IT is claimed by astronomers that their science is not only the oldest, but that it is the most highly developed of the sciences. Indeed it should be so, since no other science has ever received such support from royalty, from the state and from the private individual.
PROFESSOR A. VOSS, of the University of Munich, recently made the following statement : “Our entire present civilization, as far as it depends upon the intellectual penetration and utilization of nature, has its real foundation in the mathematical sciences."
THE writer makes no pretense of being an archeologist, but finding few accounts of the wonderful megalithic monuments of Brittany in English, he has written this account of his visit to them as thread on which to string a few pictures. Those huge stones erected by human hands—no one knows by whom or why or when—which are called megalithic monuments, occur throughout western Europe, from the “Huns’ beds” east of the Zuider Zee, through Britain, France and Spain and into northern Africa, across the Strait of Gibraltar, but nowhere are they as numerous or striking as in Brittany.
THE ORIGIN OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM AND ITS APPROPRIATION OF EFFECTORS
II. RECEPTOR-EFFECTOR SYSTEMS
G. H. PARKER
THE second step in the development of the neuromuscular mechanism is represented by the receptor-effector system, a condition fairly realized in such cœlenterates as the sea-anemones and the jellyfishes and probably recurring in the digestive tubes of the higher metazoans.
HANDWRITING, bearing as it does the cachet of individuality, has always interested those to whom things human make their intimate appeal. Curious observations relative to it have long been current, the existence, for instance, of national as well as family and personal chirograpliies; the perversions of it that take form as mirrorwriting or even—it is said—as inverted writing; the whimsy shown by the bizarre characters, by the tendency to irrelevant and extravagant flourishes in the writing of those suffering from certain forms of mental disorder.
I AM to tell you to-day the story of a noble life, of one of the bravest, wisest, most patient, most courageous and most devout of all the women who have ever lived. I want to give to those of the university to whom its founders are but a memory some lasting picture of the woman who saved the university, which she and her honored husband founded in faith and hope, and who thus made possible the education you are receiving.
THE data of biology are living plants and animals. These are what nature presents. To these we must always go in order to make a beginning at any investigation. Is one interested in ganglionic cells, or germ cells, or liver secretions, or degenerate organs?
JOSIAH WILLARD GIBBS AND HIS RELATION TO MODERN SCIENCE. IV
FIELDING H. GARRISON
The third stage of thermodynamics has for its point of departure Maxwell’s observation that the second law is not a mathematical but an empirical or statistical truth, and his prediction that any attempt to deduce it from dynamic principles, such as Hamilton’s principle, without introducing some element of probability, is foredoomed to failure.
WE have not had in America a great period of scientific productivity such as formed part of the Victorian era in Great Britain or followed the renaissance of the universities in Germany. Perhaps only in one science have we been in the position of leaders.