THOUSANDS of years ago when the forces of nature were at work shifting and gradually shaping the features of the Great Plains, large areas of Tertiary sandstones were exposed in Dakota, Wyoming, Nebraska, Kansas and other parts of the western plains. As topographic features were slowly evolved, these sandstones, being young and soft, readily yielded to the eroding action of the elements and were reduced to light, fine-grained sand.
A MUDLUMP APPEARS IN SOUTH PASS, CONFIRMING AUTHOR’S THEORY
POSSIBLE FORESTALLING OF FARTHER UPHEAVALS
PROFESSOR E. W. HILGARD
IN 1867 the writer was commissioned by the Smithsonian Institution to determine, if possible, the geological age and mode of formation of the rock salt deposit on Petite Anse Island, Louisiana. This involved, of course, a general examination of the coast formations of Louisiana, and among them, of the Passes of the Mississippi, and of the puzzling phenomena of “ mudlump ” upheaval in the Passes, which, at times, seriously obstructed commerce, but the origin of which remained a matter of conjecture.
THE public school system in Japan, as in the United States, is capped by the university. In keeping, however, with the highly centralized government of the former country, the university is controlled and supported by the imperial government, whereas in America the support of higher education has been left so far to the individual states.
EFFICIENCY, when applied to personal capacity, signifies a maximum of return with a minimum of outlay; hence one man is more efficient than another if, with a given expenditure of energy, time, raw material or capital, he can secure a larger, though equally good, product.
FOR two decades or more sociologists have been proclaiming that the development of their science must be through psychology and must wait accordingly upon the development of that science. Now that psychology has achieved a very considerable development and relative unanimity of opinion with regard to certain fundamentals, it is strange to find sociologists, and workers in the social sciences generally, loath to make use of some of its assured results.
THE study of human types has fallen into disrepute because of the advance of exact science. Accurate measurements have displaced crude observations. In this way, the science of eugenics has been evolved with many earnest advocates who think the victories of physical science may be duplicated in social fields.
IT requires but a moment's reflection on the part of any one in the least familiar with modern affairs to realize that the time element has come to be the most important factor in business. Railroad trains and steam vessels are run according to time schedules.
NO one acquainted with the problems of professional education can read Mr. Abraham Flexner's exposé of the status of medical education in the United States and Canada without a feeling of profound gratitude. His description of conditions is so masterly and variegated as to give the impression of utter completeness.
THE FOUR PERIODS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MODERN ZOOLOGICAL SYSTEM
PROFESSOR H. S. PRATT
IN 1758 when Linnæus published the epoch-making tenth edition of his "Systema Naturæ" the science of zoology was in a backward condition, having made but little progress for a long period of time. Some important advances, it is true, had been made by the generation immediately preceding that event.
IN the death of this distinguished paleontologist science has sustained a heavy loss. Our knowledge of the splendid succession of fossil mammalian life in the Argentine is due principally to the work of Amèghino. A collector and explorer whose energy and enthusiasm no handicap of opposition and poverty could overcome, a student of immense learning and keen insight, a writer and controversialist of extraordinary facility and dialectic skill, a broad thinker and daring speculator, above all a man of high ideals and great patriotism, his life and achievements are well worthy of admiration and respect.
THE tenth, yearbook of the Carnegie Institution of Washington is of special interest, as it records a further gift from the founder of ten million dollars and reviews the history of the institution for its first ten years. The endowment is now $22,000,000 in five per cent. bonds of the steel corporation, worth at least $25,000,000.