CONSERVATION as an economic and political term has come to mean the preservation of our natural resources for economical use, so as to secure the greatest good to the greatest number. In the development of this country, in the hardships of the pioneer, in the energy of the settler, in the anxiety of the investor for quick returns, there was very little time, opportunity, or desire to prevent waste of those resources supplied by nature which could not be quickly transmuted into money; while the investment of capital was so great a desideratum that the people as a community exercised little or no care to prevent the transfer of absolute ownership of many of the valuable natural resources to private individuals, without retaining some kind of control of their use.
THE PALEONTOLOGIC RECORD THE RELATION OF PALEOBOTANY TO PHYLOGENY
PROFESSOR D. P. PENHALLOW
THE history of plant life has been the central idea in all botanical studies from the very earliest times, whether expressed in the imperfect methods of the early German and Dutch botanists who desired simply to establish natural affinities on the basis of external resemblances, or in the ambitions of Cæsalpino to arrive at a classification of plants which should satisfy the conditions of relationship through the structure of all parts, and especially of the reproductive organs.
THE notion of isolation as a factor in variation, as I am using the term, is that of geographic separation exclusively, the conception expressed most clearly by Wallace, Moritz Wagner and Jordan. I take it that while this influence has been carefully estimated in the geographical distribution of living species, it has not often been expressed in its own terms in the analysis of extinct faunas.
THE word hybridization has been used with many meanings. The term is used here to denote the crossing of any two plants that differ from each other in a heritable character, whether they are of the same or of different species. There is intimate connection between the rôle of hybridization and the rôle played by selection. It comes about in this way. Inherited variations are produced by nature with considerable profusion.
IN this most important and interesting phenomenon of nature—a truly protective phase—let us first briefly consider the natural-history side of the subject, describing how hibernation is peculiar to, and differs, in the various animals possessing this function of protective winter sleep.
IT has twice been my privilege to visit the wilds of Florida under the auspices of scientific societies, the first trip being to the Everglades, while the second expedition, under the auspices of the Smithsonian Institution, took me to the flat-wood and prairie regions in the center of the state, far from railroads and other signs of civilization.
THE OWEN BILL FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, AND ITS OPPONENTS
S. ADOLPHUS KNOPF
ANY one who is familiar with the workings of governmental departments of health such as exist abroad, who has seen or experienced the sanitary benefits bestowed upon the people by the Reichsgesundheitsamt of Germany (imperial department of health), the Conseil Superieur de Santé Publique de France, and the similar institutions of most European governments, can not help feeling amazed that any opposition should exist to the establishment of a federal department of health in this country.
THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE LIBERAL AND THE TECHNICAL IN EDUCATION
PBOFESSOB PERCY HUGHES
THE terms liberal and technical do not distinguish two types of educational practise, but two tendencies in and functions of any part of the educational process. For at the present time any type of liberal education includes of necessity education for efficiency in some art, in the broadest sense of that term ; while the existent types of technical education involve training that goes far to realize liberal ideals.
EMINENT authorities on civil government lay down the rule that certain questions should be left to the people or their representatives in a legislative body, and certain other questions should be decided by experts : the latter, not because experts do, or do not, represent the people, but because they are more familiar with the subjectmatter and better able to reach a correct determination.
IN the government of the nations, political parties and elections are the slow methods by which national policies are determined. Movements are started in response to conditions which seem to require legislation. Gradually, these movements are combined within the political parties in the platforms of which the issues are suitably expressed.
WILLIAM JAMES THE war against war is going to be no holiday excursion or camping party. The military feelings are too deeply grounded to abdicate their place among our ideals until better substitutes are offered than the glory and shame that come to nations as well as to individuals from the ups and downs of politics and the vicissitudes of trade.
Is there left to us in this land a man so great as William James? If the list of our leaders is scanned, men eminent in philosophy, science, art or letters, in education, law, politics or business, is there a single one to be placed beside him? He excelled in so many ways, in science, in philosophy, in letters, as a teacher, as a leader in good causes and lost causes, before all as a man—kind and generous beyond measure, of remarkable individuality and distinction.