting straight a Chicago intake crib
AFTER the newest of Chicago’s intake cribs, off the foot of Wilson avenue, had been completed, it was found that the stone superstructure was eighteen inches out of plumb. The ring-shaped superstructure, built of square-hewn blocks of granite, has an outside diameter of seventy feet at the top and ninety feet at the bottom, with an inner diameter of forty feet.
JOHN A. F. DE LION left Philadelphia for San Francisco in a pushmobile with a mule hitched behind to do the pushing. And, stranger than this strange fact, he got there. His mule pushed him all the way. This proves conclusively that Mr. de Lion was not a freak or fool, but a very wise man who knew his own mule.
THIS is Mrs. James Hensley of Knoxville, Tenn., and she owns two thousand pitchers! She loves them and collects them. One of them, low, squatty, and black, was made by the Aztecs in Mexico back in the fourteen hundreds. Another is a clown and near it is a little red devil whose tail serves as a handle.
WHEN you order steak you usually find a spray of parsley trimming the corner of your platter. It is fresh and green—looks as if it had been picked in the garden of the restaurant just for you. Most likely it grew on a farm many miles away and had left home long since.
When the world’s coal supply is finally exhausted we may turn to the tide motors which commerce now scorns
Trapping the Tide
Tide Power is Far Off
HARNESSING the heat of the sun and the power of the tides and making them do useful mechanical work for mankind have always been two great dreams of inventors. Perley Hale, of San Diego, California, has invented the method for taming the tides shown in the accompanying illustration.
IT looks very much as if the two English officers shown in the picture to the right were going to dance a “Highland fling” on the “blister” of their ship. What is the blister? Light steel airtight pontoons which are built along the under-water sides of a ship to protect her from submarines.
THE end of a tunnel? No; the end of a dirigible as seen from the inside. The shining spot in the distance is the mouth through which the dirigible breathes. The huge bag is filled with hydrogen gas. As it rises in the air the pressure decreases and the gas tries to expand.
Riding a bucking orientator provides most of the sensations known to the aviator
Fighting for Control
IT was the first time that he had been alone at the controls of the airplane. John Harvey had the theory of the thing down pat, but how would theory and practice hitch up?— that was what he was asking himself as the instructor saw that the safety belt was properly secured and gave the order to go.
How colloidal fuel helps oil and coal to do more work
Particles that Always Dance
Preventing the Powder from Settling
It Can Be Pumped Like Oil
Using Low-Grade Coal
THE mightiest war-ships burn under their boilers not coal but oil. In 1917 and 1918 it was so difficult to obtain oil that for a time it seemed as if the battleship fleets of England, France, and Italy would be unable to perform their task of bottling up Germany and Austria.
HOW large a farm can one able-bodied man, unassisted, plow, cultivate, plant, and harvest with a fair degree of efficiency? Not so very long ago it would have been considered extremely presumptuous for any unaided man to undertake the cultivation of a farm of more than a few acres.
AN Indianapolis motor-truck body-maker has brought out a universal type of body to fit trucks of from one to two and one half tons capacity, provided the frame length back of the driver’s seat does not exceed 130 inches. He has gone a step further and provided a means to supply several types.
AS you look at the photograph below you will say to yourself, “Impossible.” But what you see isn’t a test at all— it’s only a part of the day’s work; for this kind of a differential, attached to your truck or car, turns it into a veritable tractor.
WHEN run for a long time Ford cylinders often get out of round, necessitating reboring—at best, a long and tedious job. A mistake means that an entire new engine block is necessary. Mechanics and Ford-owners will surely welcome a device that eliminates all chance from this operation and speeds up the work.
“AHA, there’s something the matter with your engine,” said the old-time motorist, anticipating great fun in watching the amateur locate the trouble on his new car. But the driver simply pushed a switch in an instrument attached to the dash, and instantly a series of sparks appeared at six little windows—No. 3 window being left black.
THERE have been so many unfounded claims on the part of farm tractor manufacturers that their tractors would burn kerosene successfully that the wise farmer has arrived at the place where he has to be shown before any such claims can become anything more than claims.
ONE hundred and twenty-three Americans, blinded in the war, are stationed at Evergreen Hospital, Baltimore. Are they wondering listlessly how they are going to live? No, they are working hard trying to teach their fingers to read for them.
AT any time a sunken derelict may drift into the path of an unsuspecting ship; for the restless sea moves hidden objects about its depths, continually changing the direction of currents. As a result the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey is always out looking for trouble.
The lessons of transatlantic experiment and the Popular Science Monthly’s ocean monoplane
Use Warships as Observatories
The Air—an Uncharted Ocean
Wanted—a Substitute for the Human Ear
A Great Wireless Station on the Azores
What's Wrong with the Machines?
The Popular Science Monthly's Transatlantic Monoplane
It Will Have to Be a Flying-Boat
Popular Science Monthly’s Two-Hundred-Mile-an-Hour Transatlantic Monoplane
Getting Off the Water
It Can Live in Rough Seas
IT is not merely by a poetic fiction that the daring men who vaulted into the air from Newfoundland to cross the Atlantic are likened to Columbus. To be sure, they taught us nothing new about the geography of the world. On the other hand, the ocean air through which they traveled is as uncharted as was the ocean of water in Columbus’s time.
How observatories use the stars in correcting standard time
The Star Map for July
How the Observation is Made
Converting Sidereal to Mean Time
The Planets for July
How to Use the Planet Map
Ernest A. Hodgson
IN the article for June it was pointed out that, although our sun appears to rise and set approximately 365 times a year, yet the earth rotates upon its axis 366 times, as shown by the meridian passages of a star. The interval between successive meridian passages of a star is called a “sidereal day.”
WHEN there is a League of Nations it must certainly have an office, a place in which to transact its international business— a capital! This need for a world capital has long been anticipated and prepared for. Nearly twenty years ago a man already famed as a sculptor and economist, Hendrik Christian Andersen, conceived a “World’s Scientific Center” with its university and its post-graduate course in all branches; a school for the professors of the universities of all countries; wonderful libraries and museums; a world forum; a meeting place for international sports—really a world exchange or general clearing-house for all international activities.
PERMANENT magnets, usually in the form of horseshoes, are used for many purposes, especially in the construction of magnetos for certain types of automobiles. The usefulness of such magnetos depends upon their strength and their magnetic stability.
AN aviator three thousand feet in the air said, “Buy a bond!” and crowds of people in front of the Treasury Department Building in Washington heard him plainly. Why? Because a “magnavox” was attached to the receiving end of the wireless apparatus.
Astronomer would mount his camera on a seaplane and soar to meet the sun
Professor Todd's Experiment
A More Practical Scheme?
Should Professor Todd Succeed
A TOTAL eclipse of the sun can never last more than eight minutes. Usually it lasts much less. An astronomer will travel thousands and thousands of miles to an out-of-the-way place, in order to make the most of a few precious minutes. The actors in a play are no more carefully rehearsed than are astronomers stationed at the various instruments.
Connect your wireless set to a tree and hear the world talk
TREES may be used as receiving and even sending antennae in radio-telegraphy and -telephony according to Major-General George O. Squier, Chief Signal Officer of the Army. With the “Floraphone,” as he calls it, not only have signals been received and sent by radio apparatus using live trees for antennae, but messages including multiple telegraphy signals have been received from local stations, airplanes in flight, other trees and the principal European stations.
A young architect’s dream and how he made it come true
Everything Carefully Planned
Reaching Out and Up
ARCHITECTS, as well as other people, dream about the kind of home they hope to have some day. But they have the advantage of being able to place their dreams on paper. The writer presents here his little home, in the hope that it will be helpful to young people in planning houses for themselves.
“LUCK was against us. We had only owned our car for a short time when we were in a wreck which completely demolished the rear end of the car, but did not damage the engine. After thoroughly considering the matter we decided we could use the engine to good advantage and purchase an entirely new car.
DID you know that a complete lathe, upon which you can make all kinds of work, whether flat, cylindrical, spherical, long or short pieces, can be made from odds and ends and an old bicycle? No? Well, here’s how it is done: First, a convenient space in the cellar or outhouse is selected, about 3 ft. in length, where a permanent stand can be erected.
PROBABLY the most abused piece of gymnastic apparatusis the parallel bars. Consequently, in building much care should be taken to build it with an eye towards strength as well as design. Use any suitable hard wood such as hard-pine or oak.
EXPERIMENTERS, as well as professionals, find occasional use for a soldering-iron, and if it is not the electrical kind it must be heated. A simple and inexpensive heater can easily be made to run on the 110-volt, 60-cycle alternating current which is generally supplied.
THE driving of hooks is a most unpleasant task, unless the workman possesses one of the special screw-eye attachments sold for the purpose. If he hasn’t this device at hand, then the hooks must be driven by hand power, a slow and exasperating job, especially when a quantity of them must be driven.
MEAT, whether cured in brine or by the dry method, will keep better, and have a great deal better flavor, if it is smoked. This may be done in a makeshift shanty, or even in a drygoods box. Or, it may be done in a small house of wood or concrete built for the purpose, if there is enough meat to warrant its erection.
A SHELF for holding drawing instruments, ink, and so forth in a convenient, level position can be easily made with a few pieces of wood, some screws, and two hinges. Smooth up a piece of board about 10 in. by 12 in., another piece of board about l½ by 15 in. and a narrow strip of wood about 10 in. by 1 in.
MOTORISTS are sometimes at a loss to understand why the battery runs down so quickly. When trouble of this sort arises, it will be well to carefully examine the brushes on the starting motor. The storage battery supplies current through brushes to the starting motor, and it sometimes happens that these brushes are not making proper contact.
A SECONDARY trunk lock is always valuable, and especially so to those who possess only one room, for with this attachment one may keep valuables securely locked underneath the trunk tray, irrespective of the regular lock on the trunk.
A VERY handy tool for the amateur is a tapered reamer. This can be made from a medium-sized round file. The temper is first drawn by allowing it to get red hot and then gradually cooling it off. It is then ground on an emery wheel to the shape shown in the illustration, and driven into a file or chisel handle.
WHETHER milk is produced in the frigid climate of Maine or in the warm climate of North Carolina, ice is a factor in retaining the sweetness of the products in the creamery. A liberal use of ice not only insures a wholesome product but will curb the development of bacteria.
ALTHOUGH the old-fashioned Fourth of July celebration with commercial fireworks has been largely banned, there is no reason why even greater fun should not be had with pyrotechnic materials prepared in the home laboratory. All the fire and thunder, that formerly punctuated the outbursts of youthful patriotism on this red-letter holiday, may still be enjoyed, and at the same time valuable chemical information may be acquired.
THOSE bright and shiny aluminum knife handles usually come from the factory where the knives are made, but do you know that with very little work and a few home-made tools they can be cast on at home in case of accident? Butcher shops, restaurants and repair shops all require repairs, and a profitable repairing business could be built up by an itinerant workman, for he furnishes nothing but the aluminum.
WE don’t mean exactly that, but some very curious mats have been produced by growing real grass on pieces of burlap. The plan is an interesting one, for whether the mats are used in a green or dried state, they are highly attractive. The first step is to get a piece of burlap of a suitable size.
FILES are short-lived instruments. One investigator estimates that their useful working days are two, of ten hours each, and in that time they have made an average of 25,000 strokes. Worn files should be discarded promptly in the interest of economy, as it is estimated that, counting the workman’s time and overhead charges, a new file can turn out for $4.60 work that would cost $10.60 with a worn file.
OF surpassing interest the last few weeks has been the flight of the American naval airplanes across the Atlantic. Little has been given out as to the airplanes’ radio-telegraphic and -telephonic equipment. And yet, these instruments were as important to success as the airplanes’ other features— often their sole eyes and ears.
WITH this issue the POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY resumes the publication of its radio articles, now that the government permits the operation of receiving sets and promises soon to remove all restrictions. Since the United States entered the war an industry has grown up employing several hundred thousand men in manufacturing and distributing alone, not to mention the thousands of commercial and amateur radio operators scattered over the world.
THE advent of the electron relay or audion type of amplifier has made possible a number of useful receiving methods which were impracticable in the early days of wireless telegraphy. Among these rejuvenated ideas is that of receiving wireless messages from long distances, by means of entirely concealed absorbing antennae.
FIRST a base is made of hardwood measuring 8 in. square by 1 in. thick, as shown at A in the illustration. A ring B is next sawed from 1½-in. stock, 7 in. in diameter with the rim 1½ in. thick. Shellac this ring thoroughly and while it is still tacky, wind it with a single layer of No. 23-gauge double cotton or silkcovered magnet wire.
THE portable receiver shown in the illustration should be very desir able to any operator who wishes for a small radio receiver that is substantial and compact, and at the same time not only has a broad range of tuning but requires very little attention after being once adjusted.
AN amusing method of playing checkers, which, by the way, is highly instructive in learning wireless operation, is to provide two complete sets of checkers and boards with the spaces numbered and the men lettered as shown in the illustration.
WHEN one electric bell is used to indicate calls from two different places, such as the front and back doors of adwelling, it is rather difficult to determine the source of the call. This can be remedied by connecting, as shown in the diagram, where one button causes the bell to act as a single stroke bell and give one tap on the bell every time the button is pressed.
CANVAS houses are often referred to as tents, but nothing is further from the truth. A canvas house, properly speaking, is a wood frame or skeleton over which is stretched canvas to keep out the weather. The house shown in the illustration is nearly ideal both as to size and comfort.
George B. Gould DID you ever stop to realize .what constitute some of the important problems of the present day gas engineer in his efforts to perfect this means of power and locomotion, or have you thought of what has been done toward solving the problems of the gas engine in its progress toward present day perfection?
IN common machine-shop practice, counter-shafts and similar power transmitters are allowed to spin when the belt is thrown off for any reason, and many accidents have occurred from trying to stop them with a bare hand. As a consequence a machinist devised the following simple method by which such accidents could be easily prevented and the spinning stopped when desired.
WORN-OUT or broken hack-saw blades should not be thrown away. They can be used for guides when filing articles to a straight and even line without danger of destroying the work by the file accidentally slipping past its desired point. Mark off the work at the required point and place the hack saw blade against the piece of work so that it follows the line evenly at both ends.
THE illustrations offer three ideas worth knowing about oil-cans. The first one shows how to adapt a short-spout oil-can to oiling places just out of ordinary reach. A piece of stiff wire is soldered along the spout so that the oil, pouring from the spout, will run along the wire on to the part being oiled.
IT sometimes happens that you want to square up the end of a board but haven’t a square with which to do it. In a case like this you can lay off a square end in the following manner. Make a mark along the exact center of one end of the board as shown in the sketch.