IN a recent letter to the New York Nation, Professor William James, in describing the philosophy of M. Emile Boutroux, makes the statement that “ theories result from psychological variations, just as Roosevelts and Rockefellers result from biological variations.
THERE are probably but few if any of the readers of this magazine who have not seen and admired at least one of the many manifestations of “physiologic light,” of which the most common to us is the firefly. Indeed, from the earliest times the phenomenon of the emission of light by animals and plants has attracted man’s attention, and a large amount of scientific work has been done upon the subject.
GROWTH-BECOBDS IN CEDABBIBDS AND CUCKOOS, FBOM HATCHING TO FLIGHT, OB CLIMBING STAGES
III. INTELLIGENCE IN ADULT BIRDS
PROFESSOR FRANCIS H. HERRICK
IN earlier papers we have tried to show how the behavior of wild birds is moulded upon instinct and how some of their instincts have been modified on a large scale, or specialized in a peculiar manner. We shall now examine the other side of the shield, in order to ascertain how intelligently they work, and in relation to their intelligence it will be necessary to consider the growth of the young, and the development of certain instincts, more particularly that of fear.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY IN INVERTEBRATE EXTINCT ORGANISMS
THE inquiry into the position of anatomy and physiology in invertebrate paleontology seems very appropriate at present, since paleontology is steadily becoming more closely affiliated to zoology, and the sphere of zoology is at present dominated by comparative anatomy and physiology.
OUR knowledge of the morphology both of the animal and plant kingdoms has been largely extended by the work of the paleontologist. Mention needs only to be made of the many species, genera and families, even orders and classes, established solely for fossil forms to show how much we owe to paleontology. There is not a single subkingdom but has been immensely enriched from this source.
RELATION OF EMBRYOLOGY AND VERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY
PROFESSOR RICHARD SWANN LULL
THE problem of recapitulation among vertebrates gives by no means as accurate results as among invertebrate forms, for while a single adult shell, if perfectly preserved, will often display the entire life history or ontogeny of the individual, a bone, or even a complete skeleton, is rarely retrospective and if at all only in some minor detail.
EAETHQTJAKES are infrequent in the upper part of the Mississippi Valley, and observations on earthquake phenomena in this part of the world have a peculiar interest, not only on account of the special bearing they may have on seismological questions, but also on account of the light they throw on the psychology of an observant public which is unacquainted with seismic phenomena.
THE average public museum contains natural history specimens of two categories—those which are displayed within glass cases constantly open to the light, so as to be continually in the view of visitors ; and of those which are stored away in various appropriate containers, ordinarily protected from the light, and which are not open for the inspection of the general public, though they may be freely handled and examined by the special student in the field to which they pertain.
AVERAGE MEASUREMENTS OF 145 COLLEGE STUDENTS AT THE BEGINNING OF FRESHMAN YEAR AND END OF SOPHOMORE YEAR
SCHOLARSHIP RECORDS OF THE 223 STUDENTS
STUDENTS WHO WON A PLACE ON ONE OR MORE VARSITY ATHLETIC TEAMS
PERCENTAGE OF SMOKERS ON VARSITY ATHLETIC TEAMS DURING THE SEASON OF 1908-09
STUDENTS WHO BELONG TO COLLEGE FRATERNITIES
SCHOLARSHIP OF STUDENTS WHO BELONG TO COLLEGE FRATERNITIES
DR. GEORGE L. MEYLAN
THE question of the effects of tobacco upon the smoker has received much attention from moralists, educators, physicians and scientists. The literature on the subject is voluminous. Numerous investigators have experimented upon animals, mainly to determine the effects produced by nicotine.
TWO human streams pour ceaselessly into the sea of American industry. One of these brings to us the immigrant, the man of foreign stock, alien in blood and customs, and more and more from the backward and “beaten” peoples of eastern Europe.
BACTERIOLOGY AND PARASITOLOGY IN RELATION TO A VIAN DISEASES
GEO. EDWARD GAGE, PH.D.
DURING the last ten years the sciences of bacteriology and parasitology have been established beyond previous expectation. To-day these sciences are so far-reaching that they not only have to do with medicine but extend into the realm of hygiene, agricultural sciences and the industrial arts.
WHEN one attempts to give some idea of the principles and of the methods and scope of plant breeding, the matter falls naturally into two parts, the rôle of selection and the rôle of hybridization. This is not because the subject is really thus separable, but because the methods in use fall into these categories.
THE Zoological Society has performed an important service for the city of New York by the establishment and conduct of a Zoological Park and later by taking charge of the Aquarium. The relations of the society to the city are similar to those of the trustees of the American Museum of Natural History, of the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Botanical Garden, but are somewhat unusual.