THE period of the history of chemistry which I have chosen to designate as the dawn of modem chemistry begins practically in the early sixteenth century and extends well toward the latter part of the eighteenth century. Not that the chemistry of that period shows any very clear relation to the present state of chemical science, but because at about the middle of the sixteenth century there was inaugurated an era of activity in chemical thought and experimentation, which has continued with steadily increasing velocity and productiveness to the present time.
SHUT off from eastern North American by the high Sierra wall, that formidable barrier to the eastern and western migration of plant, as well as animal life, and possessing a climate unlike that of any other part of the continent, California has developed a flora that is unique.
UPON the death of old Tanoa, his son Thakombau (evil to Mbau) became Vunivalu. He was an ambitious, energetic, crafty and intelligent man, but the problems of government were becoming yearly more complex in Fiji. Missionaries had entered the group in 1835, and although Tanoa did not permit them to live in Mbau or to attempt to make converts of his subjects, other chiefs welcomed them, for they brought valuable presents and increased the importance of those among whom they lived.
PERHAPS the most popular phase of philanthropic endeavor at the present time is that which deals with the improvement of industrial conditions for women. That their lot is unduly hard is evidenced by the facts of the case. Women have always worked and are therefore no innovation in industrial life; yet the spectacle of their toiling in ever-increasing thousands in this country has stirred alike alarmists and reformers, and they have given publicity to hardships always endured by the workers, but hitherto undreamed of by the more favored members of society.
THE circumstance of contiguity by which the southeastern end of the Balkan peninsula almost abuts against the extreme northwestern shore of Asia Minor provides an Eurasian ford which has facilitated human intercourse between Europe and Asia.
SOME PIONEERS IN MOSQUITO SANITATION AND OTHER MOSQUITO WORK
DR. L. O. HOWARD
IN planning, as early as 1903, a monograph of the mosquitoes of North and Central America and the West Indies which should he of service to zoologists and sanitarians,1 the writer included in his outline plan some consideration of the pioneer workers in this field, and with considerable trouble secured the photographs which are reproduced in this article.
THE political events which have transpired in China during the past two decades are symptomatic of profound social changes. Former changes of government had their origin primarily in a discontent with the reigning dynasty, without the further implication of a desire on the part of the people to participate directly in the government.
NO subject of national economy has broader significance to-day than that of water conservation. Every one knows that unrestrained floods wreak yearly an enormous destruction of property. Our flood losses have, indeed, been computed at 200 millions of dollars per year.
PROFESSOR ONNES AND THE LEIDEN LABORATORY OF PHYSICS
THE importance of maintaining good will between the scientific men and the men of letters of the different nations is so great that we are glad to have the opportunity of printing here the remarks made by Professor Heinrich Morf at the opening of his winter course at the University of Berlin.