Why the despatch rider must have one hundred per cent courage
STRAIGHT away for half a mile stretched the road where machine-gun bullets buzzed like bees around a hive, mingling with the whine of the sniper’s message, bursts of shrapnel, and an occasional high-explosive shell. Half a mile of rutted and shell-scarred road—a terrible handicap for anything on wheels in peace time, and now an almost certain path to death.
Their thin armor is easily pierced and the weight handicaps maneuvers
ALL reports from the front point to the increased efficiency and more general and intelligent employment of tanks. It would certainly appear that the tank has come to stay, and that in future tanks will form an integral part of an army no less than airplanes.
WHEN the Americans first went to France, they took with them not only their equipment and our good will, but also several new and effective inventions for killing bothersome Germans. After the novelty of bombing out the nervous Hun with baseball-bred accuracy had begun to pall, our boys scoured around among their new inventions to find one that would make startled Fritz jump.
A TENSE moment in the life of an officer of the French Engineers Corps! For hours he has been at his post in the listening gallery, which extends from the first line of trenches in the direction toward the enemy’s line. It is pitch-dark in the tunnel, except for the flickering light of the solitary candle.
AMMUNITION had destroyed the village church, and the devout Serbian soldiers stationed near decided that ammunition’s next-of-kin should, be forced to rebuild it. So, the rafters of shell-torn buildings served anew, cheek by jowl with poles from the forest; and around this frame were erected walls—solid, weather-proof, passably bullet-proof; built of nothing but old cartridge-boxes filled with earth.
Shells to the Right of Them, Shells to the Left of Them
A POSSIBLE title for this photograph is “The Artilleryman’s Paradise." Four women are in sight—not overworked, apparently, by their task of arranging hundreds of tons of metal in a day. The real working force stays modestly in the upper air. It consists, in fact, of a number of traveling cranes, electrically operated.
THE following sad, unvarnished tale of a cow was enacted one night on a farm in Indiana. All of a sudden, about midnight, the most awful sounds began to come from the vicinity of the apple orchard. Presently these sounds died away. Morning and the farmer found a cow with a barrel on its head.
ONE of the queerest, not to say largest, flues in the world is installed in the plant of the St. Joseph Lead Company at Herculaneum, Mo. It is eight feet in diameter and more than a quarter of a mile long; instead of running vertically into the air, however, it runs parallel to the surface of the ground, and serves to carry the gases from the blastfurnaces where the lead is refined to the bag-house, and thence to the brick stack.
ANY motorist will tell you what a world of harm is hidden in one small nail. In this war one nail can disrupt an entire army; for, in sending troops and supplies to the front, the slightest hitch, such as a tire with a nail through it, will cause delay.
ORDINARILY Bossy finds the barn-yard or dairy barn the proper place to function, but not so the milk-producer shown in the photograph. In an attempt to impress upon his fellow townsmen and the farmers of the adjacent region that a good cow is a profitable investment for both the owner and the bank, Cashier Ed Crow, of the Commercial National Bank in Raleigh, N. C., actually installed a mother cow and her calf in a small pen near the cashier’s cage.
“SOLDIERS! Attention! If you want wine, take care of the casks!" This is the sign that is painted on thousands of casks containing wine for French soldiers at the front. The precaution is necessary because of the large quantities of wine which France sends to her soldiers.
EFFECTIVE team-work with two calculating-machines is shown in the photograph shown above. In large banking institutions the war has brought about a great amount of business in converting American money into the equivalents of various foreign systems, principally French and English.
THE efficiency of the traffic “cop,” which is of great interest to motorists, is bound to be affected if he is not protected from sun and rain. With this in view, the Columbus Automobile Club of Columbus, purchased “Go—Stop” traffic umbrellas like the one here pictured, for the police of their city.
THESE are not our stern pilgrim ancestors “stocking up” a miscreant—they are English soldiers trying out a pillory which they found in a town that the Germans had just evacuated. It seems surprising that the Germans should resort to this old-fashioned mild form of punishment, and surely it is not due to any reformation on their part.
Why, according to psychological tests, left-handed people ought to remain so
PARENTS, teachers, and educators have long been puzzled by the left-handed child. Some have argued that the “left-hander” should be taught the use of the right arm; others believe in the saying, “Let well enough alone.” Recently a group of psychologists, headed by Dr. W. Franklin Jones of the University of South Dakota, have got on the trail of the left-handed.
THE captain leaned far over the end of the bridge on his ship. Frantically he jerked the handle of the cable leading to the engine-room. “Stop the ship! Half-speed astern!” Two thousand yards off rose the conning-tower of the giant German U-boat which only a few minutes before had sent its missile of destruction into his ship.
The lesson that the wild geese taught us and how it is applied
Carlyle F. Straub
IN the early days of the war a combat in the air was much like the jousting of medieval knights—a struggle between two champions. In a sense, the General Staff placed its entire reliance on a few extraordinary flyers. This kind of fighting was peculiarly suited to the British temperament.
AN invention for moistening the air from hot-air furnaces has recently been patented by Frederic F. Bahnson, of North Carolina. The hot air is drawn from the top of the furnace by means of a small fan driven by an electric motor. The hot air passes through a chimney shaft to the moistening chamber.
PEOPLE who are trying to store the winter’s supply of coal in apartment-house cellars will be interested in the plan hit upon by a certain manufacturing company. By timbering the base of the coal-pile, it is possible not only to store more than double the quantity of coal on the same ground-space, but to prevent waste.
IF you keep your shoes filled with hot air, your feet can not be cold. But whence comes the hot air? And how is it fed to the shoes? Halls P. Etheridge, of Gilmerton, Va., answers the questions by patenting a small two-cylinder air pump which is placed in the heel of each shoe.
TO avoid the wasteful emission of smoke from the chimney by regulating the drafts, D. R. Hibbs, of New York, suggests a simple remedy suitable for manufacturing plants in which the chimney rests on top of the boiler. He recommends running a two-inch pipe through the smokestack at such an angle that the fireman can conveniently look through the pipe when he is standing by the side of his boiler.
THE latest development in electric heaters is one that provides for building it like a flat ruler. The heater was designed primarily for use in outdoor constructional work. The cabs of digging cranes, for instance, often become so cold that the men cannot work.
The military airplane of to-day looks extremely simple from a distance, but at close range it proves to be a most intricate piece of mechanism. The drawing shows the fuselage of a two-seated German Albatros, which was captured almost intact a short time ago.
BASED on the Ford farm tractor, a new narrow-gage industrial locomotive now being experimented with by Henry Ford, is capable of hauling from ten to twenty tons in small dump-cars. The motive power of the apparatus is the same as in the Ford farm tractor and differs from it only in the employment of steel disk flanged wheels instead of the large cleated ones for negotiating soft ground.
A NEW gear-shifting device shown below has a leather-faced small friction wheel, controlled by a lever, which is placed at right angles between the fly-wheel and the disk of the drive-shaft. The nearer the small disk is moved to the center of the fly-wheel, the less speed will it transmit to the drive-shaft; the nearer to the periphery of the fly-wheel, the greater the speed transmitted.
NO one needs to be told the disadvantage of the pneumatic tire, especially the pneumatic tire used on motor-trucks. A Chicago inventor, Edward A. Banschbach, flashes this idea on us: Why not make the hub a pneumatic tube, and put the wheel around it?
SOMETIMES the difficulty in starting a Ford car in cold weather may be due to a too great distance between the fly-wheel, the magnetos and the coils, caused by a wearing away of the ends of the main engine bearings. To give an ample-sized spark, the magnetos, which are mounted on the fly-wheel, should be about three thirty-seconds of an inch away from the coils on the engine.
WHY not build a conservatory over your garage? This is practicable if the floor of the conservatory is made water-tight. If the garage is an addition to the house the conservatory can be entered from the second floor. The same principle may be applied when the garage is a separate building.
WITH a new device owners of Fords need not remove the tank-cap to learn how much gasoline is in the tank. It is screwed into the opening usually covered by the cap. Two rods extend from the top member of the device to the bottom of the tank. A cylindrical float slides along these rods as the level of the gasoline rises or falls.
WITH the device shown above the priming of all of the engine cylinders is accomplished at one time. This is done by suspending a small gasoline supply, tank from the rod holding the engine hood and running between the radiator and the dash, and by leading a pipe to à header connecting all of the priming cup valves.
A Novel Use for the Motor-Truck—Transporting Race-Horses
IT’S all very well for ordinary human beings to travel in crowded subways or try to keep appointments on railroads with schedules “subject to change without notice”; but with a race-horse it’s different. He may be worth forty or fifty thousand dollars,—a sum that few of us would bring if put up on the auctioneer’s block,—and his health and time are matters for serious consideration.
Sailors who are going to be doctors, druggists, and dentists after the war
What the University of Minnesota Is Doing
How the Navy Students Practise on Each Other
Medical and Dental Help in Cases of Emergency
New Impulses that the War is Awakening
WITH the mobilization of American resources for the war impact comes a natural feeling to most young men that they would like to serve in positions that they are qualified to fill. Others, not “stars” at any particular craft, have a natural aptitude for occupations which they are not called on to pursue in civil life.
THE Bureau of that we demand lobster than produce. This difficulty overcome if all lobsters grow as large as here. Fisheries says more our waters will be will kindly the one shown This enormous fellow, weighing nearly thirty pounds, was caught off Boston and brought in on a fishing schooner.
EVERY time the Germans retreat, the advancing Allies find a new and entirely unfamiliar array of destructive weapons which the Germans have not had time to take along. Their latest are iron tubes with spikes on the end. Here (below) we see two British soldiers looking over some which they found in a newly captured town.
SO successful have the “Waacs”— members of Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps—proved behind the lines in France, that the British Navy has brought into being a similar organization on its own account: the Women’s Royal English Naval Service, known familiarly as the “Wrens.”
It is a check-book in the form of a four-by-three-inch leather wallet containing eight tabloid checks. It opens easily, delivering the checks without heavy creases. THE ordinary check-book—the long and narrow one that lay open nicely on your desk, but bulked too large for your pocket and fell out easily—is responsible for much profanity on the part of travelers.
OUR old friend the traffic regulation post reappears, its former rigidity of manner smoothed by the inventive hand of J. H. Lehmann, of Elkhart, Indiana. Equipped with a strong coil spring in its base, this post, struck by the careless automobile, will bow an apology, prostrate itself on the ground to avoid injuring its assailant’s radiator, and a moment later spring back erect, on duty again.
THE necessity of protecting guns as much as possible from enemy aviators has stimulated the ingenuity of the Allied forces on the western front in finding unusual places of concealment for their guns or in camouflaging them so as to defy detection by the keenest observer.
WHILE the piratical skull and cross-bones might appropriately serve as an ensign for the Central Powers, there is as yet no Allied flag. Louis Klebba, of Chicago, has designed the one shown below, which he thinks would look well at the dictating end of the peace table when the war is over.
LIKE many another character sung by Kipling, the regimental water-carrier has glanced at the new armies, shaken his head, and decided that he might as well take to machinery. At present the Allied fronts have a water-supply as efficient as the most progressive municipalities.
THE fire king shown below is what is known as a “living gas-jet.” He first shows his mouth empty, then takes a lighted match and holds it about six inches from his mouth. He then blows upon the flame, and his breath takes fire. The explanation of this puzzling performance is simple.
SOME men’s requirements for success in life are large. All that Mr. M. Miki, late of Japan, demands is all the pieces and time. Then he guarantees to neutralize the effects even of hammers on the most delicate of chinaware. The art in which he has become celebrated is the repairing of costly vases: which calls forth his skill as an antiquary, a sculptor, a solver of jig-saw puzzles, and an expert in the practical science of cohesion.
OF course the very bottom of the Pacific Ocean (approximately six miles below its surface) is an exceedingly wet spot; but the “wettest place” upon earth, according to the usual meaning of this term, is Cherra Punji, in the Khasia Hills of Assam, India.
OUR own moon rises, of course, in the east and sets in the west. So do all the other moons belonging to the other planets, except one of the two moons of Mars. This peculiar Martian satellite, named Phobos, rises in the west and sets in the east.
How sixty-three German guns were located by sound waves alone in a single day
How the Sound-Waves Are Calculated
Accuracy of the Method Demonstrated
Frank Parker Stockbridge
BY the use of “receiving stations” behind the lines, British and French military observers have been able to locate hundreds of German guns through the application of the science of acoustics. These stations are placed behind the Allied lines at points accurately determined, with the distance from each station to all others carefully recorded.
UNCLE SAM is a good military man because he is a good scientist. Nothing is too small to receive his careful attention, just as nothing is too big for him to tackle. He is as busy, these days, in his laboratories as he is in the field of war. He is working constantly to improve his military equipment.
THE blue shark inhabits the open ocean and is seldom found near the coast. It abounds in that central portion of the Atlantic known as the Sargasso Sea. The conditions under which the blue shark lives are most realistically reproduced in a wonderful group in the American Museum of Natural History, in New York, prepared by F. F. Horter under the direction of Major Bashford Dean, Curator of Fishes at the Museum.
WHERE organic life in the ocean is profuse, piles and other periodically submerged woodwork soon decay. The wooden bottoms of ships frequently be scraped to protect them from barnacles, but with piles such precaution is rarely taken. A California inventor, Alva L. Reynolds, of Long Beach, recently obtained a patent on a device for protecting piles against marine organisms on their surface.
FISH are decidedly stupid-looking creatures. So renowned is this reputation that if you wished to insult a friend’s intelligence you might call him a fish and be sure of being understood. But looks are deceiving, for here is a keen, ambitious (withal stupid-looking) fish, called the “archer,” having very up-to-date ideas about fighting and feeding.
Sleep Outside of Your Window for Your Health’s Sake
SLEEPING out of doors is highly recommended by physicians for both children and adults; for, in spite of the most careful ventilation, the air of a room can never be as pure as the outside air. Sleeping out of doors is usually a simple matter for people living in the country; but in cities, and even in suburbs, it is not generally easy to arrange.
ALL metals are influenced more or less by changes in temperature, expanding when the temperature rises, contracting when it falls. Zinc has an unusually high ratio of expansion and contraction. A strip of zinc one thousand feet long will expand about one inch every five degrees the temperature rises.
CANVAS chutes make excellent fire-escapes, but the chute, with its many yards of canvas and its framework, must be stored near a window, and it is not very ornamental. An invention recently patented by Henry L. Bartley, of Philadelphia, seems to solve the problem.
WHEN the housewife boils ham or cabbage, everybody in the house knows it. If the cooking is done in the diminutive kitchenette of a modern apartment, a small edition of a German gas attack is very apt to be the result. The architect who designed the model kitchen recently installed in Paris, solved the cooking-odor problem by borrowing an idea utilized for many years in all well equipped chemical laboratories.
A WIRE cage that can be firmly affixed to the top of an ordinary stable lantern and used for cooking food, has been devised by David M. Kupihea of Honolulu. The cage can be applied without interfering with the construction of the lantern and can be taken off when it is not needed.
MODERN science has established the fact that cold lunches, as a rule, do not contain enough nourishment in an easily assimilable form to satisfy the needs of growing children. In many city schools hot lunches can be obtained, but in country schools children still depend upon cold lunches.
DON’T blow out the gas is good advice to remember this winter. Don’t allow a draft to blow out the light. A sudden gust of wind from an open window may do the trick, and you will wake up in eternity. Don’t hang clothes on gas fixtures. It is an easy way to start a leak.
IF ANYONE told you that you could pour gasoline into a burning tank of gasoline without any danger to yourself, you would tell that person he was crazy. Yet one of the accompanying illustrations shows a man pouring real gasoline through a real pouring real gasoline live sheet of flame flaring out from the top of a tube on an automobile gasoline tank, and another shows a young woman doing a similar stunt with a small gasoline tank on a camping stove.
A NEW kind of hand truck for conveying heavy loads in manufacturing plants embodies several very ingenious features. The truck, with the handle in a vertical position, is wheeled under the skid carrying the load. By pressing down a pedal near the front end of the truck, a hook link is raised to a position in which it engages in a notch at the lower end of the handle-bar.
Patching the Water Main Without Turning Off the Water
WHEN a leak in a water main occurs, it should be repaired promptly to prevent damage. The water must be turned off, the ground excavated to make the defective part of the pipe accessible, and then the leaky section is removed and a new section substituted for it.
THE combined loader and mixer in the picture below offers the possibility of reducing the cost of road-building by better and more rapid work and by reducing the man power about two thirds. It is a combination of measuring bins and the belt-conveyor principle applied to a light portable mixer run by a five-horsepower gasoline engine which also supplies the traction power.
You’ve never seen a coal-oil cow, but you may hope to see one
A Problem for the Chemist
It Looks All Right
Chemistry in a Transition State
See if You Can Hop through This, Fritz
Save Your Old Tin Cans
Make Sunlight Your Alarm-Clock
Trapping the Hobo in the Box-Car
He Is Coddling Cooties on His Arm
Light Up Your Satchel
Converting Garbage into Good Pork
Morse Signals by Lantern
This Chimney’s Way Out
Special Apparatus for Saving the War-Horse
For Painting Traffic Lines
John Walker Harrington
THE village pump has long competed with Bossy. Now comes the derrick to substitute for the churn. For butter can be made from petroleum. As yet, this artificial petroleum butter does not possess the desirable new grass taste; it savors more of the flavor of axle-grease.
IT has taken Joseph Ostand of Cincinnati, a Rumanian machinist, eight years to round up the conception of an airship shown below. It took so long because he wanted a perfect universal locomotion machine, practical equally for travel in the air, on water, and on land.
Herds on the Santa Barbara Islands raided for meat and leather
This wild Billy is one of 100,000 goats, descendants of animals introduced into the Santa Barbara Islands by the Spaniards three hundred years ago, which now offer a new source of mutton and leather The wild goat herds also promise to increase the milk supply.
IN the large number of open cars that will be in use this winter, owing to the reduced production of automobiles, a new type of foot-warmer will be welcomed. The heat-generating medium is a specially compounded powder designed to burn in a closed container without flame, odor, or smoke.
WITHOUT any ignition device, without any carbureter, and without any intake manifold, the new type of semiDiesel engine invented and patented by R. M. Hvid, a Danish-American engineer, promises to play an important part in the development of engines for motortrucks and farm tractors.
AUTOMOBILISTS will appreciate the convenience of the self-opened-and-closed garage door invented by T.W.Meiklejohn, of Fond du Lac, Wisconsin. The principle of operation is simple, consisting of a mechanism for opening the door and another for closing it.
A NEW and novel method whereby one man can operate a train of three or even more automobiles has just been devised by W.M. Hinds of Los Angeles, California. This new system was brought about by the shortage of freight-cars for automobile delivery purpose, much of the rolling stock of the country now being used in war work.
WITH the coming of the farm tractor on American farms (approximately one hundred thousand tractors will be made here this year), one of the farmer’s greatest problems is his ability to buy an expensive farm tractor, and in addition invest two or three thousand dollars for a motortruck in which to carry his products to market.
How the Unending Struggle Between Gas and Mask is Carried On
New Gases—New Masks
Introduction of Gas Shells
ONE of the many remarkable innovations in the methods of warfare which the great World War has developed is the use of poisonous gases as agents of warfare. When, in the spring of 1915, the Germans made the first gas attack, using chlorine, which a favorable wind carried in the form of a heavy greenish cloud toward the French lines, their adversaries were entirely unprepared to meet that attack.
THE loss of life caused by the war has awakened the nation to-the need of conserving life. The horrors of the yearly war fatality lists are bad enough, but what about the 300,000 children under five years of age who die each year in the United States?
IF it were not for the familiar uniform,you might suppose that this was a regiment of highwaymen lined up for inspection before getting to work. But, as you have probably guessed, the men in the picture are street-cleaners trying out masks to protect them against the influenza germ.
FOR the convenience of automobile tourists who are also fond of boating, George M. Clark, of Battle Creek, Michigan, has invented a boat in sections which can be taken apart, nested, packed in a crate, and carried on the footboard of an automobile.
PERSISTENT labor troubles in these speed-the-war days put labor-saving machines at a premium. Here, for instance, are some mechanically driven. planers that can do the work of many men. They have been adopted by several shipyards. They are rotary machines operated by air-driven turbines at a speed of from 8,000 to 15,000 revolutions a minute.
WHO ever heard of a water caterpillar? Yet not only have they been invented, but their invention antedates the invention of the land caterpillars by many years. The first water caterpillar on record was invented by Desblancs in 1782, and was propelled by a steam-engine.
Is man descended from the monkey? Are you well or ill? Your blood crystals will tell
Two Strange Murder Cases
Science to the Aid of Law
Dr. Reichert's Discoveries
Blood of Apes and Human Beings
Anna Heberton Ewing
THEY found the body of the dead man in his room. He was a Frenchman who had lived alone. It was clear that he had given up his life only after a terrible struggle. There was blood on the floor and on the walls—blood everywhere except upon the body itself.
WOOD pipe once consisted of bored-out logs, joined end to end. Modern wood pipe is built up of separate staves. Iron hoops placed at short intervals on the outside, enable, such a pipe to withstand a wide range of pressures. In the mountainous regions of the West, where the pipe lines cross rough, unfrequented country, the transportation of heavy iron or concrete pipe would be difficult.
ONE of the diversions of an airplane voyage to Europe, by way of the Azores, in the year 1925, will be a hot bath at the hitherto somewhat neglected wateringplace of Las Furnas, on the island of St. Michael. The valley of Las Furnas (“the caverns”) is the huge crater of an extinct volcano, 600 hundred feet above sealevel, about 27 miles from the quaint city of Ponta Delgada, the chief town of the Azores.
And they receive citations and medals just as other war heroes do
French Dogs the Best Trained
Gas-Masks for Dogs
They Learn Quickly
PICARD: on March 28 particularly distinguished himself as a messenger during an attack by accomplishing under heavy rifle fire and in the face of a violent barrage a journey of 3,000 meters, four times repeated. BRUTUS: on 27 and 28 January discovered three enemy patrols and gave the alarm.
“Digging In” After a Rush—The New War in the Open as an Airman Glimpsed It
A FRENCH aviator took this picture of an assault as it is now conducted since “the war of movement,” as the experts call it, was instituted. There is nothing haphazard about a charge such as this. The men are never for a moment left to their own devices: always a non-commissioned or a commissioned officer shouts instructions.
SAND-BLASTING has always been considered dangerous business. Because of this, helmets and masks for protecting the workers held the undivided attention of mask inventors until gas-masks came along. But there never has been invented any absolutely safe protector for the blaster, and flying dust is bound to get at him.
FEATHERS are classed among the so-called “common” things, but their structure is astonishing in its perfect adaptation of means to an end. A feather may be roughly divided into midrib and vane. The midrib is the long, tapering central shaft.
How a difficult science has been simplified with the help of the motion-picture camera
Map-Reading Is Difficult
What Contour Lines Mean
A MILITARY map is highly concentrated information. Every square inch of it is a record of valuable facts. It may show the character of a railroad; the number of its bridges, and their type; the number of its sidings and their location; the telegraph and telephone connections; every group of trees, every little creek and brook; every road; the population of a village; the location of churches in the village; whether the houses in the village are built of wood or masonry; swamps outside of the village ; whether bridges over streams will sustain artillery and tractors; whether the water in the stream is drinkable.
Once Worthless Things that Have Suddenly Become of Value
THE unusual conditions caused by the war, especially the lack of certain important raw materials, have led to the substitution of substances heretofore considered without value for the unobtainable raw material. The despised nettle is now used extensively in Germany as a substitute for the cotton which America and Egypt no longer supply.
THE school of blackfish stranded at Nantucket recently had probably been driven on the beach by killerwhales, their deadly enemies. The blackfish, according to the Bureau of Fisheries, is not a fish, but a whale—or, to be more specific, a jet-black member of the dolphin or whale family.
A Chemical Preparation to Make Paper Incombustible
Winter or Summer Pruning for Apple Trees
E. T. Keyser
YOU may not be so fortunate as to own an ice-boat, but if you have a pair of skates you can make a skate-sail that will give you many of the joys of ice-yachting. The illustration shows such a sail. It is easy to make. The materials needed are: 1 piece of oak or ash 9 ft. long by 1¼ in. square.
A Silk Cloth Makes Contact for a Rain or Snow Alarm
EDWARD F. DUGAN
THE alarm consists primarily of a strip of silk cloth suspended between two wires or electrodes and these wires completing a circuit as shown in the diagram. The apparatus is inclosed in a small box for protection from wind.
READERS who are familiar with the fuse that fits into clips know that it is a very dangerous piece of work to remove or replace a fuse without insulation between the fingers and the line. The accompanying sketch shows an inexpensive fuse tongs which is in many instances a life-saver.
A COVERED seat of good design can be built entirely from a fallen tree in localities where timber grows. The straightest section of the trunk will serve as the seat, while from the better part of the branches can be made the arms, back, and other parts of the seat.
DILUTED hydrochloric acid best serves this purpose. Aluminum containing iron can be matted with soda lye, followed by a treatment of nitric acid. The lye dissolves the aluminum, and the nitric acid dissolves the iron. Aluminum bronze may be etched with nitric acid.
An Electro-Thermostatic Control for House-Heating Boilers
How the Regulator Works
To Make the Apparatus
To Reduce Friction
Simple Electrical Connections
E. F. Hallock
THE average house-heating steam boiler comes fitted with a highly efficient regulator which automatically opens or closes the draft according to the steam pressure, and tends to maintain that pressure constant without regard to the temperature of the portions of the house being heated.
AT times it has been necessary to reline the fire-box in our kitchen range while awaiting the arrival of fire-bricks. The weight of the wet clay and poor retaining surface having caused a previous lining to crack and fall down, I reinforced the new lining with a piece of 1-4-in. mesh galvanized wire, fitted in as shown in Fig. 1.
FOLLOWING is a description of a practical miniature electric reading lamp, designed to be attached to a book or magazine. It can be constructed with very little trouble and trifling expense, and it has the advantage of illuminating the page no matter what position the reader assumes.
TAKE a straight board about 1 ft. long, 4 in. wide, and ½ in. thick, and nail a small block on one end. Cut one end of a shorter piece in a half circle, and bore a hole through to one side of the center mark, also bore a hole in the first piece at a point where it will, when the two pieces are held together with a bolt, bring the curved end close to the small block edge.
ONE of the most common errors among mechanics seems to be made in the truing up of screw-drivers that have been worn or mutilated. The average user seems unaware of the actual construction of the working end of a screw-driver. When he thinks the tool needs fixing, he simply takes a file and removes some of the stock on the end until it has the appearance shown in Fig. 1.
The Use of Wagon-Poles for Removing Shocked Fodder
A. A. JEFFREY
THE device here described has been in use on our farm for years, and with its help the usually hard task of removing shocked fodder from a field that is to be plowed or seeded has been reduced to a one-man job. Remove the bed from the wagon, and put in its place two stout ash poles 13 ft. long, made to fit the rear bolster with two cross-pieces that fit loosely in front and rear of the bolster.
THE accompanying illustration shows a useful tool-rack which is cheap and easy to make. It consists of two rows of clothes-pins clamped firmly between two flat iron or wood bars. The bars are swiveled on the end of a bracket fastened to the wall. This little device can also be used for a tie-rack, or for handkerchiefs, or for ladles in the kitchen.
WE are taught that a house built on sand will fall, but modern methods have almost discounted this. A two-story brick fire-house 40 by 80 feet was built on swampy land in 1910 in a certain city, and up to the present time it has shown no signs of settling, though it houses the heaviest kind of apparatus.
THE usual knife eraser is used to sharpen pencils, lift thumb-tacks, and do general service as a knife, with the result that the point is seldom of any use as an eraser, particularly on tracing linen. Realizing that only the point is of any use for this purpose, I have for several years used very small erasers made from old safety-razor blades, the steel of which is very hard and maintains its edge much longer than the ordinary knife eraser.
THERE are many kinds of racks for fire-hose. A new kind is shown in the illustration; a home-made affair. This rack consists of pipe and fittings so arranged that it can be swung against or out from the wall. As many pins or pipe extensions may be used as are necessary to hold the length of hose.
Holding an Automobile Radius Rod with Wedge and Cotter
P. P. AVERY
IN many of the older automobiles the radius rods are used to take the drive. These rods usually have a balland-socket joint at the forward end with adjustment, and the rear ends are connected to the rear axle-housing with a pin or bolt. Since this joint is very difficult to protect with a leather boot and grease, it soon becomes worn and is the source of a great deal of noise.
Use Piece of Old Moving-Picture Film to Make a Dotted Line
A PIECE of discarded moving-picture film, fastened with glue to the edge of a rule, so that the perforations project, aids materially in making dotted lines accurately and evenly on a drawing. The illustration shows how this is done.
A CONTRACTOR had a “dinkey engine” of 36-in. gage that he wished to use on a 34-in. track. It looked like an expensive task to narrow up the wheels and axles, frames and cylinders, cab, etc. So it was decided to buy another locomotive of the desired gage.
XIX.—Development of Patterns for a Ship’s Ventilator
Laying Off the Triangles
To Lay Out the Pattern
A Better Ship's Ventilator
Arthur F. Payne
EVERY student of pattern drafting sooner or later has the desire to develop the patterns for a ship’s ventilator, and, judging by the number of requests that have come from our readers, they are no exception to the rule. In following out the logical sequence of the present series, this is the proper time to demonstrate this particular problem.
IN making small desk lamps and electric candles, the ordinary socket is too difficult to attach and is needlessly cumbersome. A good substitute is to bend a thin strip of brass around the end of an incandescent lamp, and to solder the ends so as to form a tube just large enough to permit the lamp being pushed in tightly.
IN the Southern States bicycle-riders use a paper bag and a candle to furnish light for night riding. A small hole is cut in the bottom of the bag for ventilation, and a candle is placed in the open end, which is then folded about it and held in the hand.
IT is the fashion nowadays to put nuts on the table in a wooden bowl, in the center of which is some kind of nut-cracking device. Some kinds of nuts, Brazil nuts for instance, are very hard to crack, and nuts that are large frequently have the kernel broken up into fragments.
IN city houses, where pulley clotheslines are used, there is difficulty in getting enough clothes-line space. With the construction of the device here illustrated, one laundress uses both lines, the top one for small articles. A small line, the length of the stretch between the pulleys, is placed on the upper strand of the pulley-line by means of a number of rings, so as to slip easily along the wire.
A HANDY laboratory tool for cutting glass tubing of large diameters can easily be constructed with a three-cornered file. The drawing depicts all the constructional details necessary. When using the device, press lightly on the file with one hand and turn the tubing with the other.
IF it is necessary to saw off a bolt end through the threads or to file down the end, take the precaution to run a nut on the threads some distance above the proposed cut. By running this nut off when the operation is completed, the burr left by the cutting process is removed, thus avoiding a great deal of trouble in starting a new nut.
THE ordinary dry battery rapidly loses its strength when it is placed in a damp place, and because of this a door-bell battery located in a basement will not last as long as one situated elsewhere. Yet in some houses the basement or cellar is the only convenient place for the cell.
DRAWING instruments are expensive as a rule, and the socalled dotting pen is no exception. Here is one, however, that will cost nothing but a few minutes’ time. All that is required is a piece of cigarbox wood, a gear wheel from an old watch, and a small piece of adhesive tape.
IN order to comprehend more clearly the subject of electric illumination, a brief discussion of the fundamental theory of the nature of light and its transmission will not be amiss. Before any of the great natural agents can be utilized most effectively, some knowledge of their principal characteristics should be gained.
PREPARE a solution of sodium iodate by dissolving about one gram of the substance in a pint of water. Add to this a few drops of thin starch paste, made by boiling a pinch of starch with a little water, and stir the mixture thoroughly; then fill a cylinder or jar half full of the solution.
DISSOLVE 1 oz. of white shellac in 6 fluid oz. of menthylated spirit, and strain through muslin. Add slowly to this with agitation a solution of 2 oz. of borax in 12 oz. of water, mixing with the borax solution any water-color desired. India ink may be substituted for the water-color with equally good results.
EXPERIENCE with the very best kinds of oil heaters has convinced me that it is risky to leave them unwatched for any length of time. Probably there have never been so many used as during the last period of fuel shortage, and a great many fires were caused by them.
SMALL in size and weighing little over 1 oz., but mighty in performance, is this little tool. It is a combined try, miter, octagon, hexagon, 22½ deg. and 30 deg. square. In addition, it is a 3½-in. rule and can be used as a marking gage. It will be found extremely handy for small work.
AN unabridged dictionary, an encyclopedia, or other large and cumbersome book, frequently has a short life in a school, library, or office where it is constantly used for reference purposes. Such books are so large and heavy that the bindings often are of insufficient strength to withstand the severe usage to which books of reference are subjected.
TO paste clippings with speed and cleanliness, do not spread the paste over the entire back surface. Run it in broad lines along the edges and across the center, as shown in Fig. 1. For larger clippings add more lines of paste; crossing the lines holds the clippings flat by equalizing the stretch, and this overcomes the tendency to Wrinkle.
THE ordinary bench-stop is very much in the way most of the time, and rarely, of just the proper height for the work at hand. It ought to be ⅛ in. high for one job, and 1½ in. for the next. Very frequently it ought to be conspicuous by its complete absence.
LARGE hard-coal heaters of the magazine type have, at times, a disagreeable habit of going out in the night, no matter how carefully the fire may have been attended to in the evening. This, of course, is frequently due to the choking of the coal at the neck or bottom of the magazine funnel.
BALLOONS are being used extensively by the belligerents in the great war as observation towers to direct the artillery fire. They are capable of sustaining very heavy weights. Here is a table giving the diameter, capacity in cubic feet, and lifting power of such balloons.
Rubber Bands Used on Finger for Turning Over Leaves
GEORGE M. PETERSEN
IN turning over a bundle of papers, running through a pile of canceled checks and duties of a like nature, it IS customary to keep moistening the f ingers by means of a sponge in order to facilitate the work. This sponge can be done away with completely if a rubber band is slipped loosely around the finger, as shown, or a more comfortable and permanent arrangement can be made by cutting a piece from a wide rubber band and sewing it together at the ends.
A Lathe Boring Tool for Holding Round Shank Cutters
FRANK W. HARTH
THE illustration shows a type of tool holder which has been found very successful in ammunition work. This holder could be used with equal success on any other work where the hole to be bored is of small diameter. The bar may be of any size, in this case the dimensions were as indicated.
A WELL drained and frost-proof cellar is not always the ideal place to store farm produce and anything of a perishable nature, unless it is airy and very well ventilated. In the sultry days of spring it is sure to be damp. The usual remedy is to open the windows at night and let the cool air in.
ON a fan motor one brush had become so worn that the motor would not operate. In order to repair this a brush was made of a piece of picture cord. The spiral spring holding the brush against the commutator on the armature was removed and the cell thoroughly cleaned with gasoline.
Woolen Hose May Be Converted into Warm Army Mittens
DURING last Winter the shortage of mittens in an army camp left some of the boys without anything to keep the hands warm. There was an over supply of wool hose. One private in the camp devised a means of converting the extra hose into mittens for the needy ones.
Converting an Old Lawn-Mower info a Post-Hole Auger
R. J. STEPHENS
THE illustration shows a very simple way of making an auger for digging post-holes from the cutter reel of a lawn-mower. The axle which was ⅝ in. in diameter, in this case, was removed from the blades by releasing the set screws; then the ends of the four blades were heated sufficiently to permit their being cut about 1 in.
A SERVING-TRAY like the one here illustrated conserves both the time and energy of the housewife. Such a home convenience saves many trips between the dining-room and kitchen, especially in a roomy farmThe serving tray closed presents a neat stand used for other purposes house, where very many dishes are handled.
THE gas range may be lighted electrically without the use of a spark coil by using the lighting current connected with a lamp in series with the line. The connections are shown in the diagram. A carbon rod in the circuit is provided with a wooden handle which has a screw-eye in the top to hang it up near the gas range.
ONE type of tool-box though somewhat smaller than a trunk is larger than the average suit-case—too cumbersome for workmen to carry to their work. In one case, a mechanic procured a pair of ordinary furniture rollers of large diameter, and fastened them to the two lower corners of one end of the box.
OUTLINE on a piece of heavy bond paper, 3¼ in. long, the shape of a ship as shown in the illustration, and in its center cut a round hole with a channel to the stern end. Ordinary oil is used for the propelling power. Sewing machine oil will do very well.
A VERY efficient rheostat for use either with batteries or on a house lighting circuit can be quickly and easily made in the following manner: Cut two pieces of heavy sheet copper in the triangular shape shown in the diagram, making the dimensions such that when placed in a large tumbler or small battery jar the dotted line will come to the top edge.
AS long as the war continues we can be certain that the knitting fad will continue to hold the interest of women. All of these patriotic knitters know that a ball of wool will not unwind uniformly as needed and “stay put” unless held in position by some device such as the one illustrated here.
AT the terminals of street-car lines a large sand-box is usually provided, so that motormen can fill up the sand-boxes on their cars to be used for sanding the rails. In carrying the dry sand from the supply box to the cars in an ordinary round bucket much of the sand is spilled out while being poured into the container.
THIS holiday decoration is known as a Christmas pyramid. It is made of wood, with a revolving tower set in the interior of the upper part. This tower has shelves on which small soldiers, candles, and other ornaments are placed, to be displayed as the shelves follow the circle.
An Audio Frequency Oscillator of Simple Construction
T. W. BENSON
THE constant demand for a source of current having a constant amplitude and frequency for laboratory measurements has been met in the past by utilizing a buzzer or some similar device similar device to interrupt the circuit. An instrument which does not break the circuit entirely, but acts to vary the strength of the current, would obviously be superior to any buzzer arrangement.
IT is not at all difficult to build a boat that will submerge and rise at will without, apparently, being directly controlled. The materials necessary are a small box about the size of a cigar box, a rubber bladder, 2 ft. of rubber hose and some pine lumber.
HANDLING a freshly painted sign usually means a broken frame. A very convenient and safe method, as well as one that economizes space, is to attach several screw hooks to the back of the frame, as shown in Fig. 1. The sign can then be moved as often as desired, without smudging. If the sign is large a piece of rope can be fastened to the screws and the sign hung up like a picture.
IT often happens, in making a scrapbook or cutting out advertisements for filing, that there is something important on both sides of a page. The remedy is to split the paper. To do this, paste the desired clipping between two heavy sheets of paper, and, when thoroughly dry, quickly and without hesitation pull the two pieces apart.
THE illustration shows a very clever design for a home-made sander which can be used in the home workshop or, if built on larger dimensions, for the pattern or woodworking shop of a manufacturing plant. The one shown is a small size, its drum being made up by spiking staves 30 in. long, 3 in. wide and 2 in. thick to circular end pieces.
THE method sometimes employed for dividing a line into a given number of parts may be used for locating the boundary lines for letters so that a line of letters will exactly fill a line of given length. If a printed alphabet of the style of letters to be used is at hand, make a copy from it on tracing-paper of the letters which form the word or words in the line.
THE farmer should appreciate more fully the value of manure and the proper methods of handling it. He should figure it as worth at least $2 a ton, and he should get that amount, or in many cases much more, out of it by proper handling. Just how it ought to be handled depends upon conditions.
A MACHINIST’S vise does not look like a hat-stretcher, but a mechanic falling heir to a very good soft hat, just a little too small, used a vise as a hat-expander with good results. Placing the hat on the vise, he opened the vise, then closed it, moved the hat around a trifle, and opened it again.
BY means of the little tool shown in the illustration, solenoids may be wound with little trouble in the chuck of a small polishing head, if a lathe is not at hand. A ¼-in. cold rolled steel rod is threaded at one end and provided with a nut.
TEN parts of ferric chloride and a hundred parts of acetone, and fifteen parts of tannin mixed. This solution may be used with any kind of a pen. Users of fountain-pens will do well to give this a trial.
Attaching Pressure Gage to Air Hose for Convenience
H. W. OFFINS
FOR the convenience of customers a tire-pressure gage may be attached to the end of the air hose in garages, which saves the customer the time and trouble of locating his own gage or of borrowing one from an employee of the garage if he doesn’t own one.
THE microphone depends upon the fact that the electrical resistance of a loose contact between two conductors changes under the action of sound waves. Variations of the current can thus be produced in a circuit, these variations corresponding to the sound waves which produce them.
A Built-In Upright Drawer Used in Place of Shelves
THE small boxes and packages used in every kitchen are about the worst dust-catchers possible if openly displayed on shelves. If they are kept in a cupboard, they are not handy and even there they collect considerable dust. Small cupboards built for the purpose, again, have the disadvantage that doors must be continually opened and closed to their full width, and are more or less in the way when they are opened.