WHAT are species? To answer this question is as difficult now as it was in the days of Linnaeus. Formerly it was supposed that a certain number of forms had been created, and that these, obeying natural laws as yet undiscovered, had split up and so given rise to groups, which afterwards were called genera.
BY taking each country separately and analyzing it minutely, we have seen how almost perfect heredity appears to be as a cause of the mental and moral peculiarities wherever found. In order to ascertain if talent is properly related to genius in point of consanguinity, so that we have a progressive falling off in relationship to 9,10 grades as we descend from the high ranks to the mediocrities, a count has been made of the number of geniuses (9, 10 grades) which each person possesses as a blood relation both in the first degree of consanguinity and in the second.
A CAREFUL examination and comparison of the available illustrations of the great auk leaves the mind in some doubt as to the appearance of this extinct, flightless bird. Some of these illustrations are found in recent publications, while others illuminate descriptive articles written over a century ago.
IT is doubtless true that biologists are ‘born’ rather than ‘made,’ but it is probably no less true that they may be and are nipped in the bud in many instances by the frost of adverse circumstances. I speak of the making of biologists by the same right and in the same sense that the farmer speaks of raising crops, although as a matter of fact the crops raise themselves by their own inherent vitality.
THE RELATION OF MALARIA TO AGRICULTURE AND OTHER INDUSTRIES OF THE SOUTH.
NUMBER OF DEATHS FOR YEAR ENDING MAY 31, 1900.
PROFESSOR GLENN W. HERRICK
IN a paper on ‘Measures for the Decrease of Malaria in the South,' read in Nashville, Tenn., in August of the past summer before the Southern Commissioners of Agriculture, I very briefly called attention to the important rôle of malaria in agriculture.
CRYPTOBRANCHUS (Menopoma of the earlier text-books) Alleghaniensis or hellbender, the American representative of the giant salamanders, although only too familiar to the fishermen of the Ohio valley is, to most people, rather a curiosity and its habits, therefor are worthy of some attention.
THE CARNEGIE INSTITUTION AND THE NATIONAL UNIYERSITY.
PROFESSOR JAMES HOWARD GORE
THE recent gift of Mr. Carnegie for the founding ‘in the city of Washington, in the spirit of Washington, an institution which, with the cooperation of institutions now or hereafter established, there or elsewhere, shall, in the broadest and most liberal manner, encourage investigation, research and discovery, encourage the application of knowledge to the improvement of mankind; provide such buildings, laboratories, books and apparatus as may be needed, and afford instruction of an advanced character to students whenever and wherever found, inside or outside of schools, properly qualified to profit thereby’ has awakened unprecedented interest in the educational world.
THE study described in the following pages was suggested by Professor E. Ray Lankester’s tribute to Huxley which concludes, ‘Ever since I was a little boy he (Huxley) has been my ideal and hero.'* An instance of a scientist in the rôle of ‘ideal and hero’ to the boyish imagination is rare enough to attract attention.
THE hill-country of Judea consists chiefly of one great anticlinal fold of a thick series of Upper Cretaceous strata, mostly limestones, the axis of the fold having a nearly due north and south trend. This series rises from beneath the slightly elevated and comparatively narrow Tertiary plain which borders the Mediterranean Sea, is broken by erosion into rugged hills and deep ravines, reaches, even in its present condition of great denudation, an elevation of about 2,500 feet, and then dips eastward.
THE Nile Reservoir at Aswân will contain over 1,000 million tons of water. This statement will probably convey little meaning to most people; and in truth the quantity may be made to appear either small or large at will by a judicious selection of illustrations.
THREE Presidential addresses, delivered recently in this country and abroad, give admirable surveys of the present status, of past growth and of the future needs of chemistry. The address of Professor F. W. Clarke to the American Chemical Society, given December 30, 1901, on ‘The Development of Chemistry’ deals with the four principal agencies that have been instrumental in building the chemical structure of to-day; these are: private enterprise, the commercial demand, governmental requirements, and university teaching.
SCIENTIFIC medicine in the United States is to be congratulated on the establishment of a laboratory for research that may be compared with those of the great European capitals. There are in this country more than a hundred thousand practising physicians, somewhat over two hundred medical journals and a large number of medical schools, and many important advances in technical medicine are due to American practise.
THE NAMES OF CONTRIBUTORS ARE PRINTED IN SMALL CAPITALS.
Academy, Vienna, of Science, EDWARD F. WILLIAMS, 415. ADAMS, JOHN QUINCY, Science versus Art-appreciation, 453. Agriculture, and Other Industries of the South, The Relation of Malaria to, GLENN W. HERRICK, 521; The U. S. Department of, 565.