THERE are few mathematical symbols the origin of which has given rise to more unrestrained speculation and less real scientific study than has our dollar mark, $. About a dozen different theories have been advanced by men of imaginative minds, but not one of these would-be historians permitted himself to be hampered by the underlying facts.
FORESTRY is the science of deriving a sure and fairly good revenue from the production of valuable timber trees on such hilly, rocky or sandy land as is unfit for field crops. The pine takes from the soil only a twelfth part of the mineral matter that is required for field crops.
LESS than fifteen years have elapsed since the scientific world entertained its first definite suspicion that certain human diseases might be spread through the agency of insects. Twelve have gone by since that suspicion became an established fact, and in this short space of time so much has been learned concerning the pernicious activities of these small animals in disseminating disease-causing organisms among man and the higher animals, that the science of preventive medicine can now be applied to many important diseases which were before utterly beyond its reach.
LIFE implies surplus energy. No organism can exist for any appreciable period without experiencing the fact that its environment is more favorable or more hostile to its life-activities at one time than at another time. Strength that just suffices to resist some special stress thus yields a surplus when that stress is over.
THE increasing cost of living, or more properly rising prices, has been the subject of much recent discussion. The causes have been explained and reexplained; everybody knows about increased gold production, also about the trusts, the tariff, labor unions, etc., in their joint and several relations to the subject.
ALONG with the movement toward vocationalism in the lower schools, there is at the present time apparent an equally powerful and not wholly unrelated trend in the higher toward intellectual specialization. Any one who is acquainted with the situation knows that in so far as the college and university teacher has to-day any distinct notion at all of what he is about, it is likely to be in the majority of cases in terms of an exaltation of scientific scholarship.
Yes, tempus fugit,” remarked a philosophical gentleman of African descent, as I sat in his barber’s chair remarking that my time was limited, “but,” he went on to say, “we should not speak of time flying, for we fly through time.” This seems logical, and new, but in whatever way we regard time we must certainly measure it; and we now measure it rather foolishly—not so foolishly, however, as by many systems in the past.
ALL who are at all familiar with the early history of chemistry will recall the prominent place given to a writer who wrote under the name of Basil Valentine and in the early history of the sciences was generally assigned to the fifteenth century.
AT present the Hindu-Arabic numerals hold nearly unlimited sway in the realm of number. In China, in Japan, in southeast Asia, and in parts of India, it is true, they are employed only by the upper classes and by foreign traders; but all over Europe, in Australia, and in North America, they are supreme; while in South America and in Africa they are used wherever civilized men make arithmetical computation.
THE Nobel prize in medicine has this year been awarded to Dr. Alexis Carrel, of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, New York City. This is an honor not only to the distinguished investigator, but also to the institution which has given him opportunity and to his adopted country.
NAMES OF CONTRIBUTORS ARE PRINTED IN SMALL CAPITALS
Abilities, The Permanence of Interests and their Relation to, EDWARD L. THORNDIKE, 449 Administrative Peril in Education, JOSEPH JASTROW, 495 Agricultural Products of the United States, 519 Air, Holes in the, W. J. HUMPHREYS, 50 Allegheny Observatory, The New, 409 American, Descendants of Gauss, FLORIAN CAJORI, 105; Natural History, George Marcgrave, the First Student of, E. W. GUDGER, 250; College, Function of, A. K. ROGERS, 574 Anaphylaxis, Some Aspects of, JOHN AUER, 434