THE gunner Yankee has to airplane lead the machineenemy plane with his aim, precisely as the duck-shooter has to get his line of fire out ahead of the whizzing teal to inflict hits. If the airplane gunner shoots straight at the plane going past, he hits where the plane was, but is not, merely because it requires time for the bullet to go even 200 yards, and the two planes are traveling at speeds never touched by wild fowl.
An ancient practice that was revived by the trench fighting of the great war
THE hand grenade was used by the French as early as the sixteenth century. During the present war several types of this weapon have been evolved. There are two principal types of hand grenades in use. One type is exploded by a time-fuse, the other on striking the ground or some other resisting object.
Will this Invention Increase the Ship Propeller’s Efficiency?
TO increase the efficiency of the ship’s propeller, it is suggested by an inventor to place a smaller propeller, but with a steeper pitch, in front of the usual propeller, and on the same shaft. The smaller radius of the auxiliary screw compensates for the greater pitch, reducing the resistance to the screw.
Will That Shell Hit the Mark? It Depends on the Wind
IF you want to hit the target with a bullet, an arrow, or even a stone, you must allow for the wind. When arrows were used in warfare, the air currents were tested by experienced men, who determined the “windage” by throwing tufts of grass into the air and observing their drift.
THE mass of steel shown above is known as a steel ingot, and its weight as it stands—or rather hangs suspended from a crane—is 320,000 pounds, or 160 tons. An ingot is the name given to the shape of the cold steel as it comes from the mold into which it was poured in a hot liquid condition when it left the steel-making furnace.
THANKS to the ingenuity of an American inventor, the schoolteacher may utilize the small boy’s energy to good purpose by allowing him to clean his eraser automatically. The essential feature is an all-metal trough into which a galvanized wire screen fits, causing the dust to fall into the dust receptacle below every time the eraser is set down.
COAL shortage has no terrors for people throughout great areas of North Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming. They have coal mines in their back yards. The largest deposits of coal in the United States are the lignite coalbeds of the Northwest, as yet practically unexploited.
A MEMORIAL arch in Grant Park, Chicago, is Labor’s tribute to that city’s gold-star heroes. The arch was unveiled on Labor Day, when 200,000 organized workers marched beneath it and paraded through the downtown streets. The arch is 80 feet high.
AN attractive snow-scene effect in a window can be produced with tufts of cotton strung on black thread. A striped blackand-white background makes an effective setting, and the effect is heightened by suspending the tufts and placing the threads at irregular intervals.
THE picture below shows a number of good reasons why the Germans were anxious to make peace. In the beginning the Hun used aerial bombs like these to strafe London and Paris, in the belief that indiscriminate murder of civilians would hasten a German victory.
A MARKED increase in the speed with which envelopes may be addressed by the hand addressograph is made possible by a new attachment which ejects the envelopes after they are addressed. A small guide shoots the envelopes in the envelope box as the arm is lifted, placing them in a neat pile in the desired order.
W.F. HOLT, who is developing a model ranch near Los Angeles, has constructed a combination cellar and milkhouse that is proving a most efficient means of practical conservation. It is built in a hillside. The two rooms are ceiled, walled, and floored with concrete.
WHEN the wind split the upper part of the trunk of a fine old poplar tree in Central Park, Los Angeles, it looked for a time as if the only remedy were to cut the tree down. But the city forester came to the rescue with a discarded flag-pole, which he cleverly utilized as a splint.
THE pen is not always mightier than the sword. There were many Indian troopers in the war who bayoneted beautifully, but who did not know how to write their names. This hindered them very little except when they signed the pay-roll. Here we see how they did it:
THESE are not, as you might think at first glance, some new kind of mine, or great bombs, but merely a large collection of earthenware pots. They were originally manufactured for the arts of peace, and might have posed as models for the inanimate part of the scene in a modern conception of Omar’s “A jug of wine, and thou, singing beside me in the wilderness.”
THE life of an aviator in the British Royal Flying Corps is hazardous at all times; but there is one task that he often has to perform in which the danger incurred is perhaps the greatest of all. That task is the photographing of enemy positions from the air.
COME now the automobile Argonauts, who make of treasure-hunting a picnic and pay the expenses of their holiday outings with the gold they glean so easily. This is in southern California, where “color” can be obtained in the sand of every mountain stream, and Sunday motoring parties have learned to take advantage of the opportunity to pick up pinmoney and let the earth yield the cost of their tours.
AMERICAN wheat is one of . our most important fighting assets. “Food will win the war.” (You’ve heard the slogan before.) Of course, meats, fats, sugar, and leguminous foods, like beans, peas, and lentils, rich in musclebuilding material, are also necessary; but nothing can take the place of wheat as a staple food.
NOT one of the four types of airplane shown here was in existence at the outbreak of the present war. Army officers knew that the flying-machine would play some part in the war-but what part? No one divined that machine guns would be fixed in position and fired through propellers; that speeds of 150 miles an hour would be about right for a fighter; that machines would be developed for special purposes-bombing, artillery control, fighting, etc.
NOTHING except the movement of the driver’s foot is required to operate the automobile direction signal recently invented by a Maine electrician and shown above. The device is automatic in action, being set in motion each time the car’s foot-brake is applied.
TYPICAL of the pains taken by automotive engineeers to insure the most efficient design of even the smallest unit is an experiment made recently in selecting a motor-driven warning signal. Fourteen horns, two each of seven different makes, were packed together in a box filled with excelsior to deaden the noise.
BECAUSE of the numerous accidents resulting to motorists by reason of failure to see embankments or curves in the road, the Automobile Club of Southern California is placing large reflecting danger signals throughout the State. They show a beam of red light the instant the head-light of an approaching automobile falls upon them.
AN idea for a mechanically operated automobile top is shown above. It is operated by power secured from the car engine, and is based on the lazy-tong principle. It consists of a vertical rack provided inside of the body at the extreme rear of the car.
THE versatile folding-bed of the end of the nineteeth century is beaten to a frazzle by a recent invention in the automobile line. Charles J. Carlson, a citizen of Montana, has contributed an invention for changing an ordinary roadster into a touring car with baggage attachment, or into a truck.
IN Great Britain the development of the use of illuminating gas as fuel for motor-cars has been along two distinct lines: in flexible bag containers, and in comparatively small tanks capable of carrying the gas under small volume but at high pressure.
HAVE you ever looked at the filler cap of your automobile after a long trip through the country? If so, you undoubtedly found some moist dust around the cap. This was caused by an apparently small leakage out of the small vent-hole in the cap.
IN no part of an automobile or a tractor are surfaces so highly finished as they are in the engine. Between the piston and the cylinder wall a space no wider than the thickness of a hair is left—a space that is filled with a thin film of lubricating oil so as to produce a perfect seal.
THE one-man tank above was recently patented by John Baptiste Felicetti, an Italian residing at Philadelphia. In outward appearance it resembles an Egyptian mummy-case on wheels. The shell of the tank, of bulletproof steel, conforms to the shape of the prone body of a man.
ONE of the characteristics of an army is to make use of the very wrecks that war causes. A bulletpierced helmet becomes a decorative flower-pot in the back area quarters of some garden-loving soldier; a discarded canteen is the “makings” of a trench banjo; a wrecked automobile forms the groundwork of a Red Cross hut; and even the once mighty tank pictured here was turned into a cozy home for Tommies after a German shell had ended its fighting days.
THE combined length of the wire entanglements used in the war amounted to many thousands of miles. These wire protections proved to be highly effective as a weapon of defense, a sufficient reason to stimulate the ingenuity of inventors to devise some equally effective method of combating and overcoming this protection, without resorting to prolonged artillery fire.
A bright star suddenly flares up— why? Perhaps two stars collided
It Seemed About to Outshine Sirius
There Are Many Wonder Stars
Getting the Ranges of a Star
Photographing the Stars
Sifting the Light of the Stars
That New Dark Stat
Absolutely “No Insurance"
Ernest A. Hodgson
THE stars, shining above us night after night, have changed little since mankind has lived on the earth. Many of the brighter ones bear names given them by the astronomers and astrologers of thousands of years ago. The constellations were arranged as they are to-day when the builders of the Pyramids observed them from those vantage points.
STEAMSHIPS must have boilers, and these cannot always conveniently be built where the ships are constructed. Once safely stowed away in the hold of the ship, these gigantic boilers give little trouble; but to get them there safely is a different matter, especially if they have to be carried to their destination by rail.
THIS husky standing by the machine is not a mechanic—he was a “washerwoman.” His wash-tubs were the two big drums behind the engine, and in them he washed mud-, blood-, cootie-covered shirts and trousers for Yankee soldiers. He would run his massive truck close up to the front lines, and dump the dirty uniforms into boiling water in the drums.
MAPS are even more important to an army than to a stranger in New York’s subway maze. Big war maps were in evidence everywhere on the western front. They were housed in shelters like the one shown above, where a British Tommy seems to be telling a squad of our boys just how and where it all happened.
IF you throw your wedding-ring into the ashes, do not be sure it is gone forever. It may come to life again, as did this one, around the neck of a potato. The ashes were thrown out on a field that had been tilled and cultivated for potatoes. One small, sentimental spud stuck his head through the ring, and when he grew up looked like this.
A DISCOVERY that seems destined to play an important part in building up future supplies of wool and mutton has recently been announced by a Washington State sheep-rancher, Mr. Y. C. Mansfield. By mere chance he found that sheep thrive on the Australian salt-bush, heretofore regarded as a despised weed, of which there are literally millions of acres in some of our Northwestern States.
THIS little aristocrat, who is not quite hardy enough to stand the cold winter wind, is comfortably fixed up in a limousine-sled. It has a heating and lighting apparatus within. The small owner gets in through the top. When he is comfortably seated, his indulgent parent puts down the lid, picks up the ropes, and starts.
AN enterprising manufacturer has developed a hand electric generator with which motion pictures up to eight or ten feet wide can be given. The projector illustrated uses only slow-burning film, so that it can be used anywhere without the booth or insurance restriction.
IN far-off Bagdad, herculean strength was common in those Arabian Nights ” days when Aladdin wandered about with his magic lamp. The name “Bagdad” still holds its thrill for us, but British soldiers found the place disappointingly normal when they arrived there.
LIKE most other large cities, Paris has had its Society for the Abatement of the Smoke Nuisance: but circumstances alter cases. Such a small circumstance as one toot from the airraid siren could convert every member of that society into an ardent worshiper of smoke; the thicker and oilier, the better they liked it.
WHERE three streets come together at one place the crossing is sure to be dangerous, particularly if traffic is heavy and there is a trolley line. A startling danger signal has been invented for such a crossing. It stands on a corner that the cars pass, and is so connected with the track that when a car approaches the arm at the top revolves into an outstretched position and a large gong sounds.
WHEN airplanes flew low in support of infantry on the western front, there was no time for the antiaircraft gunners to use range-finders. At any rate, the range-finders built in peace times were generally found to be useless against fast flying airplanes, and the successful aircraft hunter was he who had a quick and accurate eye for distance and speed.
HAD this pole fallen and the wires been injured, hundreds of telephones on the western front would have been put out of commission. Realizing the seriousness of this, these men worked desperately to keep it up. A heavy snow-storm, followed by a freezing rain, weighed down the wires with frozen snow.
SANTA’S stinginess in handing out real pine Christmas trees in the last few years has caused us to look on him with increasing disfavor. But if our patron saint won’t give us Christmas trees our inventors will make us some. Here is a manmade tree that has several added attractions which Santa’s kind doesn’t have.
FOR our troops in Siberia there is an enemy stronger and more relentless than the Bolsheviki; and that is winter. Napoleon’s cohorts had a tilt with that same enemy in the less severe climate of Russia proper, and came off second best, finding on the great retreat from Moscow that the numbing cold clutching at their vitals and the drifting snow dragging at their legs were more deadly than the Cossacks.
It helped to make the world safe for democracy and it keeps us from starving
When the World Faced Starvation
Crookes Advice to Chemists
Reducing Nitrogen from the Air
Production of Cyanamid
The Haber Process
A Low-Temper ature Process
Frank Parker Stockbridge
NITROGEN, the most democratic of all the elements, is the essential factor without which the war for democracy could not have been won. In the last analysis, war is an effort to discover which of two sides can liberate the most nitrogen where it will do the greatest damage.
WHEN you have an ache in an elbow or a knee, you speak of your “rheumatism,” and often attribute it to a change in the weather. But that same “rheumatism” is usually caused by germs, microbes, or bacteria located in some other part of your body.
IN a naval battle, the range is obtained principally by men stationed in the mast-tops, the readings of the instruments being telephoned down to the officers in the plotting-room below the warship’s deck. Here the instrument readings are quickly transcribed into terms of gun ranges and of angles of horizontal deflection.
How a little switchboard runs a theater employing more than a thousand persons
Even the Audience Is Timed
Obedience the Watch-Word
A. M. Jungmann
YOU are going to forget your cares and worries in an evening at New York’s Hippodrome. You go early so as not to miss anything. Just as you settle into your seat the orchestra begins to play. In a few moments the show is on. The great red velvet curtains are drawn back, and tableau after tableau is presented to your eyes.
If you take the proper care of your canary, you’ll never need to ask, " Dicky bird, Dicky bird, why don’t you sing?”
Make the Bird Comfortable
Care of the Cages
What to Feed the Birds
ABOUT fourteen distinct strains of canaries are known, and an almost endless number of varieties. The common canary is reared primarily for its song. Before the war song canaries were reared in Germany; now most of the singing birds come from England.
An experiment in democracy conducted by several war organizations and financed by the people of Ohio
A Unique Community House
An Experiment in Democracy
A Contribution to Community Life
Raymond B. Fosdick
AN army representative of the highest type of American democracy cannot be turned out by military machinery alone. We have come to regard the contentment of men in training as vital. To the American Recreation Association, operating in their war work under the name of War Camp Community Service, fell a difficult task.
The message that reaches him may be a wild jumble of letters and figures, but it soon gives up its meaning
No Cipher Indecipherable
How the Human Mind Works
The Fleissner “Pattern”
How to Use the Pattern
The Message at Last
Charles A. Coliman
THE military cipher expert gains only a small share of war’s honors or glory; but in the quiet of his office, his swift, subtle, and scientific efforts in deciphering intercepted dispatches and orders many times bring defeat and disaster to the enemy.
AMODERN army without telephone service is in about the same fix as a big city would be if all the wires should go dead. It follows that every effort must be made to keep the telephone service in the field at top-notch efficiency, and therefore daring linemen and operators follow close at the heels of the troops.
THE time was, and not so very long ago, when the man who lived on the plains would jump on one of his cow-ponies and cut across the pasture-lands to the round-up. Farmers nowadays go to different round-ups, and travel in an entirely different manner.
WHEN you are in Japan, be careful not to order two crabs for lunch, because two Japanese crabs would keep you eating continuously for at least two days. Rather, ask for a crab’s foot, and you will have plenty. Japanese crabs, unlike the people, grow to a large and ugly size.
AN entertaining game for children bears the appropriate title “Great Guns !” It consists of a map of Europe in a frame, with a slit in each country to receive a “gun.” The object is to coax the guns into their appropriate slots.
BUS-RIDING in San Francisco must be a wild, precarious undertaking, for the bus company there has just erected a box-safe in which to place the money and jewels of venturesome joy-riders. The automobile starter, a very earnest man, is here shown locking up the safe after a bus-load has handed him their valuables.
CANADIANS found this queer instrument outside a onetime German dug-out. When they turned the handle, blasts of impure German air gushed forth, while pure air poured in. It was a German machine for drawing bad airout of dug-outs, worked on the vacuum principle.
IN a moment of great patriotic fervor, five hundred tailors, residing mostly in Chicago, decided to build this flag. That it is enormous can readily be seen. But not only is it large—it is the largest ever made. These fervent five hundred carried on a thorough investigation of flags and their sizes before they started work on this one.
THESE men are not playing bugaboo with this soldier, nor are they modest Turks veiling their blushing faces, nor yet again are they ghosts that walk by night. They are sane, normal Italian soldiers very sensibly covered with mosquito netting prior to turning in for a night’s rest. The comfort of screened windows was not theirs in their rude homes on the Piave, and Austrian mosquitos had been in the habit of feasting greedily on their tired bodies as they tried to sleep.
CORGING continually from morn till night brings unto a pig peace, which in turn causeth fat. Since a pig’s function on earth is to grow fat, food should be everpresent in his sight. That this might be, some Ohio farmers built a selffeeder by means of which pigs can eat as much as they liked.
IN the earlier days of trench raiding on the western front, a young officer who had been studying medieval methods of defence decided to apply the idea to his trench section. The result, shown in the picture, was generally adopted along the British front. The V - shaped gate swung outward on hinges at the top. When the Boches were behaving the gate was held up by a chain, permitting free passage into the adjoining trench.
An Electro-Magnetic Catapult to Give Airplanes a Good Start
IF an airplane is shot from a catapult instead of starting entirely by its own power, not only can it be started flying more rapidly and in a smaller space, but it can be made to carry nearly ten times more load. And if the catapult is built on the electro-magnetic plan it can be made to serve for airplanes of different design and size, including hydro-airplanes.
FIRST, get a good map, preferably in black and white, with light blue for the rivers. A recent map prepared by the National Geographic Society can be purchased for one dollar. Then, procure some flat-headed colored pins. Next, take some highly colored floss or worsted—green, for example—and establish your battle-line by the morning newspaper.
That Betraying Column of Smoke Force It Down to the Water
THE bridge of an ordinary cargo vessel rises to a height of from 33 to 35 feet above sea-level, and towers above the horizon visible to the observer on the bridge of a submarine at a distance of ten miles. As a matter of fact, however, cargo ships of the average type usually betray their presence at a very much greater distance because of the smoke that belches from their smokestacks.
Ice Gorges in the Mississippi River Grind Helpless Ships:
A Winter's Tale
THE Arctic region is not the only place where people can see huge masses of snow and ice heaped up. On our own Mississippi River in the winter-time there is a spectacular display of icy things, with the additional attraction of several wrecked ships and barges.
A MOTOR-WHEEL for skaters, invented by Thomas Avoscan, a citizen of Switzerland, enables lovers of skating and motorcycling to combine the two sports, and to enjoy both at the same time. The invention consists of a tubular frame with an engine-driven wheel at one end, and a sled with a single runner supporting a seat at the other end.
How to Control the Temperature of Air-Cooled Engines
IT is essential for the proper working of an air-cooled automobile engine to maintain a nearly even temperature. Obviously in zero weather less air will have to circulate around the engine to keep it cool than on a hot day. A recent addition to the large number of devices for controlling the air intake is one patented by Leslie W. Griswold, of Cooper, Ia.
How Yankee Ingenuity Built Roads in Devastated France
WHEN the American troops arrived in France, they found the military roads near the front in a deplorable condition and entirely inadequate for the safe and rapid transportation of troops and war materials. It became one of first important tasks of the American engineer troops to build new roads and to repair those already in existence.
THE problem of crossing a deep body of water in an automobile has been solved in a novel manner by L. B. Robbins, of Harwich, Mass. His device makes it possible to run the automobile on a specially constructed pontoon raft, and to drive and steer it across the water by utilizing the power of the car.
WHEN the temperature outside threatens to drop to the freezing-point, the automobile owner usually begins to worry and to have unpleasant visions of frozen engines and pipes and of large bills for repairs. An invention that was recently patented by George C. Olmsted, a citizen of Minneapolis, Minn., suggests a possible solution of the problem by providing an automatic device which becomes operative when ever the outside temperature drops below the freezingpoint.
THE mechanical difficulties that in the early days of aviation prevented the reaching of heights as great as 15,000 or even 20,000 feet were overcome; but another difficulty had to be solved before such ascensions became practicable. At extreme heights, especially after a rapid ascent, the human lungs do not function properly.
IMAGINE playing the game of jack-straws with bales of cotton weighing 500 pounds each. That game is played daily on a large scale at the New Orleans public cotton warehouse, which has a storage capacity of 200,000 bales. The bales are stacked like bricks in a wall on both sides of wide aisles.
Mammoth air-boats that are at home in air and water
THE first man who gave really serious thought to flying across the Atlantic—serious in the sense that he actually built a flying-machine to carry out his intentions—was Glenn H. Curtiss. He decided that his machine must have an enormous radius of action, and to obtain it he considered it necessary not only to increase the size of the airplane, but also to improve its efficiency.
She is about twice as heavy as any other ship that has been rescued from a similar fate
A Salvage Miracle
Boilers Found Intact
Righting the Vessel
WHEN the 13,000-ton American liner St. Paul turned turtle at her dock in New York, she settled down fourteen feet into the mud, with her topsides only fifteen feet above the water at low tide. Imagine this huge timber, 535 feet long, 63 feet wide, and approximately 80 feet high, lying on its side in forty feet of water.
FOR reasons best known to himself, a wealthy Cincinnati man desired to have built on his estate a log cabin, to be constructed, as far as possible, from the rough materials that nature provides. He got what he wanted&emdash more or less. For about two years the builder assigned to the job wandered around the woods and shores, plucking branches and gathering stones.
KNOCK-DOWN snow-sheds of concrete construction are the latest thing in the railroad world. A bitter fight to keep the Union Pacific tracks clear started with the storm that began December 20, 1916, and was prolonged with increasing intensity through January and February.
How the Library War Service provides for the education of our fighting men
Arts of Peace Applied to War
Distributor of Literature to the Army and Navy
THE changing complexities character and of constantlythe war, and the necessity for the rapid training of specialists in every branch of service, created an emergency in the matter of supplying text-books. Many subjects developed so fast that print could not keep up with them— for instance, aerial photography and camouflage.
THE difficulty of obtaining coal has induced many house-owners and manufacturing concerns to substitute kerosene. The system of househeating with kerosene is easily installed in any house equipped with a steam or hot-air furnace. Aside from the removal of the grate bars, no change is necessary in the furnace.
FOR the benefit of fastidious persons who object to radiators because they disturb the artistic harmony of beautifully furnished rooms, a Western manufacturer has placed on the market an imitation woodwork cabinet for disguising the naked ugliness of steam radiators.
Learn how to handle your furnace and save coal and doctors’ bills
Do Not Heat Sleeping-Rooms
Experiments in Ventilation
Saving Coal in Industry
Not an Untried Fuel
Used on Locomotives
The Coal Situation This Year
Shortage of Labor in Mines
A. M. Jungmann
IF eral you health want to and enjoy freedom better from gencolds this winter—save coal. A quart of water evaporated in every room of your house every day will mean a saving of one third of your coal bill. What we really need in our houses is humidity rather than a high degree of heat.
IT was the visibility of the periscope, more than anything else, that made an effective war against German submarines possible. A periscope is useless if it is submerged. The part of the periscope tube that extends above the surface of the water is not more than about two inches in diameter—not much, but enough for the vigilant watchers on the numerous patrol-boats that cruised in the danger zone.
WE have all been taught to avoid the waste of money, words, and advice; but who ever heard of wasting waste? Yet, waste—that is, the kind that is used to wipe clean machinery, printer’s type, etc.—may actually be wasted. A Western manufacturing concern installed in its factory an experimental plant for reclaiming soiled waste and rags, and found that they could be washed from six to seventyfive times at an average cost of cent a pound. The reclaiming equipment, which consists of a washer, an extractor, and a drying drum, is now manufactured and marketed by that same
These Life-Boats May Be Launched from Either Side of the Ship
WHEN a sinking ship acquires a list to port or to starboard, and the deck is correspondingly inclined, the long line of life-boats on the high side of the deck, all swung from the regulation type of davits, cannot be launched. The well known fact that sinking ships invariably get a list before the final plunge has been disregarded for years, rendering half the ship’s life-boats useless.
Exit the Zeppelin Airship: Enter the Zeppelin Flier
Out of failure of the dirigibles grew the largest of airplanes
Bombing Zeppelins Abandoned
How the Zeppelin Was Copied
Landing Twelve Tons at High Speed
BOMBING planes are primarily weight-carriers. They must be able to fly for hours, which means that they must be able to carry much fuel; they must be able to do much damage, which means that they must be able to transport heavy bombs. It is fortunate that the weight of the crew does not increase proportionately with the size of the machine.
METIMES it becomes necessary to stop the flow of water or other liquid from a tank and to drain the pipe revent freezing; or it may even be necessary to empty tank. In the novel arrangement shown above, the ion of pipe within the tank is closed at the end, but has holes that allow the liquid to flow through the piping the nipple is not screwed in too far to the left, the position shown in the illustration the tank outlets losed by the nipple, which projects beyond them, while e same time another set of holes are in the open position training the pipe.
THEN Francis L. Alsobrook, of Alamo, Tenn., wants hot water, he uses his camp-stove, e stove is of conical shape, tapering toward the top, ending in a detachable stovepipe for carrying off the we in the usual manner. A ring-shaped vessel of nized iron fits around the upper part of the stove.
OVER on the northeastern horizon is the shape of the Big Dipper, or Ursa Major—the Big Bear. It seems to be standing almost upright upon its handle. Follow the line of the two outermost stars of the bowl and proceed north for about four times the distance between them.
THE planet map is constructed to show where the planets are for the month of January, 1919. The Sun—the center of our system—has seven other planets besides our Earth revolving about him. If we could take a journey from the Sun outward, with a speed of 186,000 miles a second,—the velocity of light,—we would reach the first planet, Mercury, in a little over three minutes after leaving the Sun.
IF we suppose the earth to be a mere dot at the center of a celestial sphere of infinite radius upon which the stars are placed, and if we suppose further that the axis of the earth, produced to meet this sphere, defines its poles, then the celestial equator will lie about the sphere 90° from its poles.
A TIME-SAVING invention of great practical value to the newspaper and magazine advertising business has recently been patented by Alfred K. Washburn, of Providence, R. I. It is a machine for measuring advertising space in the columns of newspapers or magazines by inches or agate lines and fractions.
THE modern dictating machine differs from the old cylinder phonograph chiefly in the following respects: It is driven by an electric instead of a spring motor so that winding is done away with; it is fitted with a slightly larger cylinder, both as to diameter and length, and with a finer worm feed so that it takes eight minutes to fill up—or listen to— a cylinder, as against four minutes for the phonograph and, of course, the transmitting and reproducing style are finer cut the better to suit them for the finer track which the slower feed gives.
WHEN an emery-wheel becomes coated with grease it fails to give satisfactory results. Emery that is to be cleaned should be washed with dilute acid after boiling it with a solution of caustic soda. Carbon bisulphide should be used.
TO relieve the weight on the arm while grinding a mower cutter, fasten a rope to the head end of the bar and pass the rope over a pulley suspended above. Bring the rope down to the hand holding the knife-bar. This will hold the end up easily. As you change from one knife to another in grinding, the rope in the hand can be let out or taken up as required for the bar The end of the bar the proper with is held up on a level the grindstone angle.
THE old-fashioned sign-board with the pointing hand is still used ordinarily for directing the wayfarer to points of interest; but, at best, it affords a poor line of sight, and soon succumbs to the elements. The accompanying illustration shows a simple and durable sign-post.
SEVERAL chairs designed by a local artist for his studio are quite remarkable in appearance, besides being comfortable seats. They were made almost entirely from a 12-in. board. There are only four parts to each chair: One 12-in. board 39 in. long, which is both back and front “legs.”
THE instrument shown was made from a rubber pen-holder with a wood plug cut and tapered to put in the hole. One end of the wood plug is fitted with a needle. When not in use the plug is reversed and stuck into the tapered hole of the penHOLDER.
WHEN the Dairy Division of the United States Department of Agriculture is conducting a nationwide campaign'to introduce methods of manufacturing and use of cottage cheese on every farm, a cheese-making equipment as here described is simple and can be made at home.
A Solution for Removing Grease from Machinery Parts
THE following method has been substituted for the use of gasoline and other light oils: Boil the parts in caustic soda lye,—1 lb. to a gallon of water,—then brush while the articles are hot. Caustic soda is recommended as better than ordinary soda, since it causes the fat or grease to dissolve more quickly.
THE windows of the average railway car very frequently stick or jam when closed, and cannot be opened no matter how strong a lift is applied to the lifting lug. When once raised even a little, the window invariably rises the rest of the way without any trouble.
An Electroscope for Detecting Small Electric Discharges
MARK M. GEATRY
A SENSITIVE electroscope is always a most useful if not an indispensable instrument in the equipment of every laboratory. Use has generally been made of the electroscope in detecting and determining the nature of minute electrical charges.
A Removable Bag Receptacle for a Park Rubbish-Container
JOHN D. ADAMS
A DURABLE and inexpensive depository for scraps of paper and rubbish that accumulate around resorts and picnic grounds may be made in the following manner: An iron ring large enough to stretch a gunny-sack over is provided with six projecting hooks riveted firmly in place. This ring is then riveted to the top of a 2-in. pipe, the connection being strengthened by the addition of a piece of steel plate curved to the same radius as the ring, and riveted to both the ring and the vertical pipe, which is then set firmly in the ground, preferably in a cement base.
IT has always been understood among small-game hunters that a crack rifle shot could not hit anything with a shot-gun, in spite of the fact that his aim with this firearm does not have to be very accurate. Here is the way I fitted out my shot-gun so that the aim is just as precise and definite as that of any rifle.
AVERY simple method of finding the center on a round piece of iron or a bar is to clamp a center punch or scriber in the jaws of a vise, so that its point extends above the jaws to about the radius of the bar to be marked. The bar is placed on the jaws and revolved by hand against the scriber point.
MAGNESIUM added to nickel or cobalt, when put into the fused metals in the proportion of one eighth of one per cent, will render these metals malleable. The nickel will also become ductile when mixed with this small proportion of magnesium, while the cobalt loses its color and becomes wdiiter than the nickel.
ALIGHT form of a deadman that is very convenient for a pull directly upward is shown in the accompanying illustration. It consists of With the cross stakes at each end and the two parallel bars as shown the whole cannot be drawn from the ground stakes or short pieces of pipe driven in the ground at an angle, with crosspieces above and below where the stakes cross.
CELLARS will acquire a musty odor after being closed up for the winter. To remove dampness as well as to disinfect the cellar, sprinkle chloride of lime on the floor and close up the cellar for a few days. Then open the windows and let in the air until the chloride-of-lime odor disappears, and your cellar will be ready for storing vegetables.
A SMALL valve for use on a toy steam-engine or an engine for chemical purposes can be easily made in the following manner. Secure a block of brass ⅝ in. square and ¾ in. long, and drill a hole through its center. This hole will be governed by the size of the pipe.
STRICTLY speaking, the word “flag” is not used to any great extent in the army. The national flag belonging to each regiment is known as the “national colors,” and the regimental flag is the “regimental standard.” The company, troop, and battery flags of the engineers, cavalry, and artillery are known as “guidons”; and so on down the line.
To Prevent Unconscious Retard* ing of the Automobile Spark
J. S. CHAPMAN
HAS any Ford driver, who was too tall to fit his car, ever noticed that, when driving at 20 miles an hour more with the spark well down, his knee is always pushing the lever up again, and so he is continuously though unconsciously retarding the spark? This difficulty may be overcome by bending the lever 3 in. more than the original bend.
Fastening Binding Posts to Carbon Electrodes in Cells
IN wet cells having carbon electrodes it is necessary to have the bindingpost substantially joined to the carbon, and the corroding action of the electrolyte, due to its creeping up and through the porous carbon on the binding-post where the latter joins the carbon, must be avoided.
IN a large refrigerating plant where repairs are likely to be made in any room or division at any time, the workmen found that it was almost impossible to select the proper tools necessary for each job and take them to it. As there was only one set of tools in the plant, they were arranged on an inverted V-board mounted on a base having truck casters.
Preserving the Luster on the Surface of Silverware
SILVERWARE may be kept bright and clean by coating it with a solution of collodion diluted in alcohol. The articles should be placed in hot water, after which they should be thoroughly dried before applying the coat of collodion. Care should be taken to have the coating very thin, so that when dry it is almost invisible.
AN arrangement designed to preII vent the tearing and stretching of automobile tops consists of a pair of coil springs placed between the top and the wid-screen. The jerks and strains occasioned by driving over ruts and rough roads are taken up by these springs instead of being transmitted to the nails that fasten the top to the rear of the machine.
WHEN driven in a mountainous country, especially in summertime, the Ford engine has a habit of boiling madly. This is, of course, due to the amount of low gear work it has to do: the slow rate of speed does not permit sufficient volume of air to pass through the tubes to cool them.
Running Direct-Current Motors on Alternating Current
THE illustration shows a method which will be found useful in running D. C. motors on A. C. circuits. Disconnect the field winding from the armature A and connect the brushes of the machine together. Then arrange the field F of the motor in series with a variable resistance R and the source of available alternating current.
THE half of an old metal globe or a cup-shaped section of light metal can be turned into a convenient candlestick by denting in four spots on the sides as shown and then pouring in enough plaster of Paris to form a candle socket of sufficient depth.
THE device described and illustrated herewith is an easily constructed switch for use with an adjustable or variable condenser. Its construction and details are simple, and it is so built that it will not get out of order very easily. The square base is made of wood, and the movable contactor consists of a large fiber washer and half of a brass washer, as shown, so fitted that there will be an even surface.
Apparatus for Sending Wireless Messages from Airplanes
PICTURE yourself speeding aloft in a wireless-equipped airplane with two officers of the Signal Corps to obtain information that will silence an enemy battery. The day is clear, but it is difficult to locate the guns because of the camouflage.
Premonition Trick—Which Was the Last Coin Counted?
F. E. BRIMMER
ARRANGE 19 coins in the form of L the letter P. Tell your friends that while you are out of the room they are to think of any number and count it out on the coins. You will return when they are ready, and tell exactly what coin was last counted. Of course, they must begin counting at X, and following the upright in the letter to Z, out toward V, then back down to Y, where the count goes out toward M. Suppose the number should be 12.
XIII.—How the resistance encountered in the conductor generates heat
Transmitting the Current
Difficulty of Good Insulation
Uses for Electric Heat
A Simple Electric Furnace
The Welding Process
Electric Heating Systems
How Heat Is Obtained
Peter J. M. Clute
WHEN a current of electricity passes through a conductor, it encounters a certain amount of resistance. In overcoming this resistance heat is generated. Along with this production of heat there is also frequently light or motion. The heat developed is proportional to the square of the current, directly proportional to the resistance and directly in proportion to the time.
An Automobile Horn Attached to the Frame Out of the Way
P. P. AVERY
TO place the horn out of the way of the driver, an extension-rod for the push-knob was applied as shown in the illustration. The horn is placed on the frame out of the way, and the horn plunger is lengthened with a rod which carries the push-knob at the top.
THE house number shown is for the consideration of those who like something a little different. It is made of a piece of board 5 in. wide, 2 ft. long, and ¾ in. thick. The numbers are sawed out with a compass or keyhole saw. The board is for hanging from the front edge of the porch; in such a position the number may be read as easily at night as in the day.
The baseball fan may still exercise himself with the bat when winter chills compel him to stay inside
A. D. Goodrich
A. D. GOODRICH.
AT a summer camp of an athletic club there was no suitable field for playing baseball, and some of the boys manufactured a batting-machine. With its help they could play their ball games on a small lot back of the camp or in the gymnasium on rainy days.
AN EYE-BOLT being needed in the construction of a small boat far from any place where one could be purchased, the workman made one from a piece of metal, as shown. A strip of sheet metal was bent double in the exact center, and the ends again bent at right angles to the double shank left by the first bending.
THERE is a great deal of contention among shooters as to whether it is better to shoot with one eye closed or both eyes open. The diagram will prove that it is best to shoot with both eyes open, since, in using one eye, there is somewhere in the range of vision a blind spot.
HACKSAW blades that have a few teeth broken out may be restored to usefulness without stripping the remaining teeth, by grinding the top off the adjacent on each side of the broken section, and grinding three or four teeth on a slant extending from the bottom of the broken ones to the top of the ones that are whole.
ONE of the most handy screwdrivers to have in one’s tool-box is the angle blade, which has three edges. To make it, draw out the point quite wide, and grind the edges at an angle of 25 deg. to the center line of the screw-driver.
SOMETIMES one desires to weigh an article too heavy for the scale at hand, or too long to rest on the platform. In such cases, it is possible to resort to the trick of weighing first one end of the article and then the other. In the illustration the entire weight of the shaft C is supported at the two points A and B, and if there were two scales, one under each point, the combined amounts would equal the total weight of the shaft.
FARMERS in irrigated districts frequently experience difficulty in making water flow into two different lateral trenches when the supply is obtained from one hydrant. Usually the soil under the spigot is washed away, and the water, seeking the lowest level, is soon flowing into one trench only.
THE life of a flashlight battery can be increased if it is treated in the following manner. Before installing a new battery, take out the individual cells and give them a coat of sodium silicate, or water-glass, as it is commonly called. The entire cell should be coated, with the exception of the brass cap on the carbon and the bottoms.
ANEW game has been devised, involving the old war tactics of catapulting. The device is known as a catapult. Instead of throwing stones or arrows, rubber balls are propelled distances ranging from 2 to 75 ft.; and, instead of city walls, a skeleton target lies flat on the ground.
WHILE at a Western summer hotel, one member of a party wanted some embroidery hoops, and an old Indian was induced to make the hoops. The hoops were made as ordered, but it was the tool the Indian used to make them that excited interest. It was a combined knife and gouge, made out of a thin-bladed kitchen knife that had been curved at the end and then bent over and sharpened all along the edge and around the bend.
TO impart to aluminum the appearance of mat silver, this simple method will be found very satisfactory. After thoroughly cleaning the article, plunge it into a hot bath consisting of a ten per cent solution of caustic soda saturated with common salt.
T HE principal building on a farm may be a combined cow, horse, and calf barn, as illustrated. It is laid out in the form of a cross; not that this is the most economical shape to build, but it costs less than separate buildings. There are other good reasons for this shape.
DISCOLORATIONS may be removed from aluminum ware and the original luster restored if the following directions are carried out. Wash the discolored pieces in a solution composed of 30 parts of borax dissolved in 1000 parts of water, adding a few drops of ammonia, and then drying them thoroughly.
AS it is often desirable to use small l \ battery lamps when no base is procurable, a temporary base can be easily and quickly made. Saw a common spool in half, and ream out the hole until it will thread in the base of the lamp. A small screw in the side of the spool serves as one terminal.
Sliding Resistances Made in a Solution with Zinc Plates
IT is essential in some experiments to have a varying resistance in the electrical circuit by a gradual, continuous process, and not by steps. There are two convenient forms of sliding resistances. One is a long resistance wire stretched backward and forward across a square wooden frame.
Plans and the way of cutting out the blocks to make a relief half-model battleship
HERE you are, boys. The illustrations will give you all the information you need to know how to make a half model of one of the most modern battleships. All that you will need are wood, glue, paint, some tools, and a desire to have a model that will be an excellent ornament for your den.
THE fluting or beading of a column or a table leg is apparently a simple piece of work, but it requires a device like this to do it economically and accurately. Work of this sort is usually done on a shaper, and an index similar to the one illustrated is a necessity in a shop that does miscellaneous work.
VASES that are both decorative and useful may be made from burned-out electric-light bulbs. Take a burnedout bulb and hold the metal part of it in a flame. After a few moments turn the metal screw cap with pliers until it comes off. Then break the wires holding the two parts together.
A SPONGE-BOX or bread-raiser is a temperature equalizer for the housekeeper who finds the fluctuating heat and cold waves an aggravating circumstance in making bread. Holding the sponge or dough at the proper temperature lessens the time required for the substance to rise.
SHRINKAGE of the sides of a miter-box does not affect its accuracy, but the shrinkage of the bottom will throw out of line the cits in the sides, and render the box worthless for accurate work. The illustration shows a simple and infallible means of preventing, or rather counteracting, this shrinkage.
IT is known that there are continuous changes in the direction and strength of the earth’s magnetic field, such variations being at times so marked as to merit the title of “magnetic storms.” The origin of the variations noted at any observation station may be remote or purely local.
IN packing the circulating pump of an automobile the following method will improve the work. Determine in what direction the shaft runs; then, when winding the strand of packing, wind it in a direction by which the friction of the shaft will tighten up the spiral rather than loosen it, so that the packing will be in a slight measure selftightening—the reason being the same as for the use of rightand left-hand threads on the parts that revolve and are subject to friction against stationary members.
IN recent years pistons have undergone a marked revolution. With the development of the extremely high-speed motor the weight of the pistons was reduced to a minimum. In many cases these light-weight pistons have given trouble, and usually it is because of the lack of care in perfecting the design.
I HAVE found that solder is the quickest thing with which to fasten a long pin in a section of hard wood (Fig. 1), glue requiring too much time to set and also preventing subsequent removal. After tinning the pin I ran plenty of solder around it (Fig. 2) just where it emerged from the wood.