See how much faster a man advances after he has been trained
Will your next years count for more than the past?
75,000 proofs of the Alexander Hamilton Institute power.
Just a moment's decision may save wasted years
The first step is easy. Send for this free book.
THIS page is addressed exclusively to big men. They may be Presidents or order clerks; General Managers or salesmen, it makes no difference. For the proof of a man’s bigness is not always the position which he happens to hold to-day, but the size of his thought and plan for his future.
“You are exasperating beyond words," shot out Mr. Worden. “Why didn’t you keep Mr. Truesdale here? You knew I would be back in ten minutes.” Harry Simms gulped hard, and replied weakly, "I did try to keep him here, Mr. Worden, but he wouldn’t stay.”
How American and English artists taught sailors to dazzle the U-boat
Artists to the Rescue
U-Boat Commanders Baffled
Standardizing Marine Camouflage
The "Dazzle" System
What Constitutes “Appearance"?
Enter the Scientist
ROBIN HOOD was a camoufleur. Like all huntsmen from time immemorial, he wore green, so that he would blend in color with the foliage of the forest. He must have been all but invisible when he stood stock-still. Naval officers would say, in their technical parlance, that his visibility was low.
WHEN the highway engineers of the State of Connecticut had to replank one of the State’s 1,800-foot bridges, they were confronted with the problem of removing the old worn planks without disturbing the guardrail at one side. If the ordinary practice had been pursued, the guardrail would have been removed, the new planking would have been fastened down, and then the guard-rail would have been restored.
THE best way to determine the distance to an inaccessible point when you have no instruments is shown in the illustration. If you want to find the width of a river between the points A and B, place a pin in a board held over the point A to represent that point, another 8 in. from it for B, and still another 4 in. from the first pin in any direction as Q.
FREQUENTLY fire-buckets have no cover, hence the water evaporates. On the other hand, inspection in large cities often reveals long rows of buckets with a board running through the handles for a covering. You can see what that means when seconds are precious.
Thousands of car-loads of dirt have failed to satisfy this strange subterranean appetite
A Subterranean Lake?
Changes in Land Contour
Indian Relics Come to Surface
THERE’S a hungry bit of land out in Darke County, Ohio, that is swallowing up a railroad track. Once in a while it bites off a freight engine or a string of cars trying to carry earth enough to stop its maw; but its regular diet is the railroad right of way, rails, ties and all.
Condensing the ox to preserve him forever: a new marvel of chemistry
The First Order
This Meat Will Keep Forever
It's Condensed Cow Now
Transportation Charges Reduced
Question of Cost to the Consumer
A Wafer of Liver
Also Dehydrated Vegetables
Even Dried Hash Stood the Test
John Walker Harrington
MEAT that can be shaken dried from a paper bag at the sound of the voice of the unexpected guest in the hall, and so served that the dear friend from the office will believe that its source was the family refrigerator, is the latest boon that science has evolved.
SHOULD you go to your garage early some morning to get out your car, only to find that all of the gasoline had run out of the tank through the carburetor because a piece of dirt in the gasoline had clogged the needle valve, you would realize the benefits accruing from the simple gasoline-strainer shown on the car in the picture above.
KEROSENE will not burn without smoke unless mixed with sufficient air. Yet a mixture containing finely divided kerosene and air enough for its complete combustion does not ignite readily. Abner Doble, well known as an automobile engineer, has solved this problem for steam-driven automobiles. A centrifugal blower driven by a small electric motor forces air through two Venturi tubes. The suction causes the kerosene to rise in the supply-pipe, which opens into the air-tube, where it is atomized into a fine spray, and blown into the combustion-chamber under the boilers.
HONK! honk! The Ford is in India. They laugh at it there, just as they do everywhere, but it honks just the same. The driver passes an ancient shrine, and the Hindu priests smile and say something about the “tin Lizzies," but the machine continues the journey, ignoring the remarks.
Now Comes the Electrically Heated Shoe for Automobilists
ADAPTED and commercialized from the electrically warmed suit of army aviators is a new electrically heated shoe for those automobilists who use their cars throughout the coldest part of the winter season. As may be seen in the accompanying illustrations, the device is very simple.
ANYBODY who has ever changed a tire on the road on a hot day, with the sun beating down on his back, will appreciate the roadside service station, an institution recently inaugurated by an oil company of Southern California. At various points along all public highways the company has erected tire stations like the one shown below.
PRIMING-CUPS on motors disappeared with the adoption of the self-starter, and are now rarely seen on new motors. But the poor quality of gasoline makes many an automobilist wish that his car was equipped with those same discarded priming-cups.
AN automobile tractor which uses motor-truck tires on the front, and a caterpillar tractor as motor power, was recently employed in hauling a bungalow several miles on ordinary oak runners. The weight of the house was so great that within the first two miles two inches of the runners were worn down.
How Railroads Fight Blizzards with Electric Heaters
ONE of the most difficult winter problems of the railroads—and there are, of course, many problems of the kind—is to keep the switches free from snow. A switch that is snowed in or frozen cannot be moved and is useless. Switches that are set by hand may be cleaned and swept by the switchman or brakeman and thus made operative, but the cleaning takes time and the movement of the trains is necessarily delayed.
A Gentle Tap and Your Gas-Lighter Is Ready for Use
TO strike a match and with its flame ignite the gas seems simple enough, but have you ever tried it? Sometimes everything goes smoothly: the matches are in the place provided for them, the particular match which you select behaves as a good match should—that is, it does not break, ignites at the first attempt, and does not lose its head.
I F you are told that a train will arrive at a certain station at 12 o’clock, you do not know whether the train is due to arrive at noon or at midnight. The adoption of the 24-hour clock would prevent any such misunderstanding. Some time before the war.
There were hundreds of cases of this form of vandalism in coal-less Chicago
Same Old Human Nature
Why Authorities Are Not Advised
The Huge Money Loss
A MICHIGAN man who owned a seven-room house in Chicago, failing to receive any remittance from his agent for several months, finally protested gently; whereat the agent, after making a visit to the premises, replied that there was no longer a house to rent! Shortage of fuel, combined with severe winter weather, had combined to make irresistible the temptation to use the unoccupied building for fuel.
A NEW YORK truckster, not being wealthy enough to buy an automobile truck when they came into vogue, was forced to remain true to his old-fashioned horse and wagon. Being oldfashioned has its difficulties, as this man found out. People were apt to disregard his "get out of the way," being accustomed to step lively only to the tune of an automobile horn.
ST. PETERSBURG, Florida, boasts the only out-of-doors post-office in the United States. It was erected as an experiment by the Treasury Department for a model to be used for post-office buildings in other semi-tropical cities, should this one prove satisfactory.
HOW can shoes be shined and clothes pressed, at hotels, without disturbing visits from bell-boys? The answer is a small closet built into the door, so that it can be entered from the outside. You simply place shoes and clothes in the miniature double-doored closet, or "servidor." The articles are extracted noiselessly from outside by an attendant. The device is simply a door within a door. In carrying out the idea, the door is made thicker than usual.
WHEN folks go boating at night on the pond at Decorah, Iowa, they light up the gas at the end of the landing, and no one cares if it burns all night; for there’s no meter to keep tabs on the burning gas. You’d like to have a gas-light like that? So should we; but one must own a pond to get this kind of light.
NOW that the war is over, here is something new to worry about. Chinese white ants have arrived at Los Angeles, city of moving pictures and concrete houses. The concrete interests them not at all, but the wooden reinforcements within do. They crawl into the very vitals of a house and start gnawing.
THE Mississippi and the Missouri rivers overflow their banks quite regularly; and each time they do, the receding waters carry off some of the mud and sand from the shores. In order to save the river-banks from this constant erosion, brush mattresses are sunk along the shores.
ON the Bethlehem road, half a mile from the city of Jerusalem, is a solitary tree of apparently no unusual antiquity, but long used by guides in the vicinity of the Holy City to tax the credulity of their patrons. Visitors are told that this is the tree on which Judas hanged himself.
NO longer need you kick up your heels in order to light a match; for William Cohen, of Oregon, has invented a match-scratcher which has on its back a pin by means of which you may attach the scratcher to other, more convenient parts of your body.
THIS youthful water-carrier is a Filipino. His water-tanks are made of bamboo, and he hangs them on each side of his horse when he starts his day’s work. His method of getting ready for an arduous day is unique. He simply fastens all the tanks in place with a rope, and makes a bridle for his horse out of the left-over ends.
ONE of the results of greatness is danger. Millionaires and others would do well to get one of these breastplates. When not in active service, it is collapsed and worn as an iron belt. All the layers are slotted at the ends and they are held together by bolts.
A GLANCE at the photograph shown above might lead you to think that these prosperous-looking colored folk had never seen a cow being milked before. But you’d be wrong. Their intense interest is due to the fact that the traveling school of the Alabama Polytechnic Institute has just motored up, and the professor—he in the white coat—is showing the very latest wrinkles in milking.
THE plow that will not break when it strikes an impassable object is no longer a dream, but a reality. The "safety plow," an invention recently patented by Alexander Carpenter, of Carey, Ohio, can accomplish the feat unerringly. A wooden pin that breaks when it hits an obstruction, allowing the plow to swing clear, is the main idea involved.
An Implement for Covering a Wheat-Field with Straw
THE time-honored covering of snow that keeps the wheat-field warm in winter now has a rival in the form of straw. Heretofore the expense of spreading the straw has been considerable, even if not prohibitive, but the manufacturers of farm machinery think that they have solved the problem by producing the spreader shown below.
To Prevent the Paint-Brush from Curling When Not in Use
YOU have probably noticed that when a paint-brush is allowed to stand for any length of time, the bristles assume a permanent curl which renders the brush unsatisfactory, and in many cases actually useless, long before the brush has been worn out.
Shooting a Hundred Buttons a Minute from a Machine
THE machine in the illustration is stamping out a hundred buttons a minute from brass sheets run beneath the dies. After passing through this machine, the button blanks go to a press for making the ornate designs demanded by the trade. Rapid changes in shape and size necessitate the use of various kinds of dies and stamping tools.
NO matter how splintered and battered an old floor may be, it can be made the foundation for a cement floor. There are certain forms of cement that are very well suited to the purpose. Some of these cements are light and easily spread, filling the cracks thoroughly and forming a good, sanitary flooring.
The Maryland is to be our mightiest battleship. She embodies all the lessons taught by the war. Torpedoes were used in the Jutland fight. What about them? The Maryland has five hulls filled with oil to protect her against them. Heavy, long-range guns won the fight in the North Sea: so the Maryland has a main battery composed of sixteen-inch guns.
THE illustration gives an idea of a Michigan asphalt plant that has been successfully turning out from 1,500 to 2,800 yards of mixed asphalt a day. The amount of production varies according to the distance of the plant from the scene of work.
HE has gone to work at last, this motorcycle joy-rider. Formerly he was thought to be wasting his time; but an injustice was done him, for he was practising for his new job. A Hawaiian pineapple company was the first to offer a job to this racing fiend.
WHAT can be done with an old cement walk? The old way was to tear it up and dump it somewhere—a total loss. What’s the new way? Crush it and use it. Now you see what the portable crusher in the picture is doing. The contractor is rebuilding the sidewalk with the crushed refuse that flows from the chute of the machine.
BE careful-if it is a rattler, even after it is dead. A scratch from the fangs may prove fatal. The best material for stuffing is raw cotton wrapped about a wire. When this is inserted and sewed inside of the skin, it not only makes excellent stuffing material, but is useful in posing the snake, the wire affording the necessary flexibility.
IT is a wonderful lake far off in the heart of Africa, where the sun blazes sublimely and causes the water to evaporate so quickly that an outlet is considered by nature to be a superfluity —a lake like our Great Salt Lake, where the inflowing waters have unloaded common salt for so long a period that the saturation-point has been passed.
It is a matter of weird effects produced by a wizard of light behind the scenes
John Walker Harrington
THOSE who have seen “The Unknown Purple” at the Lyric Theater, New York City, or who have read reviews of it, must be curious to know how its weird effects are produced. This scientific-theatrical novelty by Roland West and Carlyle Moore, adapted from Mr. West’s story, is based on the supposed discovery of a dye of such potency that the rays from it can make its possessor invisible.
ONE of the cleverest of the many aids now offered the modern automobile repairman is an apparatus designed to find out automatically the troubles of magnetos that do not operate properly. Heretofore this kind of work has been done by more or less home-made and imperfect apparatus.
ANYONE who has narrowly escaped a serious accident, and perhaps death, by having his automobile engine stop or go dead on a steep grade, and start to slide backward before the brakes could be applied, will appreciate the invention of Thomas Mill-down shown below.
BY cutting openings in the top of the car he uses for wire and pole inspection, a railway superintendent has made this work much easier. As the illustration shows, three windows of transparent celluloid, about 10 by 12 inches each, are set in the top exactly over the driver’s seat.
This British Steam Motor-Truck Has a Coke-Fired Boiler
IF you could run your car on some new fuel costing only one fourth as much as gasoline, you would use that new fuel in nine cases out of ten, provided it did not upset many years of experience in driving a gasoline-engine car. This is the principle upon which Thomas Clarkson, a noted steam engineer of Great Britain, has worked to produce a new steam-lorry or motor-truck which tests have shown to be one fourth as expensive as the same type of vehicle driven by gasoline.
Of simple construction, it’s a great comfort when you get stuck in the mud
SUPPOSE you were out riding in the country in your Ford car, and suppose your car got stuck in a mud-hole. No one in sight, and not even a plank or a tree to help you extricate the car. Now suppose you had only to go to the rear, pull a lever, pushing the while with your shoulder against the back of the tonneau, and just follow your car back to firm ground? An invention by a Minnesota man makes this a reality by a simple spring-rod attachment running from the rear axle to the speed levers and carburetor, the connection being such that when the brake-lever is swung to immediate speed or vertical position the clutch-pedal will be swung to neutral position, the brakes not being applied unless the brake-lever is swung to its backward position.
THE instrument shown herewith, the invention of R. J. Hoffman, of New York, is used for determining the correct balance of airplane propellers and for measuring possible weight difference between the blades. It is made of threeply wood, in the shape of an anchor.
PILOT Robert F. Shanle, air mail-carrier between New York and Washington, carries his luncheon with him on his daily flights, and eats it while speeding through the air. How can he eat, with both of his hands constantly employed in controlling his machine? It is true that the steering and controlling mechanism demands constant attention, but the recently invented knee control enables the aviator to guide his machine, as an expert rider guides his horse, with his knees, leaving his hands free to operate a camera, draw maps or sketches, or anything else he may like.
EVERY airplane must have at least one propeller. During the war the demand for propellers became enormous. You may think it an easy matter to make an unlimited number of airplane propellers. It is not. The making of such devices is a difficult and delicate task which has heretofore required exceptionally skilful and experienced workmen.
SOMEBODY in Pawtucket, R. I., has been making a company of men attached to the 18th Labour Group Headquarters of the British forces in France very happy by sending them copies of POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. He (or she) responded to the appeal of one J. Baker, of His Majesty’s forces, printed in our November number.
Built-to-order villages that combine the best in city and country life
A WELL known architect, Henry Atterbury Smith, has taken all the good points of city and country life and from them has designed —and, what is more, built—an ideal village. The inhabitants live in the very best of apartment-houses, all of the windows of which open out on charming landscapes instead of on other folks’ back yards.
OUCH!" comes from beneath the jacked-up automobile. "What’s the trouble now?" asks the jovial neighbor. "That monkey-wrench slipped and I skinned my knuckles again!" "Wait a minute," says the neighbor, and goes into his own garage.
It is done by a machine that also compresses merchandise for shipment
THE compressing of merchandise for shipment will be employed extensively in the future, says William P. Michaelson, inventor of the machine shown here. He probably does not intend to include cut glass, china, or even high silk hats of the non-collapsible type; but there can be no doubt that the idea of reduction of the volume of commodities is capable of a wider application than hitherto.
And does an enormous amount of work with a small number of laborers
BECAUSE of the necessity of transporting enormous quantities of grain, and the lack of laborers to handle it during the war, a method for moving grain invented by Robert Boby came widely into use in Great Britain. The inventor treats the grain as if it were so much water.
Finishing and Polishing Metal by Means of a Leather Belt
METAL-FINISHING iS ordinarily done on a buffing-wheel. An abrasive belt machine answers just as well. The finish given by the belt is excellent, and great speed is obtained. In fact, the makers of the new machine claim that it turns out more and better work than is possible with any other finishing process.
WHERE sand-sifting is done on a large scale, the use of screens vibrated by an electric motor has been found very satisfactory. A coarse screen can be used for removing the gravel, and a finer screen for the sand. Various grades can be separated by this means in a very short time, and the work is under the complete control of the operator.
NOW can you use a bicycle in winter? The answer is given by a young New Yorker. He has simply removed the front wheel from his machine and substituted skates. Suitable braces and cross-pieces are made use of to accomplish the purpose in view, and the whole is given a gay and festive appearance by wrapping the braces with white cloth.
TO give your typewriter a thorough cleaning, why not use a gasoline-torch? First take the typewriter outdoors and remove the ribbon. The platen should be either taken off or covered with paper. Having filled the torch with gasoline, pump up a good pressure and open the needle valve.
A MUMMY different from any other in the world is on exhibition in the Museum of Natural History in New York City. It is believed to be the only one of its kind ever found. It was discovered in the province of Antofagasta, Chili, and is the mummy of a Chilean Indian who was buried in a cave-in while engaged in mining copper, in prehistoric times.
IN a two-foot dish a Japanese will make for you a perfect garden—summer-houses, bridges, Japanese maidens, and trees. The bridges, houses, and maidens are the result of careful, delicate workman-ship, but how about the living trees? They are perfect one-foot grown-up trees.
EMPLOYEES of an America mining company operating in central Mexico were driven off their property by revolutionary bandits a year ago, leaving most of their belongings behind them. When the president of the concern returned six months later, he found his camera unharmed and still loaded, and proceeded to take a photograph of the company offices. An exposure showed this remarkable picture.
CHIEF cook for the Indians of Vancouver Island makes no complaint when a festival is announced, for Indian festivals are not elaborate eight-course affairs like ours. The cook need only add several potatoes and carrots to his already cooking stew and serve it up in a large bowl.
THAT old adage that praises the stitch in time as a labor-saving device appeals with particular force to the camper or woodsman miles away from a tailor or feminine aid. Many woodsman, like most sailors, are good needlemen; but, where the tar has always needle, thread, and palm (the sea version of a thimble) in his ditty-bag, the woodsman is often without the "mending makings." Now, as our picture above certifies, he has only to put one more cartridge in his belt to be ready for rips and tears.
MOST tender parents will not throw their children overboard in order to teach them how to swim. Instead, they make sure that their children won’t sink by buying them buoying water-wings and life-preservers. But the economical automobile-owing parent shown below has turned one of her inner tubes into a life preserver, and her child is swimming in it.
TO simplify the work of piling up coal in railroad yards, a triple-conveyor apparatus operated by electricity, is now employed. The first conveyor carries the coal up a certain height, and lets it fall on the second; that, in turn, carries it up another height; whereupon the last conveyor link brings it to the top.
NEW YORK has a hotel for dogs. Ranged about the spacious receptionroom are kennels where prize pets have been left temporarily while their masters are out of town. The bull pups are in the majority, and there is always one in particular that tries to attract your attention and be interviewed. All the dogs are well cared for in their hotel.
MUCH of the old-time sea-captain's knowledge of wind and weather, reinforced by sound science, is demanded of the captain of a giant Zeppelin. As a rule, before starting, out, the first thing that a Zeppelin commander does is to look at the indicator that is placed at the top of every Zeppelin shed. It tells him not only the direction of the wind, but also how many meters a second it is blowing.
Ships and cargoes worth billions were sunk by the Germans. Can that treasure ever be recovered?
Man Lives in an Air Ocean
Why the Diver Is Not Squeezed to Death
ACCORDING to an official statement issued by the United States Shipping Board, the Allied and neutral nations lost 21,404,193 dead-weight tons of shipping during the war, which means that Germany maintained an average destruction of about 445,000 dead-weight tons monthly.
Sometimes pontoons (huge especially constructed steel cylindrical tanks) are sunk beside the vessel and fastened in place by divers. The water in the tanks is then pumped out. Such is the buoyancy of the pontoons that the vessel rises. As a general rule, the diver first tries to clear away wreckage, which is done by means of an under-water oxy-acetylene torch or by dynamite, and then closes all the large holes.
Locked in a cold-storage room, half frozen, unheard when he pounded and pounded, he saved himself by short-circuiting the power line
The Door Would Not Open
Trapped in a Dungeon
What Could He Do?
He Had a Plan
Charles Magee Adams
IT had been fine and cool when he had first gone in. Outside it was 105°; inside, freezing cold. The contrast was agreeable: so Charlie Grant had worked on his job of installing new lamps with a sense of relief from the summer weather. But after a while he grew colder and colder.
THIS patient must be taken to the operating-room at once. Use that new carrier." The surgeon at the emergency hospital turns from the groaning victim of an automobile accident to the head nurse standing by his side. A few minutes later a strong framework on casters, with a superstructure consisting of two curved arms, like the davits used on vessels for lowering life-boats, is wheeled to the side of the bed.
IN those places where large pieces of machinery are built, it is frequently necessary to use elevated platforms or scaffoldings for the men who have to mount or adjust the machinery on which they are working. These platforms or scaffolds must be very strong, and they must be easily moved and adjusted to different heights.
WHY are the blocks of ice that the iceman juggles so mathematically alike and regular in shape? They have been sawn. Usually the saws are pulled by horses. Now, however, machines are doing the sawing. The marking is done with an electric marker operated by one man.
ONE of the main reasons for the growing demand for electric lights in farm-houses far removed from any source of electricity is the progressiveness of the dealers selling portable farmlighting apparatus. Instead of making the farmer go several miles to town to see such equipment, some of the big dealers actually take the equipment to him by means of a delivery motor-car, and start the apparatus running so that he may judge of its merits right in his own home.
WHEN an electric light company was constructing two cable tunnels near Boston, the ordinary methods of surveying had to be dispensed with on account of interference with construction trains and other traffic. The diameter of these tunnels is only seven feet; hence the complete avoidance of traffic interference was an impossibility.
BEFORE the year 1917, very little machinery was in existence that could be used with profit in harvesting hemp. A hand hemp-hook could be used to cut about an acre a day, but at that rate the crop was not sufficiently profitable to induce the farmer to plant extensively.
SOME of the concrete road-making inventions appear to the casual observer like huge boot-blacking machines. Slowly, back and forth, a big belt is dragged across the cement surface, smoothing and finishing it in much the same manner that a shoe is polished.
THERE are many kinds of beets, and they have just as many uses. We are all familiar with the garden variety which we eat as a vegetable or in salad. The sugar-beet has been grown for its sugar alone, and has been so well cultivated that it is just as valuable as cane-sugar if you compare one ton of beet root with one ton of sugar-cane.
THROUGH all the years this rock has been precariously poised on a base the greatest dimension of which is twenty-six inches. Excellent work on the part of its center of gravity is responsible for keeping it there. Perhaps some day said center of gravity will make a misstep and the rock will go tumbling down the hillside.
WHEN a certain New Jersey town was still a wilderness, a trusting man bought one of its lots. Later, when streets were cut through in the process of civilizing the town, the trusting one found that part of his lot was far below the street-level.
RATHER a large boiler-head is this. It is more than twice the height of the man standing beside it. The actual diameter of this enormous object is thirteen feet, and a single plate 1 3/16 inches thick was used in its construction. A number of these boiler-heads are being made at Portland, Me., for the East Coast Fisheries Company for use on their large trawlers. It is the type that is being used on the Sea Bird, the Pelican, the Crane and other big steam trawlers. This particular boiler-head is said to be the largest ever constructed from a single plate in this country.
BECAUSE of the unfortunate check-raising habit among certain ungrateful receivers of checks, an effective machine was invented in which checks for $5 were punched with a “Do not pay over $5” sign, and so on. A check-protector of this kind is undoubtedly very valuable, but it is too heavy to be carried around.
THE dribbling of infancy has its revival in the adult pipe-smoker. He may be shocked at the idea, but the condition of a smoker’s pipe after a few healthy smokes proves it. From the pipe-stem oozes a disgusting liquid—half nicotine, half saliva.
AFTER you have gallantly tipped your hat to someone, and put it back on your head with a flourish, there are usually two dents where you grabbed it. Sheepishly you take it off again, punch it out, and reshape it. Two Englishmen of the name of Jones were so un comfortable because of this propensity of soft hats that they invented a hatshape retainer.
THE Vaterland, rechristened the Leviathan, is one of the few large undertakings of Germany that turned out successfully. It is so large and moves so swiftly that it carried enough American soldiers abroad to finish up the war. This must have been bitter news for the Kaiser and his U-boat captains.
Everything Is Reversed on This Locomotive Giant of the West
SOME of the big locomotives of the West are completely reversed, so far as their parts are concerned. The engineer’s cab is at the front and the boiler behind it. The illustration makes the arrangement clear. The fuel for this engine is oil, and hence the engineer is one of those happy men who do not get cinders in their eyes when traveling.
THIS one-eyed monster is another world mystery. It must have existed or the photograph could not have been taken, but no one knows just what it is. The roughness of its surface and its peculiar conformation suggest that it may be a stone. But the United States Geological Survey, which knows all about stones, doesn’t seem to think so, and refers us to botanists, suggesting that it may be an oak puffball.
AN example of the remarkable strength of concrete paving was shown in a dramatic manner by a wreck that occurred at Provo, Utah, early in October of last year. The Salt Lake & Utah Railroad and the Denver & Rio Grande cross at right angles at Provo.
THE great guns which the United States made and used so effectively during the war were aimed by special methods gradually developed by experience. Greater ranges were developed during the present war than were ever attempted in previous wars; and, as the target is frequently hidden from the gunners, various systems of observing and signaling the results of firing were tried by representatives of the various governments.
EVEN skates can be made into very good tanks. That is what was done by the youngster whose product is shown in connection with this article. Ordinary roller skates and a few pieces of tin were the materials. The side pieces reach to within a quarter of an inch of the ground, and almost disguise the fact that the rollers of the skates are the real rollers of the twin tanks.
How could a lunar Columbus break the grip of gravitation and reach the nearest heavenly body? What kind of motor would he use? How much power would it take?
The Distance Is Not the Important Thing
There in the heavens shines the moon — two hundred and forty thousand miles away. How can I bridge that awful chasm?
Is There Any Limitation to Gravity?
A Shot Fired from the North Pole
The Projectile Would Become a Satellite
A Ray of Hope in the Sky-Rocket
Round Trip to the Moon in One Hundred Hours
A. J. Lorraine
THERE in the heavens shines the moon—240,000 miles away. How can I bridge that awful chasm? Others have asked that question of themselves before me. Most of them have been novelists or scientific romancers. I am not a novelist, but an engineer, and it is as an engineer that I ask myself the question.
"What would be the effect upon me if gravity were removed, and removed it would be at a point some thousands of miles away from the moon? . . . “This is certain: as I approach the moon I will have the sensation of falling headlong through space—a terrifying sensation, which it might be impossible to counteract by the force of the will. ... In the absence of hand-rails or straps, I should very likely sooner or later find myself sprawling in mid-air, unable to move my body from place to place in the car" But how can I release it at the rate that I demand? It stubbornly refuses to give out even one half of its energy in less than 2,200 years! If I could hasten the process! Man has harnessed steam, electricity, waterfalls.
Arguments for and against a new wireless apparatus
THAT it is possible to do away with expensive concrete and steel wireless towers is believed by the supporters of a recently announced radio system patented by Messrs. James Rogers and Henry Lyons of Hyattsville, Md. Instead of suspending a number of parallel wires at a distance above the ground, one wire is stretched in a ditch a few feet below the earth’s surface, another wire being laid in a second conduit in the opposite direction.
METER reading is one of the war-born jobs for women that are likely to survive the war, and many of the electric lighting companies have started schools to train girls to read the dials. The capable-looking young person in our picture is manipulating the meter dials before a class in one of these schools.
It’s a sign that the day when all of us will fly is not far off
PARIS is familiar enough with the roar of airplane engines. But the roar that it heard soon after midday on January 19 last was so much louder than anything that it had ever heard before, so obviously in the midst of the city, that it rushed from its cafés and its houses and looked up at the sky.
It has been found a very useful tool in cold weather
YOU know what difficulty is experienced in transporting and distributing coal in a cold climate. For days at a time a car may lie idle before the coal will thaw sufficiently to admit of removal. Traffic is blocked and railroad losses are incurred.
Personally, we don’t believe any improvement on the circus necessary
IF you ever rose before sunrise to see the circus come to town, you cannot have forgotten the marvelous organization that made a new tent city spring up before your eyes. This organization was so perfected that, when Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show was touring Germany, the army authorities detailed a group of officers to the show to study the methods of making and breaking camp.
Identifying four of the stars with the aid of the Dipper—the great star map
The Dipper Is Our Sign-Post
A Sample of the Chart
Ernest A. Hodgson
AS we look out along the plane of the universe we see the great band of stars of the Galaxy, or Milky Way. If we look at right angles to that direction we see but few stars. We are then looking toward the “Galactic Pole." The evening sky of April brings the Galactic Pole above us and bends the denser band of stars about our western horizon.
The map above represents the appearance of the sky at the times listed below. It is specifically arranged for the latitude of New York, 40° N., but is practicable for ten degrees on either side of this latitude. The magnitudes are indicated on the map by stars of various kinds as follows: 0, open center; 1, eight points; 2, six points; 3, five points; 4, four points; 5 is indicated by a single point.
OUR planet map this month has one new feature. The times are set to the "mean Sun." Our true Sun progresses at such a varying rate that clocks could not be made to follow it. Accordingly we start off an imaginary Sun at a given time, in conjunction with the true Sun.
THE snap-shot above shows a row of barrels acquired in the congested section of a large city. The scheme for a garden proved a decided success. Two thirds of the space within the barrels was filled with ashes and on top of this was placed about a foot of soil.
AMONG every six or twelve cows there seems to be always one that jumps and breaks fences and leads the other cows astray. The first thought that comes to one who is considering the matter is that a fence should be made so strong that no cattle can break it and so high that none can jump over it.
FROM far-away Japan comes this new vegetable with the odd name of udo. Some of it has been grown in California and shipped to Washington and other cities,where it has received indorsement and commendation.
Here is one of the candidates for fame and fortune who pins his faith on a seaplane
Sunstedt's Airplane Different
"The Time Has Come"
AS we go to press there are more candidates for the honor of making the first transatlantic flight than there used to be for a position of judge at a beauty contest. The interesting entry in this greatest of air sweepstakes that we present here is notable for its comparatively modest dimensions.
This Useful Implement Builds Roads and Removes Snow
THE road-scraper shown above can be used for building roads or for removing snow from city or country highways. In advance of the front wheels are two small scrapers designed to secure good traction for the truck. Like the large scraper in the center, these small ones are spring-suspended.
MAKING stereoscopic pictures can be accomplished quite successfully by placing two cameras side by side and snapping them simultaneously. Cameras taking a 2¼ by 3¼ picture do very well for the purpose. The lenses, having been ground by machinery, are similar, as are the other parts.
DRIFTING snow is the railway’s most formidable danger. The remedy, according to Herman J. Schwitzer of Braham, Minn., lies in the proper fencing. He claims that the fence must be increased in height as the drift increases in the vicinity of a cut; otherwise the snow will ultimately topple over into the cut.
OLD automobile tires can be effectively used, as the illustration proves, as bumpers for the sides of a garage door, to prevent the one person in fifty who misjudges the width of the door when turning in from seriously damaging either his car or the door-casing.
THE Rob-Roy canoe is a decked craft especially designed for the canoeist who travels alone, and who prefers a double-bladed paddle. It is an old and well known model, and cruises of hundreds of miles have been made in this kind of craft. The canoe described, while of inexpensive and easy construction, light in weight, and drawing but little water, is not a flimsy makeshift, but a strong and serviceable canoe, particularly well suited for river and lake use.
A DEEP cigar-box, of the size in which fifty cigars are packed, makes a good foundation for a box in which to keep automobile spark-plugs. It may serve to carry extra plugs in the car, or to protect all of the plugs of an engine while the car is being overhauled.
THE accompanying illustration shows a simple arrangement for preventing the accidental closing of a vertically mounted knife switch. It consists of a small box, made either of wood or fiber, preferably assembled without the use of nails or screws, so proportioned that it will fit over and inclose the lower clips of the double-throw switch.
A SIMPLE and inexpensive guard to protect the eyes of the man drilling, and to keep dirt from falling upon machinery beneath, is shown in the accompanying sketch. A funnel of suitable size made of cardboard—or even newspaper may be used—is shaped over the drill so as to divert grit and chips into it.
A Merry-Go-Round Driven by the Wind You can make it yourself
THE illustration shows a wind-driven merry-go-around designed for use at the shore or mountain-side where there is a breeze almost daily. There are swings for two persons, and a seat for the operator at the center within reach of a cord which controls the machine’s motions.
BURNING a jet of air in an atmosphere of illuminating gas can be easily accomplished in the following manner: Insert in the bottom of a lamp-chimney a two-holed stopper carrying glass tubes, as shown in the diagram, tube CD being about ¼ in. in diameter.
WHERE drop cords to electric lights are installed over machines that use a constant flow of oil the re-inforced cord near the socket is subjected to constant handling by the operator with oily hands. This causes rapid deterioration of the insulation, bad appearance, and eventually trouble at this point.
A NOVEL place for hen’s nests is shown in the illustration. An old carriage wheel was mounted on its axle and the axle set vertically in the ground. Between each two spokes is a space convenient for a nest. To hold the nest, mesh wire was hung between, slightly slack so that it would bag.
DENTISTS use a machine called a dental engine when drilling teeth. The shaft is flexible, and the dentist bends it this way or that, to suit his convenience. When the drilling is finished he removes the drill and puts on a sandpaper or emery disk, or even a small circular saw.
AN amusing experiment or trick can be performed as follows: Take an ordinary wine bottle and drill a small hole in the cork by heating a 10d nail red-hot and pushing it through the center of the cork while in the bottle; then enlarge the hole for about ½ in. of its length to the diameter of a cigarette.
THE tool shown in the illustration is the ordinary leather-cutter, but it is protected over the cutting edge. Its automatic guard is actuated by the spring as shown. The guard is shaped from sheet metal, and is slipped over the handle with an open spring which presses against it.
THE intention of this home-made portable conveyor is to reduce the time and labor in loading dirt, sand, ashes, and like material into a wagon, motor-truck, or other conveyance. This conveyor may be operated by hand-power, but a small electric motor of about 2-horsepower with a long connecting electric wire is a more efficient plan.
HERE is a very handy trick that mechanics will wonder why they did not think of before—a combination softand hard-faced hammer. When making repairs or overhauling, there are many shafts, pins, gears, bushings, etc., that one needs in order to rap in or out and yet not mar the finish.
WHEN hay or alfalfa is extremely heavy, so that the ordinary guard or track cleaner on a mowing-machine fails to work, a rope, one end of which is attached to the end of the cutting bar at or near the end guard, and the other end attached to the seat, will do the work.
BY means of a door that opens by sliding up and down as well as swinging inward and outward, a druggist has provided his store with an entrance that is equally suitable for all seasons of the year. In summer the store, after being once opened in the morning, has no need for doors at all; therefore in summer the perpendicular opening of the doors is used.
THE armature of a direct-current machine can be tested for common troubles by means of the arrangement shown in Fig. 1. The two opposite brushes bearing on the commutator—the other brushes being removed—are connected with a source of current through an adjustable resistance and an ammeter.
MANY uses have been suggested for worn-out hacksaw-blades, but it is doubtful if they can be put to better employment than as glue-spreaders in the wood-worker’s shop. For most purposes it is sufficient simply to break the saw in two and use the pieces as they are.
THE typewriter stool shown herewith was planned so that it could be carried out doors and used in the shade of a tree. The construction is of the simplest kind, nothing but straight sawing and nailing being required. The entire stool was made in less than half an hour, and the size and shape of it was, to a large extent determined by the material already on hand.
A SIMPLE plan of storing a number of different grades of lubricating oils is shown below. Four discarded hot-water boilers were mounted on a hanging platform, and piped to spigots brought in convenient reach for filling cans. A shelf beneath the spigots serves to hold the oil-cans.
OXY-ACETYLENE welds often have glass-hard spots where it is impossible to grind them out, yet they must come out before machining or filing can be done. They can often be “popped” out by the use of a sharp chisel driven in the work at the side of the spot and getting far enough under to wedge the spot off after which the work can proceed.
AN artist never sees the object he is attempting to draw or the scene he is viewing at exactly the same view-point. He looks at an object, lowers his eyes to see how he is drawing what he has seen, then when he raises his head again it will be two, three, or more inches out of the position it was at first and his eyes view the object from another angle.
MANY a farmer has had the diaagreeble experience of mowing in a wind and seeing with disgust the hay blown under the cutter-bar when he goes with the wind. Many times he is forced to stop work until the wind lets up in order not to waste his hay; and in the haying season he cannot afford to let the work slacken.
WHEN a knife switch of the hinged type is opened under load, there is always a tendency for an arc to form between the blades of the switch and the contact clips. If the switch is opened slowly, the arc may eat away the blades and the clips at the points of contact, thus causing a poor connection.
IT frequently happens to a carpenter or wood-worker that the bits of his automatic drill do not reach the desired depth. It is quite essential that a hole be bored deeper sometimes, for instance, where a narrow but highbacked strip of wood is to be fastened with comparatively heavy nails on short miter returns of heavy moldings and other end grain work.
ANYONE who has ever attempted to make an electric alarm-clock out of an ordinary clock has been confronted with the problem of how to get hands, to make the contact, that would be heavy enough to be reliable without being too heavy for the power of the clock.
CLEAN the zinc carefully with diluted sulphuric acid by dipping it repeatedly in a jar containing the solution, using a piece of cloth tied to the end of a stick as a mop, if necessary. Then pour a few drops of clean mercury upon the zinc, while holding it over a glass tray, and spread the mercury as uniformly as possible over the zinc by means of a cloth and stick, repeating the process until the zinc is clear.
THE writer lost so many spectaclecases that he invented a way to prevent it. He fastened an ordinary pencil clip in the cover of his case and attached it to his pocket. When his glasses were in his pocket, at least, they were safe. Two small slits made with a pen-knife are sufficient to allow the clip to go through the cover, and of course after pushing it through, you bend it back on the inside to hold it securely in place. Try the scheme. It costs practically nothing, and will save you in the end.
IN winding coils, it is necessary to have some sort of form if an even surface to the finished coil is desired. The form shown in the illustration may be made of any hard wood, one for each sized coil, and is used in the lathe centers when winding on the wire.
IN the great observatories are the finest timepieces that human ingenuity has been able to devise, but they are not strictly accurate. Their errors, though small, are determined by the only infallible regulator known —the steady sweep of myriad stars across the heavens.
THE different sections formed by the cuts in a wooden miter-box have a tendency to warp, which makes them bind in one cut and spread in the other. They are also liable to break off. This trouble can be effectively remedied, and the efficiency and strength of the miter-box doubled, by the simple expedient of boring a hole through each section from the bottom up, and driving a long spike into it.
THERE are many types of small suspension cars, each adapted to different uses and localities. In mining regions, such a means of conveyance is very common and, where the country is precipitous, almost indispensable for transporting men and ore from one elevation to another.
MANY of the accidents in woodworking shops result from the catching of a piece of wood upon the back of a circular saw, and striking the operator with enough force to injure him, sometimes with fatal results. This may be due to the turning of a crooked piece of wood after it has passed the saw, to a loose knot, to the pinching together of a board on account of the tendency of wood to adjust itself to the different tension of its fibers after a cut has been made, whether parallel with or across the grain, or to the piling of pieces behind the saw.
THE coloring matter in vanilla extract is due solely to substances naturally present in the vanilla bean and extracted therefrom by alcohol. Artificial extracts made by dissolving vanilla in alcohol contain no color in themselves, and caramel is commonly employed to supply this deficiency.
Being a version of the admonition, Go fly your kite
Chinese Rice Paper for Cover
C. M. Miller
ALMOST any shape kite can be worked out if we have patience and perseverance enough to plan, try out, and change until obstacles are overcome. The kite illustrated was prepared from a detail drawing made by a Chinese boy at the suggestion of the writer.
IN the spring a married man’s fancy lightly turns to thoughts of garden. The sweet-pea is a plant that necessitates a light but substantial trellis-work. A simply constructed support is seen in the illustration. Its extreme ends are made of wood, the arms being bored at the ends to receive the wires that are strung from end to end.
IN a government office where the number of telephone calls does not warrant the installation of a telephone at each desk, a useful overhead trolley and track have solved the problem of passing the one desk telephone back and forth. The trolley consists of a grooved wheel, having its bearings in a Yshaped frame, from which hangs a large ring.
THE formulas that follow are recommended for marking articles of glass, glass slips for microscopy, reagent flasks, and the like: Sodium silicate. ... 1 to 2 parts Liquid India ink......1 part For white: Sodium water-glass . 3 to 4 parts Chinese white or barium sulphate.........1 part The writing is not attacked by any reagent used in microscopical technique, but may readily be scraped with a knife.
THE model herein described is a dirigible of the cylindrical type, having semi-spherical ends. The material used to construct the envelope is varnished silk. Its length is 6 ft. and its diameter 1½ ft. The silk should be coated with a thin varnish on the interior and exterior surfaces to increase its gas-holding property.
THE storing of hose in shops to be used in emergency, presents a problem to the tool-room man, owing to its shape and bulk. In order to provide a suitable storage place a rack, made as shown in the illustration is useful.
Made from material found about the shop, it is easily constructed and inexpensive to build
Extraordinary Firmness of the Vise
Placing the Jaws Permanently
Regulating Tension of Band-Saw
Depth-Gage Must Be Accurate
CHARLES A. KING
THE band-saw filing device described here may be built from material usually found in most wood-working establishments. Its superiority over others of similar types lies in the length of the vise jaws, which permit the saw to be filed with fewer stops for changes than would be possible with a shorter vise, and the ease with which a suitable tension may be maintained upon a saw that is being filed or that is moved to bring another part of the blade into the vise.
IN a laced belt, it is important that the ends of the belt be held securely in alignment, that the lacing pass quietly over the pulleys, and that the lace be not subjected to unnecessary wear. The ends of the belt should be cut squarely, of course, and the holes punched in each end should be as small as possible, and located exactly opposite each other; but much depends on the system of lacing that is adopted.
ANY saw-horse or table that rests unevenly upon three legs is annoying to a degree entirely out of proportion to the ease with which the trouble may be remedied. One method is to find out which leg of the saw-horse or table is too long, and to cut it off by guess.
GRAVERS, particularly the square gravers, are generally well known and universally used. Still there are some things about them that are not so well known, such as their correct form, proper angles, and the best and most effective way of using them.
HERE is a gum and fabric rack that vulcanizers will find convenient and practicable. It keeps the repair stock clean, and permits several men to work at the same table without interfering with one another. The rack consists of a wooden frame, made to hold several rolls of gum and fabric, revolving on a stand fastened to the table.
THE make-and-break device for running this electric engine consists of a pair of solenoids arranged end to end with a simple armature passing to and fro from one to another and making a contact at each end of its travel. The heavy armature makes it possible to design the apparatus to make any required number of breaks per second or per minute.
YOUR old broom-handles can be used for something else besides churn-dashers. The tea-wagon shown in the illustration was made from broom-handles and cheese-boxes, the greatest expense being for the glass for the trays. Broom-sticks form the handles and the lengthwise supports, and the tongue of a child’s wagon form the front and the bottom crosswise support.
IF you should need to grind some coffee and do not possess a coffee-grinder, use your meat-grinder. Be sure the grinder is dry. Using the smallest cutter, or the one having holes about ⅛-in. in diameter, feed the coffee in slowly, and operate as usual.
IN electric railways, it is customary to employ the track as a return circuit. The rails, not being grounded, allow the return current to leak into the ground, and to traverse any path of low resistance it can find, such as metal wateror gas-mains, back to the generator, which is also grounded.
WALKING down the lane to the mail-box may be all right in pleasant weather or slack times, but otherwise it becomes an unpleasant duty. The mail-box shown below can be built easily and inexpensively. First, a post is erected at the road and is fitted with a wood bracket on the side facing the house.
A SOD-CUTTER or edge may be made out of an old shovel and a piece of ¾-in. pipe which will equal the market article in every way, besides being sharper and more substantial. A slot is cut in the pipe to receive the blade, and holes are drilled in the sides to receive the rivets.
TO avoid spreading influenza germs among factory hands who used an ordinary bubbler drinking fountain, one large concern attached an electric light wire guard, in the manner shown in the illustration, to keep the drinker’s mouth from touching the outlet.