How the Coast Guard fights the grimmest menace of the sea
Wreckage Must Be Towed Away
Derelicts Towed to Port
An International Derelict Patrol
C. A. McAllister
PEACE war—to hath paraphrase its perils no a less famous than saying; and, while the menace of the submarine has been removed by the victory of the Allies, the Coast Guard must continue its neverending warfare against the derelict. “Another chapter has been added to the mysteries of the sea”—how often have you not read that in a newspaper account of a ship that never returned?
Captured by an implacable enemy that returns to the attack year after year, this United States battleship is struggling to free herself. The great guns of the forward turret are spiked, the decks fore and aft are held by the enemy. It is time to sound the all: “All hands! Repel boarders!” Such battles with Winter in his North Atlantic stronghold put hardened sea fighters to the test.
THE men on the top of this derrick have just dropped a safe, which can be seen whirling through the air. is more, when it hits the ground, half a ton of bricks will be dumped on top of it. Then, if it still survives, it will be baked for eighty minutes in an oven heated to 1,500 degrees.
THE characteristic purr of airplane motors was always a cause for excitement among children; and, now that the war is over and the sky is comparatively clear of airplanes, children miss them very much—particularly the two young sters in the picture above.
SINCE snow comes only in winter-time, most of us are content to do our sleigh-riding then. But not so the frisky folk shown here. One fine day in autumn, as they wandered about California, they happened on this hill. The tall weeds and grasses which had covered it in spring had died in the summer heat, and now lay smoothly on the ground.
HERE is a magnificent old sycamore in Los Angeles that the people are trying to save. It stands just below the central piers of a bridge across the Arroyo Seco, at a point where the bank extends far into the “wash.” The roots are exposed for many feet.
IT coats only a nickel an hour to be toted around Africa, rickshaw fashion. This English officer has spent his nickel, and can now studyin comfort the accouterments of his driver. White paint alone relieves the gorgeous creature’s feet of stark nudity.
ON this quiet hillside in France are buried many of the famous airmen who gave their lives that we might live in peace. And, now that world peace is secure, the greatest tribute is paid to the memory of those who made this so. Here we see fellow airmen who survived the fighting, keeping fresh the graves of their fallen comrades.
THIS famous movie bad man, William S. Hart, has just picked up one hundred million dollars. He invaded New York’s Sub-Treasury one fine afternoon, wearing a Wild West hat, heavy riding-boots, and two large guns. These latter induced William S. Twiddy, deputy associate treasurer of the place, to open up bin 89 and offer to the other William S. the contents thereof.
DOUGLAS BURRELLE is not starring to-night at this theater in his latest play, “New and Used Cars,” as might be surmised from the picture below. He is not an actor, but an automobile dealer. Why is his name in front of the theater? Because the theater is no longer a theater, but an auto show-room, and Mr. Burrelle owns it.
IF the bombardment of Paris from a distance of more than seventy miles served any useful purpose at all, it was that of calling attention to the limitations of modern artillery. Through the popular press of the country, the public has learned that every gun—and, above all, the huge piece that shelled Paris—is short-lived.
IF the saw, cleaver, and knife were the only implements used in slaughter-houses for cutting up carcasses, steaks and chops would cost even more than they do. When thousands of steers, hogs, sheep, and swine are killed and cut up every day, labor-saving machinery must take the place of the hand tool.
CUTTING and winding "strip" or tape from broad webs of paper, fabric, and other materials was formerly accomplished by very crude methods. But recently the demand has been for more clean-cut products. The manufacture of clothing, underwear, shoes, caps, etc., re quires a vast quantity of cloth in strip form for bindings, trim mings, etc. Manufacturers of sags, automobile tires, typewriter ribbons, canvas belting, automobile tops, surgeon's bandages, and numerous other lines consume a great yardage of fabrics in the form of strip tape.
FOR the benefit of the great army of "luggage-toters" fuming and fretting under self-imposed burdens, a carrying strap has been invented. It will carry luggage; but we prefer a wheelbarrow. It is made of leather or canvas, and is used on either shoulder.
And it takes only two men to do the work that was formerly accomplished by a large force
An Electric Loading Machine
Getting the Coal on the Car
Control of the Mechanism
FOR the sake of greater efficiency in handling coal at Baltimore, one of the greatest coal-distributing ports in the United States, the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company has adopted a system of loading and unloading, storing and handling coal, invented and patented by Francis Lee Stuart, formerly the chief engineer of the railroad.
THE accompanying picture represents an optical phenomenon that has been familiar from time immemorial to the birds of the air, but that has, until recent times, lain somewhat beyond the purview of humanity. Even at the present day, though it is well known to aeronauts, few of them are able to explain it or to give it a name.
AN Idaho lumberman has invented the anti-slipping device shown in the picture above. The soles of the rubber boots are corrugated in the usual manner. Two V-shaped cleats, with the apex of the angle pointing toward the toes, are molded in the rubber of the soles and form an integral part of them.
TO test the qualities of sandstone, the Bureau of Standards at Washington recently designed and set up a curious machine. Inside of a boxlike wooden structure from five to six feet high and two and a half feet square, a miniature elevator is raised and lowered by the revolutions of a threaded hoisting shaft driven by an electric motor.
PEOPLE who suffer from literal cold feet, and who at the same time prefer comfort to beauty, will welcome this new cure—a hot-water boot. It is a large, clumsy affair, like a German soldier’s shoe. The inside casing is made of rubber, and fits the foot so snugly that air is excluded from the space between the foot and the casing.
GOOD upholstery is one of the essentials of comfort in automobile traveling. Without soft cushions and a top that will keep the rain out, touring would not be a great pleasure. The pictures above show how some of the work of upholstering is done.
A NEW road-scraper which may be used for smoothing uneven dirt or gravel roads or for scraping a path in the snow for automobiles or other vehicles, is attached to a powerful automobile truck. The blade is twelve inches wide and is of carbon spring-steel.
AMODERN device for weighing truck-loads may be considered as a kind of spring-scales with an electrical indicator. The body of the truck, which carries the load, rests upon springs supported by the rear axle. The heavier the load, the more will the spring be depressed, the flatter will it become, and the nearer will the body of the truck approach the rear axle.
A NEW method of securing an automobile against thieves is applicable only to cars provided with magnetic gear-shift. Ordinarily the shift lever can be moved to five positions — reverse, neutral, first, second, and third speeds. The inventor has added another position, the locking position, which cuts out the entire ignition system.
BEFORE the automobile novice has acquired proficiency it is not safe to intrust him with a car; but he must learn independence. An invention recently patented by Clifford M. Bishop, of New York, solves the problem by providing double control for cars used for instructing novices.
THE owner of a light delivery automobile with a top over the whole car hit upon a clever plan for stowing away an extra tire and some tools. He built a box of light boards for the tire, and placed in the center a smaller box with a sliding lid. Then he fastened the contrivance to a crossbrace in the top, back of the driver’s seat.
WHEN an automobile collides with another vehicle or with a trolley car, both are often wrecked. Sometimes the impact is not powerful enough to break or disable the engines or to do any serious damage to the wheels, tops, or mud-guards. But even a slight collision will smash every bit of glass of the wind-shield and side windows.
What man has learned about handling the metal that gave civilization its start in life
Getting Iron from Its Ore
Four Hundred Tons a Day
The Bessemer Process Converter
WHEN primitive man, perhaps prompted by curiosity, picked a formless and heavy mass of a strange substance from the ashes of his camp-fire and, in trying to break it up by pounding it with a stone, found that this strange substance did not break, but could be hammered into any form, he laid the foundation of the framework upon which rests human civilization.
HOW will the boys of the Allied armies keep busy until they are mustered out of service? That is the question on many lips today. It is easily answered. They will have a gloriously goodtime— and it surely is due them. For these men have borne the chief burden of war, risking their lives, fighting the fight in its truest sense.
THIS little bott1e-baby is an orphan only two weeks old. When his mother died he would have followed suit if somebody had not given him his chance by feeding him milk from a doll's bottle. The eager way in which he goes to it, holding the nipple with his front paws, is a reassuring indication that he will make good and grow to full-sized squirreldom, though his body now is pitifully thin and very much out of proportion.
THE little red schoolhouse has been revived in the heart of Death Valley; but it isn't a building standing in the shade of a green-grove. It is a faded box-car out under the burning sun and in the path of driving sand-storms, at the little town of Tecopa, in Inyo County, California.
HE was born into the world without the usual allotment of dog-feet—two forepaws he was shy. As he raised his moist, appealing eyes to his owner, that kind person had not the heart to kill him. Instead, he bought two rubber-tired wheels, and made them serve as paws by strapping them to the dog's body where the paws should have been.
GOING under the yoke in Caesar's day was a token of submission. Recalling that, and admitting that most of mankind is submissive to its tailors, it is easy to see how Edward C. Berriman, of Chicago, got the idea for what he calls a "shoulderyoke," which, in the language of the Patent Office, is "a device for accurately determining the width of collar and slope of the shoulders of an individual."
To us a cricket is but one of the tribe of noisy insects that visit us each summer, predicting hot weather, and so unloved. Not so in Japan. There he is a household pet. Caught by cricket-venders, he is placed in a fancy cage and sold to an admiring public.
A gas-tank 75 feet high and weighing 250 tons, with a capacity of 150,000 cubic feet, was recently loaded on two barges and towed to a point half a mile up a river, where it was needed on account of the increased quantity of gas used in the construction of ships.
THEY are just about old enough and their claws are just about strong enough to enable them to hang on to the cigar of their indulgent master. Their scraggy appearance is not due to rough handling, but to the fact that they are passing through the half-feather-half-fuzz stage.
WHEN normal Americans are seized with patriotic fervor, they stand up and shout the “StarSpangled Banner”—perhaps a bit shaky on the top notes, but ending bravely on “the brave.” The deaf and dumb are deprived of this means of self-expression, but does their patriotism go begging? One. look at the smiling seven shown below will reassure you. They are singing “Oh, say can you see—” and all that follows, with their hands.
The Anatomy of a Modern Ocean Camel: Why Our Troops Reached France in Time
WHEN the United States entered into the world war, it caused a demand for shipping facilities without parallel in the history of the world. The transportation alone of an army of three million men from one side of the Atlantic Ocean to the other was a tremendous undertaking.
LAST winter was so cold that enough ice must have formed to provide a generous supply for the dog-days. But shortage of labor, that old war-cry, applied itself to ice-cutting as well as to other industries. Here is an excellent scheme to make up for the absence of ice-cutters.
THE beneficial influence of local steam baths on frozen hands or feet was recognized early in the world war by Dr. Salignat, a French physician, who used the treatment with remarkable success in the field hospital with which he was connected.
A MEMBER of the Los Angeles Motorcycle Club recently accomplished a feat that fellow members had declared impossible. John E. Hogg drove his motorcycle, with its sidecar, over the Boquet Canyon Siphon of the Los Angeles Aqueduct. The ride over the big pipe had been made “solo,” but the three-wheeled construction of the side-car and motorcycle combination made the feat more difficult.
THE most remarkable job in piano-moving that has been recorded was put through when one of the big bombing-planes used by the Allies flew from London to Paris freighted with a full-sized instrument of the upright type. The airplane was not competing with union pianomovers, nor was there a sudden shortage of musical instruments in the French capital.
BICYCLE, some ropes, some wheels and tools—and an ingenious Frenchman had all the equipment he needed in order to make a living as a machinist. He mounted the bicycle on stands to keep it from starting forth when he began to pedal. On the axis of the rear wheel he attached a large wheel, grooved to receive a band.
IT is one thing to plan and design a structure, and quite another thing to erect it in accordance with the designs of the architect. If the design is conventional in form, size, and material, the task of the builder is comparatively easy; but it becomes extremely difficult when the plans involve the use of untried materials, new forms, and unusual dimensions.
WHEN concrete came into general use for building purposes about twenty-five years ago, some speculative minds thought they saw the solution of the housing problem. In manufacturing centers it is always difficult to keep pace with the rapidly increasing population by providing adequate housing facilities for the workers and their families.
THE oil-fields of Oklahoma and Kansas have been connected with the distributing terminus at East Chicago by a pipe-line which enjoys the distinction of being by far the longest ever built. It is about 800 miles long and one foot in diameter.
AN extremely simple portable oil heater, built on the unit plan, has recently been placed on the market. The heater weighs from eleven to sixteen pounds. A sheet-iron case resting on four legs, and having a handle at the top for convenience in carrying, holds the heating device.
Feed Your Furnace with Hot Air and It Will Stop Smoking
WITH the fuel that has been wasted since furnaces came into use we could, in all probability, heat all existing furnaces for a hundred years. Unfortunately, the wastefulness of our methods of transforming fuel into heat was not recognized until recently, and comparatively little has been done.
Science and economics have united to find new uses for plants worth millions
Unique Case of the Brewers
A Problem in Economics
Several Brewers Maying Malt Syrup
A New Cereal
World's Scarcity of Fat
H. E. Howe
[When this article is read, every brewer in the United States will have shut up shop or be at work adapting his plant to changed conditions. That means that machinery costing millions will have to go to the scrap-heap unless ingenuity, guided by the expert advice of the industrial chemist, can find a way out.
60,000,000 Horsepower Ready to be Harnessed for Work
When these giants are set in action, the real age of electricity will begin and our dreams will be realities
Electricity for Everybody
Unused Raw Material
Distribution Is Important
Difference in Waterpowers
Part the Railroads Will Play
William H. Easton
THE Age of Electricity is about to dawn in America. To some people, especially dwellers in large cities, this may seem an odd statement. Everywhere are to be found applications of electricity,— telegraphs, telephones, electric lights, trolley cars, factories operated by electricity,—so that the Age of Electricity appears to be already at high noon.
Fuel bricks are now added to the list of things salvaged by science from the nation’s waste
How to Save $4,000,000 a Year
Fuel Bricks from Garbage
Advantages Claimed for New Fuel
Great Heat Value
Daily Average Waste per Person
LONG before the world war taught us economy, among other lessons, there was a saying that a French family could live, and live well, on the waste from a typical American table. The waste leak through the garbage-pail was known to be enormous—and, indeed, we were rather proud of it, as an evidence of prosperity.
APPLE growers and eaters who live in Los Angeles are responsible for the existence of this $5,000 clock. The growers built it in the center of their market-place for the convenience of the buyers. Most of the $5,000 was spent in outfitting the clock with special attachments in order that it might be quite self-sufficient—and it is.
A PECULIAR form of patriotism has broken out among inventors. Everything they invent apes implements of warfare, whether or not they are appropriate. An illustration is this hat lamp-shade. It is a reproduction of a soldier’s hat, and looks as if a small-sized tipsy soldier, if such there be, had come home late the night before and hung it up there.
MANY country bridges were built years ago, to hold a horse and buggy or perhaps a hay-wagon. Then progress brought huge automobile trucks capable of carrying tons, and the frail old bridges began to tremble beneath their weight. Gaze on the picture above.
TREES grow so slowly, and the consumption of full-grown ones is so great, that before long we shall have to take to substitutes. A telephone company has planted in California, for use as telephone poles, the forest of bamboo shown above. Southern California is particularly fertile, and bamboo forests planted there sometimes grow to a height of sixty feet in a single season.
BULLETS have been mustered out of service, now that we are no longer shooting Germans, and they have had to hunt around for new jobs. These two have found good ones—excellent examples for other ambitious bullets. One of them is working as a flag-holder.
THE lock shown in the picture below looks like a clamp, and acts like one. Suppose you wished to fasten together the handles of a bag. You would pass one of the arms of the lock through the handles, clamp it shut, and lock it. The lock may be applied to almost anything.
A MAN living in southern California was faced with the problem of building a garage and a pergola in space enough for only one. Finally he decided to build the pergola on top of the garage. The garage is of concrete, and the pergola of wood. Rose and ivy vines are being trained over it.
ONE persevering woman has refused to let the loss of her right forearm make her helpless. So when our fighting boys clamored for sweaters and socks she decided that she would knit some. Under her crippled arm she tucks the needle carrying the work, and with her one hand she both guides the thread and works the other needle.
Elocutioning in His Front Yard Instead of Hiring a Hall
TO hire a theater each Sunday in which to recite the poetry you have written during the week would be an expensive undertaking. A Californian poet, Charles Keeler, had this great desire to pass on his weekly creations to an admiring audience, and he hit on an economical way of doing it.
How a submarine, sunk in ninety feet of water, was raised and its crew saved
Spectacular Feat of Salvage Corps
A Strange Oversight
Fresh Air Forced In
Robert G. Skerrett
THE British had a rod in pickling for the German Grand Fleet if the Kaiser’s sea force had ventured forth again. To be specific, the instrument of chastisement consists of a flotilla of very large submarines of a new type, and the purpose for which these boats were built was the forming of a mobile ambuscade just where the foe would be least likely to look for under-water craft.
MR. GEORGE ULRICH, a Wisconsin farmer, decided to make a meadow out of some land of his on which there was a large growth of young trees. He and his son started hacking them down with scythes and axes — the usual way of clearing land. In a short time the scythes grew dull and the men became tired and discouraged.
WHAT promises to be a revolution in the manner of handling nails has been started by an electromagnetic packing-machine. Instead of being thrown helter-skelter into kegs, where much of the space is lost, the nails are neatly arranged parallel to each other in cartons or boxes.
WHEN a truck-owner sends his trucks out for the day, he has no means of keeping any check on his system. If a driver is out for a long time and accomplishes little, it is difficult to know where the fault lies. With a service recorder like the one illustrated attached to a truck, every move the truck makes is recorded with absolute accuracy.
IT was not long after the beginning of the war when the British Royal Engineers, intrusted with keeping French roads in shape, found that they would have to devise some unloading means for handling road material. It was this condition that led Lieutenant W. Owen Wilkins to invent the unloading device here illustrated.
A NEW type of motor-truck has no springs, and yet it is said to “ride” more easily than a passenger car. This is accomplished by the substitution of four telescoping cylinders, which open and close on a body of oil and air, each cylinder working independently and operating against the pressure of a central equalizing tank.
IN large cities the street-sweeping machines are usually kept pretty busy; yet there are times—for instance, in wet and foggy weather—when they are idle for many hours at a time. Peter J. Owen, the superintendent of the street-cleaning department in San Francisco, has increased the usefulness of the automobile street-sweeping machines of his department by a simple expedient which is likely to be adopted in other large cities.
DWIGHT FRANKLIN, of New York city, is a new kind of artist. Perhaps he ought to be called a new kind of scientist, too. He delves into the hidden past by making a thorough scientific study of how the cave-man lived, how the Vikings fought, how George Washington crossed the Delaware, or how the pirates of the Spanish Main spread terror in the Caribbean Sea, all for the purpose of producing startlingly realistic and minutely accurate models.
QUARTZ is the most valuable component of sand. It occurs in enormous masses, without definite crystalline structure. Quartz sand, under the magnifying-glass or the microscope, looks exactly as a handful of pebbles looks to the naked eye.
DO you remember the old railway-building days? Hundreds of men with picks and shovels graded the the road-bed; trucks with gigantic wheels and drawn by many horses hauled the rails to the right of way and distributed them along the roadway.
Administering Doses of Liquid Iron to Steel Furnaces
IN open-hearth steel-making it is customary to put liquid iron into the furnace for converting the iron into steel. A recently invented charging apparatus is mounted on a steel platform car which runs on a track close to the doors of the furnaces to be charged.
It is difficult to salvage the giant war machine, once it goes to the scrap-heap
From War to Peace
As to Airplanes
Fixation of Atmospheric Nitrogen
Niagara's Wasted Power
Valuable War Machinery
THERE is none too much war material in the world to-day for the use of the world if a peace-keeping league is formed. The war material should be divided among the nations according to their needs, and then each nation should be permitted, under the league, to produce only a certain limited quantity thereafter.
It picks a sunken tugboat from the harbor bottom as easily as you’d lift ten pounds from the floor
Its First Test
Mounted on a Flat-Boat
On a Circular Track
Operated by One Man
WHEN the navy tug Massasoit was accidentally sunk in one of our Eastern harbors a few months ago, a gigantic floating crane, which had then just been put in service by the Navy Department, was subjected to a severe test. It was the first work of importance for which the new crane—the largest of its kind that has ever been constructed in the United States—was employed, and naturally the result of the test was awaited with considerable interest in engineering circles.
WE have been familiar with paper towels, napkins, and table-cloths for some time. We have heard that the German people are using paper for clothing. But paper used for surgical dressings is something new. Dr. Alfred Kahn, of the New York University Medical College, has been using paper instead of gauze for surgical dressings, and has found it exceedingly satisfactory.
WHEN the United States first joined the Allies, some of our airmen sported a star within a circle as the insignia of our air service. It was not long before the need for distinguishing marks of greater uniformity was felt, and we adopted the insignia of concentric circles used by our Allies, the only difference being in the colors.
THIS ingenious mechanical, device is capable of counting and wrapping all kinds of coins—gold, silver, nickel, and copper. It consists of a counting-board, a separate counting-tube for each denomination and size of coin, and separate brass tubes for stacking and wrapping.
One suggestion for relief takes the form of a novel safety island
Duties of the Trafic Police
Danger in Usual Island"
Suggestion from Bureau of Mines
REGULATING the traffic in congested city streets is an exceedingly difficult problem, made even more intricate by the fact that, as a rule, the streets that have the greatest vehicle traffic are also the main arteries of travel for pedestrians.
Read these monthly articles and the star paths will soon be as familiar to you as the streets of your home town
Grouping the Stars
STAR MAP FOR FEBRUARY
How to Use the Star Street Directory
Tracing Them by the Milky Way
Ernest A. Hodgson
ALL the stars visible to the naked eye, and many more that are invisible without optical aid, have been accurately surveyed, catalogued, mapped, and named by astronomers. A sixth-magnitude star is hardly visible to the naked eye; yet all the stars, down to and including those of the sixth magnitude, are only about 5,000 in number, and that over the whole round of the celestial sphere.
THE planet map shows a belt around the celestial sphere 40° on each side of the celestial equator. It is divided into halves so arranged that any point in either map is exactly opposite in the sky to a point exactly opposite in the other map, but as far above the equator as the first point was below, or vice versa.
A Special Truck Helps This Derrick to Juggle Huge Stones
HOW to help a powerful derrick pick from a flat-car a deck slab weighing 65,000 pounds, swing it deftly around in midair, and then gently lower it into its designated place as a part of a viaduct bridge, is a puzzle that has been solved in track elevation work in Chicago.
ON big farms and plantations, in lumber-camps, mines, quarries, and in construction work on a large scale, narrow-gage locomotives of a small and comparatively light type are frequently used for transportation purposes. An invention recently patented by a citizen of Bogota, Colombia, provides means for using such locomotives in the place of stationary engines without making any change in their construction beyond placing a cog-wheel on the front axle of the engine.
Raising a Sunken Whaleback from the Bottom of a Lake
OWING to the great demand for iron ore and grain during the war, the freighters on the Great Lakes were operated as far into the winter as possible. A large fleet of boats was caught in the ice at the western end of Lake Erie, and a number of whaleback steamers and several tugs were employed to set them free.
TO expedite the building of concrete ships and reduce their cost, I would suggest that the most serviceable types be standardized and permanent forms built. I would suggest that a pit be dug, more than double the width of the ship to be built, and abutting on the water.
MILLIONS of bandages of different length and width are required in the hospitals for dressing wounds. Miss Lulu H. Miller, of Brooklyn, N. Y., has invented a device for unwinding gauze for surgical dressings from the bolt and folding it into even layers, to be cut into suitable lengths.
MANY people barred from industry by loss of limbs, will ride back into active life on the tide of invention inspired by the thought of thousands of returning crippled soldiers. One such invention, by James M. Jackson of Philadelphia, makes it possible for a person without feet or legs to operate a sewing-machine.
IF you would like to spend most of your life in one spot, buy one of the complex chairs recently invented by Edwin J. Floyd of Douglas, Ga. When all adjustments are tucked away, the chair is an ordinary one. Swing out a brace in the rear, and it becomes a rocker.
Look at the Chart and Pick Out the Reflector You Need
A GREAT deal more depends upon the reflector than the average user of electric lights realizes. The reflector not only determines the size and shape of the field of illumination, but in a large measure the character, concentration, or diffusion of the light.
GOOD watches are expensive, but expensive watches are not always good. Let us suppose that, in buying a watch, you are not afraid of depleting your pocket-book, but feel some anxiety lest you may not get your money’s worth in the shape of accurate timekeeping.
MODERN advance in the science of diagnosis has made it possible to weigh and measure the vital organs and functions of the body with accuracy. The day of pulse-feeling, temperature-taking diagonosis is almost a thing of the past. Instead of submitting himself to a cursory checking over, the patient nowadays —especially if he goes to an up-to-date hospital or sanatorium—will be studied, calipered, and charted according to an elaborate system in which mechanics play an important part.
America again takes front rank in the air with machines of mighty power
The Liberty Motor
A Seeming Contradiction
THE accompanying pictures illustrate the representative result of what four years of warstimulated progress have done for the flying-machine. It is the up-to-date representative of that medium-sized biplane with which the Wright Brothers inaugurated flight because it was inherently the most efficient type.
Six giants of seventy tons and two small brothers gave engineers a hard nut to crack
John Walker Harrington
THE biggest ready-made girders in the world have been placed in the Park Avenue Viaduct, in New York City, after strange and costly transportation stunts on rail, river, and road. Six giants of the series weigh 70 tons each, and are 137 feet long and 16½ feet high at the largest point.
Craft of the “Hush-Hush” fleet may play a part in first trans-Atlantic flight
Surrounded by Secrecy
Mother Ships in Peace
THE wind was rising to half a gale, and the pilot of the seaplane felt that it was time to call it a day. “Let’s go home to mother,” he said to his observer, and set the flyingboat’s nose in the direction of the English Channel. An interval of swift flight, and the observer shouted: “There’s mother now!”
ACCORDING to forestry experts, modern methods of handling timber must supplant those of the most primitive sort before the hundreds of species of valuable woods that are to be found in the forests of South America can be appreciated. The accompanying photographs, which were taken at Punta Arenas, Costa Rica, fittingly illustrate some of these primitive methods.
IN this day of the high-powered magazine rifle, it is more than a little interesting to find a man who goes hunting bear with a weapon older than history—the bow. Dr. Saxton Pope, chief surgeon at the San Francisco Emergency Hospital, is that man.
ALL of the family were not at home when the picture was taken, but even so there are present a fair representation of the inhabitants of what was the largest pigeon ranch in the world. The ranch, spreading over about an acre of ground, occupied the edge of a pleasant valley on the outskirts of Los Angeles.
IN the signal service of the American army the American Morse code is used, and for short distances the signals are given by two flags operated by hand. Semaphore signals, as these flag signals are officially called, are used when telegraph, telephone, or wireless lines are not available.
THE usual modern water-pressure system calls for a deep well, heavy pumps, and other more or less costly apparatus. This, added to the cost of the upkeep and operation, is usually prohibitive to the average farmer, and he continues to plod along with the old windmill or tries to be satisfied with pumping water by hand.
In the production of inexpensive manufactured articles, a lacquer finish is commonly used. People engaged in this work will tell you that there is a different finish obtained on castings and sheet-metal work, although each may be similarly treated.
Lower Section of a Flag-Pole Used for a Sewer Vent
A REAL estate man in a New York suburb encountered a serious problem in developing one of the residential sections when a deep sewer was put in through the property from an adjoining town. The sewer was about 100 ft. below grade, but because of the great pressure it was necessary to vent it almost in the middle of his development scheme.
BURNED out brake-bands, broken crank-shafts, and enormous fuel consumption are only a few of the many evils that may result from driving a car with the emergency brake locked in position. After a friend had told him how he had unwittingly driven over twenty-five miles under such conditions, L. B. Robbins, a Florida inventor, set about to devise a means of preventing just such occurrences.
THE best results and effects are obtained with .discharges from the secondary of an induction coil in glass tubes when the exhaustion is carried to a pressure of about 2 mm. of mercury, and the tubes are permanently sealed. However, for experimental purposes a Geissler tube made as described herein gives most satisfactory results.
A Sidewalk Mirror as Lookout for Street-Car Passengers
H. W. HAHN
ON cold winter days travelers are apt to step into a corner drugstore to wait for the street-car. In one store, to prevent the opening of the door unnecessarily and letting in cold air, a mirror was fastened to a pole at the sidewalk edge so that it reflected the car-track and approaching cars.
FARM buildings, as a rule, are greatly cramped for room, and anything permanently in the way is a great inconvenience. Stairs to lofts and upper floors are one of the things that are apt to take up valuable space, but yet to be continually shifting ladders about from one loft to another requires considerable labor.
THIS feat has all the ear-marks of a difficult juggling act and one that has been perpetrated as such on the professional stage. It makes an excellent parlor stunt or after-dinner trick. Procure three glasses of any size, and arrange them on any table so that two of the glasses will be toward the front and the remaining one in the rear, triangular fashion.
SCREWS employed to join machinery will become fixed, and after a time they will be difficult to remove because of oxidation. To prevent this a mixture of graphite and oil should be used. This will effectually protect them from rust for years.
A SMALL gasoline engine of 1½-horsepower, plus a tubful of rocks, can pump as much water from a deep well as can a 3-horsepower engine unaided. This fact was discovered by a farmer who owned a 300-ft. well, which was pumped by a windmill until an engine was installed two years ago.
How to Make Cuts from Linoleum for Printing Purposes
THE surface of linoleum is suitable for use in printing, and if designs are cut thereon, or letters shaped in a reversed position, a very pleasing effect may be obtained. The first step in the preparation of one of these cuts is the drawing, which must be made on paper and then transferred upside down to the linoleum.
A ROTOR with a good static, or stationary, balance will not necessarily be in good balance while running. It is often necessary to rebalance the revolving member dynamically after the assembly of the machine. First the shaft of the machine must be straight before any balancing is attempted.
A Tune May Be Played with the Noise of Running Gears
GO into the feverishly busy machine shops of to-day and watch the rapidly traveling belts and the noisy gears. The outsider is completely bewildered by the noise—some say the workmen become used to it, others that it distracts them too. Some gears are noisier than others.
DURING a recent competition in signaling held by battleships of the American fleet, an interesting incident took place. One period was given over to flag-hoisting, the object being was speed and accuracy. Since the penalty for each wrong flag hoisted was a 50 per cent reduction in the score, accuracy was rated as most essential.
A SMALL house with two relatively large doors is made from thin boards—a cigar-box will furnish material of the right thickness. The porch and the front of the house are decorated with branches to give it a rustic appearance. Two figures—a man with an umbrella and a woman with a handbag—are placed on a small board so that they stand in the center of the doorway.
USERS of carbon paper often wish to use a deeper color than those usually sold in the stores. The commercial paper has a standard tint, and it is, as a rule, too light to give many copies before the sheet must be thrown away. The writer, after some experimenting, has made a darker tinted paper by mixing in other colors.
A Home-Made Dark Box for Printing Developing Paper
THE printing device shown in the illustration consists of a cardboard box without a bottom. A hole is cut in the side of the box at A to admit the frame and hand of the operator. A hole is cut in the center of the top for an electric globe. The globe B has a cord C and attachment plug D for making connections to an ordinary electric-light socket thus furnishing the light.
WHEN wood bridges wear out they should be replaced by structures of more durable material. One way of doing this is to build rough forms and pour concrete into them for the abutments. Make the span out of old rails instead of wooden beams. Such construction is substantial and also cheap; for rails can usually be bought for the price of scrap iron.
WHEN making detector tests ordinary magnetic buzzers are generally used. Although quite convenient, the faint tone emitted is not as desirable a signal as could be wished for. The tone can be raised by simply placing tightly folded strips of paper between the magnet core and armature and between the armature and contact spring, as shown.
VERY often an electrician, an engineer, or even a visitor to an electric light or power plant will discover after a few days that his watch is losing half an hour or more each day. This is because it has become magnetized by its proximity to the dynamos.
This Toy Gun’s Projectile Is Driven by Electricity
A TOY gun, which is made of ⅛-in. brass pipe, makes use of the movement of an iron armature into the magnetic field of a solenoid when the current is applied. Mounted near the rear end of the pipe is a coil winding of the usual type. The proportions shown have been found effective.
Locating a Projecting Nail in a Shoe by Flashlight
JAMES M. KANE
THE location and removal of a projecting nail from the inside of a shoe is usually accomplished only after much squinting and twisting so as to get sufficient light on the annoying nail, which is finally discovered and extracted by guesswork and the sense of touch.
THE accidental dropping of a railroad tie on the barrels of a gun obliged me to saw off about 6 in. of the barrels. The ends of the original barrels are shown in Fig. 1. In sawing off the barrels, an opening was left between the ribs (see Fig. 2).
ONE of the disagreeable features of the ordinary phonograph is the necessity for leaving one’s seat before the end of a selection to turn off the motor. This produces a nervous strain in the person who is operating the machine, with the result that he cannot enjoy the music.
IT is often necessary for two machines whose rotating elements are mounted on the same shaft, or are to run direct connected, to operate in series or parallel. In this instance, the generator voltages should be in phase with each other, and to accomplish this the keyways of the two machines should be definitely located with respect to each other.
Keeping a Record of Flat Keys on Photographic Paper
HERMAN G. GILBERT
THE illustration is a shadowgraph of flat keys made by the use of gaslight paper, such as is used for making prints from photographic negatives. The paper is placed on top of the keys after they are placed on the glass in the printing-frame.
PERFECT electrical connections are often made by dipping the ends of copper wire into cups of mercury. The process usually employed is as follows: Pour some nitric acid into a bottle having a glass stopper, and add a few drops of mercury, thus forming nitrate of mercury.
DUPLICATION of design or inscription is always accomplished with more neatness, accuracy, and much more rapidity with the aid of a pounce, transfer, or stencil. The demand for this mechanical aid is almost imperative if the work is to appear in parallel.
A VERY convenient form of screwdriver, and one that every workman should have in his tool-kit, is made by bending a ⅜-in. round rod of tool-steel to right angles and grinding the ends flat to fit the slot in the screw. It is best to have the edges on each part of the bar ground at right angles to each other, as shown in the illustration.
SO-CALLED lightning-arresters do not always stop the action and effects of lightning. They do, however, afford ample protection or insurance against damage to electrical devices. The general term “lightning protection equipment” applies not only to lightning-arresters, but also to other devices that serve to minimize damage by lightning to electrical apparatus.
A VERY good way to carry soldering paste is in an old lead tube like those in which tooth paste and vaseline preparations are put up. Cut the end off the tube, clean it thoroughly, and fill it with paste, closing the end by crimping it in a VISE.
MUCH annoyance and inconvenience is experienced by automobile users in rural districts in opening and closing gates. The United States Forest Service has solved that problem by an automobile cattle guard based on the long established axiom that a cow or horse will not cross an open bridge.
BORROW a large Woulff bottle from the high school laboratory, or procure a gallon can and cut an extra hole in the top. Fit the holes with one-holed stoppers carrying glass tubes as shown in the illustration. The tube BC should be of fairly large diameter.
TO remove a ball-bearing race easily, drill four ¼-in. holes in the web back of the race, and use a steel rod through the holes from the opposite ends of the hub. Tap the rod evenly with a light hammer in all of the holes, and the race will be driven out.
SATISFACTORY gaskets to be placed under conduit covers and other wiring fittings may be cut from a discarded inner tube. If a single thickness of the tube does not suffice, use it two-ply. The salvage value of an inner tube used for this purpose is quite high.
WHEN setting up a transit on sloping ground or over a high stake, it is often necessary to raise the plumb farther than may be done with the ordinary slide. Instead of tying a slip-knot, use the method shown in the illustration. Pullout the knotted end of the string from the hole in the top of the slide at A, and slip the loose end under the cord at the bottom of the slide.
BY utilizing the power of the ripples on the water surface, a motorboat owner provided himself with a bilge-pump that pumps out his boat automatically. The pump can be used wherever the waves attain a height of 4 in. or more.
A COUNTERBALANCE or lift for the spindle on a small drill-press would be very useful for many operations. The illustration shows how the owner of one of these small machines attached a spring for the lift. It consists of a coil-spring inserted in the housing, and one on the collar of the hand-feed handle.
THE illustration shows a gasolinestrainer constructed from scrap taken from the junk-pile of a garage. The strainer was made to obtain relief from carburetor trouble of long duration. The body of the strainer was cylindrical, using an old gear-box bronze bushing A, threaded at both ends, and two caps, B and C, turned down from scraps of 1¾-inch bar stock. These caps were provided with holes of the proper size to fit the union connections.
AN unmounted reading-glass can be fitted with a suitable holder in the following manner. Procure a tin cover just a little larger in circumference than the glass, cut out the face of it to within about ¼ in. of the edge, and cut notches in the rim as shown.
WHEN spare hacksaw blades are carried loosely in a tool-bag or box, they become scattered among the other tools, and when one is wanted considerable time is taken to find it, and then it is often found in pieces. To avoid this trouble, make a holder like the one shown in the illustration.
THE use of machinery, especially to the amount installed on the modern farm, calls for many belts, and these in time wear out. Many an idle hour in winter may be spent in trimming, cutting, and remaking old belts for use on other and smaller machines.
AN arrangement of test-lamp and exploring terminal for convenient operation is here illustrated. The flexible lamp-cord and the lamp, which also serves as a current limiting device, and the exploring terminal can be plugged in series with the supply by using a fuse-connector, as shown.
A VERY useful and ornamental piece of work in the more precious metals is a bag-tag. For one who can design and create ideas on paper the work is very easy. There are several arrangements of letters shown which will assist in giving ideas of combining other letters.
THE progress of the “safety first” movement that is now sweeping over the country has been remarkably rapid. It has caught the attention and interest of the electric lineman, who is always endangering not only his own life but also that of pedestrians by dropping tools.
THE automobile heater here illustrated was made from a piece of 4-in. steam-pipe 2 ft. 2 in. long, with threads cut on both ends so that they could be closed with two 4-in. caps. A 1½-in. hole was drilled near each end of the pipe so that one hole was straight down and the other in a horizontal position.
A Home-Made Tool for Removing Different Sized Bushings
CHARLES H. WILLEY
THE following home-made device is adjustable to a number of different sized bushings. It is quite simple to make and easy to use. The drawings show its construction and operation. The arms are made of machine steel and the lever of mild steel.
THOUSANDS upon thousands of old automobiles which had been cast into the discard as too old and too incomplete for satisfactory service were seen on the streets during the last six months of 1918, and many are still merrily chugging their way over our thoroughfares, each giving some service to mankind which is better than no service at all.
AN ingenious contrivance for taking care of the sweepings in a house was devised by a householder. In one corner of the kitchen floor he installed a drop similar to a laundry chute, and covered it with a small trap-door. The chute led to an ashcan in the basement.
THE drying device here illustrated is readily applied to radiator H with a strap. It consists of two boards, E and F, and the piece of cheesecloth J stretched between. The prints are placed face down on the cloth. The capacity of the dryer is limited unless several pieces of the cloth are stretched between the boards and used like a series of shelves.
WITH the help of an old motor-truck, a very serviceable well-drilling rig can be made. The power plant of the truck is sufficient for operating the drum and hoist for the drilling tools. A 2-ton truck will carry the attachment and drive the machinery.
DRY cells on a door-bell circuit can be eliminated by using the lighting circuit. Simply connect the wires to the lighting circuit, running one line directly to the bell through the pushbutton contacts and the other line through a carbon filament incandescent lamp, thence to the bell.
How to use range-finders to get results: the erect and inverted types
Some Obstacles to Range-Finding
Scale on Army Glasses
George M. Petersen
THE ability to estimate distances, or find the range correctly, is a very important part of a soldier’s education. Fire on the battlefield is usually by groups of men, and the range is given by the officers; but the battlefield is reached only after a great deal of scouting, patroling, and outpost duty, in which the soldier must depend upon his own powers of estimating distances in order to make his fire effective.
IT frequently happens that the screw cap on a jar or bottle becomes stuck so that it is almost impossible to unscrew it. A simple method that will bring the most stubborn cap to instant subjection is shown in the illustration. Cut a piece of sandpaper into a long, narrow strip about twice the width of the cap to be removed, and fold it so that there will be a sand surface on both sides.
IN these times when the price of tubes has so materially increased the cost of running an automobile, it behooves us to see that they give the greatest possible service. Do not throw away old tubes. Cut them up and use them in every way your ingenuity may suggest.
DID you ever get a bullet stuck in your rifle when not near a gunsmith or a shop? Here is a simple method for removing a lead bullet from a small-calibre rifle with the aid of a wire and a file. For a twenty-two rifle use a piece of No. 9 or 12 gage wire bent to the shape of a carpenter’s brace, as shown in the sketch.
THE device here shown is a convenient means of changing the polarity of a pair of wires, or of reversing small motors. It consists of a wood base upon which are mounted six binding posts and a pair of two-point switches, so connected by a hard rubber strip that it will move both of the switches at the same time.
A VERY successful design for a poultry water-heater is shown in the illustration. The heater is made of two principal parts, the lamp-holder and the tank. As designed, it is the correct size to use in winter, when the stock is full grown. By proper regulation of the lamp flame the temperature of the water can be kept tepid, thereby preventing it from freezing when the mercury drops below 32° F.
How to Repair a Broken Bracket on an Automobile Radiator
ONE of the brackets supporting the radiator of my automobile broke at the point indicated in the illustration, and, realizing the length of time it would require to replace it with a new one, I decided to repair the bracket at home.
IT is not generally known that a watch will make a good compass in the woods if the sun is visible. Hold the watch face up, and point the hour-hand toward the sun. True south will then be half way between the hour-hand and the XII point on the dial.
A Convenient Way of Keeping Washers of Different Sizes
C. H. WILLEY
A CONVENIENT holder for washers of different sizes is patterned after the familiar poker-chip holder. It is made of two pieces of plank 2 in. thick. Two circles are described on the surface, then the different-sized holes are laid out for the washers, so that a part of each circle overruns the large circle.
A Non-Corrosive Anti-Freezing Solution for Automobiles
A SOLUTION for water-jackets on gasoline engines that will not freeze at any temperature above 20° F. may be made by combining 100 parts of water with 75 parts of carbonate of potash and 50 parts of glycerine by weight. This solution is non-corrosive and will remain perfectly liquid above its congealing point.
CRANKING Ford engines on a cold morning is sometimes difficult as most Ford owners know. One of the reasons for this is that the oil flowing in between the clutch-plates is stiffened by the cold, and tends to prevent the crank-shaft from turning.
WHERE rocking-chairs are provided in public places, it is always a great annoyance to those in charge to have them moved about. In one large hotel the problem of anchoring the rocking-chairs has been solved satisfactorily. Six chairs are placed in a row on each side of a long fireplace, and a ½-in. rope is stretched tightly just above the curved rockers and fastened securely at each end to a strong ring attached to the floor.
Treating Polished Surfaces So They Will Photograph without Halo
JOHN EDWIN HOGG
EVERY photographer who has taken a picture of an automobile or other object having a good deal of nickel plate about it knows that if the subject is in the sunlight there is always glaring reflection from the nickel work, resulting in an ugly halation on the exposed plate.
A SHELF made of a wide board and placed midway between the top of a sawhorse and the floor provides a handy place for the saws and other tools that a carpenter needs at hand when using the horse. The edge of the shelf should be provided with a small strip projecting above the upper surface to hold the tools.
This Door Tells the Kind of Business Done Behind It
AS an advertisement a local lumber dealer in a small city built an office door of narrow beaded boards, making three panels as shown in the illustration. To relieve the blank appearance, the architect attached a carved half moon and a number of smaller ornaments to break up the monotony of the joints.
WHEN unloading stone or other bulk material from open cars, the cost of the work may be considerably reduced by shoveling the stone into a loading-box which dumps almost instantly when a wagon drives under it. These loading-boxes may be bought in stores, but it is less expensive to make them.
PROBABLY the quickest way to clean metal parts is to spray them with gasoline, or, preferably, because of the danger of fire, with kerosene. The apparatus for doing the spraying costs practically nothing, as the requisites consist of scraps of copper tubing, some rubber tubing, and a compressed-air supply.
BROKEN shanks on tools may be joined with a brazed joint with-out injury to the tempered part by the following method: Take a good-sized potato, and stick it on the tempered part and close to the break. The joint should be prepared in some manner to hold the parts together while brazing them.