ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF ARCHEOLOGY IN YALE UNIVERSITY
GEORGE GRANT MACCURDY
THE relation of culture to the environment is always a fruitful theme for discussion. To minimize the difficulties in the way of reconstructing the environment of the earliest races of man would be to deny the all-pervasive influence of environment as a factor in human development.
ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CHEMISTRY, UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN
JAMES H. WALTON, JR., PH.D.
IN the physical world we are familiar with the fact that changes of all kinds are continually taking place. Prominent among these are changes of state, such as the evaporation of water, the melting of ice and the condensation of steam. These familiar transformations seem to have a common property; as usually observed they take place at very definite temperatures.
HEREDITY, CULPABILITY, PRAISEWORTHINESS, PUNISHMENT AND REWARD
CABNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON, COLD SPEING HARBOR, N. Y.
DR. C. B. DAVENPORT
MODERN studies in heredity are yielding results whose social bearings can not be overestimated; and of these bearings not the least significant are those that relate to responsibility. To make these bearings clear we have, first of all, to grasp the current views about man.
SOMEWHERE Huxley says that certain men are counted great because they represent the actuality of their own age and mirror it as it is, Such a one was Voltaire, of whom it was said that he expressed everybody’s thoughts better than anybody. But there are other men who are great because they embody the potentiality of their own day and magically reflect the future.
THE notion is common and deeply rooted that men of large achievement, especially in letters or art, were physically inferior if not downright sickly and infirm. If one questions this idea, he is informed at once that Stevenson was far from well or vigorous, that Heine lived in a “ mattress grave,” that Chopin died of consumption at an early age, and that Darwin was hardly better than an invalid for much of his life.
ARGUMENTS opposing the progress of women are apt to begin with a praise of “typical, sweet” femininity, continue with a retailing of the fixed and inherent failings of women, add instances of selfish action on the part of individual women, such as taking away a man’s seat, obstructing a man’s view, getting in front of him in a ticket or bank line (forgetting that women have been carefully educated to consider themselves as creatures of privilege), and end with visions of race-extermination.
NOT so very long ago the merchant, the manufacturer, the teacher, the young man, and the public in general were under the spell of the boys’ magazine, wherein the first prize—the prize of partnership in the business and marriage with the “ old man’s ” daughter—is awarded to the boy who keeps his hands clean, brushes his shoes, picks up stray pins on the office floor and carefully saves the twine from his employer’s parcels.
DIRECTOR OF THE CHEMICAL LABORATORY, BETH ISRAEL HOSPITAL, NEW YORK CITY, INSTRUCTOR IN BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY
THE search for the cause of things and events exists since the appearance of man on the face of the earth. The inability to explain things reasonably and convincingly induced the thinkers of ancient times to use their imaginative faculties. The ancient explainers of natural phenomena were the poets.
THE late Lester F. Ward was a many-sided man and his fifty productive years brought forth a great number of contributions to botany, paleobotany, geology, psychology and anthropology. For a long time as paleobotanist of the U. S. Geological Survey he led as it were a double intellectual life, devoting his office hours to fossil plants and his spare time to the sciences relating to man.
DURING the nineteenth century, England was clearly the leading nation of the world. Previously it had been rivaled by Italy and France, even by Austria and Spain; now it has to. contend for supremacy with Germany and the United States; soon Russia and China will be added; perhaps the Balkan states and Japan.