Giant dredges for placer-mining may make the dollar shrink
Why You Pay More
It Stops Once a Week
THE more gold there is in the country the poorer we all are. Does this sound startling and unreasonable? It may be startling, but let us see if it is unreasonable. Gold is the standard, the yard-stick, by which the value of things in the United States—and in all countries that have adopted the gold standard—is measured.
TRAVELING from London to Paris by airplane is no longer the exclusive right of airmen and celebrities. Anybody with eighty dollars in his pocket can now make the trip; for eighty dollars is the fare charged by the Farman brothers in their new Paris-London air line.
A DEVICE has been invented making it certain that “the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave” and not get all tangled up when displayed on a horizontal staff. A wire rod extends along part of the edge of the flag, and is held in place by a clip at each end.
The latest methods of specialists in treating victims of shell shock
Careful Examination of Each Patient
First the Vowels
COMPLETE loss of speech was one of the serious results that developed in many soldiers suffering from shell shock. It afflicted most frequently men whom the horrors of the Great War had brought to a state of nervous tension which predisposed them to this particular pathological condition.
ONE man must have been deeply touched by sad tales of rowboats swamped in storms. He is Louis O. Anderson, and he has invented a “storm cover” for boats which, when adjusted, covers both boat and rower so completely that waves and rain will roll off it as water rolls off a duck’s back.
WHY should a man want a glass boat-house? In the first place, for light. That, at least, seems to have swayed a boat-owner who spends the winter in Florida. The architectural lines of the structure are clear-cut and graceful. Curved eaves and a sloping roof make an excellent watershed which will not mildew or decay.
WHEN a diver goes down one hundred feet or more he is pressed upon from every side by tons of water. The suit he wears is blown up with air not only for the purpose of enabling him to breathe but also for the purpose of offsetting that water-pressure.
AS you plunge your spoon, at break„ fast, into that luscious orange upon your plate, do you think about the care entailed and the long journey necessary for that particular orange before it is set in front of you in its present perfect condition?
ONE of the intricate problems that an automobile mechanic has to deal with is distinguishing the various kinds of knocks that an engine is subject to. To do this successfully a listening apparatus is necessary, and the one illustrated below is easy to make and will serve just as well as the bought article.
THIS thermostat is mounted in the top of a cross-shaped pipe, connected with a main valve in the horizontal part of the pipe, and this in turn with a by-pass valve in the lower part of the pipe. When the water in the cylinder-jacket reaches a temperature of 170° F. the diaphragm of the thermostat expands and opens the main valve, so that the water circulates through the radiator as usual. The by-pass valve is then closed. As soon as the water drops below 170° the thermostat diaphragm contracts, closing the main valve and opening the by-pass valve.
IT is the small. losses of fuel, the little drops from a gasoline line, that, taken over the period of a year, amount to many gallons. One of the sources of small leaks on a car is in the pet-cocks in the gasoline line. When these cocks become worn from continued turning, there is often the slow drip, drip, drip, day and night, that finally affects the number of miles per gallon secured.
ANEW type of safety cut-out, which can be fitted on any type of Ford muffler, deflects the exhaust gases downward instead of permitting them to shoot out horizontally and damage the spare tire. It consists of a cover for the rear of the muffler.
APPLYING the brakes of an automobile is almost as easy as pressing the key of a piano when the emergency brake of one of the new types of automobiles is used. The ease with which the “onefinger” brake operates is due primarily to the fact that friction is applied almost directly, without cumbersome devices.
“AND the entire axle was painted with one daub of the brush.” What? You find that a bit thick? But that is just what is being done in truck factories that turn out immense production. The work is done in a special compartment containing the painting apparatus.
Should this plan be found practicable there would be no more collisions in foggy weather
Perils of New York Harbor
What My Suggestion Is
Necessary Harbor Regulations
The Pilot at the Stern
F. W. Fitzpatrick
HAVE you ever stood on the deck of an incoming ship in a fog? Did you notice how anxious the captain was? Did you watch a man time and time again heaving the lead? Do you remember how carefully the ship felt her way? She was in dangerous water, and her navigators fully realized it.
How a concert pianist turned her music to the business of healing
Miss Anderton's Theory
Distinctly Not for Enjoyment
W. T. Perry
HAS music a new and hitherto little recognized curative value? That different emotions are excited by different sorts of musical strains has been appreciated since first Pan played his reeds. The easy cadence of waltz time invited our fathers and mothers to dance, just as the sound of the socalled “jazz” prompts the present generation to step and glide or slide about.
If You Must Smoke While Wearing Your Influenza Mask
IT is all very well to use an influenza mask. But what if you want to smoke? Edward T. Duncan has supplied the answer. First, buy two corn-plasters at a drug store. You may not see the relationship between a corn-plaster and the influenza. Wait a minute.
A BROOKLYN mechanic has spent more than a year making a church oyt of bits of steel and brass. A chisel, a hammer, and a file are practically the only tools that he uses. The height of the model is 53 inches, the length 32 inches, and the weight is approximately 300 pounds.
This Stone-Spreader Does the Work of Many Shovelers
INSTEAD of dumping stone at the side of a road, much time and money can be saved by spreading at the time the stone is dumped. Contracting two operations into one is, as a rule, economical, and the present is no exception. The construction of the device used for spreading is neither difficult nor expensive, and the cost is often made up by the gain in the first contract.
SOME farmers of Sunnyside, Washington, had about six hundred tons of hay which they wanted to sell at just about the time the annual county fair was due. They suggested that the fair building be made of hay, and then graciously offered the use of their bundles.
DROBABLY the largest thing you can get today for a dollar is a broom. That is all very well for you, but dealers begrudge the space that brooms take. A broom-rack like the one shown above holds sixty brooms. It takes up very little room in the dealer’s shop, and the wheels on it make it an excellent push-cart. Wires running from front to back keep the brooms from swinging from side to side and getting mixed up with one another when the rack is in motion.
SINCE Los Angeles has been captured by moving-picture companies, an ordinary merchant must do much queerer things than the movie people to attract attention. Now, a man named John had a pipe shop there, and he wanted everyone to know it. So he built a metal pipe ten feet long from the tip of the stem to the bottom of the bowl.
A BED, a bureau, and a chair are about all the furniture usually found in a so-called furnished room. The inspired typing author sojourning in one of them finds no place in which to stand his machine. The window-sill is too narrow, the dresser-top too high, the chair too low, and the bed too wabbly.
YOU really can’t put a calf, cow, or pig in the back seat of your automobile if you have any sense of the fitness of things. Yet you can’t expect any one of them to trot patiently behind, even if you throw a rope around its neck. How, then, are you going to deliver animals after you have sold them?
CERMANY has lost since 1914, besides other things, seven million Africans like those in the picture below. Judging from the primitive way in which they live, politics doesn’t bother them much and they don’t care who owns them. The men hunt their own meat in the forest in which they live, and the women cook.
STONES have a disturbing habit of assuming human shape. Noses are their favorites, and a great deal of excursion money has been spent for the purpose of seeing these rocky noses. But the stone shown above, which is found in the San Bernardino Mountains in southern California, is too sentimental to bother with noses.
THE old adage about salt on a bird’s tail does not apply to an airplane, which needs something more powerful than salt—another airplane, for instance. The picture herewith shows how effectually this may be done. One small airplane on a large empty field was getting ready to fly.
A TROLLEY pole was erected in Chicago. It was just like any other trolley pole—made of cast-iron with a hollow center and set in a concrete base. It had been up but a very short time when water started spouting from its top in two thin streams, and continued to spout.
IN investigating any phase of life, one should keep as near to nature as possible. Thus the ordinary little fish-globe, usually strung up in a window by three cords, is about the biggest monstrosity that it is possible to conceive. It could not be further from nature’s method: pools and ponds are not hung in mid-air.
SOME time ago Sidney, Ohio, was invaded—not by Germans, frogs, or fleas, but by slow, stupid snails. They were very small, no larger than a pin-head, and they came so slowly and silently that they had taken complete possession of Sidney before Sidney realized it.
A BROKEN bottle of champagne or water; cheers; the smell of smoking grease; fluttering flags; the excited shouts of invited guests and of the workmen whose toil has completed the vessel as she splashes into the water—these are the outward or visible signs of a successful launching.
Wheels Overhead Answer Many Shop Trucking Problems
OVERHEAD carriers are replacing floor trucks in many small work-shops as well as in big manufacturing plants. The tracks can be suspended from the ceiling so as to give ready access to all parts of an establishment. Less cost as well as convenience fight on the side of the overhead system, since with it one man can do work for which several using floor trucks would be required.
THE difficult problem of keeping pigs and mud away from each other has apparently been solved by a southern California ranchman. This man’s place, like those of many farmers, has a stream of running water— in this instance an irrigation canal.
IT must be an astonished hen that enters the nest invented by Ellsworth Tilden of Columbia Falls, Mont. She mounts the nest. It yields slightly beneath her weight. It seems to be on one end of a small seesaw or tilting platform. The other end of the platform rises far enough to block the door and prevent intrusion.
IN the early days, when both oil and natural gas were thought to be as inexhaustible as the ocean, few persons gave a second thought to the sight of a few thousand barrels of oil spouting into the air and running off into a river or sewer. There was always plenty more where the wasted oil originated, so why worry?
WHEN a forest fire is discovered by a lookout, everybody at the station gets busy at once. The volume, character, and drift of the smoke are at once recorded and reported. The direction from the station is read and recorded accurately in degrees and minutes.
A BIG job of leveling had to be done at Hanford, Cal., and labor was so scarce that the enterprising contractor connected his tractor with a six-foot scraper, rigged up a platform on the rear of the scraper on which to stand, and then ran extension arms from the tractor controls, so that he could operate the machine from the platform.
How can the President congratulate some Martian Republic on the celebration of its Fourth of July?
How Much Power Would It Take?
Talking by Light Flashes
The Superior Martians
What Would They Tell Us ?
A. J. Lorraine
MARCONI, pioneer of radio communication, believes that it is possible to communicate with inhabited planets —if the newspapers report him correctly. Mysterious disturbances are recorded by sensitive radio receivers. Are messages coming from Martians frantically trying to communicate with us?
THE Cook County department of public service of Illinois has built the first special car for the traveling insane, in order to shield them from contact with a curious public. The car, which has its own motive power for electric lines, is provided with all the latest comforts and conveniences.
THE gas refrigerator, entirely automatic in its operation, promises to work a revolution in household refrigeration systems greater than any since machines were first successful in making artificial ice on a large scale. With the gas refrigerator the housewife can regulate the temperature of her refrigerator to suit her own needs, make enough ice for household purposes, and at the same time save money.
The engineer of the fast air freight is at his post and ready to start. He’s an old-timer, and the run from Folkestone in the very southeast corner of England to Ghent in Belgium—about 100 miles in an air line—is an easy one Loading the airplane freight.
OUT in the Detroit River is a floating garage for motor-boats. Are you out of “gas”? Head for “Marine Station No. 5” and you can buy what you want, just as you buy it on shore. The regulation type of pump is on deck, while a hose of sufficient length is at hand to supply all comers.
JUST a drop in the bucket” is a familiar and useful simile, but it remained for an English schoolboy to wonder what happens when the drop strikes in the bucket. He tried to find out by causing drops to fall upon carefully smoked glass, after which he could study the prints made by the drop upon the carbon.
How the radio-telephone now links the airman with the earth
What Has Happened Since
Magic of Wire Telephony
Analogous to Wire Transmission
Some of the Difficulties Overcome
Future of the RadioTelephone
WHEN a swift-flying V of eleven monoplanes soared into the view of Colonels Reber and Culver at the 1910 Belmont Park Aviation Tournament, the same thought, oddly enough, came into both their minds and was expressed by Colonel Culver: “What a splendid thing it would be in battle if those eleven planes could be instantly commanded by their leading pilot!
AS a general thing, automobile mufflers begin to rattle WHEN the inside baffle-plates work loose from the outer shell. Troubles of this nature are eliminated in the new type of muffler shown in the illustration above. This is accomplished by flanging the outer circumference so that each flange of the baffle-plate overlaps the section next to it, and thus makes the baffle-plate an integral part of the shell.
THE gasoline reserve shown above is fool-proof because the tank is divided into two parts by a transverse plate which gives two supplies, only one of which can be drawn from at one time. This is made possible by the use of a three-way valve in the bottom of the tank in the reserve supply.
Its sub-frame fits a standard type of body to trucks of all sizes
UNTIL the adjustable type of subframe shown herewith was worked out by a Columbus, (Ohio) body-maker, the fitting of one standard type of body to trucks of different frame widths and lengths was done in a more or less hit-or-miss method. In this body all of the adjustments are made in a special sub-frame mounted on longitudinal wood sills directly on top of the truck chassis frame.
OWNERS of motor-trucks will tell you that the next worst failing in the average freight vehicle driver, after speeding, is the difficulty of getting him to turn up the grease-cups. Grease-cups are generally placed on the front and rear spring hangers and shackles, propeller-shaft bearings, and steering-gear mechanism.
How the starting and lighting equipment is adapted for this purpose
RECENT modification of the usual starting and lighting equipment of gasoline engines used on tractors is its adaptation to engine speed control and governing without the addition of delicate mechanisms. It comprises a six-volt storage battery, a starting motor, a control-box containing the lighting and ignition switch, as well as the rheostat for the governor-generator.
Neither a tunnel nor a bridge, yet both in one, paradoxical as it sounds
It Is No Longer in the Experimental Stage
One of the First Projects Was for Duluth
San Francisco's Needs
Built Like Concrete Ships
How the Sections Are Joined Together
F. W. Fitzpatrick
FOR years the commercial need of a railway crossing over, under, or through the British Channel has been recognized, as the POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY pointed out in its issue of December, 1918. Always the bugaboo of an invasion of England has risen to throw cold Channel water on these projects.
TREE-STUMPS are just so much dead wood taking up valuable space and yielding nothing in return. The sooner they are uprooted the better. Many kinds of stump-pullers are used in different places. In Michigan a tripod stump-puller is used exclusively.
A MAN attired in regulation army uniform, with a rifle and cartridge-belt, appears at Palm Beach. Holding a pillow-case in his hand, he wades out from the shore. He dips the pillow-case into the water, whirls it about his head, and thus fills it with air.
THE market price of radium is $120,000 a gram, and a gram is less than one five hundredth part of a pound. Then how can people afford radium-dabbed watches, clocks, and house numbers? Because radium is marvelously self-luminous, and a few micrograms (one of which is a millionth part of a gram) mixed with zinc sulphide crystals will paint your house number and keep it luminous for years.
SOON a bottle found in a gentleman's hip pocket will land him in jail as quickly as a gun will. How, then, can you warm your chilled blood when traveling? Slip a can like the one shown below in your side pocket. Then, if you are searched and the worthy law enforcer pulls out the can, he will find that the lid is really a saucer and the can a cup.
IN the far East, land of street fairs, the Japanese juggler is a familiar figure. Even so simple a feat as that shown above, which seems to be little more than the manipulation of a giant swing, is holding the absorbed interest of the Siamese and Malays.
WHAT look like bandages on the wires on the sky-scraping pole at the right are not put there for the protection of the wires, but as an insurance against electrocution for the workmen. The danger of working among wires carrying high-voltage currents is one of the lineman's joy-killers, and no device has yet been invented that will enable him with impunity to indulge in capers among wires carrying currents with voltages of 33,000 and up.
CONCRETE came into use as a building material because it could be easily molded into shape. In this respect it is far superior to stone, brick, and wood, and costs no more. But when the molded concrete dries it becomes very hard—almost brittle.
THIS is Bonar Law's own special airplane in which he flies from London to Paris when he feels the need thereof. Our statesmen, however, must be content with limousines, although we own more airplanes than we have use for just now. The reason is lack of landing-places.
SKYLIGHTS offer an ideal method of illumination if the proper kind of glass is used. Ordinary window-glass or plate-glass is not suitable for obtaining the best results, because it does not diffuse the light passing through it. Glass will diffuse the light only when one or both of its surfaces are rough.
THE airplane of to-day is surprisingly like a bird. But the creature has one striking defect—it is nearly blind. Put the observer where he can be the eyes of the craft, and you must place the propeller where it will revolve through the very space occupied by the fuselage.
THEY are getting their first lesson in crew pulling, and from the wild way some of them are waving their oars it's the first time they ever rowed at all. The Navy is ever confronted with this job of making real seamen out of green sailors, and so it has built rowing-tanks like the one shown here at all large naval stations.
WHEN an aviator gets into a fog, his position is perilous. Since he can't see the ground he doesn't know whether he is on an even keel or not. He has even been known to fly upside down for a short time and not know it. Dr. James Pentz, of New York, has invented a compass that not only tells the aviator his north and south, but also tells him whether he is upside down.
AIRPLANES are now aiding agriculture. They have not yet taken to pulling plows, but they are playing an important part in the unending battle against the devastating pink bollworm that has been trying to invade the United States from Mexico.
THERE are mines in war and mines in peace, and so the very microphones and geophones that located German diggers with great accuracy last year are now holding down peace jobs in American coal-mines. By means of these instruments sounds can be heard and located to a depth of one hundred and twenty feet.
BECAUSE the giant Zeppelin made no brilliant showing in its raids on England, the average man is apt to dismiss it with a wave of the hand, saying, "It's a failure." When he thinks of air transportation he thinks of airplanes. It would profit him to read the report of Admiral Jellicoe on the great naval battle off Jutland, in which the Zeppelin showed how effective it can be as a naval scout, and to study the testimony recently given by Admiral Sims of our own navy before a Congressional Committee, pleading for the construction of titanic Zeppelins in this country.
London to New York by Air: Across the Atlantic in Two Days in an 800-Foot British Zeppelin
C. A. Oldroyd
GREAT BRITAIN has been making plans to institute a regular transatlantic airship passenger service between London and New York. Soon you will book your passage to London by airliner and cut your time of crossing in half. Seasickness will be a thing unknown.
THE trees of Oregon pay taxes to the State and support four fifths of the inhabitants. Both the State and the people have felt most grateful, but knew not how to express their appreciation. Trees are hard things to thank. The Portland Chamber of Commerce at last decided on a monument—not a marble tree on a marble base with a tender inscription on its bark, but an immense log cabin made of the trees themselves.
IF you didn't get a chance to go over and get one yourself or didn't have a son or a friend to pick up a German top-piece for you, there is still a last opportunity left to win one while fighting for liberty and the Republic.
THE most tragic case of war is that in which a healthy, whole man enlists, fights, is wounded, and is sent back maimed—an arm gone, a leg gone, sometimes both, sometimes all. The world's sympathy does not repay him for his ability to do things.
BANGING ear-splitting discords out of twelve notes on a toy piano will be an unknown joy to the children of the future, for the child's piano is fast turning into an "educational toy." Well-meaning educators have decided to use it and pictures of animals to teach children scales and to help them pick out such tunes as educators think proper.
A JAPANESE mail-box looks like a combined fire-hydrant and water-heater, and it is painted bright red. Without a doubt it is the most startling and substantial thing in that dainty country. But this is fitting, for mail is considered a serious matter by the Japanese government.
STUNG? No, honey! Sounds like slang, but it is an exact statement of fact, since E. R. Root, the man who appears to be washing his face in bees, says that when bees are kept busy making honey they are too happy to sting anyone. Mr. Root is a bee expert who is known wherever hives and honey grow.
ALL the Krupp blood in this cannon is boiling at the undignified position forced upon it. In the first place it is in London, and in the second place it is turned almost upside down with its trail high in air. The same thing has happened to many other German guns, for cannon trails—particularly German ones—make excellent perches from which to view parades, and there are many parades in London today.
A NEW whaling station was opened at Monterey, Cal., and the whaler was called Hercules. When Hercules spotted his first whale he went after it enthusiastically, confident that, like the god he was named for, he would conquer. But the whale put up a strong fight—it dragged Hercules seaward from early morn till late at night.
Then, if a man is badly hurt, flying back with him in a stretcher or a bed
Power for X-Ray from Motor
The Doctor's Gig of the Future
CARRYING the wounded from the field to a hospital by means of an airplane has proved so successful that the plan of transporting the hospital to the wounded has also been considered. Compact units of moderate size have been designed to give more complete first aid to the wounded.
IT was not alive, apparently, and no human being seemed to be concealed about it, and yet the thing was seen cultivating a ten-acre farm in New Jersey. Down the rows of corn it went all alone, and never bruised a blade or chopped a root. It was uncanny to anyone who had never beheld such a sight before, and even to some who had.
With the help of the ancient peoples of the East, who were practical astronomers
Ophiuchus, the Serpent-Bearer?
The Star Map for May
New Stars Have Only Numbers
How to Find the May Planets
Ernest A. Hodgson
THE circular star map for May forms an interesting illustration for an outline of the origin and the value of the constellation groupings. These groups vary considerably in shape and size. The longdrawn-out constellation of Hydra lies side by side with the small, regular, and compact groups of Corvus, Crater, Antlia, and Canis Minor.
A HUGE electric bulletin-board atop a newspaper building in a mid-Western city flashes the latest news. The device is operated by a typewriter. The bulletins are typed on the machine in the usual way, while contacts underneath the keys control the apparatus that flashes the corresponding letters to the roof.
THERE is a new way of wrapping coins in those neat little packages that the banks supply. It does away with the necessity of holding the pile of coins in a vertical position, which is awkward and results in poor wrapping. The coins rest on parallel rollers spaced slightly apart, but are held between two cylinders of wood upon the wrapper.
SNAKE bite caused 23,918 deaths in British India in 1917, nearly 300 more than in 1916. There were 2,176 persons killed by wild animals, 102 less than in 1916. Tigers got 1,009; leopards 339; wolves and bears, 280; elephants and hyenas, 89. Of the 456 set down to "other animals," 89 are assigned to pig, and 199 to crocodiles.
Windows and Doors that Are Planned to Trap and Outwit Fire
DID you ever see a door or window that would shut itself in case a fire started in the room? If you did not, look at the accompanying three pictures. They show an ordinary door, an elevator door, and a window that are the latest things in modern fireproof warehouse construction.
"WHOA, Napoleon!" the driver shouts, and the horse mounts a platform in front of a water-trough and proceeds to pump itself a drink. As a matter of fact, any other animal of sufficient weight could do the same thing. The platform is hinged so as to descend from an inclined to a horizontal position beneath the weight of the horse, and the power thus made available is transmitted by a rope to the pulley of some shafting overhead.
SCENE: The dedication of the Twin Peaks reservoir in San Francisco. One section of the reservoir had been drained, and into this the populace swarmed to listen to the speakers. Flags fluttered and bands played. Only a wall of concrete separated the crowds from the towering waters in the adjoining section.
I'T took nearly as long to paint the vane as it did to paint the rest of the windmill," remarked a painter a short time ago, "for we had to hoist up lumber and build a scaffold." Then he was shown the accompanying picture, which tells how the painting can be done without a scaffold.
AMID the jests of onlookers, plowing with a trolley car was tried out, not on a farm, but on the streets of San Francisco. The car was of special construction, and was provided with a derrick and six hundred feet of cable for drawing the plow.
HAD the great war lasted one more year or even a few months longer than it did, America would have had completed and in operation a system of modern land-line telegraphs throughout the length and breadth of France not held by the Teutonic forces.
If you can't go to the country make the country come to you
CITY dwellers who have an instinct for gardening are often heard to complain bitterly that they are denied all access to the soil, and are thus prevented from gratifying their horticultural tastes. Such people will be surprised to learn that there is such a thing as gardening without soil, as anyone who has a convenient shelf near a sunny window may easily prove.
THE stump of a tree that has been cut down will serve as support for an outdoor table. Four-by-four in. scantlings of suitable length are sunk flush with the top of the stump, crossing each other at right angles. From each of the four angles of these four-by-fours, two-by-twos extend outward.
REMEMBER that the micrometer divides the inch into one thousand parts. The edge of the outer thimble is marked in twenty-five divisions. Rotating the thimble through one division advances the spindle .001 in. The number of rotations of the thimble from zero is counted on the inner sleeve by divisions.
THE design of the depth-gage illustrated is very simple. With the wire at one end and the graduated scale at the other, it can be used for a number of purposes, such as counter-bearing, accurately measuring the depth of a recess, and other things of a like nature.
ON many makes of motorcycles, if the intake tappets are not kept carefully adjusted, the push-rods will fly off and be lost. I had this experience recently, and on investigation found that the intake valve-spring was too strong to permit the valve functioning automatically.
A NEW paper-winding machine, invented by A. Ross of Buffalo, N. Y., winds three different-sized rolls of paper from a supply roll to be used for the head-rest of a barber's chair. As a rule, the barber buys his paper already wound, which is extremely high priced.
IN and about woodworking shops there may always be picked up any number of broken hand-screws. A good way to make use of these broken hand-screws is to turn them into clamps. Cut a hand-screw in two at H, and then cut off the beveled end, thus making two stationary jaws for the two clamps A.
A DEVICE for use in bending the smaller conduit sizes for electric wiring is made by screwing a flanged tee to the end of a piece of pipe. When using, slip the tee over the conduit to the point where the bend is to be made. Then place the conduit in a vise, or stand on the conduit, and pull or push the pipe-handle.
It's time for you to find out why and to remedy it without delay
Locating the Trouble
To Find the "High Spots"
Best Kind of Scraper
G. F. Collins
THE thumping and vibration of the big end bearing is familiar even to the motorist of a few months' experience. To those motorists who have never attempted to take up the big end bearing of a connecting-rod it may seem a more complicated job than it really is, but to the more experienced motorist there is only the danger that certain important details of the operation may be neglected, with serious results.
THERE are many kinds and styles of match-safes for the outdoor man, but the simplest yet seen is one made of a section of bamboo. A section is cut out, one end below a ring in the cane, the other cut through the hollow portion about four inches above the ring.
IT is usually necessary to attach a vertical extension to a large number of stakes in the tomato patch at certain stages of growth. The extensions are first prepared by driving wire nails into them, so that the points of the nails are flush with the surface of the opposite side, as in Fig. 1.
A STRONG and pleasing-looking chain can easily be made out of wire paper-clips of the type shown in the illustration. Bend over the ends A and B into the shape shown in C and D. Of course, two links must be joined together before starting to bend the ENDS.
ONE of the most important jobs in a machine-shop is the oiling of overhead shafts, such as line bearings, counter-shaft bearings, loose pulleys, etc. At its best, it is a very dangerous job. It is usually done with a longspouted oil-can and the help of a cumbersome ladder.
A SIMPLE form of arc soldering-iron operating from a 6-volt, 60-ampere storage battery that can be cheaply constructed will often be found of value. It consists primarily of a holder made as shown in the illustration. A strip of brass ½ in. wide, ⅛ in. thick, and 8 in. long is bent at its center around a form ½ in. in diameter.
THE adjustment of the connecting-rod bearings is one of the most common repair jobs on an automobile engine. Probably the chief reason why these bearings wear faster than the others is that they are not lubricated properly under all conditions.
WHERE cells are employed for portable purposes, some convenient method of charging them from the ordinary supply source must be provided. The method selected will depend mainly on the available charging current source. Alternating current, as such, cannot be used for charging, and when it is the only available source of power, some auxiliary means must be installed for converting it into direct current.
A SMALL dessert glass, tumbler, or wine goblet is held up by a performer and seen to be empty. Removing a silk handkerchief from his breast coat pocket, the performer shows that it also is empty. He covers the glass with the silk for a moment, then withdraws it and puts it back into his breast pocket.
An Easy Way to Carry Emergency Automobile Curtains
C. L. MELLER
A SIMPLE way of carrying automobile curtains so that they may be available in a jiffy is shown in the illustration. Hame loops are screwed into the rear arch of the top, and the curtains are rolled up and strapped into place. These loops keep the curtain within easy reach in Curtains carried like this will always be clean and smart looking case of a sudden storm, and prevent the celluloid windows from cracking.
A WELL known method of frightening birds away from the garden is to tie corks along a string stretched the length of the field and just above the young plants. Feathers are stuck in the corks, so that the faintest breeze will cause them to move and thus frighten the birds away.
THAT little jack stowed away under the seat of your car will do many helpful things, but three more of them, of different sizes, will save you much time and temper. For instance, when you get hopelessly stuck in mud, sand, clay, or even snow, your jack may be the means of getting your car out of its predicament and save you that six-mile walk to the nearest village to get a span of horses.
THE motion-picture camera illustrated is made of parts that may be obtained at small expense. No effort is made to give actual measurements, as it may be easily built large or small, according to the camera at hand and the ideas of the builder.
BELOW is described an easily constructed pair of "pick-ups" for inserting or holding small parts of machinery while assembling them. By the rounded portions in the center they are easily spread with the thumb and finger and retain a firm grip.
THIS illustration of an old grindstone and frame—particularly the frame—shows that the lack of a proper frame for the grindstone did not hinder the early settler. He went out into the woods, selected a strong tree fork of the right shape, and cut it down.
A reliable solid square is a tool that every mechanic takes great pride in possessing, especially when it is of known accuracy. The advantage of the one shown in the illustration is that it may be adjusted to a perfect right angle at any time it is found to be out of tune; though with reasonable care this defect should not often appear.
IN engine-houses where locomotives are given running repairs, a machinist necessarily needs some heavy tools and small parts such as cotter keys, nuts, washers, etc. If he had to keep these articles in a locker, a great deal of time would be consumed in going after the tool to do a certain job.
NO gymnasium outfit, whether in the athletic club, the office, or the home, is complete without a lung-tester. A reliable lung-tester not only gives information about the capacity of the lungs, but also provides means of competition for those who are proud of their prowess.
SPECIAL rivet-heads, or even screw-heads, can be easily formed with the die and holder shown in the illustration. Brass, copper, and soft iron wire may be easily shaped. The holder A can be made of brass or machine steel. An iron or brass casting may be used.
FOR the electrical operator who wants to make a quick connection to another wire or to a switch, as in tapping on to a telegraph or electric-light line, a light, serviceable testing clip may be made from a safety-pin. The ends are cut off and bent as shown in the sketch, and a copper wire is soldered to the back end of the pin.
A SECRET lock that can be made and fitted to a table or desk drawer in a few minutes is herewith illustrated. It consists of a piece of hard wood, A, firmly screwed into the under side of the drawer at the back, and another piece of wood, B, pivoted on one of the side runners or crosspieces on which the drawer slides.
Tell us the best way of utilizing a hairpin and Popular Science Monthly will pay you twenty-five dollars.
Rules Governing the Contest
(1) Contestants are not limited to the number of methods of utilizing hairpins which they may describe. But only one method can possibly win the first prize, only one the second, and only one the third. The contest is open to everybody. (2) The method of using hairpins must be clearly shown either in a photograph or in a drawing.
A BRACKET for holding iron pipe, made of a single piece of strap-iron, will carry pipes up to six inches in diameter. There appears to be no reason why it could not be utilized for larger sizes. The ease with which the pipe is removed is an advantage over old METHODS.
AS a precaution in preventing brushes from becoming deformed by resting upon the bottom of the paint-pot when not in use, the following method is suggested: Bore small holes in the handles of the brushes and run a stiff wire through the holes, making sure that the holes are in proper position to compensate for the length of that particular brush.
When painted and striped it looks like the real thing
R. J. Stevens
A NEAT, light, and very durable body for a toy automobile can be made quickly and inexpensively from an old wash-boiler; and at the same time, if the work is neatly done, the body properly painted, and the hood striped to represent the radiator, it will have the appearance of the expensive store article.
WHILE employed to oil counter-shafts in a large machine-shop, I found the task of emptying the oil drip-pans and saving the oil a job requiring some time and skill. I secured a 5-ft. length of ⅛-in. tubing and bent one end in the form of a hook, with a bend of about ½-in. radius—this end being the top of the siphon, or the part to hook over the oil drip-pans to remove the oil.
A COUNTERSINK, especially the kind known as the rose, has a tendency to wabble when a comparatively large hole is to be worked in sheet-metal. This causes the hole to become uneven and thereby unsightly, and prevents the head of the screw from seating properly.
OFTEN an odd-shaped piece of glass will get broken, as, for instance, in an electrical instrument; and it is very difficult to cut an odd-shaped piece of glass without special guides. Ordinary window-glass may be cut to almost any desired shape by holding it beneath the surface of a pan of water and cutting with house shears.
THE best type of lawn-rake has this drawback: the tooth-holding bar always becomes loose, and in this condition is decidedly unsatisfactory. The method here illustrated will always keep the tooth-bar tight and do away with this objectionable feature.
AS shown in the illustration, a high-resistance wire is arranged between binding-posts on a suitable base; line connections are made at terminals T1 and T2. Tightening or loosening the middle binding-post will allow adjustment for accommodating different sizes of tubes.
"COLLECTING eggs at the backyard poultry-house is much easier than ordering them by telephone from the grocery," says one housewife, "if husband has equipped the poultry-house with exterior nests." The idea is very simple and is easily applied.
TO amuse a company, fill a glass nearly full of water, and drop into it a cork. The cork will naturally float on top. Then essay a bet that you can place the glass of water in such a position that no one can remove the cork without spilling every drop of water.
IT is often desired to keep a record of drawings that must be sent away temporarily. This can be done inexpensively with a small pocket camera, 3¼×4¼ in. While the photoprints are small, they can be easily read with the aid of a magnifying-glass.
IN the grounds around country houses there is usually some hillside or slight incline where the landscape will be improved by building a small summer-house or pergola. This type of building is very easy to make and only a few tools are needed.
SMALL motor-boats that are steered by a wheel placed forward or amidships can make good use of the accompanying simple idea to take up automatically the slack in the tiller-ropes between the wheel and the rudder. Remove a short section of the rope on each side of the wheel, and into these spaces insert two spiral springs similar to common door-springs.
PICKING up old pieces of pipe in odd corners about the farm, an up-to-date farmer turned them over to the village blacksmith and told him to make the framework for an iron gate. The wire fretwork was woven by the farmer in his spare time. The gate is unique in that it possesses a panel (A) left uncovered to permit the poultry free access to and from the barn-yard.
TO make a practical clip that will attach a carpenter's steel scale to his pocket, all that is needed is a piece of sheet brass cut wide enough to allow it to lap over the back of the scale about ⅛ in. After this is done cut away the surplus stock on both sides of the piece of brass, which will take the shape of the letter T.
THE performer takes up a playing card, displaying both sides, and also exhibits a small wine-glass. Placing the card on the edge of the glass, it tilts the card, and the glass appears to be balanced on the card. To accomplish this feat, two cards are pasted together.
TO stack one hundred tons of hay in one pile without moving the derrick is a simple matter if the derrick is one of the telescopic sort here illustrated. There were approximately ninety-three tons of alfalfa hay in this stack, which was inspected on a farm in Richardson County, Neb.
ACCIDENTS are usually caused by little things, such as projecting boards with nails, pieces of upstanding glass, piles of rubbish about premises, unguarded machinery, stores that are piled carelessly and liable to fall, holes in platforms and floors, weak ladders, loose hammer-heads, sewers left open, absence of signals or other protection.
ONE of the best methods of developing photographic film is the time and temperature method; but not all of us can afford the daylight developing tank. The following method has all the advantages of the tank method except one: it is not a daylight system.
THOUGH there is an envelope on the market similar to this one, the sketches herewith show how quickly one can be made from the ordinary size business letter-heads, using only a pocketknife or scissors. After folding as in Fig. 2, cut off on the dotted line, then fold the surplus ends as in Fig. 3, and cut them off on the fold, thus completing the envelope, with the exception of the library paste, which is applied to the flap when it is ready for sealing.
BY utilizing the power of gravity with a large stock tank, a hose, and running water, combined as shown, a Nevada farmer has provided himself with the means of lifting loads of two tons or less, working single-handed and with practically no muscular exertion.
DRAFTSMEN whose work entails the drawing of many bolts and screws can lighten their labor considerably by cutting the patterns for several standard-gage threads habitually used along the edges of the cut-out portion of triangles. Over each pattern, which should consist of about half a dozen teeth, write with indelible ink the correct gage.
WHEN a window is screened, the lowering or raising of the awning is always very awkward, making it necessary to keep a stick at hand with which to prop up the screen. An excellent way to avoid this is to attach a cord to the lower screen at the center of the upper edge, run it up over a pulley at the top of the window-frame, and then attach a wooden handle to the lower end, allowing the cord to project from below in the form of a loop, as shown in the illustration.
SOLDERING is one of the easiest operations, and its applications for both temporary and permanent work about the house, farm, and workshop are almost endless. The main thing to remember is that the surface to be joined together by or patched with solder must be thoroughly clean.
PROCURE two pieces of 3-in. lumber, preferably pine, and cut them into pieces 28 in. and 27 in. in length. These pieces are to form the base of the easel, and may, if desired, be rounded at the corners or left square, as preferred. The long piece of pine is halved in the center, while the short piece is halved at the end, which will then fit into the long piece.
ONE encounters many troubles in the ordinary float-feed carburetor, especially on low-speed engines such as marine or industrial types. In experimenting with various engines it was found to be more expedient to use a mixing-valve than the average carburetor.
IT will pay any carpenter who has to do finishing to go to the trouble of making himself three or four narrow scraper blades similar to those here illustrated. Three or four such scrapers can be made from one standard 6-in. scraper steel, and will be found useful in numberless instances where the ordinary wide steel is too wide or too large, or else improperly shaped to do the work.
THE surface gage is a very useful tool around a planer or shaper, and it will be found of value in laying out work on surface plates, etc. The vase can be made of cast-iron and turned up in the lathe, recessing the bottom as shown in the illustration to give a good bearing.
ALL that is required to recognize whether an article is gilt or not is to touch it with a glass rod that has been dipped in a solution of bichloride of copper. If the article has been gilded the spot touched will remain intact, while it will present a brown stain if no gold is deposited on its surface.